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Mixed Plastics Recycling Technology

Mixed Plastics Recycling Technology

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Mixed Plastics Recycling Technology

Longueur:
335 pages
2 heures
Sortie:
Dec 31, 1992
ISBN:
9780815518389
Format:
Livre

Description

Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.
Sortie:
Dec 31, 1992
ISBN:
9780815518389
Format:
Livre

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Mixed Plastics Recycling Technology - Bruce Hegberg

MIXED PLASTICS RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY

Bruce A. Hegberg

Gary R. Brenniman

William H. Hallenbeck

University of Illinois, Center for Solid Waste Management and Research, Chicago, Illinois

NOYES DATA CORPORATION

Table of Contents

Cover image

Title page

Copyright

Foreword

PART I: MIXED PLASTICS RECYCLING–CHARACTERIZATION, COLLECTION, COSTS, MARKETS

Introduction to Mixed Plastics Recycling—Characterization, Collection, Costs, Markets

Acknowledgments

Summary

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 National Production and Recycling Levels of Plastics

1.2 Plastics in Municipal Solid Waste

1.3 Mixed Plastics in Post-Consumer Recycling

Chapter 2: Characterization, Generation and Collection of Plastics

2.1 Field Assessment of Plastic Types in Municipal Solid Waste

2.2 Mixed Plastics in Recycling Programs

2.3 Per Capita Generation

2.4 Commercial and Food Sector Sources of Waste Plastic

2.5 Post-Consumer Plastic Weights

2.6 Summary

Chapter 3: Plastics Recycling Programs

3.1 Curbside Collection of Plastics in Illinois

3.2 Film/Rigid Plastics Recycling

Chapter 4: Recycling Costs

4.1 Recycling Program Variables

4.2 Recycling Costs

4.3 Collection Times

4.4 Recycling Truck Costs and Truck Collection Methods for Plastics

4.5 Process Cost

4.6 Cost Estimate Computer Programs

Chapter 5: Markets and Packaging Changes for Recycled Plastics

5.1 Recycled Resin Demand

5.2 Packaging Changes to Increase Recycle Rates

5.3 Markets in Primary Recycling

5.4 Markets in Secondary Recycling

PART II: RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY

Introduction to Recycling Technology

Acknowledgments

Summary

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Plastics in Municipal Solid Waste

1.2 Plastic Resin Production and Product Manufacture

Chapter 2: Manufacture of Plastic Lumber Using Mixed Plastics

2.1 Plastic Wood Producers

2.2 Plastic Wood Production

2.3 General Guidelines for Plastic Lumber Manufacturing

2.4 Products From Mixed Plastic Lumber

2.6 Wood Fiber – Resin Composite Lumber

2.7 Future of Mixed Plastic Lumber

Chapter 3: Emerging Methods for Processing and Separation of Plastics

3.1 Optical Color Sorting of Glass and PET Containers

3.2 Separation of PVC Bottles from Other Plastic Containers

3.3 Separation of HDPE Base Cups from PET Beverage Bottles

3.4 Separation Using Selective Dissolution

3.5 Separation Using Soluble Acrylic Polymers

3.6 Initial Activities in Polyurethane Recycling

3.7 Initial Activities in Automotive Plastics Recycling

3.8 Sources of Plastic Recycling information and Plastic Recycling Systems

Chapter 4: Buyers and Specifications for Waste Plastics

4.1 Buyers of Waste Plastic

4.2 Specifications for Waste Plastic

Appendix A: Recycling Vehicle Equipment Manufacturers

Appendix B: Glossary

References

Appendix A: Plastic Scrap Handlers and Brokers

Appendix B: Sources of Information on Plastics Recycling

Appendix C: Manufacturers of Plastic Recycling Equipment

Appendix D: Glossary

References

Copyright

Copyright © 1992 by Noyes Data Corporation

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 91-44920

ISBN: 0-8155-1297-X

Printed in the United States

Published in the United States of America by

Noyes Data Corporation

Mill Road, Park Ridge, New Jersey 07656

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Hegberg, Bruce A.

Mixed plastics recycling technology / by Bruce A. Hegberg, Gary R. Brenniman, William H. Hallenbeck.

p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references (p.) and index.

ISBN 0-8155-1297-X

1. Plastic scrap–United States–Recycling. 2. Plastics industry and trade–United States. I. Brenniman, Gary R. II. Hallenbeck, William H. III. Title.

TD798.H44 1992

363.72’88–dc20 91-44920

CIP

Foreword

This book presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition it characterizes mixed plastics wastes, and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products. While these studies were done for the State of Illinois, with the current national concern about recycling, the information presented will be of interest to anyone involved in municipal recycling, and the subsequent processing of post-consumer mixed plastics.

The term mixed plastics implies a mixture of plastic resins, or a mixture of package/product types, which may or may not be the same plastic type or color category. The term also includes products which may be the same resin type, but which have been fabricated using differing manufacturing techniques.

1989 data indicate that U.S. plastic resin production totalled 58.2 billion pounds (of which the packaging sector accounted for 14 billion pounds). About 29 billion pounds were disposed of as municipal solid waste (MSW), yet only an estimated 340 to 400 million pounds of plastics were recovered or recycled in any way that year. It becomes evident immediately that plastics recycling holds great potential as an industry coming of age.

The book is presented in two parts. Part I identifies the compositions of plastics in MSW and in recycling programs, the post-consumer plastics contributions to recycling programs, the cost of plastics collection and some of the end uses for reprocessed post-consumer plastics. Attention is given to curbside collection of recyclables because of its high recovery rate (60-90%) in comparison to other recycling methods (10-30%).

Part II discusses technologies which have been developed for the separation and processing of mixed plastic wastes. Broad scale recycling of post-consumer plastic waste is technically difficult because of the variety of plastic resins which exist and the difficulty of sorting them. While further work in processing and separating waste plastics is necessary for widespread plastics recycling, there are methods to utilize mixed plastic waste, and methods to clean and separate some types of plastics. The latter is primarily an emerging field of research in recycling technologies. Recent advances in automated sorting, by plastic type and by color, hold promise for future profit and fewer problems for this industry.

The information in the book is from the following documents:

Post-Consumer Mixed Plastics Recycling-Characterization, Collection, Costs and Markets, prepared by Bruce A. Hegberg, William H. Hallenbeck, and Gary R. Brenniman of the University of Illinois Center for Solid Waste Management and Research for the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources, Office of Solid Waste and Renewable Resources, January 1991.

Technologies for Recycling Post-Consumer Mixed Plastics—Plastic Lumber Production, Emerging Separation Technologies, Waste Plastic Handlers and Equipment Manufacturers, prepared by Bruce A. Hegberg, Gary R. Brenniman and William H. Hallenbeck of the University of Illinois Center for Solid Waste Management and Research for the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources, Office of Solid Waste and Renewable Resources, March 1991.

The table of contents is organized in such a way as to serve as a subject index and provides easy access to the information in the book.

Advanced composition and production methods developed by Noyes Data Corporation are employed to bring this durably bound book to you in a minimum of time. Special techniques are used to close the gap between manuscript and completed book. In order to keep the price of the book to a reasonable level, it has been partially reproduced by photo-offset directly from the original reports and the cost saving passed on to the reader. Due to this method of publishing, certain portions of the book may be less legible than desired.

NOTICE

The materials in this book were prepared as accounts of work sponsored by the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources. On this basis the Publisher assumes no responsibility nor liability for errors or any consequences arising from the use of the information contained herein.

Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use by the Agency or the Publisher. Final determination of the suitability of any information or product for use contemplated by any user, and the manner of that use, is the sole responsibility of the user. The book is intended for information purposes only. The reader is warned that caution must always be exercised when dealing with plastic wastes, recycling materials or equipment which might be potentially hazardous, and expert advice should be obtained before implementation of recycling procedures.

All information pertaining to law and regulations is provided for background only. The reader must contact the appropriate legal sources and regulatory authorities for up-to-date regulatory requirements, and their interpretation and implementation.

The book is sold with the understanding that the Publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, engineering, or other professional service. If advice or other expert assistance is required, the service of a competent professional should be sought.

PART I

MIXED PLASTICS RECYCLING–CHARACTERIZATION, COLLECTION, COSTS, MARKETS

Introduction to Mixed Plastics Recycling—Characterization, Collection, Costs, Markets

The information in Part I is from Post-Consumer Mixed Plastics Recycling-Characterization, Collection, Costs and Markets, prepared by Bruce A. Hegberg, William H. Hallenbeck, and Gary R. Brenniman of the University of Illinois Center for Solid Waste Management and Research for the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources, Office of Solid Waste and Renewable Resources, January 1991.

Acknowledgments

This public service report is a result of the concern of the Illinois Governor, State Legislature, and the Public for the magnitude of the solid waste problem in Illinois. The concern led to the passage of the Illinois Solid Waste Management Act of 1986. One result of this Act was the creation of the University of Illinois Center for Solid Waste Management and Research. The Office of Technology Transfer (OTT) is part of this Center. One of OTT’s means of transferring technology is the publication of pubic service reports which contain discussions of important topics in solid waste management.

Funding for this public service report was provided by the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources (IDENR), Office of Solid Waste and Renewable Resources. Additionally, OTT would like to acknowledge the review provided by IDENR.

Summary

Recycling of plastic discards is one method of reducing municipal solid waste. They are beginning to join glass, steel, aluminum and paper as waste stream components that have been accepted into recycling programs across the country. It is difficult, however, to expand post-consumer plastics recycling beyond the easily recognized milk jugs and soda bottles because of the variety of plastic wastes, the difficulty of sorting plastic resins, the low density of post-consumer plastics wastes and the limited history of plastics recycling. However, in order to expand the recovery and recycling of plastics and decrease the amount of waste disposed in landfills, it will be necessary to overcome these difficulties. Because of its heterogeneous nature and the amount of contaminants present, separation of post-consumer mixed plastic waste is the most difficult. The term mixed plastics, a mixture of plastic resins or a mixture of package/product types which may or may not be the same plastic type or color category, has been used to describe broad scale processing of post-consumer plastic waste. Mixed plastics also includes products which may be the same resin type but which have been fabricated using the differing manufacturing techniques. The purpose of this report is to identify the compositions of plastics in municipal solid waste (MSW) and in recycling programs, the post-consumer plastics contributions to recycling programs, the cost of plastics collection and some of the end uses for reprocessed post-consumer plastics. Attention is given to curbside collection of recyclables because of its high recovery rate (60-90%) in comparison to other recycling methods (10-30%).

The 1989 production of plastic resins in the U.S. totaled 58.2 billion pounds. Almost all of the annual production (92%) was consumed in the U.S. Eight resin types make up 83% of the annual domestic demand: low density polyethylene (LDPE), 9.7 billion lbs; polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 7.6 billion lbs; high density polyethylene (HOPE), 7.4 billion lbs; polypropylene (PP), 6.2 billion lbs; polystyrene (PS), 5.0 billion lbs; polyurethane (PUR), 3.2 billion lbs; phenolic, 3.1 billion lbs; and polyethylene terephthalate (PET or PETE), 1.9 billion lbs. The packaging sector is the leading consumer of plastic resins at about 14 billion pounds annually.

A relatively small amount of plastic is recycled on an annual basis in comparison to the production levels of plastic resins or the amount disposed in MSW landfills. It has been estimated that 340-400 million pounds of plastics were recovered or recycled in some fashion in 1989. Approximately 29 billion pounds were disposed in MSW. About half of the recycled plastic came from the recycling of PET beverage bottles (including the HDPE base cup on such bottles), and most of the remainder came from HDPE bottles, PET x-ray film and PP car battery cases. The amount of plastics recycled in comparison to the amount disposed is 1.3%, and in comparison to the annual production level of plastics in the U.S. is 0.6%. A review of the 15 primary resins produced in the U.S. shows that five of the above mentioned resins are disposed of primarily through MSW, and that the remaining plastics are generally destined for non-MSW disposal, i.e. imports/exports of plastics, recycling, construction/demolition debris or incineration. PVC is the only major resin which is not primarily disposed through residential, commercial or institutional MSW.

To help increase the recycling of plastics in Illinois, the state passed legislation requiring the labeling of six plastic types on all plastic bottles with a capacity of 16 fluid ounces or more and on all other rigid plastic containers with a capacity of 8 fluid ounces or more (PETE – 1, HOPE – 2, PVC – 3, LDPE – 4, PP – 5, PS – 6, and all others – 7). Many manufacturers are now voluntarily labeling their packaging with the appropriate number, even though not required by law. A law has also been passed which requires all counties to develop plans which will achieve 25% recycling. Increasing the recycling of these six primary plastics is a logical next step in satisfying the state law to achieve 25% recycling.

There is a wide variation in the types of plastics currently collected in curbside recycling programs. While some communities collect clear HDPE beverage bottles and/or PET beverage bottles, others have moved beyond this to additionally collect colored HDPE bottles (typically household chemical bottles), any type

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