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Managing Construction Projects

Managing Construction Projects

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Managing Construction Projects

évaluations:
3.5/5 (6 évaluations)
Longueur:
352 pages
4 heures
Sortie:
Aug 3, 2014
ISBN:
9781311000095
Format:
Livre

Description

This book is intended for the Project Managers and Construction Managers who are about to embark on a new construction effort. Many Project Managers are more comfortable with the engineering and procurement efforts than actual construction and many Construction Managers are more comfortable with the physical construction activities than the processes necessary to support them. Bringing these two parties together to understand all aspects of the project will minimize risk by establishing plans and processes to handle construction issues. This book bridges the gap between the two parties and identifies what is necessary from both sides to have a successful project.

This book’s main tenant is that a successful project is the result of a pre-planning effort. Success is not an accident – at least not often. This book describes an overall planning process defined as a Construction Execution Plan that covers the pre-construction, construction, and turnover phases of the project. The plan contains many traditional project management functions such as scope development, budget development, scheduling, etc. in a format designed to support a construction effort. A good Construction Execution Plan will not guarantee a successful project but it is our belief that a thorough pre-planning effort greatly increases the chances of success. We present examples of the tools and processes that will help establish the information needed to succeed.

Throughout the sections of this book, important lessons learned are presented that describe the pitfalls that have actually occurred with the hope that if you learn from history, you may not have to repeat it.

Sortie:
Aug 3, 2014
ISBN:
9781311000095
Format:
Livre

À propos de l'auteur

Professional Project and Construction Manager with 40 years leading major capital projects in the power and industrial arena.


Lié à Managing Construction Projects

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  • Do not miss any opportunity to claim an incentive. From the Contractor’s perspective, all external caused de-lays or scope changes are opportunities to minimize, delay, or eliminate liqui-dated damages.

  • The Construction Execution Plan spans each of these phases and integrates four key documents; the Prime Contract, the Scope of Work, the project estimate, and the schedule.

  • Definition: The Prime Contract is the contract between the Company and the Owner. It is the overall con-tract that says what you are going to build and for how much. The key parameters to remember are – what is the scope and for how much.

  • The Prime Contract is the contract between the Company and the Owner. It is the overall con-tract that says what you are going to build and for how much. The key parameters to remember are – what is the scope and for how much.

  • Typical examples of indirects are offices and equipment, site cleanup, small tools, consumables, scaffolding, and construction equipment. These items can be mate-rials, labor, or both and support the overall project and not a spe-cific activity.

Aperçu du livre

Managing Construction Projects - Ron Frankenfield

MANAGING CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS

Lessons Learned and the Tools for a Successful Project

Ron Frankenfield

Copyright Ron Frankenfield 2014

Published at Smashwords

FORWARD

Construction is not easy! It is rarely as simple as telling someone to go dig a hole over there. The problems that arise with actual construction are typically management issues deriving from poor understanding of scope, supervisory staffing, management of subcontractors, schedule, cost, productivity, quality, and the big issue - dealing with changes. Construction involves people and organizations with differing perspectives and objectives and this needs to be taken into account when managing a construction project.

This book is intended for the Project Managers and Construction Managers who are about to embark on a new construction effort. Many Project Managers are more comfortable with the engineering and procurement efforts than actual construction and many Construction Managers are more comfortable with the physical construction activities than the processes necessary to support them. Bringing these two parties together to understand all aspects of the project will minimize risk by establishing plans and processes to handle construction issues. This book bridges the gap between the two parties and identifies what is necessary from both sides to have a successful project.

This book’s main tenant is that a successful project is the result of a pre-planning effort. Success is not an accident – at least not often. This book describes an overall planning process defined as a Construction Execution Plan that covers the pre-construction, construction, and turnover phases of the project. The plan contains many traditional project management functions such as scope and budget development, scheduling, managing change, etc. in a format designed to support a construction effort. A good Construction Execution Plan will not guarantee a successful project but it is our belief that a thorough pre-planning effort greatly increases the chances of success. We present examples of the tools and processes that will help establish the information needed to succeed.

Throughout the sections of this book, important lessons learned are presented that describe the pitfalls that have actually occurred with the hope that if you learn from history, you may not have to repeat it.

Key things to watch for are:

Lessons Learned: ….. designates one of the Lessons learned

Definition:…… designates a key definition

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

Who’s Who?

Construction Management

The Owner

A Successful Project

The Construction Execution Plan Overview

The Three Cases

PRE-CONSTRUCTION

CHAPTER 1 CONTRACTS

Prime Contract

Know the Contract

CHAPTER 2: SCOPE OF WORK

Scope of Work

Division of Responsibility

CHAPTER 3: BUDGETS AND THE ESTIMATE

The Baseline Budget

Estimate

The Work Package

The Work Package Structure (WBS)

CHAPTER 4: LABOR AND THE FIELD NON-MANUAL ORGANIZATION

Field Non-Manual (FNM) / Craft Labor

Position Descriptions

Construction Labor Staffing

CHAPTER 5: PROJECT CONTROLS

The Project Controls Plan

Schedule

Progress Measurement - Metrics

CHAPTER 6: MANAGING CHANGE

What is a Scope Change?

The Change Environment

The Change Process

Change Documentation

Change Reports

CHAPTER 7: PROJECT QUALITY PLAN

Non-conforming Materials, Parts, or Components

Site Quality Control

CHAPTER 8: PRE-CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES

Constructability Reviews

Mobilization Plan

Working with Local Agencies

Construction Traffic

CHAPTER 9: PURCHASING PLAN

Purchasing Equipment / Material Budgets

Field Purchasing Responsibilities

CHAPTER 10: SUBCONTRACTING PLAN

What and Why Subcontracts

Who’s Involved?

CHAPTER 11: CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (CMS)

Do You Need a CMS?

The CMS Process

CONSTRUCTION PERIOD

CHAPTER 12: SITE ADMINISTRATION

Job Rules

Communications

Procedures

Reports

CHAPTER 13: CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING

Field Engineers

Construction Supervisors

Requests for Information

Time Reporting

Site Files – Record Management

Construction Photographs

As-Built Information

CHAPTER 14: SAFETY PLAN

CHAPTER 15: SUBCONTRACTS (CONSTRUCTION PHASE)

CHAPTER 16: MATERIAL MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL

Materials

Receipt Inspection

Damaged Equipment / Material

Overages and Shorts

Subcontractor Furnished Equipment

PROJECT COMPLETION AND CLOSEOUT

CHAPTER 17: PROJECT TESTING AND TURNOVER

CHAPTER 18: WHEN THINGS GO WRONG

BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER

CASE #1: Local Road Construction

CASE #2: Town Hall Conversion

CASE #3: wastewater treatment plant

INTRODUCTION

Problems with actual construction are typically management issues deriving from poor understanding of scope, inadequate supervisory staffing, management of subcontractors, schedule, cost, productivity, quality, and the big issue - dealing with changes. Construction involves people and organizations with differing perspectives and objectives and this needs to be taken into account when managing a construction project.

The above figure shows the complexity of a typical construction project and presents a realistic picture of the many and diverse aspects involved in a construction project. This book recognizes that each of the above elements is a complex subject in itself and does not try to provide a comprehensive study of each. This book address all of the above and provide a perspective that addresses the major issues, information you need, and real world lessons learned to identify the pitfalls of a project.

In the real world, construction usually accounts for more than 50% of an overall project’s cost and is the part of the project with the highest level of risk. Failure to control construction and its associated costs can result in severe financial impacts to projects and companies. Overruns can cost people their jobs and jeopardize the future of companies. This book addresses the Construction Management process for several different types of projects and provides real world lessons learned that may help projects succeed.

This book presents three sample projects that cover a range of construction from a small road construction project to a multi-million dollar wastewater treatment plant. Specific chapters discuss functions that are part of a typical execution plan. The final section of the book titled Bringing It All Together reviews each of the cases and summarizes the suggestions from each of the chapters.

Throughout the book, Lessons Learned present real world experiences on construction projects. The Lessons Learned are the hard knocks lessons that only having been there can teach.

This book is based on two management golden rules:

If you can identify why the project has grown and you have kept your boss involved throughout the project, you may survive. Presenting him with an increase at the end of the project without supporting details is a sure way to ensure you do not survive!

You are wrong if you believe that ignoring problems will make them go away!

Following the first golden rule helps you succeed on a construction project but understand what it implies. First, it implies that you understand your base scope and can identify deviations. Secondly, it implies you understand why growth or changes have occurred. All this leads to the two central themes of this book: What is your status and what is your forecast at completion? Knowledge of the first condition allows you to determine the second objective. If you understand the component parts and issues that make up the forecast at completion, you are in a position to manage and control these issues.

The best answer you can give your boss when he asks how things are going is to say, We are 28% complete, have expended 25% of the budget, and are forecasting an on schedule completion. This book helps you provide these answers.

The second golden rule is pure philosophy. This book believes that active management of a construction project is the best way to a successful project. An approach that addresses problems and realistically plans for events is the best course of action.

WHO’s WHO?

This book discusses several cases that have varying levels of construction management. To be clear, we make the following definitions of who’s who.

Contractor: This is you! The Contractor is the organization that is responsible for constructing the project.

Company: Company is the Contractor’s parent company – the headquarters organization. The parent organization has basic procedures and support personnel to assist the Contractor.

Project Manager: The Project Manager is the management person assigned the overall responsibility for execution the project. For simple projects, the Project Manager and Construction Manager may be the same person.

CM team: The CM team is the construction management team headed by the Construction Manager that constructs the project. The CM team is part of the Contractor organization.

Owner: The Owner is the organization that wants the construction effort performed.

Architect / Engineer: The Architect / Engineer is the group developing the engineering and design. It may be part of the Contractor’s Company or an entirely separate group.

Subcontractor (s): Subcontractor is the name of companies that perform specific work for the Contractor.

CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT

What is construction management? It’s management of the tasks needed to construct a project. This is a broad definition and includes a wide variety of projects from houses to skyscrapers. While different, each project includes tasks for planning, coordination of labor and materials, installation, and completion.

Obviously, no one construction approach is perfect for all the different types of projects, but there are several key elements common to all construction projects. Our approach discusses the similarities and differences in the construction management for three sample projects.

The main tenant of this book is that construction management is a planned process and the Construction Execution Plan is the culmination of the construction planning process. It’s the road map that describes how a projects proceeds. A well thought out approach and plan increases the potential for a successful project.

Construction projects evolve over time and proceed from pre-construction planning and scoping early in the project, to actual construction, and finally to closeout. The Construction Execution Plan spans each of these phases and integrates four key documents; the Prime Contract, the Scope of Work, the project estimate, and the schedule. The Construction Execution Plan identifies the key project decisions involving, the Scope of Work, pre-construction requirements, field management staffing, labor, construction cost and schedule, progress measurement, subcontract strategy, and construction completion and turnover.

Lessons Learned: If you believe the major task involved with Construction Management is directing craft, you have made a mistake. The major task and goal is to make money and to do that you have to understand, where it comes from, where it is being spent, and where you will be at the end. Construction Management is managing money.

Each chapter in this book identifies a part of an overall Construction Execution Plan. The plan doesn’t need to be fancy, but the construction manager should understand his contract, scope, estimate, what must be procured, what subcontracts are needed, where the labor is coming from, how to manage change, and how to eventually close out the project. The chapters of this book address each of these needs.

The Construction Execution Plan, like all other key project documents is not static and may need revisions during the project. Incorporate new directions, goals, and changes as the project progresses. When completed, the Construction Execution Plan is an orientation and training tool that assures staff alignment with the direction, rules, and goals of the overall project.

This book assumes a Construction Management team (CM team) executes the projects. Our use of the term CM team implies the people executing the construction management portion of the project – not the craft labor. For small projects, the CM team is small, possibly only one person. For larger projects, the CM team may consist of 20 or more people.

The Construction Manager is the leader of the CM team and is responsible for executing the construction portion of the project. The CM team includes management support positions needed to execute the project including field non-manual (FNM) supervision, administrative, cost, and scheduling, and financial positions.

THE OWNER

The Owner is the organization that is contracting to have the project built.

The first issue you may confront is that the Owner that signed the contract is not the same one you deal with on a day-to-day basis. The day-to-day Owner representative may not have been involved during the development of the contract. Consequently, you have a potential conflict – the contract says x and the Owner says xx – not necessarily different, but not necessarily the same. These differences can cause Contractor / Owner relationship issues that affect the project. Establishing a working relationship is one of the critical issues to a successful project.

The second Owner issue you may confront is the old adage that the Owner is always right. Many Owner managers believe this is true and are more than willing to interpret the contract to their benefit. This is where disputes over scope changes lead to problems. Changes in scope can be troublesome, disruptive, and confrontational. However, changes are inevitable and can significantly change the project scope, direction, and profit.

Lessons Learned: Do not surprise your Owner. Knowledge of the Owner and his interpretation of the contract can be critical to the success of your project. Meet frequently (daily if possible) to discuss issues and status.

Lessons Learned: Write it down! This is emphasized throughout the book. Whenever discussions with the Owner or subcontractor create an issue, a confirming letter or email saying: confirming our discussion of XX, we are proceeding with development of … provides documentation and the basis for a change. This is a very important lesson for all members of the CM team.

Lessons Learned: Get an Owner organization chart.

Lessons Learned: Understand the Owners organization to determine the ghost organization elements that hold the power. It’s important to know who will be reviewing and approving issues.

A SUCCESSFUL PROJECT

Success has many different meanings and its definition must be a part of the overall execution plan. Success on a project is often referred to as on schedule and under budget but there are other important factors that contribute to a project’s success.

The following parameters are indicators of a successful project. Notice that cost and schedule parameters may not be at the top of the list.

Safety – safety of personnel is paramount and no process or task should be attempted without a thorough safety review and precautions. Training is a major component of this function

Quality – expectations are set in the contract and they need to be met to avoid claims and contractual consequences

Cost – a budget is set for the project. A project planned for $2 million dollars that finished at $4 million dollars is not usually considered a success unless significant scope growth has been approved

Schedule – the Owner has plans for the facility that are time related. Failure to meet schedule dates causes disruption in downstream plans that may have significant financial consequences

Success requires achievement of all of the above. A project, for example, that completes on budget but has seriously safety issues, is not a success.

THE CONSTRUCTION EXECUTION PLAN OVERVIEW

The following chapters define elements of a Construction Execution Plan that spans the three phases of project – Pre-Construction; Construction; and Closeout. The plan is all about pre-planning and identifies how the construction team plans to construct the project. Defining the construction approach requires an intimate understanding of the project scope, contract, estimate, schedule, and the tools to manage labor. The following chapters provide insight into these areas and assists in the development of a Construction Execution Plan.

The Construction Execution Plan outlines the overall program for execution, administration, and control of the project, and contains specific administrative procedures defining interface activity between the Contractor and Owner.

As early in the project as possible, the CM team needs to add the how dimension to the Scope of Work – how are we going to perform the work. This forms the foundation for the Construction Execution Plan.

Organizationally, the Construction Execution Plan identifies:

Responsibilities for specific work

Organizational interfaces between all project parties

Guidelines for conducting business between the contracting parties

Process and procedures used in performing the work

Development of Scope

Construction Approach – direct hire and/or subcontracted labor

Labor sources

Site Administration (administrative, time keeping, billing

Materials management

Procurement (who performs, process)

Subcontracts (who performs, process)

Project Controls (schedules, change control, estimates)

Quality

Safety

Site rules and expectations

The Construction Execution Plan must be consistent with the Prime Contract and a written execution plan serves as a valuable training and reference tool for all members of the CM team.

THE THREE CASES

This book presents three construction management cases that range from a simple small construction project to a complex, long duration multi-discipline project. Each case is representative of a significant construction project that requires a Construction Management effort. The three cases include:

Case #1: Road Construction – construction of a town 2 lane road

Case #2: Town

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  • (5/5)
    Good read, straight to the point, really covers basic building blocks of good management of project