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The Influence of Bones and Muscles on Form

The Influence of Bones and Muscles on Form

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The Influence of Bones and Muscles on Form

5/5 (3 évaluations)
220 pages
1 heure
Aug 16, 2013


A thorough acquaintance with human anatomy is a valuable asset for artists wishing to master figure drawing. This single-volume treatment combines separate treatises on drawing muscles and bones. Each page features multiple illustrations, accompanied by extensive descriptions offering lucid explanations of bone and muscle placement, function, and artistic re-creation.
Aug 16, 2013

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The Influence of Bones and Muscles on Form - Walter T. Foster


The Bones

Table of the Bones.



table constitutes a reference and will help the memory, as regards the names of the bones, and their position in the skeleton; it also gives the number of bones in each great subdivision of the body, as well as the total number in the whole skeleton. The shoulder-girdle and hip-girdle are here placed in conjunction with their respective extremities. The two patellae are not enumerated as bones of the skeleton proper; nor are certain little ossicles, six in number, belonging to the ears, though these latter deserve to be so considered.

The long bones are always curved. Some, like the femur, present a single curve; others are curved in two directions, like the collar-bone, while others, again, like the ulna and the ribs, present complex curves, accompanied often with a twist or torsion. All such curvatures increase the elasticity and, so far, the resisting power of the bone; they also serve to enlarge the surface of attachment for muscles, and to furnish the means of giving special direction to certain portions of a muscle.



The malar bones or cheek bones, are the two thick, irregularly quadrangular bones, which underlie the prominent portion of the cheeks, and which become so plainly discernible in emaciated persons; they also pass backwards, to assist in forming the zygomatic arches, and likewise complete the floor, the outer wall, and the outer border of the orbit.

Each malar bone consists of a central part or body, of an orbital plate, and of three processes, one running upwards, one backwards, and one forwards. The body of the bone is prominent on its outer side, where it forms the malar eminence, which is broad, unevenly convex and partly subcutaneous; it is crossed by a nearly horizontal ridge, which divides it into a narrower lower surface, giving origin to the two zygomatic muscles and, in front of these, to the levator labii superioris, and a broader upper surface, somewhat depressed, which becomes continuous with the superior process of the bone. This superior or frontal process, is the broadest and longest of the three; it ascends to join, by a jagged surface, the external angular process of the frontal bone, to complete the outer border of the orbit, and to unite the cranium and the face. This part of the orbital border is incurved, so as, with the depression in the adjacent part of the body of the bone, to increase the range of vision in the outward and downward direction; upon this portion of the malar bone, the orbicularis palpebrarum muscle rests.


These two large bones, right and left, are united in the middle line to form, as their name implies, the upper jaw._ They are placed almost vertically beneath the frontal bone, except in the Black races. As compared with animals, this position of the maxillary bones is characteristic of man; and so, likewise, is their relatively small size. They support the malar bones on each side, form part of the floor, lower border and inner side of the orbits, have the nasal bones attached to them in front, bound the anterior nasal openings on the sides and below, and support the upper teeth. Behind and within the dental arch, their deepest parts form the fore part of the hard palate.

The Lower Jaw laid open, to show the inter-articular cartilage.

The diligent Anatomist can demonstrate the relations between Reality and Beauty; but, on the Sculptor and Painter, devolves the higher task of detecting their joint significance, and realizing their combination in the creations of Art. This goal may be attained by the rough, but open, road of individual experience, or, after groping through the fog of ignorance, or escaping from the mazes of error; or it may be reached, almost unconsciously, by the possessor of Nature’s rarest gifts. But in this, as in all other callings, to the few, as well as to the many, the path of Knowledge is the shortest and clearest avenue by which such a goal can be approached.

The Left side of the Lower Jaw.


This bone, the lower jaw bone, or mandible, J′, is the largest and strongest in the face. Originally composed of two symmetrical halves, it very early becomes a single bone, by the union of these vertically along the middle line, forming the symphysis. It is shaped somewhat like a horse-shoe with the

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