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The Sony A7 II: The Unofficial Quintessential Guide

The Sony A7 II: The Unofficial Quintessential Guide

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The Sony A7 II: The Unofficial Quintessential Guide

684 pages
5 heures
Oct 30, 2015


In this book, authors Brian Matsumoto and Carol F. Roullard offer a wealth of experience-based information and insights on the Sony a7 II, a full frame, autofocus system camera. This guide will help the new owner navigate past the confusion that often comes with using complex, powerful photographic equipment.

Brian and Carol explore the features and capabilities of the Sony a7 II in a way that far surpasses the users manual. Every feature of the camera is covered, from basic automated controls to advanced photographic applications, including automatic stitching to create panoramas and multi-shot noise reduction that allows the use of extremely high ISOs. Included are tips for set-up according to various shooting styles.

The richly illustrated text and step-by-step instructions guide the reader on how and why to set each menu command. Every button, dial, switch, and menu configuration is discussed.

The Sony a7 II: The Unofficial Quintessential Guide will help you take control of your camera, push the envelope, and take photographs that are a unique reflection of your own creative personality.
Oct 30, 2015

À propos de l'auteur

Dr. Brian Matsumoto is a retired research scientist who has worked for 30 years documenting experiments with technologically advanced cameras. He now spends his time photographing with a variety of cameras and lenses, and is interested in expanding a camera’s potential by pairing it with specialized optics such as microscopes and telescopes. He enjoys spending time outdoors and carries his camera on all of his hikes to photograph nature. In addition to the nine books he has written for Rocky Nook, Dr. Matsumoto has published several articles and has had his photographs published in a number of periodicals. His photographs have also appeared on the covers of American Laboratory, BioTechniques, and BioPhotonics. He is experienced in the technical aspects of photography and is an adjunct instructor for the Hooke College of Applied Sciences. Dr. Matsumoto recently served as a judge for the Olympus BioScapes International Digital Imaging Competition.

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The Sony A7 II - Brian Matsumoto


1Chapter 1: Getting Started


This book is about Sony’s a7 II full-frame camera. It is a complex camera with an extensive menu structure that has more than 125 menu commands. Finding the right command and selecting it can require you to press half a dozen buttons, which can be slow and arduous and is not conducive to making quick camera adjustments for your photographic scenes. But help is on the way! We will describe how to use shortcuts to modify the camera settings so you can quickly access the most important commands. Photographs of the camera body, with its controls labeled and identified, are provided at the beginning of this book. You should learn about the buttons so you can get the most out of your new camera, but you shouldn’t feel pressured to immediately memorize all of them. You can start taking photographs if you know where the mode dial and the shutter button are.

We assume you already have a Sony a7 II camera and that you have taken it out of the box and inserted a fully charged battery into the camera body. Even though most people do this immediately after they buy a camera, we will describe how to do it and provide some tips on how to use the supplied battery and charger. Also, we provide a section that describes how to set the camera’s date and home information. Again, this is something you may have already done, but it may be useful to read our description of the process because it also introduces how to navigate the menu commands. We also describe the camera buttons and dials so you can begin to use them.

Menu Navigation Commands

Throughout the book we refer to commands and explain how to locate them within the menu. To do this, we use a shorthand command path that reflects the flow of the menu. For example, to set the camera’s date and time, specifically the Daylight Savings value, you will use the path in the following example:

MENU > Setup (4) > Date/Time Setup > Daylight Savings > [On], [Off]

The camera’s menu system has page numbers to help you locate a certain command. We indicate those page numbers next to the main menu choice in parentheses, such as Setup (4) in the previous example.

We use the greater-than symbol > to indicate levels within the command structure. In the previous example, the > symbol in Date/Time Setup > Daylight Savings means that you will navigate to the Daylight Savings submenu from Date/Time Setup.

We use square brackets to enclose values you can select. In the previous example, you can select [On] or [Off]. For most commands, the options are [On] or [Off], which means you can choose only one. However, this is not always the case. There are a few commands where you must select values for multiple options. In the following example, the submenu Date/Time has multiple settings. In these situations, the name of each setting will be shown in square brackets.

MENU > Setup (4) > Date/Time Setup > Date/Time > [month], [day], [year], [hour], [minute]

Some options are represented by icons, but the camera usually displays a name when an icon is highlighted. For clarity, we will enclose the name, rather than the icon, in the square brackets.

Learning Progression: From Automatic to Manual

The simplest way to start using the camera is to turn the mode dial to the AUTO icon, which controls both the Intelligent Auto and Superior Auto shooting modes. These modes make photography a point-and-shoot operation. One benefit of digital photography is that the image file maintains a record of all your settings. You can recall the sensitivity of the sensor, the lens type, the lens opening, and the shutter speed. This can be a powerful teaching aid. By taking the time to study a picture, analyze the results, and determine how it might be improved, you’ll take the first step toward figuring out a strategy to improve your photography. If a moving subject is too blurry, you can review your camera settings and determine if the shutter speed should be shorter. If the depth of field is too narrow and the background is out of focus, you can check your lens opening and remember to use a smaller one when you want the background and foreground to be sharp in a future picture.

Your Sony camera can be regarded as a teaching tool. It lends itself perfectly to helping you learn photography because you can start with fully automatic (AUTO), then advance to Scene Selection (SCN), then proceed to semiautomatic (P, S, and A), and finally learn to shoot in manual mode (M). The automatic modes are like training wheels that ensure you capture technically excellent pictures. Manual mode provides the most control so you can create art rather than simply record scenes. This book is assembled in a similar progression; the automated features are introduced in the beginning, then the semiautomatic modes are discussed, and the more complicated manual settings are introduced later. We hope this approach will be useful to readers at all levels of photographic experience.

The Sony camera’s display screens show a variety of camera setting and format icons when you are about to take a picture. We provide descriptions of these icons within the chapters. Many of the icons are critical for you to learn when you use the camera. They include indications for identifying focus, shutter speed, and stabilization settings.

We devote a significant portion of the book to the camera’s automatic modes. Even an expert photographer may wish to quickly grab a shot when there is not enough time to manually choose optimum camera settings. The automatic modes allow you to capture an image quickly and guarantee you’ll get the shot.

Chapter 1 discusses the camera basics so you can get started using your camera. Chapter 2 covers photographic basics and expands on the camera’s basic controls. This will give you an intuitive feel for what the camera can do and emphasizes the importance of different types of settings in pictorial compositions. Chapter 3 describes how to manage your images. It covers topics from how to customize the display screens to organizing your saved images. In later chapters we describe how to get the most out of your camera. We progress from the automatic modes in chapter 4 to the semiautomatic modes in chapter 5. Chapter 6 discusses how to take full control of the camera settings. Later chapters explore the advanced features of your camera and the accessories that are available.

The Camera

The Sony a7 II is an interchangeable lens camera that has a full-frame sensor (36 × 24mm). The image stabilization is based in the body, not in the lens. Other cameras have similar image stabilization designs, but they use a much smaller sensor.

When you hold and aim a long telephoto lens, you can appreciate how effective the built-in stabilization is as it dampens tremors and movements that result from handholding the camera. Without stabilization, you will see the image move in the frame. When you activate the stabilizer by slightly pressing the shutter button, the image becomes steady. This feature is also helpful for videographers because a video can be ruined if the subject appears to bounce around within the frame. To an extent, the image stabilizer on the a7 II helps you keep the subject centered within the frame.

A weakness in the Sony a7 II is the limited number of FE-mount lenses. To date, at least 10 lenses have been designed for this camera; the longest focal length is available in the 24–240mm zoom lens. If you want to explore longer lenses, you can purchase a third-party lens that was not designed for the a7 II. Usually, some features must be sacrificed, such as autofocus, image stabilization, or both. However, you can avoid this disadvantage if you buy Sony A-mount lenses and the appropriate lens adapter. If you use this approach, you can purchase a 500mm lens, which has automatic focus and image stabilization. We’ll discuss these options in chapter 9.

The a7 II’s 36 × 24mm sensor has theoretical and practical advantages over the smaller sensor arrays that are used in Micro Four Thirds or APS-C cameras. For a given pixel count, a larger sensor will have a greater dynamic range and lower noise levels. These advantages are most apparent when you work in low light levels. In bright daylight, these advantages are less evident, and many users are satisfied with using a smaller sensor. However, for professionals or enthusiasts who are exploring the limits of what can be captured with their cameras, a larger full-frame sensor is the best tool for the job.

Some photographers have noted the increase in weight from the Sony a7 to the a7 II. Remember that the a7 II is still the lightest full-frame interchangeable lens camera on the market. It is 4 ounces lighter than the Leica M-P rangefinder digital camera, and a half pound lighter than most Canon and Nikon digital single lens reflex (DSLR) cameras. This makes the Sony a7 II ideal for mobile photographers who want to minimize the weight of photographic hardware.

Which camera should you buy? Since you bought this book, you’ve probably already purchased the Sony a7 II, but if you haven’t, you may be reading this book to get a feel for the camera and to decide if it would be a worthwhile purchase. We recommend that if you already own a Nikon or Canon full-frame camera, you should evaluate whether it is cost-effective to replace it. Switching to a new camera system can be expensive, and we won’t claim that the quality of your photographs will improve markedly if you switch.

Having said that, there are some valid reasons for changing systems. One reason may be the weight of the camera. You can see in table 1-1 that the Sony a7 II is significantly lighter than its competitors, which is important for people who must carry their equipment. The Sony a7 II and the Sony 35mm f/2.8 lens together weigh only 24 ounces—less than the weight of a Nikon D610 without a lens. Other advantages of the Sony a7 II are its electronic viewfinder (EVF) and rear organic light-emitting diode (OLED) monitor, which provide a good indication of how an image will appear before you take a picture. Unlike with the optical viewfinders on Nikon, Canon, or Leica cameras, you will see the effects of white balance and exposure settings before you take a picture. In addition, data indicators specify the degree of overexposure and if the camera isn’t level.

With its position on the lower end of the price scale for full-frame cameras, the Sony a7 II is affordable, plus you can equip it with other manufacturers’ lenses.

If you switch camera systems, you may not have to replace all your hardware with Sony equipment. We have been gradually selling our Nikon equipment and replacing it with Sony cameras and lenses. However, we have retained many of our manual-focus Nikon lenses for use on the Sony a7 II. As shown in table 1-2, we kept our macro lenses, which we use only with manual focus. The 180mm f/2.8 and the 300mm f/4.0 lenses are not available with either the Sony A or FE mounts. Both of these lenses are very sharp.

We find that the Sony a7 II is a superior tool for scientific work. When we use it with a manual-focus lens, we have greater focusing accuracy with the camera’s electronic displays than we have when using the optical viewfinder of a typical DSLR. Also, we find that the a7 II is ergonomically superior to Canon and Nikon cameras when we take pictures through microscopes. The a7 II has an electronic first-curtain shutter, which ensures the camera is vibration free when it takes a picture. Because this camera is mirrorless, there’s no need to worry about the jarring effects of an instant-return mirror, as with a DSLR, or the release of a mechanical first-curtain shutter. The electronic display of the a7 II has a level gauge so you can make sure your camera is perpendicular to the ground, such as for architectural work. With shift lenses, you can avoid perspective distortion by using level controls to keep the sensor plane parallel to the edge of a building; that is, the sensor plane will be perpendicular to the ground. Sony does not make such lenses; however, Samyang and Schneider do and these can be used on the a7 II with the aid of simple adapters.

Description of the Camera and Its Features

The Sony a7 II has many buttons, dials, levers, and other elements. Figures 1-1a through 1-1d show each side of the camera with each of the camera’s components identified. Unlike a DSLR, which uses a mirror to direct light to an optical viewfinder, the Sony a7 II is mirrorless. Light goes directly to the sensor, which drives one of two electronic displays: the 3-inch rear monitor or the EVF, both shown in figure 1-1b. Having two ways to view the subject enhances the camera’s versatility. You can use the viewfinder when you shoot under bright outdoor lighting that makes it difficult to see the monitor. When you use long telephoto lenses and handhold your camera, you should use the viewfinder to provide increased stability. Use the monitor when you record videos or when you mount your camera on a tripod. When we take macro pictures of subjects that are close to ground level, we use the monitor to frame and compose the picture. With the viewfinder we would have to lie on the ground, sprawled behind the camera.

Unlike an optical viewfinder, these two electronic displays provide extensive data about the scene so you can adjust the exposure. You can view a histogram of the overall light intensity, and by over- or underexposing the scene you can see if the highlights are burned out or if the shadows are deep and impenetrable black areas. Additionally, you can accurately gauge the appearance of the scene before the sensor captures it. If the exposure is set lower than the camera’s recommendation, the viewfinder displays a darkened image. As you increase the exposure, the scene in the viewfinder becomes progressively brighter in proportion to the wider aperture or slower shutter speed. This is advantageous because errors in exposure or white balance can be corrected before you take a picture, which promotes an efficient workflow during post-processing. Although the electronic displays don’t have the dynamic range of an optical viewfinder, you can, with experience and the aid of the histogram, judge if the light intensity of the entire scene will be recorded.

With the proper camera settings, the EVF can provide a real-time preview of the depth of field. When the camera is set to aperture-priority (A) mode, the image is displayed at the working aperture of the lens, so you can determine if the background or foreground will be rendered sharply or if it will be blurred. You can do this with a DSLR optical viewfinder, but you must press a button to physically close down the aperture of the lens. This is inconvenient because as the aperture closes, the optical viewfinder becomes progressively dimmer, making it difficult to see fine details. This is not the case with an EVF in A mode. The screen maintains a constant brightness level so you can clearly see how fine details will be rendered at various aperture settings.

For capturing movies, the absence of a hinged mirror in the a7 II has a singular advantage. It’s easier to record movies with a mirrorless camera than with a DSLR. To start recording, you just press a button. In contrast, with a DSLR you must raise the mirror before you can record.

The remainder of the a7 II is like a DSLR. You can use it with an external flash, and it has a built-in Wi-Fi transceiver. The latter is used to communicate with your smartphone or tablet for transferring images. With the right apps, you can use your mobile device as an external remote control for the camera. The larger display of a tablet can be used as a monitor from which you control the operation of the camera. In addition, Wi-Fi allows you to expand the camera’s versatility; for example, you can use apps for time-lapse photography or to correct lens aberrations in non-Sony lenses.

Dual Viewing System

We mentioned that the a7 II has a dual electronic viewing system: a monitor and an EVF. Each has unique advantages, and becoming proficient in selecting which preview screen to use under various shooting conditions can help you obtain results that are not available with traditional DSLRs.

The monitor is the preferred framing device for someone who shoots movies, and it’s advantageous when the camera is mounted on a tripod. Because the monitor can be tilted, it’s useful when you work on copy stands and with macro photography. When you do this type of work, the monitor replaces the viewfinder. It’s difficult, if not impossible, to place your eyes directly behind the camera, and it’s a distinct advantage to view the camera monitor from above.

Having said this, you should get accustomed to using the viewfinder. Depending on the conditions, it offers a different set of advantages when you frame, view, and focus on the subject. For one thing, you can see finer details on the viewfinder screen because it has almost double the pixel count. Also, the diopter-adjustment dial on the viewfinder is a boon for people who are nearsighted or farsighted. They can dial in a sharp image on the viewfinder even if it is difficult to hold the camera far enough away to read the icons or see details that are displayed on the monitor. The viewfinder also offers advantages when you shoot under bright daytime conditions. The ambient light can make it difficult to see the monitor, but the viewfinder offers a good view of the subject. Another advantage is that for handheld photography, the camera is more stable when you hold the camera against your face. This allows you to use longer telephoto lenses or slower shutter speeds. When you use the monitor, there is a lack of stabilization because you hold the camera away from your body with outstretched arms.

Some photographers prefer a clean view of the subject when they frame it in the viewfinder or on the monitor. If there is data on the display, you can get an uncluttered view by pressing the DISP button; conversely, if the display is free of data, you can add more data to it by pressing the DISP button.

Diopter-Adjustment Dial

To effectively use the viewfinder, you need to precisely focus it for your eyesight. To the right of the EVF there is a small wheel called the diopter-adjustment dial (figure 1-2). Rotate the dial until the objects in the viewfinder are maximally sharp. We have found that the best way to determine if the viewfinder is focused for our eyesight is to look at a number or letter that is displayed in the viewfinder and adjust the dial until it is sharp.

If you wear eyeglasses with either progressive or bifocal lenses, you must take care to always position your corrective lenses at the same point over the viewfinder. If you share your camera with others, they may need to change the diopter adjustment to work for their eyesight. If one person is nearsighted and another is farsighted, the diopter-adjustment dial will have to be fine-tuned when they exchange the camera.

Setting Up Your New Sony a7 II

When you take your camera out of the box, you will find the following items:

• Camera body

• E-mount 28–70mm zoom lens (optional)

• Front and rear lens caps (only when lens is included)

• Body cap

• Accessory shoe cap

• Rechargeable InfoLithium (NP-FW50) battery

• AC adapter

• Shoulder/neck strap

• Micro USB cable

Make sure you have everything before you put together your new camera. Attach the lens and insert the battery and a memory card. We recommend that you attach the shoulder/neck strap and use it in the field to make sure you don’t drop the camera. Before you use the camera, make sure the battery is fully charged. Connect the AC adapter to the USB port cable, and insert the cable into the camera’s USB port. Although you can use the USB cable to charge the battery with your computer, we don’t recommend this because it takes longer to charge the battery. In either case, when you plug in the camera, a yellow light should appear. You can see it in figure 1-3, which has been processed to show the location of the glowing LED bulb. When the battery is fully charged, this lamp will turn off.

Recommendation: Get a Spare Battery

The single battery included with the camera will not be sufficient for a long day of shooting, so you will want to purchase replacement batteries. We recommend getting at least one spare, and you may want to consider getting two spare batteries. Although two may seem excessive and expensive, we base our recommendation on experience when we shoot for a full day in the field or the laboratory. There is nothing more exasperating than running out of power during a photographic assignment or a daily outing. Depending on the type of shooting you do, the battery can quickly be drained. Having two spare batteries is insurance that your photography excursion won’t be cut short due to the lack of power.

We caution against buying less expensive third-party batteries, which could void the camera warranty. If the battery damages your camera, Sony will not pick up the repair tab. For us, the savings from buying less expensive batteries is not worth the risk of losing our camera warranty.

We have tried third-party batteries, and although they worked, it is our impression that they had less electrical capacity than Sony batteries. Under ideal conditions you may be happy with third-party batteries, so no harm is done. But you can also end up with a battery that doesn’t hold as much of a charge or drains too quickly. In a worst-case scenario, it damages your camera, and the money you saved by buying the inexpensive battery will be lost because you’ll have to repair or replace your camera.

Along with extra batteries, purchase a charger for them. You cannot use your camera while it is plugged in to charge a battery. Sony sells a charger that allows you to recharge batteries independent of the camera.

Memory Card

You will need a memory card for your camera. Unlike some point-and-shoot cameras, the a7 II has no internal memory for storing images. You may already have a compatible memory card from a previous camera.

The a7 II uses a secure digital (SD) memory card, which is about the size of a postage stamp. SD cards come in many varieties, with various memory capacities and data transfer speeds. They are designated as SD, SDHC, or SDXC, which refers to the card’s maximum memory capacity. Don’t be too concerned about these designations because your camera can handle all of them, but find out if your computer can handle SDXC cards. They have an improved bus, and the computer must have the correct contacts to take advantage of the card’s capabilities. Also, an SDXC card requires the computer to use an operating system that can address more than 32 gigabytes (GB) of disk space.

Before you purchase an SDXC card, which has a potential capacity of 2 terabytes (TB), make sure your computer can utilize this much memory in an external disk. Computers that use early versions of Windows may not be able to handle more than 32 GB. If in doubt, stick to SD or SDHC cards; their memory capacity is sufficient for most still photographers. SDXC cards are for videographers who need more memory capacity and a higher write speed. If you insert the card into a computer that cannot handle its speed or capacity, you may receive a prompt that asks you to format the card. Don’t format the card unless you are prepared to lose all the data stored on it.

The most important thing to look for is the card’s class rating. Memory cards are categorized into classes (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10); the higher the class, the faster the card can receive and record data. The size and class of the memory card you buy depends on how you will use the camera and how you plan to maintain the stored pictures and movies. If you plan to record a lot of movies, you will need a high-capacity memory card with a fast speed rating. Although the Sony a7 II users manual says a Class 4 rating is sufficient for recording movies, Sony technical support recommends a Class 10 card. If you want to take the highest quality videos with your camera, buy a card that is rated as Ultra High Speed (UHS). For this type of work, use the UHS Class 1 SD card.

You can use SD, SDHC, or SDXC memory cards from any manufacturer. Sony currently sells an SDHC Class 10 card that holds 64 GB of data for about $40, or you can opt for a 32 GB card (about $19) or a 16 GB card (about $13). SDXC cards are the most expensive and can have the highest memory rating. A potential problem with high-capacity memory cards is that a card failure can result in a greater loss of data. For this reason, many photographers use several smaller-capacity memory cards so that if one goes bad, the loss of pictures and movies is limited to that one card.

Instead of using an SD card, you may wish to use a Sony Memory Stick card. They aren’t as common, and they are a bit more expensive in terms of memory capacity. However, if you already own these cards, you may wish to use them in your new camera. Note that if you want to record both still pictures and movies on a Memory Stick PRO Duo, it must be the Mark 2 version. The Memory Stick PRO-HG Duo and the Memory Stick XC-HG Duo also record both still pictures and movies. If you wish to record the highest quality movies in XAVC S format, you’ll need to use Memory Stick XC-HG Duo media.

When you first use a memory card, don’t use the format command on your computer to prepare the card for receiving images. Instead, use the camera’s format command to prepare the card for your camera:

MENU > Setup (5) > Format

Recommendation: Using SD Cards

At the end of each shooting day, get in the habit of downloading the images from your camera to your computer. After the files are downloaded, erase the images on the card by using the camera’s Format command. This allows you to start fresh the next day and minimizes the risk of running out of memory. If you simply erase the files with the delete command, the SD card may become fragmented, which may cause interruptions while you record the highest quality movies.

Although you can connect your camera to your computer with a cable and transfer the stored files directly, it is a slow process. The download will go faster if your computer has a USB 3.0 port. Attach a card reader that supports USB 3.0 so you can take the memory card out of your camera, insert it into the card reader, and download your images and movies.

If you transfer your files with the camera’s USB port, its download speed is limited by the camera. The Sony a7 II uses the USB 2.0 standard, which, in theory, transmits data at 1/10 the speed of a system that is configured for USB 3.0. If you use a USB 3.0 card reader and a USB 3.0 port on your computer, the download time will be significantly reduced.

Assembling the Camera

Make sure your camera is turned off before you insert or remove the battery, memory card, and lens.

The battery and memory card occupy different locations in the camera. The door to the battery chamber is on the bottom of the camera. When you invert the camera, you will see the cover with a sliding switch that unlocks it. After you unlock the door and open it, slide the battery in the direction of the arrow. The battery can be fully seated only one way; a set of ridges surrounds the contacts and helps you orient the battery properly. You’ll hear a solid click when the battery is properly seated. You can now close the battery cover and slide the switch to lock it in place. To remove the battery, open the compartment to expose a small blue lever that blocks the battery (figure 1-4). Push the lever to the side, and the battery will pop up for easy removal. Note that the battery compartment is not always accessible when the camera is mounted on a tripod.

The memory card compartment is on the right side of the camera; it can be opened even if the camera is mounted on a tripod. You can open the hinged door by pushing your finger toward the rear of the camera to expose the slot for the memory card. Insert the memory card with the metallic bars going in first. The memory card will lock into position with a click. To remove the card, gently push it down to release the lock, and the card will pop up for easy removal.

The card can be loaded in only one direction; don’t force it. If the memory card is defective or if its contacts are dirty, a NO CARD message will be displayed on the monitor or in the viewfinder when you turn the camera on. If this occurs, remove the memory card, check it, brush off any dirt, and reinsert it. The message should go away. If it doesn’t, the card may be defective and will have to be replaced.

Next, attach the lens to the camera body. Remove the rear lens and camera body caps. Store both caps in a safe place for future use. Mounting the lens is a two-step process. There is a white bump on the barrel of the lens (figure 1-5a) and a white dot on the rim of the camera body’s lens mount (figure 1-5b). Align these two indicators, insert the lens, then rotate the lens clockwise until you feel and hear a click. The lens is now locked in position and ready to use.

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