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Porsche 356 Owners Workshop Manual 1957-1965

Porsche 356 Owners Workshop Manual 1957-1965

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Porsche 356 Owners Workshop Manual 1957-1965

évaluations:
5/5 (1 évaluation)
Longueur:
517 pages
3 heures
Sortie:
Aug 8, 2014
ISBN:
9781910700143
Format:
Livre

Description

This do it yourself workshop manual has been specially written for the owner who wishes to maintain his vehicle & carry out the bulk of his own servicing & repairs. There are step by step instructions & many illustrations are given of most dismantling, overhauling & assembling operations. Covers the 356A, 356B & 356C. Sb.

Sortie:
Aug 8, 2014
ISBN:
9781910700143
Format:
Livre

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Porsche 356 Owners Workshop Manual 1957-1965 - Trade Trade

1980.

CHAPTER 1

THE ENGINE

1:1 General description

1:2 Routine maintenance

1:3 Overhauling methods

1:4 Removing and installing engine

1:5 Dismantling engine

1:6 Servicing crankcase, crankshaft and flywheel

1:7 Camshaft, tappets and timing gear

1:8 Connecting rods, pistons, cylinders

1:9 Cylinder heads and valve gear

1:10 Lubricating system and timing cover

1:11 Distributor drive shaft

1:12 Reassembling and testing engine

1:13 Fault diagnosis

1:1 General description

Dr. Ferdinand Porsche designed both the Volkswagen ’Beetle’ engine and the engine fitted to Porsche sports cars, so that it is not surprising that they closely resemble each other. Basically they are air-cooled flat-four engines with overhead valves operated by pushrods and a single gear-driven camshaft.

This manual starts with cars made after September 1957 because that date saw the abandonment of the roller-bearing crankshaft from the ’S’ range of engines. From then on, the engine has remained virtually unchanged apart from refinement in design and a steady increase in power output. For dimensions, compression ratios and other technical information, refer to Technical Data at the end of this manual.

Two sectioned views of a typical engine are given in FIGS 1:1 and 1:2. The crankcase is split vertically on the centre line (see 37 in FIG 1:1) and bolted to the rear face is a timing cover 32 which carries the oil pump 34 and No. 4 crankshaft bearing 38 (see FIG 1:2).

On each side of the crankcase are a pair of finned cylinders 11 carrying a common aluminium head for each pair (see FIG 1:1). Valve seats, guides and sparking plug bosses are pressed or screwed into the heads. A single camshaft 33 operates tappets 30, pushrods 26 and rockers 21.

The light-alloy pistons 27 carry compression rings, an oil control ring and a fully-floating gudgeon pin 28. The connecting rods 29 have bushed small-ends and renewable liners in the big-ends. The hardened crankshaft 31 runs in four main bearings which may be bushes or renewable liners according to their position and the engine type. The arrangement can be seen in FIG 1:2. Also in this view is the flywheel 2 which is retained on the front end of the crankshaft by hollow bolt 1. The rear end of the shaft carries the drive gear 36 for the camshaft, drive gear 37 for the distributor and pulley 17 for the belt drive to generator 12.

Fan 7 is mounted at the front end of the generator shaft and provides cooling air for the engine and also heated air for the car interior if required.

A gear-type oil pump 34 is driven by the camshaft. When the lubricating oil is cold it bypasses oil cooler 7 (see FIG 1:1). As the oil heats up, a valve opens to allow the oil to pass through the cooler before it reaches the bearings. The cooler is in the path of cold air from the fan and effectively reduces the temperature of the hot oil.

FIG 1:1 Transverse section of 1600 engine. All other models are basically similar

Key to Fig 1:1

1 Throttle lever

2 Air filter

3 Dual throat downdraught carburetter

4 Inlet manifold

5 Side coverplate, vertical

6 Fan housing

7 Oil cooler

8 Passage from oil cooler to crankcase

9 Blower impeller

10 Generator shaft

11 Cylinder

12 Cylinder coverplate

13 Sparkplug

14 Throttle linkage

15 Fuel line

16 Throttle connecting link

17 Spark plug terminal

18 Exhaust rocker arm spindle

19 Coverplate

20 Rocker box cover

21 Inlet valve rocker

22 Valve adjusting screw

23 Inlet rocker arm spindle

24 Valve spring

25 Inlet valve

26 Pushrod

27 Piston

28 Gudgeon pin

29 Connecting rod

30 Tappet

31 Crankshaft

32 Magnetic oil filter

33 Camshaft

34 Oil strainer

35 Oil suction pipe

36 Oil sump

37 Crankcase

38 Pushrod tube

39 Lower air guide (heat exchanger)

40 Exhaust pipe

41 Exhaust port

42 Heater junction box

1:2 Routine maintenance

Refer to the respective chapters for maintenance instructions on the fuel pump, the distributor, the starter and generator, and the carburetters.

Oil changes:

During the running-in period of an engine which has been rebuilt, change the lubricating oil at 500, 1500 and 3000 miles. Normal engine oil changes are made at 3000 mile intervals unless the car is used in extremely arduous conditions. Use HD oil of SAE.30 grade in summer and SAE.20 grade in winter (see appended note). FIG 1:3 shows the sump strainer and magnetic filter which should be cleaned when the oil is changed. Remove cover 5 (ten nuts). Clean strainer 3 with a brush and some fuel. Remove old gasket material from all flanges and wipe steel particles from the magnetic filter attached to the coverplate. Check that the cover flange is flat.

Reassemble with new gaskets, taking care that the oil suction pipe is correctly located in the strainer. Do not overtighten the nuts or the cover flange may be distorted. The drain plug is part 1.

Note that the 1600 S.90 coverplate is fitted with a centrifugal valve to ensure an adequate supply of oil to the pump when cornering at high speeds (see FIG 1:23).

Oil filter:

Every 6000 miles, change the oil filter element. The old element cannot be cleaned. Change more frequently if the engine is worn or road conditions are very dusty. Filter location can be seen in FIG 1:4. When refitting the cover make sure the gasket is sound and not trapped in any way. After changing a filter element, check for leaks by running the engine. Then check the oil level and top-up, running the engine again and making a final check on the level.

FIG 1:2 Longitudinal section of 1600 engine. All other models are basically similar

Key to Fig 1:2

1 Gland nut

2 Flywheel

3 Oil seal

4 Air guide plate

5 Cooling air inlet

6 Engine compartment heater thermostat

7 Blower impeller

8 Fan housing

9 Air filter

10 Engine compartment heater control linkage

11 Oil filler cap

12 Generator

13 Generator bracket

14 Small V-belt pulley

15 V-belt tension adjusting spacers

16 V-belt

17 Large V-belt pulley

18 Air guide duct for engine compartment heating

19 Engine compartment heater control lever

20 Heater junction box (heat exchanger)

21 Main bearing journal No. 1

22 Camshaft end plug

23 Piston and cylinder

24 Main bearing journal No. 2

25 Camshaft

26 Connecting rod bearing cap

27 Magnetic oil filter

28 Main bearing journal No. 3

29 Oil strainer

30 Oil suction pipe

31 Camshaft timing gear

32 Timing case cover

33 Lower air guide (heat exchanger)

34 Gear oil pump

35 Tachometer drive pinion

36 Timing pinion

37 Distributor drive pinion

38 Main bearing No. 4

39 Silencer

Note that the oil recommendations are different for the 1600S and 1 600S.90 engines. In these, use HD oil as for diesel engines. This is also recommended for 1 600 engines which are used for competition work

Fan belt tension:

Every 3000 miles, check the belt tension. When correctly adjusted the belt can be deflected about ⅝ inch midway between the pulleys, using light thumb pressure. Renew the belt if it is oily or beginning to break up. Adjustment is made by altering the number of spacers between the generator pulley flanges.

To adjust belt tension, refer to FIG 1:2 and remove the nut from pulley 14. Hold the pulley by inserting a screwdriver in the slot in the inner flange and using a generator bolt as an abutment. Take off spacers and outer flange. Note spacers between flanges. Remove to tighten belt and add to pack to loosen. Any which are removed must be transferred to the outside of the outer flange. Refit parts, tighten nut to 72 lb ft and check belt tension. The belt must not ride on the spacers, nor reach the top of the flanges but must be about halfway up the flange faces.

If a new belt is fitted it will probably stretch after a short run, so check the tension again. Never try to lever a belt over the pulley flanges.

Valve clearance:

Adjusting the valve clearance is covered in Section 1:9.

FIG 1:3 Components of oil strainer in base of crankcase. Oil pump suction pipe picks up oil from inside strainer. All models except S.90

Key to Fig 1:3

1 Crankcase drain plug

2 Gasket

3 Oil strainer

4 Gasket

5 Coverplate with magnetic filter

6 Flat washer

7 Lockwasher

8 Nut

1:3 Overhauling methods

To ensure that operations are tackled in the best way, we suggest that a few minutes spent in reading ’Hints on Maintenance and Overhaul’ at the end of this manual will be time well spent. It will also be useful to repeat what has been pointed out in the ’Introduction’ to this manual, in case it has been missed. This is to the effect that locations of parts which are called ’righthand’ or ’lefthand’ are as if viewed from behind the car and looking forward.

For technical information, refer to the Appendix at the end of the manual. This also includes a ’Glossary of of Terms’ which may be useful in explaining the meaning of possibly unfamiliar expressions.

Most of the external parts of the engine will be reasonably accessible whilst it is in the car. It must be stressed however, that many operations are greatly facilitated with the engine removed. This is not a difficult job for two people, and even one person can manage it using a trolley jack and some care. There is, of course, no chance of working on the crankshaft and associated parts without removal of the engine, as there is no sump in the normal sense of the word. The following instructions are for working on the engine when it is on the bench. It will be obvious which of them can be tackled without removing the engine from the car, but the point will be made when it seems advisable.

Due to many variations in design it is essential to check all spare parts to ensure that they are of the correct type. Special tuning by a previous owner may have led to the installation of non-standard parts and due allowance must be made for this. As an example, light alloy pushrods require different valve clearances than those for steel pushrods.

1:4 Removing and installing engine

The engine is relatively light and removal is comfortably within the powers of two people. The rear end of the car must be raised about two feet and it is essential that firm supports are fitted so that any force which may be needed will not lead to collapse of the car and possible injury.

Removing:

1 Disconnect battery. Close fuel tap. Slacken clamp on long inclined heater rod on righthand side and disconnect linkage. Remove the rear coverplate.

2 Disconnect leads from ignition coil, oil temperature sender unit, the green one from the oil pressure sender unit and the three generator leads, which are black (DF), red (D+) and yellow-white (D—) respectively.

3 Disconnect the ball joint in the throttle linkage at the fan housing. Raise the rear end of the car and support it firmly. Remove both heater flap cables. Disconnect heater linkage and loosen flexible heater pipes from engine.

4 Loosen exhaust pipe clamps and remove elbow pipes from silencer.

5 Disconnect fuel hose. Disconnect tachometer drive cable from oil pump cover. Working under car, remove both nuts from flange joining engine to transmission. Take the weight of the engine on a trolley jack but do not lift. With an assistant holding the upper bolts, release the engine from the transmission by removing the remaining two nuts.

6 Rock the engine slightly to break the joint and pull the engine to the rear until the mainshaft clears the clutch plate. Do this with care, keeping the engine centrally aligned with the transmission all the

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