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Cereal Grains: Assessing and Managing Quality

Cereal Grains: Assessing and Managing Quality

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Cereal Grains: Assessing and Managing Quality

Longueur:
1,635 pages
31 heures
Sortie:
Dec 27, 2016
ISBN:
9780081007303
Format:
Livre

Description

Cereal Grains: Assessing and Managing Quality, Second Edition, provides a timely update to this key reference work. Thoroughly revised from the first edition, this volume examines the latest research and advances in the field. New chapters have been added on alternative grains, including ancient grains and pseudocereals, biosecurity, and industrial processing of grains, amongst others.

Quality and food safety are important throughout the value-addition chain, from breeding, production, harvest, storage, transport, processing, and marketing. At all stages, analysis is needed so that quality management can proceed intelligently. These considerations are examined for each of the major cereal species, including wheat (common and durum), rye and triticale, barley and oats, rice, maize (corn), pseudocereal species, sorghum, and the millets. Divided into five sections, the book analyses these for the range of cereal species before a final section summarizes key findings.

  • Documents the latest research in cereal grains, from their nutraceutical and antioxidant traits, to novel detection methods
  • Provides a complete and thorough update to the first edition, analyzing the range of major cereal species
  • Presents detailed advice on the management of cereal quality at each stage of production and processing
Sortie:
Dec 27, 2016
ISBN:
9780081007303
Format:
Livre

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Cereal Grains - Elsevier Science

Cereal Grains

Assessing and Managing Quality

Second Edition

Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition

Editors

Colin Wrigley

QAAFI, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD, Australia

Ian Batey

Sunset Cereal Services, Meadowbank, NSW, Australia

Diane Miskelly

Westcott Consultants, Goulburn, NSW, Australia

Table of Contents

Cover

Title page

Copyright

List of Contributors

Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition

Preface to the Second Edition

Preface to the First Edition

Part I: Cereal-Grain Quality

Chapter 1: Assessing and Managing Quality at all Stages of the Grain Chain

Abstract

1.1. Introduction

1.2. The creation of products from the cereal grains

1.3. Grain quality

1.4. The grain chain

1.5. The assessment of grain quality

1.6. The management of grain quality

1.7. Future trends

Chapter 2: The Cereal Grains: Providing our Food, Feed and Fuel Needs

Abstract

2.1. Introduction

2.2. Cereal grains and people

2.3. The agricultural grains

2.4. The dicot agricultural grains

2.5. The monocot agricultural grains

2.6. Future trends

Chapter 3: The Diversity of Uses for Cereal Grains

Abstract

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Food

3.3. Feed

3.4. Industrial uses

3.5. Utilisation of individual cereals

3.6. Grain substitution

3.7. Whole-plant utilisation

3.8. Future trends

Chapter 4: Cereal-Grain Morphology and Composition

Abstract

4.1. Introduction

4.2. The study of plant, head and grain morphology

4.3. The cereal flower and pollination

4.4. Plant morphology

4.5. Head morphology

4.6. Glume morphology

4.7. Grain morphology

4.8. The use of morphology to assess and manage quality

4.9. Ultrastructural morphology of the grain

4.10. The use of grain composition to assess and manage quality

4.11. The management of grain processing based on composition

4.12. Future trends

Part II: Grain-Quality Characteristics for Specific Cereals

Chapter 5: Wheat: Grain-Quality Characteristics and Management of Quality Requirements

Abstract

5.1. Introduction

5.2. Wheat as a genus

5.3. Wheat production

5.4. Unique products from wheat

5.5. Wheat proteins

5.6. Wheat carbohydrates

5.7. Wheat lipids

5.8. Wheat micronutrients

5.9. Assessing grain quality

5.10. Managing grain quality

5.11. Future prospects

Chapter 6: Durum Wheat: Grain-Quality Characteristics and Management of Quality Requirements

Abstract

6.1. Durum wheat: overview

6.2. Grain, processing and consumer quality

Chapter 7: Rye: Grain-Quality Characteristics and Management of Quality Requirements

Abstract

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Worldwide production and regional distribution

7.3. The origins and taxonomy of rye

7.4. The genetic constitution of rye

7.5. F1 hybrid rye and genetic improvements

7.6. Distinctive aspects of the plant and grain morphology of rye

7.7. The composition of the rye grain

7.8. Grain defects in rye

7.9. Utilisation and nutritional advantages of rye

7.10. Distinctive aspects of analysis for rye grain

7.11. Distinctive aspects of managing rye-grain quality

7.12. Future prospects

Chapter 8: Triticale: Grain-Quality Characteristics and Management of Quality Requirements

Abstract

8.1. Introduction

8.2. The history and genetics of triticale

8.3. Worldwide production and regional distribution

8.4. Head and grain morphology

8.5. Grain composition

8.6. Utilisation and nutritional (dis)advantages

8.7. Grain-quality analysis and management; potential defects

8.8. Future trends

Chapter 9: Barley: Grain-Quality Characteristics and Management of Quality Requirements

Abstract

9.1. Introduction

9.2. Unique morphological and biochemical characteristics of barley

9.3. Production and major uses of barley

9.4. Specific quality requirements for barley

9.5. Maintaining barley quality

9.6. Future

9.7. Further information

Chapter 10: Oats: Grain-Quality Characteristics and Management of Quality Requirements

Abstract

10.1. Introduction

10.2. Classification, origin and history

10.3. Unique morphological and biochemical characteristics

10.4. Nutrition

10.5. Production and major uses of oat

10.6. Quality requirements for oats

10.7. Maintaining and improving oat quality

10.8. Future

Chapter 11: Corn: Grain-Quality Characteristics and Management of Quality Requirements

Abstract

11.1. Introduction: the importance of corn (maize) production in the international arena

11.2. Utilisation of corn

11.3. The structure and chemical composition of corn

11.4. Determination of corn quality

11.5. Effects of agronomy and storage on quality

11.6. Milling technologies

11.7. Complex utilisation of corn

11.8. Tortilla production

11.9. The state of affairs with GM corn in the world

11.10. Future trends

Chapter 12: Rice: Grain-Quality Characteristics and Management of Quality Requirements

Abstract

12.1. Introduction

12.2. Unique characteristics of rice

12.3. Traits of quality

12.4. Environmental effects on rice quality

12.5. Future challenges

Chapter 13: Sorghum and Millets: Grain-Quality Characteristics and Management of Quality Requirements

Abstract

13.1. Introduction

13.2. Taxonomy and grain production

13.3. Grain structure and chemistry

13.4. Traditional, novel and emerging uses

13.5. Sorghum and millet end-use quality requirements and their assessment

13.6. Sorghum and millet quality management systems

13.7. Future directions

Chapter 14: Ancient Wheats and Pseudocereals for Possible use in Cereal-Grain Dietary Intolerances

Abstract

14.1. Introduction

14.2. Cereal-related health disorders

14.3. Ancient wheat relatives

14.4. Gluten-free management and gluten analysis

14.5. Analysis and quality management of low FODMAP food products

14.6. Further safety-related quality aspects

14.7. Conclusions

Part III: Grain-Quality Analysis and Management

Chapter 15: Food Safety Aspects of Grain and Cereal Product Quality

Abstract

15.1. Introduction

15.2. The role of agronomy

15.3. Grain processing (flour milling)

15.4. Food processing

15.5. Conclusions

15.6. Disclaimer

Chapter 16: Breeding for Grain-Quality Traits

Abstract

16.1. Introduction

16.2. Classical breeding for quality improvement

16.3. Molecular breeding technologies

16.4. Transgenic technology

16.5. Mutation breeding

16.6. Selection for protein content and bread-making quality

16.7. Breeding for starch improvement in cereals

16.8. Selection for cereals with increased dietary fibre and phytochemical content

16.9. Role of environment and climate change on breeding for quality traits

16.10. Conclusions

Chapter 17: Identification of Grain Variety and Quality Type

Abstract

17.1. Introduction

17.2. Variety identification

17.3. Identification of quality type using molecular markers

17.4. Future trends for marker-assisted selection of quality

17.5. Conclusions

Chapter 18: The Effects of Growth Environment and Agronomy on Grain Quality

Abstract

18.1. Introduction

18.2. Growing conditions and environment

18.3. Sowing

18.4. Weed control

18.5. Disease control

18.6. Crop nutrition

18.7. Lodging and growth regulation

18.8. Future trends

Chapter 19: Analysis of Grain Quality at Receival

Abstract

19.1. Introduction

19.2. The US grain inspection system

19.3. The Canadian grain inspection system

19.4. The Australian grain inspection system

19.5. The European Union (EU) grain inspection system

19.6. The Argentine grain inspection system

19.7. The Black Sea countries’ grain inspection system

19.8. Traditional equipment used in wheat inspection at receival

19.9. New technologies for use at grain receival

19.10. Future trends

Acknowledgement

Chapter 20: Maintaining Grain Quality During Storage and Transport

Abstract

20.1. Introduction

20.2. Generic characteristics of storage

20.3. Transport

20.4. Future trends

20.5. Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 21: Biosecurity: Safe-Guarding Quality at All Stages of the Grain Chain

Abstract

21.1. Biosecurity definitions and the concept of the biosecurity continuum

21.2. Grains in the context of plant-biosecurity systems to safeguard quality

21.3. The changing nature of biosecurity risk in grains

Part IV: Processing Cereal Grains to Optimize Product Quality

Chapter 22: Assessing and Managing Wheat-Flour Quality Before, During and After Milling

Abstract

22.1. Introduction

22.2. Procurement of wheat for processing

22.3. Choice of wheats for blending

22.4. History of milling

22.5. Wheat milling

22.6. Quality assessment during and after milling

22.7. Whole-grain flour testing

22.8. Healthy grain

22.9. Wheat intolerance

22.10. Sustainable farming and effects of climate change

22.11. Future trends

Chapter 23: Industrial Processing of Grains Into Co-Products of Protein, Starch, Oils and Fibre

Abstract

23.1. Introduction

23.2. Starch

23.3. Protein

23.4. Other components

23.5. Biofuels

23.6. Bioplastics

23.7. Resistant starch

23.8. Future trends

Chapter 24: Optimisation of End-Product Quality for the Consumer

Abstract

24.1. Introduction

24.2. Meeting consumer-perceived quality needs

24.3. The bread family

24.4. Noodles

24.5. Biscuits, cookies, wafers and snack foods

24.6. Cakes

24.7. Pasta and couscous

24.8. Breakfast cereals

24.9. Cereals eaten as the entire grain

24.10. Beverages from grains

24.11. Feed uses

24.12. Industrial uses

24.13. Future trends

Part V: Summary and Appendices

Chapter 25: Grain Quality: The Future is With the Consumer, the Scientist and the Technologist

Abstract

25.1. Introduction

25.2. The big picture

25.3. Breeding for grain quality

25.4. Grain growing

25.5. Grain receival and segregation

25.6. Grain storage and transport

25.7. Grain processing

25.8. Nutritional benefits of grain—real and perceived

25.9. Government concerns, population pressures and world-trade policies relating to cereal grains

25.10. Conclusions

Appendix 1: Composition of Grains and Grain Products

Appendix 2: Equivalence Between Metric, US and Chinese Units for the Grain Industry

Index

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List of Contributors

Anton J. Alldrick,     Campden BRI, Chipping Campden, United Kingdom

Ian Batey,     Sunset Cereal Services, Meadowbank, NSW, Australia

Zoltán Bedő,     Agricultural Institute, Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Martonvásár, Hungary

Ferenc Békés,     FBFD PTY LTD, North Parramatta, NSW, Australia

Walter Bushuk,     Department of Food Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada

Yang Cao,     Academy of State Administration of Grain, Beijing, China

Pat J. Collins,     Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Agri-Science Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia

Stephen Delwiche,     USDA-ARS, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Food Quality Laboratory, Beltsville, MD, United States

Kwaku G. Duodu,     Institute for Food, Nutrition and Well-being and Department of Food Science, University of Pretoria, Hatfield, Pretoria, South Africa

David R. Eagling,     Plant Biosecurity Cooperative Research Centre, Canberra, ACT, Australia

Michael Edney,     Canadian Grain Commission, Grain Research Laboratory, Winnipeg, MB, Canada

Melissa Fitzgerald,     School of Agriculture and Food Science, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD, Australia

Michael Gooding,     Formerly University of Reading, Berkshire, United Kingdom

Zoltán Győri,     Institute of Human Nutrition, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

Ray Hare,     Durum Wheat Improvement, Tamworth Agricultural Institute, New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Tamworth, NSW, Australia

Crispin A. Howitt,     CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Canberra, ACT, Australia

Marta S. Izydorczyk,     Canadian Grain Commission, Grain Research Laboratory, Winnipeg, MB, Canada

Bhaskarani Jasthi,     Nutrition Coordinating Center, Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States

Denise L. King,     Nutrition Coordinating Center, Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States

László Láng,     Agricultural Institute, Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Martonvásár, Hungary

Fujun Li,     Academy of State Administration of Grain, Beijing, China

Bill Magee,     Plant Biosecurity Cooperative Research Centre, Canberra, ACT, Australia

Diane Miskelly,     Westcott Consultants, Goulburn, NSW, Australia

Janet Pettit,     Nutrition Coordinating Center, Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States

Mariann Rakszegi,     Agricultural Institute, Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Martonvásár, Hungary

Yong Lin Ren,     School of Biological Science and Biotechnology, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia

Regine Schoenlechner,     Institute of Food Technology, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Natural Resources & Technology, Vienna, Austria

Dai Suter,     Pymble, NSW, Australia

John R.N. Taylor,     Institute for Food, Nutrition and Well-being and Department of Food Science, University of Pretoria, Hatfield, Pretoria, South Africa

Sándor Tömösközi,     Department of Applied Biotechnology and Food Sciences, BUTE, Budapest, Hungary

Surjani Uthayakumaran,     University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia

Colin Wrigley,     QAAFI, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD, Australia

Pamela Zwer,     South Australian Research & Development Institute, SARDI, Adelaide, SA, Australia

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Food chain integrity: A holistic approach to food traceability, safety, quality and authenticity

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Animal feed contamination: Effects on livestock and food safety

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Hygienic design of food factories

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Rice quality: A guide to rice properties and analysis

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Reducing saturated fats in foods

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Handbook of food proteins

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Lifetime nutritional influences on cognition, behaviour and psychiatric illness

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Food machinery for the production of cereal foods, snack foods and confectionery

L.-M. Cheng

Alcoholic beverages: Sensory evaluation and consumer research

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Extrusion problems solved: Food, pet food and feed

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Breadmaking: Improving quality Second edition

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Robotics and automation in the food industry: Current and future technologies

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Feed and feeding practices in aquaculture

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Foodborne parasites in the food supply web: Occurrence and control

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Specialty oils and fats in food and nutrition: Properties, processing and applications

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Emerging Technologies for Promoting Food Security: Overcoming the World Food Crisis

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Functional Dietary Lipids: Food Formulation, Consumer Issues and Innovation for Health

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Steamed Breads: Ingredients, Process and Quality

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Cereal Grains: Assessing and Managing Quality 2e

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Preface to the Second Edition

Grain-based foods are essential to our nutrient requirements, supplying a major part of our diet. Thus the assessment and management of grain quality is critical for our health and well-being.

Grains have always have been a dietary essential, even way back into the early days of pre-history when grain-growing was the reason for people to settle down in one place because they could sow seed and harvest grain. The consequence was civilisation—the opportunity given by grain-based agriculture for people to think beyond that day’s food supply.

In those days of subsistence farming, the harvested and stored grain was a familiar sight because milling and baking took place at home. In early English usage, the word ‘corn’ rather than ‘grain’ was used to refer to any of the grain species. For example, an early English measuring unit was the ‘barley corn’. Imagine literally lining up 30 grains of barley, end-to-end, to measure about 25 cm (10 in.) (See Appendix 2).

This generic use of ‘corn’ continues even today in Britain, where the English word ‘corn’ may mean any type of ‘grain’ especially ‘wheat’. But if we had entitled this book Cereal Corns there would be international confusion, because the word ‘corn’ crossed the Atlantic to be exclusively applied to the New World’s novel cereal, Zea mays, the cereal species that is known in many English-speaking countries as ‘corn’. So what title should we have given to Chapter 11? We called it ‘Corn’, but the specific word ‘maize’ often appears in this and other chapters.

Maize. The word ‘maize’ was originally Spanish, also coming from the botanical species name (mays), as well as from the word ‘mahiz’ in the Arawak language of Haiti. The settlers called it ‘Indian corn’. The name in French-speaking regions is maiz or blé d’Espagne or blé de Turquie or blé d’Inde. The name in Italy is granturco, probably transliterating into ‘Turkish grain’. From these origins, the grain species of maize (previously unrecognised by Europe) has grown in production volume to out-perform all other cereal species, with annual production exceeding a billion tonnes.

Wheat. Yet it is wheat (Triticum species) that attracts the greatest attention from the grain-quality viewpoint, because of its range of quality attributes and its unique food uses. Thus it is wheat that heads the list of species-specific chapters in this book, followed by the species most closely related to wheat. But wheat has experienced consumer backlash in recent decades due to the gluten-free trend. It is thus appropriate that some of the new chapters and text relate to this topic.

Rice. Rice (Oryza sativa) is a basic food source for about two-thirds of the world. Rice is thus one of the most important crops in the world. It has been grown in the tropics and sub-tropics probably for thousands of years.

All cereal grains. Production of the aforementioned ‘big three’ cereal species totals about 2.4 billion tonnes annually, accounting for most of the 2.8 billion tonnes for all cereal grains. This volume is so much greater than the 0.6 billion tonnes of the dicotyledonous grains (legumes and oilseeds). Yet each one of the range of grain species has a specific role to play in the utilisation avenues of food, feed, fuel and industrial applications. It is even some of the minor cereals that are attracting renewed interest, in some cases as replacements for the traditional species, such as wheat.

A second edition

The need to describe these ‘other’ grain species was a major factor prompting Woodhead to request a second edition of Cereal Grains. Thus, this edition has added chapters on durum wheat (Chapter 6), on triticale (Chapter 8) and on several ‘alternative’ species—ancient grains and pseudo-cereals (Chapter 14). Developments in the analysis and management of grain quality for the full range of species have prompted the need for updates of information throughout this edition.

The future

In the first edition, we noted the increasing power of consumer attitudes, preferences and eating habits to influence developments throughout the entire grain chain. Developing trends for ancient grains, whole grains, super-grains and gluten-free foods are expected to continue into the future. These developments must be assisted by application of new selection methods in breeding and management tools during production to ensure sustainability and the ability to adapt to future challenges.

Acknowledgements

In the production of this second edition, we have also appreciated the contributions of several experts who have acted as chapter reviewers, thereby ensuring authenticity. Essential contributions have been made by Woodhead editorial staff, especially Robert Sykes, Karen Miller, Josh Bennett and Julia Haynes. Thank you all.

Colin Wrigley

Ian Batey

Diane Miskelly

Preface to the First Edition

‘The proof is in the eating.’ So goes the old proverb, indicating that the customer is the final arbiter for assessing (getting the ‘proof’ of) the success of any venture, not least of all the production of a pudding, or of any other product resulting from the processing of grain—bread, beer or biofuel; cake, cookie or corn-on-the-cob; porridge, polenta or puff pastry; rice risotto or rye bread.

This proverb provides the underlying basis for this book. While getting proof or assessment of quality is inevitable for the final product from a process, the achievement of final success requires assessment throughout the process, coupled to suitable management of the process based on the results of the ongoing quality assessment.

Grain production and processing starts with the plant breeder producing genotypes (varieties) suited to the proposed end-use; the process continues through planting, on-farm management, harvesting, quality-based segregation, storage and transport, processing, packaging and retailing to the consumer who is the final arbiter, providing ‘proof in the eating’, either literally (for food) or figuratively (for the many non-food products from grains).

We trust that the advice provided in this book will find useful application with its readers, thereby assisting with the production and processing of cereal grains worldwide.

We gratefully acknowledge the contributions of many people to the production of this book. Dr. Ferenc Bekes was deeply involved in the initial stages of planning the contents, the chapters and potential authors, as well as making contact with authors. We were sorry when Ferenc had to withdraw from acting as an editor largely due to health reasons, but his input has been invaluable.

We have also appreciated the contributions of several experts who have acted as chapter reviewers, thereby adding their expertise to that of the chapter authors. Reviewers included Drs. Wal Anderson, Scott Bean, Ferenc Bekes, Bob Cracknell, Ray Hare, Ailsa Hocking, Pekka Lehtinen, Finlay MacRitchie, Laura Nystrom, Russell Reinke, Sophie Roumeliotis, Marc Savard, Siri Siriamornpun, Mike Sissons, Peter Stone, John Taylor, Surjani Uthayakumaran and Chuck Walker.

Several members of the editorial staff of Woodhead Publishers have made valuable contributions: Beatrice Bertram, Francis Dodds, Bonnie Drury, Mandy Kingsmill, Aidan Russell and Sarah Whitworth.

The old proverb about ‘the proof of the eating’ is also relevant to the production of a book: its success lies in the reading and application of its advice.

Colin Wrigley

Ian Batey

Part I

Cereal-Grain Quality

Chapter 1: Assessing and Managing Quality at all Stages of the Grain Chain

Chapter 2: The Cereal Grains: Providing our Food, Feed and Fuel Needs

Chapter 3: The Diversity of Uses for Cereal Grains

Chapter 4: Cereal-Grain Morphology and Composition

Chapter 1

Assessing and Managing Quality at all Stages of the Grain Chain

Colin Wrigley    QAAFI, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD, Australia

Abstract

Many familiar items in our lives are all derived from the cereal grains—both food and non-food products. The major cereal species are maize (corn), wheat and rice; others include barley, rye, triticale, oats and sorghum. The production of cereal grains is equivalent to 1 kg of grain per day for each person on earth. The route from their breeding, through production and processing to us, as consumers, is the grain chain. Quality control throughout this chain of events involves testing for grain and product quality, and using the results to manage ongoing quality attributes. These themes are expanded throughout this book.

Keywords

breeding

growth environment

harvesting

storage

milling

baking

value addition

consumer

1.1. Introduction

Where do these good things come from? Your breakfast cereal and toast (or did you have oatmeal porridge?); your lunch of bread roll, Danish pastry and beer; the sugar in your afternoon soft drink; the pasta and rice risotto that you had for dinner; the ethanol in your car’s fuel; the smooth starch-based finish on that paper. Where did they come from? These and many more familiar items in our lives are all derived from the cereal grains (see Chapters 3 and 24). Add to these meat, milk and eggs, which largely come from grain-based feeds for animals and poultry.

Our everyday view of cereal-based products appears in the lower half of the sequence in Table 1.1, which summarises the grain chain—the chain of events from plant breeder to us, the final consumers. This sequence is similar for each of the cereal-grain species, extending from breeding, through on-farm production and harvesting, via various types of processing, to the multitude of products that reach us as consumers, both directly and indirectly, via both food and non-food products. The cereal grains are essential to the human diet, despite the distinctive variations from culture to culture and from region to region. Without the many contributions of the cereal grains to non-food products, our lives would be different.

Table 1.1

Products and Issues Associated with the Various Stages of the Grain Chain

The ‘big three’ cereal species are maize (corn), wheat and rice, accounting respectively for over 1,000, 700 and 700 million tonnes of grain each year (Table 1.2). Less in volume but still significant are other cereal species: barley, rye, triticale, oats, sorghum, the millets (only one example is given in Table 1.2) and the pseudocereals (classed as cereals by the Food and Agriculture Organisation). Average grain yields vary considerably from one grain species to another (Table 1.2). The grain characteristics of the range of cereal species are described in Chapters 5 to 14 (Part II).

Table 1.2

World-Wide Production and Yields in 2014 of Cereal Grains, Plus the Relevant Chapters in this Book for Each Species

Source: faostat3.fao.org.

a Pseudocereals, but included with the true cereals in FAO statistics

The cereal grains are classed as grasses (monocotyledons, flowering plants) and are distinct from the dicotyledonous legumes and oilseeds, whose volume of production is rather smaller than that of the cereal family (see Chapter 2).

Production of all the cereal grains in total (2,800 million tonnes in 2014, Table 1.2) is equivalent to 1 kg of grain per day for each person on earth! However, significant parts of grain production are used as animal feed and for industrial purposes. In addition, the major regions of production are distant from many of the needy, who may lack the resources to obtain the needed grain.

1.2. The creation of products from the cereal grains

The contributions of cereal-based products are seen, in Table 1.1, to start with the young plants, which can be valuable forage for stock, the partly eaten plants then being allowed to mature and produce grain. After harvesting, the standing stubble and the straw also constitute fodder for ruminant animals.

In addition, the straw remaining after harvesting the grain can be used for fibre-based building materials, such as particle board. This approach is only a part of the grander scheme of whole-plant utilisation described by Munck (2016), whereby local factories make use of all parts of the mature plants, not only the grain. Furthermore, the lignocellulose straw residues show modest promise to become a raw material for the production of renewable fuel (Guragain et al., 2016).

The range of cereal-based products in Table 1.1 can be summarised as the following list of ‘F-based’ products, including food, feed, fuel, fats and fluids.

Food. Grains directly supply over half of humanity’s dietary energy and protein. In many cases, they are consumed as the whole grain. An obvious example is rice, which after milling to remove the bran layers is boiled or fried; other rice-grain uses include sake and extruded snack foods (Pallas, 2016). Barley is also consumed as the whole grain after pearling to remove the outer layers (Izydorczyk and Dexter, 2016).

Feed. Animal feed includes the full range of cereal grains (Black, 2016), often after crushing the grain and pelletising, to permit the incorporation of other minor nutrients.

Forage and fodder. Ruminant animals feed on the straw remaining after harvest, as well as foraging the early plant growth.

Fuel. Maize and wheat grains are used for producing bioethanol after fermentation of the starch and de-watering of the resulting ethanol (Guragain et al., 2016).

Fats. The germ tissue of the cereal grains is a rich source of oil.

Fermentation. Virtually all species of cereals are used for fermentation into beer and for the production of distilled spirits. Other beverages include the use of roasted grain for ersatz coffee.

Flour. Dry milling is the usual means of separating the endosperm from the whole grain for crushing into a fine powder, mainly for wheat (Sarkar and Dexter, 2016) and maize (Rausch and Eckhoff, 2016a). Wet milling is also used for these cereals, especially prior to separating the starch and protein fractions (Rausch and Eckhoff, 2016b; Velicogna and Shea Miller, 2016).

Flour, mixed and baked (or dried or boiled). This is the basis of the wide range of foods such as bread, cookies, cakes, breakfast cereals, tortillas, porridge, pasta, noodles and many more.

1.3. Grain quality

For each of the many uses of the cereal grains there are specific grain-quality requirements. The task of meeting these quality specifications is the theme of this book. This task requires the combined use of analytical methods to assess progress towards these specifications plus management to ensure that the specifications continue to be met throughout the grain chain to achieve consumer satisfaction.

What is meant by ‘grain quality’? Just as ‘Beauty is in the eye of the beholder’, as the old saying goes, so also the assessment of grain quality depends on the needs of the grain user. Those needs are likely to involve different combinations of attributes, depending on the purpose for which the grain is being bought and used. Accordingly, the price that will be paid is determined by the quality—the suitability of the grain for the processor-customer’s purposes.

In addition, the term ‘quality’ has different significance, depending on the stage being considered along the ‘grain chain’—the continuum from breeding, through growing and management of the crop, to harvesting, segregation, storage and transport, to processing and final consumption (Table 1.1).

Effective management of grain quality along the consumption chain is thus essential to the satisfaction of all customers—the ‘customer’ being the next step along the grain chain, the ultimate customer being the retail consumer.

The degree of satisfaction is obviously related very closely to the price that will be paid at each stage of the value-added chain. Effective assessment of grain quality provides critical knowledge about the defects and advantages of the grain involved. The ‘grain involved’ may be thousands of tonnes in the hold of an ocean-going bulk-grain ship, or it may be a few grains being nurtured by a breeder as the basis for selecting a revolutionary new genotype. What happens to the grain after analysis depends largely on the analytical results. Thus, effective management of grain production and processing depends on effective analysis.

1.4. The grain chain

The value-addition chain for grain has been dubbed ‘field to fork’ (Dixon, 2007). The many transactions involved are summarised in Table 1.1. This sequence of events is reflected in the order of the assessment-management-processing chapters in this book (Parts III and IV, Chapters 15–24). The increase in value from harvest to retail can be seen, as depicted in Figs 1.1 and 1.2, by comparing the cost of a handful of wheat grain (say, 100 g, with a value of about two cents on a per-tonne basis) with the cost (two US dollars) of a glossy Danish pastry, containing the flour yielded by 100 g of grain, namely, 100-fold value increase.

Figure 1.1   An illustration of value addition as a result of the operation of the grain chain.

This small amount of wheat grain (costing a few cents) is all that is needed to produce the flour for one of the pastries in Fig.1.2, selling for a few dollars.

Figure 1.2   An illustration of value addition as a result of the operation of the grain chain.

One of these pastries, selling for a few dollars, can be made from the small amount of wheat grain (costing a few cents) in Fig.1.1.

1.4.1. Breeding

Despite the term ‘chain’, the linear sequences of Table 1.1 can be seen as a circle, starting and ending with the consumer, who must be the motivating force setting the grain-quality agenda for the breeder, who is otherwise at the top of the sequence of events that lead back ultimately to the consumer. That consumer may be represented by an export market in a country far from the breeder, who must become familiar with the grain-quality needs of processors in that market. The breeder is also responsible for the development of new varieties that suit the needs of the immediate customer—the grain grower who has specific agronomic requirements that will optimise grain yields, plus grain-quality needs that will ensure premium payments for the harvested grain.

The breeder’s opportunities to deliver these requirements are primarily limited to genetic potential. The ways in which that potential is expressed are dependent upon the vagaries of the growth conditions and farm-management practices. There is thus an interaction (G × E) between genotype (G, variety) and growth environment (E). Nevertheless, the breeder has significant opportunity to build-in genetic tolerance to various threats to quality loss, such as resistance to premature sprouting due to rain at harvest. Issues relevant to the breeding stage are described in Chapter 16.

1.4.2. Grain Growing

Beyond the breeder are the seed producers and grain growers. Initial assessment for them is the assurance that the seed being traded and sown is the correct variety and that the consignment is free of contaminating weed seeds and of seed-borne diseases. On-farm management of grain quality for the grower is interactive with grain yield, because of the need to maximise financial returns, represented by the combination of grain volume and market value. Thus management (M) of grain growing by the farmer adds to the interaction between genotype (G, variety) and growth environment (E) to provide the combination of three factors: (G × E × M). See Chapter 18 for the effects of growth conditions on grain quality. See Appendix 2 for information about the units used in the grains industry, especially for transferring between the units systems of metrics, USA and China.

1.4.3. Grain Receival

Beyond the farm gate is the critical stage of assessing the many aspects of grain quality that will determine the price to be paid to the grower. This assessment of quality (Chapters 4, 17 and 19) also determines the manner of segregation of the grain delivery, thereby ensuring that it is combined with grain of similar quality type. In many grain-growing regions, harvested grain is delivered directly from a regional storage structure, known as a ‘country elevator’ in northern America or a ‘silo’ in Australia (Figs 1.3 and 1.4).

Figure 1.3   Grain storage structures typical of Canada.

Figure 1.4   Grain storage structures typical of Australia.

Beyond this stage, there is the need to preserve the value of the aggregated grain that has been assessed to be of a specific quality, by storing and transporting it with its quality type preserved (Chapter 20).

1.4.4. Whole-Grain Processing

Suitability for processing is a basic factor determining quality-based segregation and management. Unless identity preservation can be assumed, quality assessment may again be a priority when the grain arrives at the flour mill, malt house, feed mill or other form of processing factory. The knowledge thus obtained will determine how a specific grain shipment will be stored, utilised and managed in the sequence of events leading to the product that is offered for final sale to the consumer.

If incoming grain is not of adequate quality, there is yet the possibility of adjusting processing methods to compensate for the inadequacies. That possibility introduces the further factor of Processing method (P) to add to the factors of Genotype (G), growth Environment (E) and on-farm management (M), to give the combination G × E × M × P. However, the processor would rather not have to make adjustment to the process as that is likely to add to costs.

The grain-chain sequence to the

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