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## Informations sur le livre

# Power Electronics: Drive Technology and Motion Control

## Actions du livre

Commencer à lire- Éditeur:
- Academic Press
- Sortie:
- Sep 18, 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780128146422
- Format:
- Livre

## Description

*Power Electronics: Drive Technology and Motion Control* explores the principles and practices of power electronics, emphasizing drive technology and motion control. The book covers the fundamentals of electric machine transformers, drive systems, electric traction and renewable energy in an e-Mobility chapter. Supported with illustrations and worked examples, the book covers theory, real life applications, and practical/industrial applications of power electronic drive technology and motion control. This book is intended for engineers, researchers and students who are interested in advanced control of power converters and control specialists who like to explore new applications of control theory.

Electronic power control is a coupling of electronic technology and applications from power engineering which rely on one another to provide cleaner electrical power, increased speed, reliability of power and accurate and efficient control of power.

Includes illustrated diagrams to cover up-to-date industry applications Features in-depth worked examples to enhance understanding of power electronics theory and related practical applications Covers the fundamentals of electric machine transformers, drive systems, electric traction and renewable energy in an e-Mobility chapter## Informations sur le livre

# Power Electronics: Drive Technology and Motion Control

## Description

*Power Electronics: Drive Technology and Motion Control* explores the principles and practices of power electronics, emphasizing drive technology and motion control. The book covers the fundamentals of electric machine transformers, drive systems, electric traction and renewable energy in an e-Mobility chapter. Supported with illustrations and worked examples, the book covers theory, real life applications, and practical/industrial applications of power electronic drive technology and motion control. This book is intended for engineers, researchers and students who are interested in advanced control of power converters and control specialists who like to explore new applications of control theory.

Electronic power control is a coupling of electronic technology and applications from power engineering which rely on one another to provide cleaner electrical power, increased speed, reliability of power and accurate and efficient control of power.

Includes illustrated diagrams to cover up-to-date industry applications Features in-depth worked examples to enhance understanding of power electronics theory and related practical applications Covers the fundamentals of electric machine transformers, drive systems, electric traction and renewable energy in an e-Mobility chapter- Éditeur:
- Academic Press
- Sortie:
- Sep 18, 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780128146422
- Format:
- Livre

## À propos de l'auteur

## En rapport avec Power Electronics

## Aperçu du livre

### Power Electronics - Jean Pollefliet

**Power Electronics **

**Drive Technology and Motion Control **

Jean Pollefliet

VOLUME 2 :

**Table of Contents **

**Cover image **

**Title page **

**Copyright **

**Dedication **

**Preface **

**Principal Symbols **

**16: Electric Machines **

**Abstract **

**16.1 Transformers **

**1.1 Transformer at no load **

**1.2 Transformer with load **

**1.3 Transformer vector diagram **

**1.4 Impedance transformation **

**1.5 Magnetizing inductance **

**1.6 Leakage inductance **

**1.7 Energy losses **

**1.8 Equivalent diagram **

**1.9 No-load and short circuit test **

**1.10 Nominal values of a transformer **

**1.11 Three-phase transformers **

**1.12 Transformer types **

**16.2 DC Commutator Machines **

**2.1 DC Generator **

**2.2 DC Motor **

**16.3 Three-Phase Asynchronous Motor **

**3.1 Rotating stator field **

**3.2 Three-phase induction motor **

**3.3 M-n curve of an induction motor **

**3.4 Starting current of induction motor **

**3.5 Displacement factor of an induction motor **

**3.6 Power diagram **

**3.7 Construction of induction motors **

**3.8 Motor terminals **

**3.9 Speed and torque control **

**3.10 Simple mathematical model of an induction motor **

**16.4 Synchronous Machines **

**4.1 Synchronous three-phase machine **

**4.2 Electronically controlled synchronous motors **

**16.5 Small Appliance Motors **

**5.1 Single phase induction motor **

**5.2 Universal motor **

**17: Drive Systems **

**Abstract **

**1 History **

**2 Control Theory **

**3 Types of Drive Systems **

**4 Electronic Drive Technology **

**5 Useful Mechanical Formulas **

**6 Moment and Power of a Motor **

**7 Run Down Test to Determine the Inertia of a Drive System **

**8 Numeric Examples **

**18: Current -, Angular Position -, Speed Transducers **

**Abstract **

**1 Current Sensors **

**2 Angular Position Sensors (Shaft Angle Transducer)- (2.7) Speed Sensors **

**19: Speed- and (or) Torque-Control of a DC-motor **

**Abstract **

**A DC-MOTOR supplied from an AC POWER GRID **

**1 Control of an Independently Excited Motor **

**2 M-n CURVES **

**3 Controlled Single Quadrant Drive **

**4 Two Quadrant and Four Quadrant Operation **

**B DC-MOTOR supplied from a DC SOURCE **

**8 Chopper Controlled Drive **

**9 Chopper Control of a Series Motor **

**20: Speed- and (or) Torque- Control of THREE-PHASE Asynchronous Motor **

**Abstract **

**1 Three-Phase Asynchronous Motor **

**2 Electronic Control of an Induction Motor **

**3 Scalar Control of Induction Motor Speed **

**4 Slip Control **

**5 Scalar Frequency Converters **

**6 Indirect Frequency Converter of the VSI-Type **

**7 Vector Control **

**8 Micro Electronics in Power Electronics **

**9 Soft-Starters **

**10 Indirect Frequency Converter with Current Source Inverter (CSI) **

**21: Electronic control of: Appliance- / SR- / Synchronous 3-phase- / & Induction servo-Motors **

**Abstract **

**1 Appliance Motors **

**2 Switched Reluctance Motor **

**3 Synchronous Reluctance Motor **

**4 Synchronous AC-Motor **

**5 Asynchronous Induction Servomotor **

**22: Electrical Positioning Systems **

**Abstract **

**1 Servomechanisms **

**2 Electrical Positioning Systems. Definitions **

**3 Position Control with a DC-Servomotor **

**4 Position Control with Brushless DC-Motor **

**5 Position Control with Stepper Motor **

**6 Position Control with AC-Servomotor **

**7 Position Control with Linear Motor **

**8 Computer Controlled Stand Alone Position System **

**9 Integrated System (Simotion from Siemens) **

**23: e - MOBILITY **

**Abstract **

**1 Renewable Energy **

**2 Electrical Traction **

**3 Electric Automobile **

**4 Electric Boats **

**5 Electric Bicycles **

**Vocabulary **

**Index **

**Copyright **

Academic Press is an imprint of Elsevier

125 London Wall, London EC2Y 5AS, United Kingdom

525 B Street, Suite 1800, San Diego, CA 92101-4495, United States

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The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford OX5 1GB, United Kingdom

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Details on how to seek permission, further information about the Publisher's permissions policies and our arrangements with organizations such as the Copyright Clearance Center and the Copyright Licensing Agency, can be found at our website: **www.elsevier.com/permissions. **

This book and the individual contributions contained in it are protected under copyright by the Publisher (other than as may be noted herein).

**Notices **

Knowledge and best practice in this field are constantly changing. As new research and experience broaden our understanding, changes in research methods, professional practices, or medical treatment may become necessary.

Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and knowledge in evaluating and using any information, methods, compounds, or experiments described herein. In using such information or methods they should be mindful of their own safety and the safety of others, including parties for whom they have a professional responsibility.

To the fullest extent of the law, neither the Publisher nor the authors, contributors, or editors, assume any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions, or ideas contained in the material herein.

**British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data **

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

**Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data **

A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress

ISBN 978-0-12-814641-5

For information on all Academic Press Publications visit our website at **https://www.elsevier.com **

*Publisher: *Katie Hammon

*Acquisition Editor: *Lisa Reading

*Editorial Project Manager: *Natasha Welford

*Production Project Manager: *Mohana Priyan Rajendran

*Designer: *Jean Pollefliet (lay-out, illustrations, cover) and Mark Rogers

Typeset by SPi Global, India

**Dedication **

*To my wife Gilberte *

**Preface **

Our Dutch textbook Electronic Power Control

first appeared in 1986 and has reached the eighth edition. The present book Power Electronics

is the translated version of this eighth edition.

Every edition saw continuous updating rearranging as well as addition of material and chapters. At the same time attention was also paid to the didactic aspects. This is not just important for students but also for the large group of people who use the book for self study.

New in the eighth edition was a brief study of standing waves in transmission lines, of importance for a longue line between frequency converter and three phase motor. Also new was an introduction to the principles of 3-level inverters and the study of the synchronous reluctance motor.

In this edition we continue to use the tradition of white and green pages. The green pages contain the mathematical derivations which in the first case are not necessary for studying the electronics. Once a sufficiently high level and the desire for specialist knowledge the reader can choose to make use of the green pages without disturbing the continuity of the study.

To mention a few numerical details, this book contains more than seven hundred figures, a hundred photos and more than fifty fully worked problems.

The purpose of the book is to explain the principles and applications of power electronics. Electronic switches and converters are studied in volume 1 and drive technology and motion control are dealt with in volume 2.

The largest part of this book is distilled from more than 40 years of lessons, talks and projects. The most important source of information is my students, especially the few hundred of whom I was the mentor I guided during their thesis for Master of Applied Engineering Sciences.

These I quided in wich I remain thankful and indebted to them.

To Lisa Reading and Nathasa Welford of Elsevier I wish to express my thanks for the pleasant cooperation.

I would also like to thank Prof. dr. ir. Bernard Baeyens of the Ibague University (Colombia) for correcting and improving the Spanish technical vocabulary.

Last but not least, we have to thank a number of manufacturers for their support in providing photos and data of their products.

In conclusion we wish the readers of this book a fruitful study.

Oostende, Belgium, September 2017

**Jean.Pollefliet@telenet.be **

With thanks for the cover photos:

© Photo IBA: scanner Proteus ® PLUS with HEIDENHAIN encoders (p. **18.26) **

© LEM: isolated current and voltage measurement in the industry (p. **17.24) **

© Maxon Motor: Mars Rover with 39 Maxonmotors (p. **20.34) **

© Siemens: paper rolling machine (p. **19.45) **

**Principal Symbols **

*α *

*α*

*transistor current gain *

*α *

*α*

*firing angle thyristor *(rad)

*β *

*β*

*conduction angle thyristor *(rad)

*B *

*B*

*magnetic flux density *(T = Wb/m²)

*AC *

*AC*

*alternating current *

*DC *

*DC*

*direct current *

*δ *

*δ*

*duty ratio *(%)

*e *

*e*

*instantaneous e.m.f *(V)

*E *

*E*

*RMS-value elektromotive force (e.m.f.) *(V) */ DC-e.m.f. *(V)

*E *

*E*

*electric field intensity *(V/m)

*Eon, Eoff * *energy dissipation during transistor switching on and off respectively *(J)

*f *

*f*

*frequency *(Hz)

*Φ *

*Φ*

*flux per pole DC- machine / rotating air gap flux induction motor *(Wb)

*ΦS1 *

*ΦS1*

*flux one stator winding of an induction motor *(Wb)

*gfs *

*gfs*

*transconductance *(Siemens / mho)

*gm *

*gm*

*transconductance coefficient *(Siemens / mho)

*H *

*H*

*magnetic field intensity *(A/m)

*hFE *

*hFE*

*current gain common emitter connection *

*i/î *

*i/î*

*instantaneous current *(A) / *peak value of sinusoidal current *(A)

*i0 / I0 * *output current of A circuit *(A)

*i μ *

*i μ*

*magnetizing current *(A)

*î μ *

*î μ*

*peak value of magnetizing current *(A)

*IAV *

*IAV*

*average value of a semiconductor current *(A)

*IRMS/I * *r*.*m.s. value of current *(A) / *DC-current *(A)

*J *

*J*

*(polar) moment of inertia *(kgm²)

*Lb *

*Lb*

*load self inductance *

*Lo *

*Lo*

*magnetizing inductance (transformer / induction motor) *(H)

*Laplace transform *

*μ0 *

*μ0*

*permeability of free space (4.π. 10- 7 *H/m)

*μr *

*μr*

*relative permeability *

*M *

*M*

*momentum (of torque) *(Nm)

*Mem *

*Mem*

*electromagnetic momentum(of torque) *(Nm)

*MJ *

*MJ*

*accelerating or decelerating momentum (of torque) due to inertia *(Nm)

*Mmax = Mpo * *peak value momentum (of torque) induction motor *(Nm)

*Mt *

*Mt*

*total momentum of load torque (mechanical load ML + static friction torque MF + windage torques Mw …) *(Nm)

*R μ *

*R μ*

*reluctance *(A/Wb)

*F μ *

*F μ*

*magnetomotive force (m.m.f.) *(Aw)

*NSe *

*NSe*

*equivalent sinusoidal (stator) winding induction motor *

*n *

*n*

*motor speed *(r.p.m. or rad/s)

*nS *

*nS*

*synchronous speed (rotating stator field) induction motor *(r.p.m.)

*nR *

*nR*

*speed rotating rotor field induction motor *(r.p.m.)

*η *

*η*

*efficiency of operation *(%)

*P *

*P*

*DC-power *(W) */ average power *(W)

*Pe *

*Pe*

*eddy current loss density *(W/m³)

*Ph *

*Ph*

*hysteresis loss density *(W/m³)

*p *

*p*

*number of pole pairs DC-machine *

*p *

*p*

*number of pole pairs stator winding induction motor *

*σR.L0 * *leakage inductance rotor induction motor *

*σS.L0 * *leakage inductance stator induction motor *

*Rb *

*Rb*

*load resistance *

*s *

*s*

*Laplace operator *

*T *

*T*

*time period *(s)

*T *

*T*

*temperature *(°C ; K)

*ton *

*ton*

*time to switch on a power semiconductor (switch) *(μs; ns)

*toff *

*toff*

*time to switch off a power semiconductor (switch) *(μs; ns)

*tON *

*tON*

*time that the power semiconductor is conducting (ON-state) *(μs; ms)

*tOFF *

*tOFF*

*time that the power semiconductor is blocking (OFF-state) *(μs; ms)

*td *

*td*

*delay time (to switch a transistor on) *(μs; ns)

*tf *

*tf*

*fall time during switching off transistor *(μs; ns)

*tr *

*tr*

*rise time during switching on transistor *(μs; ns)

*ts *

*ts*

*storage time (to build off the space charge in a BJT) *(μs; ns)

*τ *

*τ*

*time constant *(s)

*ν *

*ν*

*instantaneous voltage *(V)

*ν0 / V0 * *output voltage of a circuit *(V)

*νs / Vs * *supply voltage *(V)

*peak value sinusoidal voltage *(V)

*V *

*V*

*voltage (DC, average, …) *(V)

*VL */ *VF * *line voltage / phase voltage in a three-phase system *(V)

*VRMS *

*VRMS*

*root mean square voltage *(V)

*Vdi *

*Vdi*

*(dc-) average voltage for ideal rectifier *(V)

*Vdiα *

*Vdiα*

*(dc-) average voltage for ideal controlled rectifier with firing angle α *(V)

*ν *

*ν*

*speed *(m/s)

*W *

*W*

*energy *(J)

*ω *

*ω*

*angular frequency *(rad/s)

**16 **

**Electric Machines **

**Abstract **

The target of this chapter is to derive a simple mathematical model of some electric machines necessary for their control (in the next chapters!).

Transformers, DC commutator machines, three-phase asynchronous motor, synchronous machines and small appliance motors are treated.

We construct the vector diagram of a transformer, calculate the magnetizing inductance, determine the energy losses (copper and iron losses) and draw as a result a T-equivalent circuit for a transformer.

DC commutator machines are studied with the same goal: derive a simple mathematical model. We derive also an equivalent circuit specially for the important independently excited motor.

We start for the three-phase asynchronous motor with a qualitative study, examine the sinusoidal distribution of windings, determine the analytical expression for the rotating stator field, determine the formula for the magnetizing inductance and draw as a result a T-equivalent for an induction motor. From this equivalent we derive the *M-n *curve. We close the study with a simple mathematical model.

In the same train of thought we draw a T-equivalent for a synchronous motor.

There are also a number of electronically controlled synchronous motors who are studied in chapters 21 and 22.

**Key Words **

magnetizing inductance; air gap torque induction motor; leakage inductance; T-equivalent machine; momentum (of torque) for a DC-machine; multipolar machine; pull out torque induction motor

**16.1 **

**Transformers **

**Contents **

1.1**Transformer at no-load **

1.2**Transformer with load **

1.3**vector diagrams **

1.4**Impedance transformation **

1.5**Magnetizing induction **

1.6**Leakage inductance **

1.7**Energy losses **

1.8**Equivalent diagram **

1.9**No-load and short circuit test **

1.10**Nominal values of a transformer **

1.11**Three-phase transformers **

1.12.**Types of transformers **

**1.1 Transformer at no load **

The simplest form of a single phase static transformer consists of a ferromagnetic circuit of Si-steel plates upon which two separate windings have been placed (**fig. 16-1). The primary coil p has Np windings and the secondary s has Ns is L0 **

**Fig. 16-1 **Single phase transformer, no load

The primary current cannot yet be exactly determined since we first need to take the leakage reactance in the transformer into account. If we neglect the resistance *Rp *magnetizing current. This wattless current lags 90° behind *Vp *(**is the reluctance of the magnetic circuit, with l being the average length of the field lines and A being the cross-sectional area of the core. Iμ is calculated later when we take Rp and the leakage flux into account. **

## **(16-1) **

## **(16-2) **

**Fig. 16-2 **Vector diagram of no-load transformer

A secondary emf is produced with the same frequency as the applied primary voltage. The primary emf *Ep *is eliminated by the applied voltage *Vp *. If we ignore the voltage losses: *Ep * = *Vp * = the applied primary voltage.

The magnetizing current can be written as:

**(16-3) **

From

At no-load *Ep * ≈ *Vp *and *Es = Vs *so that

**(16-4) **

In addition:

## **(16-5) **

By neglecting the losses, the flux is directly proportional to the primary voltage (assuming that the frequency is constant).

**1.2 Transformer with load **

**1.2.1 Secondary and primary currents **

When a load is connected to the secondary, then a current *Is *flows. The power consumed by the secondary load is drawn from the net by the primary, which means that the current *Ip *is larger than the no-load current *In *.

With *VP *constant, *Ep * ≈ *Vp * = constant. From **(16-3) and (16-5), it follows that Iμ and Φ0 are practically unchanged. Constant flux means unchanged iron losses (Iv ) so that the current In also does not change. In other words, the secondary current Is and the primary current Ip produce the same flux Φ0 as In at no-load (see fig. 16-3a). **

## **(16-6) **

**Fig. 16-3 **Vector diagram of loaded transformer

From **in fig. 16-3b follows. **

Since with a good transformer *In *is quite small with respect to *Ip *, we find from **(16-6) that **

**(16-7) **

From **(16-7) and (16-4) it follows, by approximation: **

**(16-8) **

**1.2.2 Leakage flux **

The current *Ip *as the primary leakage flux. On the secondary side the current *Is *.

in phase with *Ip *in phase with *Is *.

In **fig. 16-4, the instantaneous currents and voltages are drawn. **

**Fig. 16-4 **Fluxes in the transformer

is practically constant for every load and includes the emf’s *Ep *and *ES *as already shown.

**1.3 Transformer vector diagram **

**Summary: **

Primary:

1.Induced counter-EMF *Ep *by 90°

2.Induced counter-EMF *Epl = *ω . *sp *. *IP *which leads *IP *by 90°

3.Voltage drop *Ip *. *Rp *in phase with *Ip *

4.If we include the voltage losses *IP . RP *and ω . *sP *. *IP *we find:

**(16-9) **

Secondary:

produces an emf *ES *by 90°

produces an emf *Esl* = *ω *. *ss . IS *which leads *IS *by 90°

3.Voltage drop *IS . RS *in phase with *IS *

4.Terminal voltage *VS *is formed by:

## **(16-10) **

With what we have considered up to now, we can create a diagram in **fig. 16-5 of a loaded transformer. **

**Fig. 16-5 **Transformer with losses and secondary load

With the help of **(16-9) and (16-10) we now construct fig. 16-6. **

**Fig. 16-6 **Vector diagram of transformer with inductive load

**Remark **

From the **. **

**1.4 Impedance transformation **

**1.4.1 Transformation formula **

**Fig. 16-7a shows an ideal transformer, loaded with a series R-L-C circuit. An ideal transformer is a transformer without losses. **

**Fig. 16-7 **Ideal transformer, loaded with a series *R-L-C *circuit: impedance transformation

Application of

For an ideal transformer, the secondary load can be represented as an equivalent circuit seen from the primary side (**fig. 16-7b), as long as: R’ = k² . Rs ; L’ = k². Ls ; C’ = CS/k² . **

More generally: an ideal transformer with secondary impedance *Zsec . *may be seen as a primary impedance:

**(16-11) **

From **(16-11) it follows that we can transform a primary impedance to an equivalent secondary impedance: **

**(16-12) **

**1.4.2 Numeric example 16-1: **

1.An electrical oven is supplied with 46 volt and has a power of 4 kW. The supply network is 230 V-50 Hz. If we had an ideal transformer available, what is then:

a)the transformation ratio

b)the primary and secondary current

c)impedance seen from the 230 V-50Hz net?

**Solution: **

2.If maximum power transfer is required from the generator to the consumer, then the consumers impedance should be the complex conjugate value of the generator impedance.

We have a power amplifier with an output resistance of 48Ω and wish to connect a loudspeaker with the following characteristics: 30 W - 4Ω.

.

**1.5 Magnetizing inductance **

With a magnetising current *Iμ *so that the flux in the core of the transformer is:

Whereby:

If we call *L0 *so that:

from which follows:

**(16-13) **

**Numeric example 16-2: **

1.A ring core transformer (**fig. 16-8) consists of: **

**Fig. 16-8 **Ring core transformer (a) cross-section (b) core and windings

2.Extract from winding wire table (AWG = American wire gauge)

**Question: **

1.Resistance of primary and secondary coil

2.Magnetising inductance

**Solution: **

1.1Primary resistance

Total length primary winding: 86.32 m

1.2Secondary resistance

Total length of secondary winding: 15.96 m

2.Magnetizing inductance

**1.6 Leakage inductance **

From the viewpoint of voltage loss leakage inductance is undesirable. Transformers are therefore constructed to minimise the leakage fluxes. **Fig. 16-9 shows, for example, how a coaxial implementation of primary and secondary coils minimises the leakage reactance by minimising the distance between consecutive coils. On the other hand, possible short circuit currents are limited by the leakage reactance, which can form a protection for the transformer. In practice distribution transformers are constructed with sufficient leakage reactance, so that short-circuit current is limited to 8 or 10 times the full load current. **

**Fig. 16-9 **Leakage fluxes by a coaxially wound transformer

In electronic power supplies ring core transformers are frequently used. Due to the construction method they have a minimum leakage reactance. Electronic technicians talk about hard

transformers since large variations in the load coupled with low leakage inductance can produce large current spikes. These varying load conditions occur for example during commutation of one rectifier element to another on the secondary side of three-phase transformers.

To determine the leakage inductance, we consider the primary leakage flux (the same reasoning is valid for the secondary side). We can not make an accurate calculation since the cross-sectional area through which the flux flows can not be accurately determined. It is possible to make an approximate calculation. If the cross-sectional area where in the leakage flux flows is *Alp *and the average length of the field line is *llp *then similar to expression **(16-13), it may be written as: **

**(16-14) **

The field lines of the leakage flux complete their circuit through the air (*μr =* 1) instead of through the ferromagnetic core (*μr *), which explains the difference with expression **(16-13). **

**Numeric example 16-3: **

We reuse the data of **numeric example 16-2 ensure the possible parts of the leakage fluxes in fig. 16-10a and fig. 16-10b. **

**Fig. 16-10a **Primary leakage flux of transformer in **fig. 16-8a **

**Fig. 16-10b **Secondary leakage flux **fig. 16-8b **

**Primary leakage inductance **

**Secondary leakage inductance **

If we realise that the magnetising inductance for this transformer is 2.38 H then we see that the leakage inductance is indeed minimal.

It is clear that the path of the leakage fluxes depends upon the practical implementation of the transformer windings. The present numeric example gives us a rough idea of the relative magnitude of the leakage inductance.

**1.7 Energy losses **

**1.7.1 Copper losses **

In the primary and secondary windings energy losses occur. If *RP *and *RS *are the respective resistances of the windings then the losses may be written as *R P *. *I P ² *and *R S *. *I S ² *. The sum of both is the total energy loss. This is referred to as the copper losses of the transformer.

**1.7.2 Iron losses **

In ferromagnetic materials, subjected to a varying magnetic field, hysteresis losses occur:

**(16-15) **

whereby:

Since the magnetic circuit of a transformer is constructed from metal plates, hysteresis losses occur. To limit these losses, it is desirable that the material constant be as small as possible.

A possibility in this case is an iron alloy using silicon (e.g. 3% silicon). If the core was made from solid iron, then considerable eddy currents would occur. These can be dramatically limited by making the magnetic circuit from plates which are insulated from each other and the surface of which is in the direction of the flux. As result of this the path of the eddy currents is limited.

The eddy current losses *Pw *can be determined with a formula in the following form:

**(16-16) **

Here in :

*kw * = material constant with respect to the eddy current losses

*δ* = plate thickness in mm.

By adding silicon the electrical resistance is also increased as a result of which the eddy current losses are reduced. According to the last formula, it is advantageous to have the plates as thin as possible. Typical plate thickness lies between 0.3 and 1 mm for 50 Hz operation. The plates can be 0.02 mm for high frequencies. For band wound cores thicknesses of 0.003 to 0.3 mm are possible.

so that:

**(16-17) **

1.11 = form factor of sinusoidal voltage

*a* = form factor of the actual voltage.

Hysteresis and eddy current losses form

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