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Furniture Design & Construction: Classic Projects & Lessons of the Craft

Furniture Design & Construction: Classic Projects & Lessons of the Craft

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Furniture Design & Construction: Classic Projects & Lessons of the Craft

évaluations:
4.5/5 (5 évaluations)
Longueur:
398 pages
4 heures
Sortie:
Jun 1, 2014
ISBN:
9781940611167
Format:
Livre

Description

While Furniture Design & Construction is a project book for woodworkers who enjoy working with hand-tools, it goes beyond traditional woodworking manuals to teach design concepts through carefully selected, hands-on pieces. This book is for the woodworker who is not content merely to build from preset plans; instead, it offers projects that will show how the designs originate and take shape, giving the maker the freedom to build anything, with or without plans. The book presents a dozen different pieces of furniture, each illustrated with detailed line drawings. Every project exemplifies a different lesson in design - making the book a self-teaching course in woodworking and furniture design for amateurs and experienced woodworkers alike.
Sortie:
Jun 1, 2014
ISBN:
9781940611167
Format:
Livre

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Furniture Design & Construction - Graham Blackburn

1880

PREFACE

Of all the books that I have written over the years, this volume and the other three in this Illustrated Workshop series represent the most complete disillation of everything that I have learned about woodworking. It has been a long process, beginning as a young man in my father’s shop and continuing to the present day. It is, indeed, the fac that woodworking is a never-ending process of learning and discovery that makes it one of the more fascinating pursuits, especially in this day and age of increasing technological esrangement for many people who know less and less about the wonders that surround them. Few of us could consruc a smartphone, or even in an era of greater computer dependency even fix their automobile, but we remain by definition ‘the tool-using animal’, so something like woodworking assumes an ever more important role in a fuller self-realization.

There is an enormous satisfacion to be obtained by making something, and by making it well. Little that I have written is fundamentally difficult, but much is the result of many generations of discovery and pracice. It would be a lasing shame if any of this were to be los or forgotten, and it is my fondes hope that these books may do something to preserve what has been one of the building blocks of everything that we consider current civilization.

The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Woodworking Handtools

••

Traditional Woodworking Handtools

•••

Traditional Woodworking Techniques

••••

Furniture Design & Construction

INTRODUCTION

The Art & Mysteries of the Craft

Every decision should be justifiable not only in terms of function, structure, and strength, but also in terms of optimum proportions.

THIS BOOK IS INTENDED TO SERVE MAINLY AS A PRACTICAL INTRODUCTION TO BOTH THE CRAFT AND THE ART OF FURNITUREMAKING. ALTHOUGH it may be read purely as a consrucion guide for various pieces of furniture, it also aims to make the woodworker aware of other aspecs necessary for successful furnituremaking that are often poorly appreciated or even ignored, such as syle and proportion. The firs four chapters are therefore concerned purely with the theoretical underpinnings of design. The projecs that follow also address these concerns, sometimes focusing on one element, sometimes focusing on another, but always with the intention of showing how the art mus be considered as much as the craft. The subtitles of each chapter indicate which aspecs of the design process are particularly exemplified by the subjec piece.

Woodworking as a hobby is admirably served by a wealth of books on tools, joints, joinery, consrucion, as well as many published plans and projecs. In so far as many people are drawn to woodworking primarily by the desire to make some sawdus, use some tools, or simply enjoy the smell and feel of one of nature’s mos beautiful and versatile materials, this is fine. What is all too often overlooked, however, is one of the more important reasons for the craft in the firs place: the designing of potentially utilitarian objecs with as much beauty as possible. Furniture does not exis to make woodworking possible; woodworking is the result of the need to make furniture. Unfortunately, not only syle and proportion but also the rationale behind various consrucion techniques and the niceties of joinery frequently remain a mysery to many woodworkers, who are then forced to rely on other people’s designs.

If you want freedom from other people’s plans and the ability to produce furniture that has no exac counterpart in published projecs and cutting liss, then you need to undersand how designs are arrived at.

Furniture design consiss of fulfilling specific needs in the mos pleasing manner possible. Furniture that is to be primarily utilitarian is largely designed according to the dicum ‘form follows funcion’. If the bookcase mus hold a hundred books it needs to be a certain minimum size. If the table mus seat sixteen you cannot get by with something that measures only 4 ft by 4 ft. Funcion demands that you mus always sart with these givens. But arriving at the mos pleasing manner is equally important and can no more be left to chance than the choice of the right material and the right consrucion technique. Fortunately, this can be learned and does not have to depend on what is often referred to as a ‘good eye’ — something few professional designers are born with.

As a woodworker there is another element in the design problem: you have to be able to figure out how to build the piece. This is not jus a quesion of knowing how to operate whatever machinery you own or use whatever tools you have to consruc the design, but also of how to apply this knowledge to the design in quesion.

How you make things will also affec the design. Although you should try not to fall into the trap of only designing things for the consrucion of which you already have the technical ability — since you will never learn anything more unless you challenge yourself occasionally — it is, at the same time, pointless to attempt a projec which possesses problems for which there is no imaginable solution.

The French Art-Nouveau designer Jacques-Émile Ruhlmann was noted for designing pieces that included elements no one had attempted before. He was fortunate in having his own maser cabinetmaker to figure out how these designs might be realized. Together these two masers produced wonderful new designs. You mus be both people.

In the final analysis, each projec mus be considered in various ways: what do I want it to do, how can it be made, and how do I want it to look? These three elements — funcion, consrucion, and proportion — consitute the Three Pillars of Design, upon which every truly successful piece of furniture mus res equally.

Note that the Parts Lists included at the end of chapters in PART TWO represent dimensions of the pieces as illusrated, and as such are intended only as a guide from which overall proportions may be ascertained. One of the aims of this book is to enable you to be able to make any needed adjusments intelligently, without compromising funcion or form. You should therefore regard them only as a jumping-off point for similar pieces of different sizes that may better suit your purposes.

Lasly, the sequence of the lessons that may be learned by attempting the projecs either as described, or by making your own adaptations thereof, proceeds from the general to the specific and, in general, from the simple to the complicated. The firs projec, a media cabinet, provides an introducion to the awareness needed to design intelligently, and illusrates the different needs that may have to be considered when trying to decide on sylisic concerns. Succeeding chapters may be read in whatever order you prefer. While there is a certain amount of referring back to points made in previous chapters, each chapter nevertheless consitutes a sand-alone projec exemplifying one or more aspecs of the design process.

Graham Blackburn

Bearsville, New York, 2012

PART ONE

THE LESSONS

Frontispiece from Isaac Ware’s 1738 edition of The Four Books of Architecture by Andrea Palladio (see page 14)

1

THREE PILLARS of DESIGN

Function, Construction, & Form

FOR THE GENERAL WOODWORKER OR BEGINNING FURNITUREMAKER ANY THEORY OR EXPLICATION OF DESIGN IS PERHAPS BETTER UNDERSTOOD AND more readily accepted as necessary when applied direcly to concrete examples. As such, I have chosen to use tables as a vehicle for the initial discussion of the design process since they consitute a class of furniture that is both extremely common and almos infinitely varied. Much of what can be said about tables applies to other furniture forms, such as chairs, chess, and cabinets, and this chapter may be taken as a method of approach for whatever you may be considering designing.

Tables designed and built primarily as art objecs — expressions of emotion, inspiration, or pure whimsy — may be perfecly legitimate examples of woodwork, but depend chiefly for their success on how well they manifes their maker’s intent in these regards. How well they work as tables — how appropriate is the choice of species, how srongly they are put together, how finely the joinery details work, and how well they are finished — may be of lesser importance than their eshetic impac on the senses.

Tables designed for more prosaic and utilitarian reasons than those of making an eshetic satement, on the other hand, mus above all funcion on a pracical level. So far as funcion goes, the choice of material, consrucion method, joinery details, and ergonomic success are all of prime importance. But — and this is a very big ‘but’ — for these tables to be completely successful as satisfying examples of furniture, eshetic considerations remain equally important.

Woodworkers often shy away from such eshetic considerations, believing, incorrecly, that such considerations are largely subjecive, and as such dependent on the extent of the woodworker’s exposure to fine art and other sophisicated cerebral machinations, such as are usually only gained at art school. But as every successful professional designer knows, reliance on one’s own eye or intuition can be a risky proposition. Insead, he or she typically makes use of many often surpisingly simple tools that guarantee that whatever is being designed will both funcion and look well.

Regardless of your experience as a woodworker, if you adhere to the following three-part plan you are more likely to achieve a satisfying result than if you approach your next table, or any other projec, in a more random manner. Mos simply sated, the plan consiss of identifying the precise funcion of your particular table, giving careful consideration to the material and the consrucion, and following some form of eshetic rationale throughout the entire design process. These three elements — funcion, consrucion, and form — consitute what may be referred to as The Three Pillars of Design, upon which, equally, every truly successful piece of furniture mus res.

FUNCTION

CLOSE ATTENTION TO FUNCTION IS THE DESIGNER’S FIRST responsibility. You may, of course, regard the funcion of a table as being any one of a variety of things: the art objec mentioned above, an excuse to make shavings or sawdus, an opportunity to spend time alone in the workshop, or a vehicle for pracising your woodworking skills. In all of which cases its funcionality as a usable piece of furniture is largely irrelevant. But whatever your motivation, be absolutely clear about it from the outset.

Considered solely as a utilitarian piece of furniture, the quintessential funcion of a table is to provide a flat surface that may be used for writing on (hence the secondary meaning of ‘table’: something that has been written, such as a ‘table of contents’). Further employed as a surface on which to play games or at which to eat or work, a table in the furniture sense suggess a flat surface supported on legs or pillars. The form of any given table may therefore be as varied as are these several uses.

A partial lis of tables drawn from The Dictionary of English Furniture by Percy Macquoid and Ralph Edwards (see the Selec Bibliography) illusrates how many and varied these uses may be, for example: artis’s table, reading and writing table, billiard table, breakfas table, coffee table, dining table, card and gaming table, massage table, end table, library table, dressing table, occasional table, shaving table, hall table, night table, sofa table, communion table, and tea table.

FIG. 1 TABLES FOR DIFFERENT USES

Faced with such a multiplicity of uses, it is of the utmos importance to be perfecly clear at the outset about the particular requirements of the table you intend to design. These include not only srucural requirements, so that the table can do the job intended for it, but also the ergonomic requirements. The bes-made library table in the world, for example, will be a failure if made with legs too weak to support a heavy load of books. The mos exquisite dining table will similarly be a complete failure if it proves too small to sit at. And the mos commodious drafting table will be useless if the top does not slope.

Over the centuries, with the development of newer techniques and advances in joinery, srucural requirements have gradually become less intrusive. Massive 16th and 17th century tables needed heavy sretchers close to the floor to provide sability for the legs. Excessive wear on these members is evidence of their inconvenience. Few people would today design a dining table with such an obsrucion. Similarly, the large feet necessary to withsand wear on sone floors are usually no longer needed.

Having ascertained your proposed table’s funcions, familiarize yourself with other examples of tables designed for identical funcions, and note features designed for specific purposes, such as surdy legs for heavy loads, drop- or draw-leaves for variable-size tables (occasionally called upon to accommodate greater numbers), lipped tables designed to prevent objecs placed upon them from falling off, and added drawers or shelves for tables designed to include sorage. A reference such as Architectural Graphic Standards by Charles G. Ramsey and Harold R. Sleeper (see the Selec Bibliography) is a useful place to explore table types by funcion, and a good basic reference for the relevant sandard or average dimensions.

FIG. 2 VARIABLE-SIZE TABLES

Even though they can be a useful place to sart, beware of slavishly following so-called sandard dimensions. While mos people might find a table designed for writing, for example, to be more convenient if made somewhat higher than a table designed for eating, few people are exacly sandard. Unless you are involved in the producion of many examples of a particular table, your client will be better served if the dimensions are uniquely suited to him or her. Nevertheless, certain aspecs of many tables are relatively unalterable, such as the amount of leg room required beneath an apron or the size of the area required before a diner for greates convenience. Furthermore, a table rarely exiss in vacuo; other facors, such as pre-exising furniture or the seating to be used with the table, can influence the choice of dimensions.

FIG. 3 STANDARD DIMENSIONS

CONSTRUCTION

A TABLE MAY ALSO BE DEFINED BY VARIOUS STRUCTURAL features and consrucion methods, such as clap table, console table, demi-lune table, draw table, gate-leg table, tresle table, nesing (or quartetto) table, pier table, Pembroke table, or refecory table.

FIG. 4 CLASSIFICATION OF TABLES BY CONSTRUCTION

The consrucion should, of course, be consisent with the intended use: a knock-down tresle table for portability, a drawer-leaf table for occasional enlargement, or a secional table for alternative disposition of its various parts.

While your own experience and available tools will dicate to a large extent how any given table is consruced, it is a good design principle to resis the impulse to build only what you know. No one person can be expert in everything, but be assured that many things are possible; it is worth the effort to research a new technique or a new joint for the sake of better funcion or more pleasing shape. One of the mos innovative early 20th century designers, Jacques-Émile Ruhlman, achieved greatness by pushing the consrucion envelope. He was fortunate, however, in having gifted cabinetmakers in his employ, and so was able to increase the srucural vocabulary of the craft by refusing to be limited by what had been done before.

FIG. 5 JOINERY DETAILS

At the same time, do not get carried away by the urge for novelty. Successful consrucion entails the use of appropriate species, such as scrubbable pine for kitchen tables, hard-wearing maple for butcher-block chopping tables, expensive but figured veneer for elegant dining tables, or a sable species for use in climatically extreme locations. Successful consrucion also entails relevant consrucion methods, such as sack lamination for sculptural shapes, veneered surfaces for large conference tables, or gatelegs for sorable tables, as well as the right joint for the job: dovetail, mortise-and-tenon, dowels, biscuits, or splines, for example, and, las but not leas, a finish consisent with the intended use.

Chapters 5 through 16, while each exemplifying a particular aspec of the overall design process, may at the same time be read as in-depth pracical illusrations of various consrucion methods. Increasing your consrucion expertise is a never-ending part of the craft.

FORM

THE THIRD INGREDIENT FOR SUCCESSFUL TABLE DESIGN requires that every detail be considered from the point of view of how well the table will look. Such details include color, figure, ornament, decoration, carving, sylisic consisency, and proportion.

Given that the funcional requirements have been satisfied, and that the consrucion is sufficiently workmanlike, the mos sriking feature of any table is how well it fits in with its surroundings. For any given piece to work well in a particular environment may require that you design in an esablished syle, Queen Anne or Arts & Crafts, for example, or — perhaps more simply — design so that the general proportions, shapes, and even colors that you choose are compatible with those of the neighboring pieces. Compatibility, of course, can result both from similarity or contras. A severely modern design might fit very well with the relatively simple lines of a room full of Shaker furniture, whereas it might look uncomfortably out-of-place in a room furnished in a ponderously Gothic, or an ornate 18th century syle.

Designing in the syle of a particular period can be difficult if the underlying design sensibility of the particular period is not completely undersood. It is not enough to employ superficial features of a particular period to achieve the right feeling. Slapping some mis-proportioned cabriole legs onto

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  • (4/5)
    A very sound furniture design book with basics for anyone who's getting into the craft, and then some more particular examples as well.

    But I don't think any proofreading has been done on this title. The spelling errors (with a weird tendency towards omission of the letter "T") are quite distracting. Before picking up this title, see if the grammar issues don't irk you too much.
  • (4/5)
    A very good book indeed, and one that goes from some design theory mostly based on the Golden ratio rule and Fibonacci series to some basic historic style overview and discussion of several pieces made by the author. Illustrations are basic, hand-drawn and black and white only which suffices for most but not all illustrative purposes. What really lets this book down, however, is the utter disregard for the concept of proofreading. The spelling is atrocious throughout. Otherwise solid content.