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How to Estimate Range and Wind

How to Estimate Range and Wind

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How to Estimate Range and Wind

5/5 (5 évaluations)
101 pages
1 heure
Jul 16, 2013


This book is essentially a detailed Sniper Training manual for use by Military/LE Snipers, Competition shooters, Long Range Hunters, and other enthusiasts.

It describes, in detail, methods of range and wind estimation and includes practical exercises to ensure that the reader understands the methods outlined and also has a quick reference guide for the most commonly used equations in this skill set.

The book was primarily written for those new to long range shooting however, I hope that even experienced shooters will benefit from the book.
Jul 16, 2013

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How to Estimate Range and Wind - Pseudonym Sniper



This book has been written to assist Military and Law Enforcement Snipers to not only learn, but to understand and expand their knowledge on the subjects of range estimation and allowing for environmental factors.

However, it is not limited to Military or Law Enforcement personnel, as it is also a great reference item for long range hunting enthusiasts and civilian competition shooters which is why I will use the term shooter throughout this book as opposed to sniper or marksman.

As such, this book will cover all relevant methods of range estimation and also includes some simple tables and diagrams that may assist the reader with understanding the methods outlined.

All relevant methods on how to make allowances for environmental factors, such as the effect of light, temperature, humidity and altitude when engaging targets at extended ranges, are also covered in this guide.

According to the Oxford Online Dictionary, to snipe is to shoot at someone from a hiding place, especially accurately and at long range.

Wikipedia on the other hand provides the following description: A sniper is a highly trained marksman who operates alone, in a pair, or a team who maintain close visual contact with the enemy and engages targets from concealed positions or physical distances exceeding the detection capabilities of the enemy personnel, without being detected.

Of the two, the Wikipedia definition is more in depth, and as such, I believe it to be the more accurate one. However, whichever definition you lean towards, reaching the required skill level is easier said than done.

Engaging targets at long range, whether it be in a Military, Law Enforcement or Civilian context, is one of the toughest skills to master, and it takes constant practice, in a variety of environments, for a shooter not only to become, but to remain proficient at it.

The implementation of these skills will require focus and concentration on the part of the shooter, and as such I have not written about the many other aspects of sniping in this book.

These other skills include, but are not limited to, the fundamentals of marksmanship, camouflage, stalking and tracking and also require a lot of focus, concentration and practice.

For this reason, I would rather the shooter perfect this particular skill set before moving onto another which is why I have not covered these aspects in this book.

No matter what your background, I hope this guide serves you well and helps you to achieve a higher level of proficiency.

Kind regards,

Pseudonym Sniper


The Basics

Before I explain to you the techniques for range estimation and how to make allowances for environmental factors, I need to cover off with you the basics of ballistics.

I say the basics because that is exactly what this will be…a basic introduction to some concepts.

The subject of Ballistics could be the subject of an entire book (in fact there are several books that have been published on the subject) and so, if after reading the following section of this book, you feel the need to know more, feel free to do further reading.

If you are an experienced shooter, you may choose to skip this section and head straight to the range estimation section of this book. For the less experienced, stick with me and I'll ensure you finish up with a basic understanding of ballistics and how it can affect your fall of shot.

For those of you still with me, ballistics can be broken down into three sections or terms: Internal, External and Terminal.

Internal ballistics refers to the interior workings of a particular weapon system and how that weapon system’s ammunition functions.

External ballistics refers to the flight of the bullet once it leaves the muzzle of that particular weapon system, until such time as it reaches the target.

Terminal ballistics refers to what happens to the bullet after it hits the target.


To grasp a basic understanding of ballistics, the shooter needs to be familiar with terminology used by other shooters and other experts. The following list contains both the term and its definition:

Muzzle velocity refers to the speed of the bullet as it leaves the muzzle (the end of the barrel) and is measured in feet per second (fps). It can fluctuate due to outside influences, such as ammunition type and batch/lot number and can also be affected due to environmental factors, such as heat and humidity, which we will cover off later in this book.

Line of Sight refers to the imaginary straight line that can be drawn from the eye, through the aiming device or scope, to the point of aim.

Line of Departure refers to the imaginary straight line that can be drawn from the bore of the rifle and indicates the bullet’s flight path if it was not influenced by gravity,

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  • (5/5)
    Very informative well worth a read for any into shooting.