Découvrez votre prochain livre préféré

Devenez membre aujourd'hui et lisez gratuitement pendant 30 jours
Smart Wheelchairs and Brain-computer Interfaces: Mobile Assistive Technologies

Smart Wheelchairs and Brain-computer Interfaces: Mobile Assistive Technologies

Lire l'aperçu

Smart Wheelchairs and Brain-computer Interfaces: Mobile Assistive Technologies

Longueur:
1,025 pages
10 heures
Sortie:
May 29, 2018
ISBN:
9780128128930
Format:
Livre

Description

Smart Wheelchairs and Brain-Computer Interfaces: Mobile Assistive Technologies combines the fields of neuroscience, rehabilitation and robotics via contributions from experts in their field to help readers develop new mobile assistive technologies. It provides information on robotics, control algorithm design for mobile robotics systems, ultrasonic and laser sensors for measurement and trajectory planning, and is ideal for researchers in BCI. A full view of this new field is presented, giving readers the current research in the field of smart wheelchairs, potential control mechanisms and human interfaces that covers mobility, particularly powered mobility, smart wheelchairs, particularly sensors, control mechanisms, and human interfaces.

  • Presents the first book that combines BCI and mobile robotics
  • Focuses on fundamentals and developments in assistive robotic devices which are commanded by alternative ways, such as the brain
  • Provides an overview of the technologies that are already available to support research and the development of new products
Sortie:
May 29, 2018
ISBN:
9780128128930
Format:
Livre

Lié à Smart Wheelchairs and Brain-computer Interfaces

Livres associé
Articles associés

Aperçu du livre

Smart Wheelchairs and Brain-computer Interfaces - Academic Press

Smart Wheelchairs and Brain-computer Interfaces

Mobile Assistive Technologies

Edited by

Pablo Diez

Medical Technologies Division, Department of Electronics and Automation,

School of Engineering, Universidad Nacional de San Juan, San Juan, Argentina;

Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Argentina

Table of Contents

Cover

Title page

Copyright

Contributors

Authors’ biographies

Chapter 1: Introduction

Abstract

1.1. Brain–Computer Interfaces

1.2. Pathologies

1.3. Types of BCI

1.4. Measuring BCI Performance

1.5. Other Aspects on BCI

1.6. Outline of the Book

Chapter 2: The motor system

Abstract

2.1. An Introduction to the Motor System

2.2. Disabilities

2.3. Diseases

2.4. Further Remarks

Chapter 3: Using noninvasive methods to drive brain–computer interface (BCI): the role of electroencephalography and functional near-infrared spectroscopy in BCI

Abstract

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Functional Neuroanatomy: The Cerebral Cortex

3.3. Noninvasive Neuroimaging Techniques

3.4. Application of EEG and fNIRS in BCI Research

Chapter 4: Biopotential acquisition for brain–wheelchair interfaces

Abstract

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Biopotential Instrumentation Basics

4.3. Signal Quality, Interference, and Artifacts

4.4. BWI Instrumentation

4.5. Advanced Instrumentation

4.6. Acquisition Systems for BWI Application

4.7. Conclusions

Chapter 5: EEG signal processing in brain–computer interface

Abstract

5.1. Preprocessing

5.2. Feature Extraction

5.3. Feature Selection: Dimensionality Reduction

5.4. Classifiers

5.5. Performance Evaluation of the Signal Processing Stage

5.6. Summary and Conclusions

Chapter 6: High-speed steady-state visual evoked potential-based brain–computer interfaces

Abstract

6.1. Introduction

6.2. Coding and Decoding Methods of Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials

6.3. Design of High-Speed Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential-Based Brain–Computer Interfaces

6.4. Future Directions of Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential-Based Brain–Computer Interfaces

Chapter 7: P300-based brain-computer interfaces

Abstract

7.1. Introduction

7.2. P300 Event-Related Potential

7.3. P300 for Spelling Task

7.4. P300 for Nonspelling Tasks

7.5. Conclusion

Chapter 8: Motor imagery based brain–computer interfaces

Abstract

8.1. Introduction

8.2. Motor Imagery as Intellectual Process to Encode Messages

8.3. Signal Conditioning and Processing (Closed-Loop Brain–Computer Interface Control)

8.4. Application Programs

8.5. How to Gain Brain–Computer Interface Control? (Brain–Computer Co-Adaptation)

8.6. Open Issues and Current Motor Imagery-Based Brain–Computer Interface Research

8.7. Conclusion

Acknowledgment

Chapter 9: Electrocorticogram based brain–computer interfaces

Abstract

9.1. Introduction

9.2. High-Gamma Mapping

9.3. Real-Time Brain–Computer Interfaces Control

9.4. Discussion

Acknowledgment

Chapter 10: Hybrid brain–computer interfaces for wheelchair control: a review of existing solutions, their advantages and open challenges

Abstract

10.1. Concepts of Hybrid Brain–Computer Interfaces

10.2. Applied Hybrid BCIs

10.3. Is More Always the Merrier?

10.4. Existing and Emerging Technologies

10.5. Final Considerations

Acknowledgments

Chapter 11: Wheelchairs: history, characteristics, and technical specifications

Abstract

11.1. A Brief History of the Wheelchair

11.2. Technological Characteristics of Wheelchairs

11.3. Issues Related to the Appropriate Selection of a Wheelchair

11.4. Wheelchair Normative

Chapter 12: Smart-wheelchairs

Abstract

12.1. Introduction

12.2. Fields of Technological Development

12.3. Smart Support: Compensation, Rehabilitation, Assessment, and Training

12.4. Future Perspectives

Chapter 13: Brain–computer interfaces for controlling wheelchairs

Abstract

13.1. Introduction

13.2. Signal

13.3. Feature Extraction and Classification Methods

13.4. Navigation

13.5. User’s Task and Interface

13.6. Evaluation

13.7. Conclusions

Acknowledgment

Chapter 14: Control strategies of a brain-controlled wheelchair using two mental tasks

Abstract

14.1. Introduction

14.2. University of Málaga-Brain–Computer Interface Proposal

14.3. Real Brain-Controlled Wheelchair

14.4. Paradigm Variations

14.5. Conclusions

Acknowledgments

Chapter 15: Towards a system to command a robotic wheelchair based on independent SSVEP–BCI

Abstract

15.1. Introduction

15.2. Materials and Methods

15.3. Results and Discussions

15.4. Conclusions and Future Work

Chapter 16: EOG-based wheelchair control

Abstract

16.1. Electrooculography

16.2. EOG Signal Acquisition System

16.3. Eye Model Based on EOG

16.4. EOG-based Smart-Wheelchairs Review

16.5. Wheelchair Guidance Strategies Using EOG

16.6. Conclusions

Chapter 17: Voice-directed autonomous navigation of a smart-wheelchair

Abstract

17.1. Introduction

17.2. Related Research

17.3. Hardware Configuration

17.4. Software Deployment

17.5. Experiments

17.6. Conclusion

Acknowledgments

Chapter 18: Brain–computer interfaces for neurorehabilitation: enhancing functional electrical stimulation

Abstract

18.1. Introduction

18.2. Functional Electrical Stimulation as a Therapeutic Intervention

18.3. Brain–Computer Interfaces

18.4. Brain–Computer Interfaces for Rehabilitation

18.5. Final Remarks

Index

Copyright

Academic Press is an imprint of Elsevier

125 London Wall, London EC2Y 5AS, United Kingdom

525 B Street, Suite 1650, San Diego, CA 92101, United States

50 Hampshire Street, 5th Floor, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States

The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford OX5 1GB, United Kingdom

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Details on how to seek permission, further information about the Publisher’s permissions policies and our arrangements with organizations such as the Copyright Clearance Center and the Copyright Licensing Agency, can be found at our website: www.elsevier.com/permissions.

This book and the individual contributions contained in it are protected under copyright by the Publisher (other than as may be noted herein).

Notices

Knowledge and best practice in this field are constantly changing. As new research and experience broaden our understanding, changes in research methods, professional practices, or medical treatment may become necessary.

Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and knowledge in evaluating and using any information, methods, compounds, or experiments described herein. In using such information or methods they should be mindful of their own safety and the safety of others, including parties for whom they have a professional responsibility.

To the fullest extent of the law, neither the Publisher nor the authors, contributors, or editors, assume any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions, or ideas contained in the material herein.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress

British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

ISBN: 978-0-12-812892-3

For information on all Academic Press publications visit our website at https://www.elsevier.com/books-and-journals

Publisher: Mara Conner

Acquisition Editor: Fiona Geraghty

Editorial Project Manager: Katie Chan

Production Project Manager: Sruthi Satheesh

Designer: Victoria Pearson

Typeset by Thomson Digital

Contributors

Serge Autexier,     German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence GmbH (DFKI), Bremen,

Germany

Rafael Barea Navarro,     University of Alcala, Madrid, Spain

Teodiano Bastos-Filho,     Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, Brazil

María J. Blanca-Mena,     University of Málaga, Málaga, Spain

Isabel Bolivar-Tellería

Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, University Health Network, Toronto

Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto,

Toronto, ON, Canada

Luciano Boquete Vázquez,     University of Alcala, Madrid, Spain

Ling Chen,     Shanghai University, Shanghai, China

Xiaogang Chen,     Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences

and Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin, China

Fernando Chloca

Instituto de Neurociencias, Fundación Favaloro, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos

Aires

Hospital de Trauma y Emergencias Dr. Federico Abete, Buenos Aires,

Argentina

Eduardo Couto,     Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, Brazil

Antonio Díaz-Estrella,     University of Málaga, Málaga, Spain

Pablo Diez

Medical Technologies Division, Department of Electronics

and Automation, School of Engineering, Universidad Nacional de San

Juan, San Juan

Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas

(CONICET), Argentina

Ian Dukes,     University of Essex, Colchester, United Kingdom

Tiago H. Falk,     INRS-EMT, University of Québec, Montréal, Canada

Álvaro Fernández-Rodríguez,     University of Málaga, Málaga, Spain

Alan Floriano,     Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, Brazil

Xiaorong Gao,     Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China

M. Agustina Garcés

National University of San Juan, San Juan

National Scientific

and Technical Research Council (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina

Richard J.M. Godinez-Tello,     Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, Brazil

Johannes Grünwald,     Guger Technologies OG, Graz, Austria

Dongbing Gu,     University of Essex, Colchester, United Kingdom

Federico N. Guerrero

Electronics, Control, and Signal Processing Research Institute LEICI

(CONICET-UNLP), Engineering Department, La Plata National University,

La Plata, Buenos Aires

National Scientific and Technical Research Council

(CONICET), CCT La Plata B1904CMC, Argentina

Christoph Guger

g.Tec Medical Engineering GmbH, Schiedlberg

Guger Technologies OG,

Graz, Austria

Carina V. Herrera,     Medical Technologies Division, Department of Electronics

and Automation, School of Engineering, National University of San Juan,

San Juan, Argentina

Huosheng Hu,     University of Essex, Colchester, United Kingdom

Kyousuke Kamada,     Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, Japan

Christoph Kapeller,     Guger Technologies OG, Graz, Austria

Tim Laue,     University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany

Elena López Guillén,     University of Alcala, Madrid, Spain

Helen Macpherson,     Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, Australia

Christian Mandel,     German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence GmbH (DFKI),

Bremen, Germany

Cesar Marquez-Chin,     Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, ON,

Canada

Verónica Medina-Bañuelos,     Neuroimaging Laboratory, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa,

México

Hiroshi Ogawa,     Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, Japan

Lorena L. Orosco

National University of San Juan, San Juan

National Scientific

and Technical Research Council (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina

Omar Piña Ramírez,     Neuroimaging Laboratory, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa,

México

Milos R. Popovic

Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, University Health Network, Toronto

Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University

of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada

Robert Prückl,     Guger Technologies OG, Graz, Austria

Silvia E. Rodrigo,     Medical Technologies Division, Department of Electronics

and Automation, School of Engineering, National University of San Juan,

San Juan, Argentina

Ricardo Ron-Angevin,     University of Málaga, Málaga, Spain

Reinhold Scherer,     Institute of Neural Engineering, Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria

Enrique M. Spinelli

Electronics, Control, and Signal Processing Research Institute LEICI

(CONICET-UNLP), Engineering Department, La Plata National University,

La Plata, Buenos Aires

National Scientific and Technical Research Council

(CONICET), CCT La Plata B1904CMC, Argentina

Wei-Peng Teo,     Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, Australia

Lucas R. Trambaiolli,     Federal University of ABC, São Paulo, Brazil

Raquel Valdés-Cristerna,     Neuroimaging Laboratory, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa,

México

Francisco Velasco-Álvarez,     University of Málaga, Málaga, Spain

Carmen Vidaurre,     Mathematics Department, Public University of Navarre, Pamplona Spain

Sen Wang,     Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Yijun Wang,     State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of

Semiconductors, and Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence

Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

David White,     Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC, Australia

Oscar Yañez-Suárez,     Neuroimaging Laboratory, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa,

México

Authors’ biographies

Serge Autexier has a background in computer science and artificial intelligence (doctoral degree/PhD 2003, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany), especially semantic knowledge representation, reasoning, change management with applications to software development, mathematics, and intelligent environments. He is head of the Bremen Ambient Assisted Living Lab of DFKI in Bremen. His research focuses on intelligent assistance for humans, especially mobility assistance, low-threshold man–machine interaction as well as safety and security of assistance processes, and has more than 60 publications.

Rafael Barea Navarro received a PhD degree in telecommunications from the University of Alcalá in 2001, an MS degree in telecommunications from the Technical University of Madrid, Spain, in 1997, and a BS degree in telecommunications engineering from the University of Alcalá in 1994. He is currently an associate professor in the electronics department at the University of Alcalá, where has been lecturer since 1994. His research interests include bioengineering, medical instrumentation, personal robotic aids, computer vision, and system control. He is the author of numerous refereed publications in international journals, book chapters, and conference proceedings.

Teodiano F. Bastos-Filho received his BSc degree in electrical engineering from Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (Vitoria, Brazil) in 1987, his specialist in automation degree from Instituto de Automatica Industrial (Madrid, Spain) in 1989, and his PhD degree in physical science (electricity and electronics) from Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain) in 1994. He was a postdoc fellow at University of Alcalá (Spain, 2005) and at RMIT University (Australia, 2012). He is currently a full professor at Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (Vitoria, Brazil).

María J. Blanca-Mena is a professor in the Department of Psychobiology and Behavioral Sciences Methodology (Faculty of Psychology) at the University of Malaga. She teaches both undergraduate and postgraduate courses on research design and data analysis. Her main line of research concerns the use of Monte-Carlo simulation to study of techniques for analyzing longitudinal and cross-sectional data, as well as how these techniques may be applied in several disciplines (e.g., engineering, health science, social sciences).

Isabel Bolivar-Tellería is currently pursuing a PhD degree in biomedical engineering at the Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering of the University of Toronto. She received her undergraduate degree in Biomedical Engineering from Universidad Iberoamericana, Mexico. Her research interests include neurorehabilitation, signal processing, and brain–computer interfaces.

Luciano Boquete Vázquez received the technical telecommunications engineering degree and the telecommunications engineering degree from Polytechnic University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain, in 1987 and 1994, respectively, and a PhD degree in telecommunications from the University of Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, Spain, in 1998. He is currently a full professor in the electronics department at the University of Alcalá. His research interests include bioengineering, computer vision, system control, and neural networks. He is the author of more than 160 refereed publications in international journals, book chapters, and conference proceedings.

Ling Chen received an MEng degree in control science and engineering from Central South University, Changsha, China, in 2010, and a PhD degree in computing and electronics engineering from the University of Essex, UK, in 2014. He is currently a lecturer with the School of Mechatronics Engineering and Automation, Shanghai University, Shanghai, China. His research interests include robot localization and navigation, simultaneous localization and mapping, and multiple sensor fusion.

Xiaogang Chen received a BE degree in biomedical engineering from Xianning College, Xianning, China, in 2008, a ME degree in biomedical engineering from Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin, China, in 2011, and a PhD degree in biomedical engineering from Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, in 2015. He is currently working as an assistant research fellow in Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. His research interests include brain–computer interface and biomedical signal processing.

Fernando Chloca obtained his medical degree (MD) from the Faculty of Medicine of the Universidad de Buenos Aires. He completed his neurological training at the Instituto de Neurociencias de la Fundación Favaloro where he specialized in Peripheral Nervous System and Neuromuscular Diseases. Dr. Chloca is a member of the Unidad de Enfermedades Neuromusculares del Instituto de Neurociencias de la Fundación Favaloro where he practices Neurology and Electromyography. He is clinical neurologist and electromyographist at the Hospital Municipal de Trauma y Emergencias: Dr. Abete.

Eduardo H.M. Couto received a BSc degree in control automation engineering from the Federal Institute of Technology of Espírito Santo, Serra, Brazil, in 2016, and will receive an MSc degree in electrical engineering from the Federal University of Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES, Brazil, in 2017. He is currently researcher sponsored by the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). His research interests are in signal processing, pattern recognition, brain–computer interfaces, rehabilitation robotics, teleoperation and assistive technologies.

Antonio Díaz-Estrella received a telecommunication engineering degree from Polytechnic University of Madrid, Spain, in 1985 and a PhD degree from University of Malaga (UMA), Spain in 1995. He is coauthor of more than 75 scientific publications in international journals and conferences and has participated in more than 20 research projects in the field of telecommunications systems and human computer interaction. He is currently a Professor in the Department of Electronic Technology, UMA, since 2009. His research interests include interactive systems and virtual reality.

Pablo Federico Diez was born in San Rafael, Mendoza (Argentina), in 1979. He received a biomedical engineering degree in 2006 and a PhD in engineering on 2012, both from the School of Engineering of National University of San Juan (UNSJ), Argentina. Dr. Diez is professor at the Gabinete de Tecnología Médica (GATEME) from the UNSJ and is also researcher from the National Council of Scientific and Technical Research from Argentina (CONICET). His research interest includes brain–computer interfaces, assistive technologies for disabilities, robotics and biomedical signal processing.

Ian Dukes attended Plymouth Polytechnic in 1992 where he studied mechanical engineering. He went on to obtain a BSc from the University of Essex in 2002 in computer science and intelligent machines. In 2003, he received an MSc also from the University of Essex in robotics with embedded systems. Ian Dukes is currently the senior technical research scientist at the School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex, UK. His main research topics are autonomous robotics and low level hardware control architectures.

Tiago H. Falk received a BSc degree from the Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil, in 2002, and MSc and PhD degrees from Queen’s University, Canada, in 2005 and 2008, respectively, all in electrical engineering. From 2009 to 2010 he was an NSERC Postdoctoral Fellow at Holland-Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital (University of Toronto). He joined the Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS) in Montreal, Canada, in December 2010 and is now an Associate Professor and Director of the Multimedia/Multimodal Signal Analysis and Enhancement (MuSAE) Laboratory. His research interests include signal processing and machine learning for affective human–machine interfaces.

Álvaro Fernández-Rodríguez received a psychology degree from the University of Malaga (UMA) and master’s degree in methodology in behavioral and health science from the National Distance Education University (UNED) in 2014 and 2016, respectively. Currently, he is a second-year PhD student in psychology, and he joined the Department of Electronics Technology of the UMA in 2015, where he continues working as researcher in the area of evaluation and development of brain computer interfaces (BCI). His main research interests include BCIs, data analysis, and psychology.

Alan Floriano received a BSc degree in computer engineering in 2014 and MSc degree in electrical engineering in 2016, both from the Federal University of Espirito Santo, Brazil. He is currently a PhD student of electrical engineering at the Federal University of Espirito Santo, Brazil. His research interests are signal processing, biological signal processing, pattern recognition, and brain–computer interfaces.

Xiaorong Gao received a BS degree in biomedical engineering from Zhejiang University in 1986, an MS degree in biomedical engineering from Peking Union Medical College in 1989, and a PhD degree in biomedical engineering from Tsinghua University in 1992. He is currently a professor of the Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University. His current research interests are biomedical signal processing and medical instrumentation, especially the study of brain–computer interface.

M. Agustina Garcés, was born in San Juan, Argentina, in 1980. She obtained the degree of biomedical engineering from the Facultad de Ingeniería of the Universidad Nacional de San Juan (UNSJ). In 2011 she obtained her PhD in engineering. Currently, Dr. Garcés is codirector of the Gabinete de Tecnología Médica (GATEME), professor in the Department of Mathematics and the Department of Electronics and Automation of the Facultad de Ingeniería of the UNSJ. She is a researcher of Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), since 2014. Her research area is EEG signal processing with applications in epilepsy, drowsiness detection, BCI, and Alzheimer’s disease.

Richard J. M. Godinez-Tello is an electronic engineer (2011), he has a bachelor degree in electronic engineering from Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, UNMSM (2009). He received a DSc degree in 2016 and an MSc degree (2013) in electrical engineering from Federal University of Espirito Santo (UFES). Dr. Tello is specialist in areas related to brain–computer interfaces and paradigms based on Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEP). He has experience in electrical engineering with emphasis on control, programming, signal processing, electronic design, wireless sensing, microcontrollers, and GSM systems. Since 2016 Dr. Tello is professor at the Federal Institute of Espírito Santo (IFES)–Campus Serra and develop research projects related to assistive technology.

Johannes Grünwald studied information and computer engineering with specialization in digital signal processing and system-on-chip design at Graz University of Technology, Austria. He received his BSc and MSc with distinction in 2010 and 2013, respectively. His diploma thesis was awarded with the Ing. Schmiedl Forschungspreis. After working for Infineon Technologies Austria AG as concept engineer, he joined g.Tec medical engineering GmbH in 2015 to pursue his PhD. His main research interests are real-time signal processing, statistical signal processing, estimation theory, and adaptive filtering.

Dongbing Gu is a professor with the School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex. His current research interests include robotics, autonomous systems, navigation and control, mapping and localisation, cooperative control, and machine learning. He received BSc and MSc degrees in automatic control from Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China and a PhD degree in robotics from University of Essex, UK. He has published more than 200 papers in international conferences and journals. He is an editorial board member of Cognitive Computation, Frontiers in Robotics and AI: Multi-robot systems.

Federico N. Guerrero was born in Comodoro Rivadavia, Argentina, in 1986. He received an engineering degree in electronics and PhD degrees from La Plata National University (UNLP), La Plata, Argentina, in 2011 and 2017, respectively. Since 2012 he has been with the Instituto de Investigaciones en Electrónica, Control y Procesamiento de Señales (LEICI, UNLP-CONICET), La Plata, Argentina. He is also a teaching assistant at the UNLP engineering department. His research has been concerned with instrumentation and control for biopotential measurement systems.

Christoph Guger studied biomedical engineering at the University of Technology Graz, Austria, and Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, USA. He then carried out research work at the Department of Medical Informatics (Prof. Pfurtscheller) at the University of Technology Graz and received his PhD degree in 1999. The topic of his PhD work was the design of an EEG-based brain–computer interface. This was the first real-time BCI system with continuous feedback. He also developed the real-time analysis with common spatial patterns, which is still the fastest and most accurate approach for oscillatory BCIs, and also developed a P300 BCI with very high accuracy and speed. In recent years, he also worked with ALS and stroke patients in different countries. He cofounded g.Tec medical engineering GmbH in 1999, and has worked there ever since. Christoph Guger was awarded the internationally recognized EY Entrepreneur Award.

Carina V. Herrera is a graduate of the bioengineering, at the School of Engineering of National University of San Juan (UNSJ), in San Juan, Argentine. She is also a specialist in university teaching from UNSJ. Since 2006 she has worked as chief of practical applications in the subjects or biomechanics and rehabilitation engineering. She is also part of a project research team related to design and development of an exoskeleton prototype for gait rehabilitation in patients with Myelomeningocele. She has specialized in the areas of computational design of technical aids for assistance and rehabilitation of people with disabilities.

Huosheng Hu is a professor with the School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex, Colchester, UK, leading the robotics research. He has authored more than 500 papers in the areas of robotics, human–robot interaction, embedded systems, mechatronics, and pervasive computing. Prof. Hu is a fellow of IET and InstMC. He has been the program chair and a committee member for many international conferences, such as IEEE ICRA, IROS, ICMA, and ROBIO. He currently serves as an Editor-in-Chief of International Journal of Automation & Computing and MDPI Robotics journals, and an executive editor of the International Journal of Mechatronics and Automation.

Kyousuke Kamada received his PhD in medicine with relaxation times of metabolites in MR spectroscopy in 1995. His professional career includes research periods at Hokkaido University, Japan, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany, Georgetown University, USA, and University of Tokyo, Japan, for neuroscience and biomedical engineering. He is Professor and Chairman of the Department of Neurosurgery at Asahikawa Medical University, Japan, since 2010. His present research topics include functional brain mapping and brain–computer interfaces. Kyousuke Kamada is an expert for passive real-time high-gamma mapping procedures. In addition, he records and studies cortico-cortical evoked potentials to identify normal and abnormal networks for brain surgery. He evaluates sensor functions, motor functions, language-related functions, and epilepsy networks at the bed side, in the monitoring unit, or for awake craniotomy in the operating room.

Christoph Kapeller studied biomedical engineering at the Graz University of Technology and received his BSc in 2010 and MSc in 2012. He is currently working as a research scientist at g.Tec medical engineering GmbH in Austria. In 2017, he received his PhD degree in computer science at the Johannes Kepler University Linz. His research interests include the investigation of new mapping technologies to localize and categorize brain functions. Furthermore, he is looking for new ways of interaction by means of noninvasive and invasive brain–computer interfaces.

Tim Laue is a postdoctoral researcher in the Multi-Sensor Interactive Systems Group at the University of Bremen’s Computer Science department. His main research interests include simulation and state estimation for autonomous robots as well as human–robot interaction. Since 2002 he has regularly participated in RoboCup competitions with different teams, winning the world champion title multiple times. Furthermore, he has been involved in the development of a new interactive entertainment robot that plays ball games with humans. He has also developed software components for rehabilitation robots, such as the autonomous wheelchair Rolland.

Elena López Guillén received MS and PhD degrees in electronics engineering from the University of Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, Spain, in 1999 and 2004, respectively. From 1996 to 2009 she was an assistant professor in the Department of Electronics in the same university, and in 2009 she became an associate professor. She is a member of the RobeSafe research group. Her research interests include robotics and control, multisensorial indoor localization (SLAM techniques), scene understanding, computer vision, probabilistic algorithms, human-behavior analysis, and bioengineering. She has authored more than 90 publications in international journals, book chapters, and conference proceedings.

Helen Macpherson is a NHMRC-ARC Dementia Research Fellow at the Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research at Deakin University. Her research focus is on cognitive decline and ways to enhance cognition in older people. She is currently investigating the ability of multitarget interventions incorporating exercise and dietary modification to improve cognition in older people with multiple risk factors for dementia. Dr. Macpherson has conducted research to investigate the potential cognitive enhancing mechanisms of nutritional supplements, including cardiovascular actions, biochemical alterations, and direct effects on brain function. Her research also looks at age-related changes in cognitive function, using a range of neuroimaging techniques.

Christian Mandel is a postdoctoral senior researcher in the research department Cyber-Physical Systems at the German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence GmbH. His main research interests include path planning and self-localization algorithms, as well as the user interface design for assistive mobility devices, such as smart-wheelchairs and wheeled walkers. Among other developments he presented a navigation solution for wheelchair drivers that utilize a user interface based on a Steady-Stated Visual Evoked Potentials–based brain computer interface in his doctoral thesis Navigation of the Smart Wheelchair Rolland.

Cesar Marquez-Chin is a scientist in the neural engineering and therapeutics team at the Toronto Rehabilitation Institute—University Heath Network. His research focuses on creating new technologies to restore the ability to move voluntarily after stroke and spinal cord injury. Central to his work is the development of brain–machine interfaces and their therapeutic application. He also creates low-cost robotic technologies and advanced alternate user interfaces that support patients and their service providers during physical and occupational rehabilitation. Dr. Marquez-Chin holds a doctorate degree in biomedical engineering form the Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering of the University of Toronto.

Verónica Medina-Bañuelos received an MSc degree from the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana (UAM), México in 1987 and a PhD degree from the Université de Technologie de Compiègne, France, in 1991, both in biomedical engineering. For 35 years she has been a member of the Neuroimaging Laboratory, at the electrical engineering department, UAM-Iztapalapa. Her research interests include pattern recognition applied to medical images and signals analysis, especially focused on brain studies.

Hiroshi Ogawa graduated as doctor of medicine from Asahikawa Medical University, Japan, in 2010. After 2 years of clinical training at Hokkaido University Hospital, Sapporo, Japan, he returned to Asahikawa Medical University and became assistant professor of the Department of Neurosurgery. His research work encompasses passive functional brain mapping via high gamma activity in ECoG. He received his PhD from Asahikawa Medical University Graduate School in 2017. He then moved to Sapporo Higashi Tokushukai Hospital, Sapporo, Japan, as chief physician of the Department of Neurosurgery.

Lorena L. Orosco was born in San Juan, Argentina, in 1973. She obtained a degree in biomedical engineering from the School of Engineering of the National University of San Juan. In 2014 she obtained a PhD in control systems engineering from the same university. She began her teaching career in 1997, when she was still an engineering student, and currently holds the position of assistant professor in the area of mathematics. Since 2016 she has been an assistant researcher at CONICET. Her research area is EEG signal processing with applications in epilepsy, drowsiness, BCI, and Alzheimer’s detection.

Omar Piña Ramírez is associated professor at Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Iztapalapa Mexico City working in the Neuroimaging Laboratory. He is currently finishing a PhD degree in biomedical engineering, in which research is focused on implementing P300-based brain–computer interfaces that incorporate behavior information into the stimulation screens. His main research topics are pattern recognition, machine learning, real-world applications of brain–computer interfaces, data analysis, computer vision, automatic diagnosis, embedded computing, hardware implementation of algorithms, and education. Additionally, he collaborates with several industries, developing high value-added software–hardware solutions.

Milos R. Popovic received his PhD degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Toronto, in 1996, and the Dipl. electrical engineer degree from the University of Belgrade, in 1990. Dr. Popovic is the associate scientific director at the Toronto Rehabilitation Institute and the Toronto Rehab Chair in Spinal Cord Injury Research. He is also a professor in the Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering at the University of Toronto. Dr. Popovic is also the founder and director of the CentRe for Advancing Neurotechnological Innovation to Application (CRANIA) at the University Health Network and the University of Toronto.

Robert Prückl received his MSc and PhD degrees in computer science from the Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria, in 2010 and 2017, respectively. He carried out research work in the area of brain–computer interfaces, acute electrophysiological animal studies using spikes, as well as functional real-time mapping of high gamma activity in ECoG. Robert Prueckl is part of g.Tec medical engineering GmbH since 2008, where he is involved in the design and development of hard- and software for real-time brain–computer interface systems.

Silvia E. Rodrigo is a graduate of electronics engineering at the School of Engineering of National University of San Juan (UNSJ), in San Juan, Argentine. She is also doctor in mechanical engineering at UNSJ and master of biomedical engineering at Favaloro University (Argentina). She works as a full Professor of Biomechanics and Rehabilitation Engineering in Bioengineering, UNSJ. Since 2011 she leads a research project related to design and development of an exoskeleton prototype for gait rehabilitation in patients with Myelomeningocele. Her areas of interest are analysis of human gait, orthoprosthetics, and biomechatronics.

Ricardo Ron-Angevin received engineer of telecommunication and PhD degrees from the University de Málaga, Spain, in 1994 and 2005, respectively. In 1995, he joined the Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Telecomunicación de Málaga, where he is an associate professor with the Electronic Technology Department, and he is a member of DIANA research group. He is the manager and the coordinator of the Andalusian regional project BRAINS and the Spanish National projects INCADI and LICOM. His research interests include the design of brain–computer interfaces and virtual reality.

Reinhold Scherer is associate professor and deputy head of the Institute of Neural Engineering at the Graz University of Technology (TU-Graz), Austria. He is a member of the BCI-Lab at TU-Graz and of the Institute for Neurological Rehabilitation and Research at the clinic Judendorf-Strassengel, Austria. He received an MSc and PhD degree in computer science from TU-Graz in 2001 and 2008, respectively. From 2008 to 2010 he was a postdoctoral researcher at the Department for Computer Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, USA. His research interests include BCIs, statistical and adaptive signal processing, robotics-mediated rehabilitation, and assistive technologies.

Enrique M. Spinelli was born in Balcarce, Argentina, in 1964. He received an engineering degree in electronics and MS and PhD degrees from La Plata National University (UNLP), La Plata, Argentina, in 1989, 2000, and 2005, respectively. Since 1990 he has been with the Instituto de Investigaciones en Electrónica, Control y Procesamiento de Señales (LEICI, UNLP-CONICET), La Plata, Argentina, where he is currently a professor of control systems in the engineering department. He is also a researcher with the National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET, Argentina). His research interests are analog signal processing and brain-control interfaces.

Wei-Peng Teo is an Alfred Deakin Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University. His research focuses on developing novel strategies for neurorehabilitation using noninvasive brain stimulation, exercise and dietary interventions, and technology, such as virtual reality and serious games to improve movement and cognition. He uses a range of neuroimaging techniques, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, functional near-infrared spectroscopy, and electroencephalography to explore mechanisms of neuroplasticity and brain function in healthy and clinical populations such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s dementia, and stroke.

Lucas R. Trambaiolli received a BSc in biomedical engineering from the Federal University of ABC, Brazil, in 2011, and an MSc degree in neuroscience and cognition from the Federal University of ABC, Brazil, in 2014. He is a PhD student in neuroscience and cognition at the Federal University of ABC, Brazil. In 2017, he was a PhD intern at the Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS) in Montreal, Canada. His research interests include signal processing and machine learning for brain decoding and brain–computer interfaces.

Raquel Valdés-Cristerna studied biomedical engineering at the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana (UAM) in México and received a PhD degree in 2003 from the same institution. Since 1991 she has been part of the electrical engineering department in UAM Iztapalapa and is a member of the Neuroimaging Laboratory. Her areas of interest include: digital image and signal processing, pattern recognition applied to medicine, classifiers performance evaluation, and application of information and communication technologies to university education.

Francisco Velasco-Álvarez received engineer of telecommunication and PhD degrees from the University of Malaga, Spain, in 2007 and 2012. He worked in the Telecommunication Engineering School of Malaga for the Department of Communication Engineering in 2007 and 2008, then he joined the Department of Electronics Technology, where he currently works as a researcher. His research interests concern the EEG signal processing, the application of virtual reality and psychological methods on the training of brain–computer interface systems.

Carmen Vidaurre is a telecommunications engineer from the Public University of Navarre and PhD from the same university. As a PhD student she spent three years in the BCI group of the Graz University of Technology. She won an EU-Marie Curie grant to pursue a postdoc at the Fraunhofer Institute in the Berlin BCI group. After that she worked for the Machine Learning Dp. of the Technische Universität Berlin (TU-Berlin). Currently, she is a Ramon y Cajal grant holder at the Public University of Navarre.

Sen Wang received an MEng degree in control science and engineering from Harbin Institute of Technology, China, in 2011, and a PhD degree in computer science from University of Essex, UK, in 2015. He was a postdoctoral researcher at University of Oxford between 2015 and 2017. Currently, he is an assistant professor at Edinburgh Centre for Robotics, Heriot-Watt University, UK. His research interests include robot localization, simultaneous localization and mapping, visual inertial navigation, experience-based navigation, multiple sensor fusion, and robot learning.

Yijun Wang received his BE and PhD degrees in biomedical engineering from Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, in 2001 and 2007, respectively. From 2008 to 2015, he was first a postdoctoral researcher and later an assistant project scientist at the Swartz Center for Computational Neuroscience, University of California San Diego. Since 2015 he has been a research fellow with the Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences. His research interests include brain–omputer interface, biomedical signal processing, and machine learning.

David White is a postdoctoral research fellow at Swinburne’s Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, where he has been involved in a range of clinical trials exploring the neurocognitive effects of nutritional and nutraceutical interventions in healthy adults and at-risk aging populations. Dr White’s research utilizes a range of neuroimaging methods (EEG, MRI, and MEG) to understand optimal brain function and explore potential mechanisms by which interventions may enhance neurocognitive health in at-risk or compromised populations (including neurofeedback, nutritional, and nutraceutical interventions).

Oscar Yañez-Suárez has a bachelor (1987) and a master’s (1993) degree in biomedical engineering from [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana (UAM), Mexico], and doctoral studies (1998) in electrical engineering from [Colorado State University (CSU), USA]. He is affiliated with the Neuroimaging Laboratory of the Department of Electrical Engineering at UAM, where his research field is signal processing and pattern recognition applications to neurological data, as in the case of clinical quantitative electroencephalography, brain–computer interfaces, and anatomical and functional brain imaging.

Chapter 1

Introduction

Pablo Diez

Medical Technologies Division, Department of Electronics and Automation, School of Engineering, Universidad Nacional de San Juan, San Juan, Argentina

Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Argentina

Abstract

A communication channel between a person and a machine could be defined as human–machine interface (HMI). There are many kinds of HMI but when the communication is established between the brain and a computer, it is known as a brain–computer interface (BCI). The BCI technology has been developed in the last 30 years but further improvements are needed in order to ensure safety and better performances. Nevertheless, a BCI can successfully command a smart-wheelchair. A smart-wheelchair (or robotic-wheelchair) has sensors and the ability to navigate in some environments, such as in-home environments. Then, people with severe disabilities can command a smart-wheelchair directly from his brain. This chapter is an introduction to basic concepts related to BCIs, such as components of a BCI, users, diseases, paradigms, and measures of the performance. These topics are explained in detail in the following chapters of the book.

Keywords

brain–computer interface

diseases

electroencephalography

human–machine interface

P300

wheelchair

Chapter Outline

1.1 Brain–Computer Interfaces

1.1.1 The Brain

1.1.2 Measuring Brain Activity

1.1.3 Components of a BCI

1.2 Pathologies

1.2.1 Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

1.2.2 Stroke

1.2.3 Locked-in Syndrome

1.3 Types of BCI

1.3.1 Self-Regulated Potentials

1.3.2 Event-Related Potentials

1.3.3 Invasive Approach: ECoG-Based BCI

1.4 Measuring BCI Performance

1.4.1 Confusion Matrix

1.4.2 Accuracy and Error Rate

1.4.3 Cohen’s Kappa Coefficient

1.4.4 Information Transfer Rate

1.5 Other Aspects on BCI

1.5.1 Synchronous or Asynchronous Approach

1.5.2 BCI Adaptation or User Adaptation

1.5.3 From Lab to the User’s Home

1.6 Outline of the Book

References

To communicate directly with a machine is a common and simple task if you are in a science fiction movie. Thus, you would be able to deliver commands to that machine and even talk with it. In the famous movie, The Matrix, the main character enabled a direct communication from his brain to a computer system. In these science fiction movies, the characters send commands to a machine, which are interpreted and executed as they are really wanted. This raises two questions: the first, how a machine can interpret and evaluate the instructions delivered by a person? And second, how can it execute the instructions in order to achieve the desired results? These two simple questions are very hard to answer and, represent a difficult challenge to overcome by real science.

Nowadays, we are far away from this kind of technology; however, in the last 20 or 30 years advances in many areas had driven the development of new technologies. The human–machine interface (HMI) technology is one of them. In a wide sense, an HMI is a nexus between a person and a machine establishing a communication channel between both. Fig. 1.1 presents a general scheme of an HMI, some signals as electromyography, eye-tracker, and voice can be used to command the HMI. An important condition to achieve the stability of the entire system is a feedback among the person, the HMI, and the machine. A particular kind of HMI, when brain signals are used, is the so-called brain–computer interfaces (BCI).

Figure 1.1   General Scheme of a Human–Machine Interface Along With Some Examples of Commanding Signals.

The dashed line represents a feedback among the different parts of the system.EEG, Electroencephalography (brain); EOG, electrooculography (eyes); EMG, electromyography (muscle).

1.1. Brain–Computer Interfaces

A BCI is a device that allows a person to communicate with a computer using only his thoughts. A BCI represents a new nonmuscular channel of communication (Wolpaw et al., 2002). This channel is established between the brain and a machine (generally a computer). Both the brain and the machine should be able to interact with the other one, in other words the brain should be healthy and the machine should be intelligent (at least to some degree).

The former work on BCI was reported in the 1970s (Vidal, 1973), however, until the 1990s the BCI technology was on standby. More powerful computers were needed for processing the electroencephalogram (EEG). Nowadays, the BCI achieves high accuracies (>90%) in classifying the intention of the user. However, the BCI are low performance compared with other kinds of HMI (Fig. 1.1), for example, HMI based on electromyography, eye-tracker, and voice-commanding. Nevertheless, these interfaces need an open pathway between the user and the machine being controlled (a muscular interaction), the BCI does not. Thus, a BCI has the unique characteristic of being used by people with severe disabilities, such as tetraplegia.

The BCI can be used for different applications (e.g., gaming, military forces) but generally, the BCI are used for helping people with disabilities. In this way, a BCI is a new tool for the communication of people suffering from partial or total paralysis of the body.

According to the World Report on Disability, about 15 out of every 100 people in the world has a disability (more than 780 million persons). Moreover, this value is increasing over the years. It is estimated that between 110 and 190 million (2%–4%) have a severe disability, that is, quadriplegia, severe depression, or blindness (World Health Organization and The World Bank, 2011). In Argentina, according to the National Census on Disability, 7.1% (2.2 million) suffer from a disability and approximately 1.1 million have a motor disability. Out of this 1-million-plus people, 61.6% (702,096) cannot move their legs and 30% (342,186) cannot move their arms and legs (INDEC, 2003; Pantano, 2005). It follows that, just in Argentina, more than a million people can benefit from BCI technology. More than 300,000 people do not have arm or leg mobility, and possibly, the only way to overcome that is by using a BCI. Curiously, you do not see these people out in public because they are relegated to staying in the home and, generally, in bed all day. Thus, the development of assistive technologies like BCI is indispensable for the many people suffering from severe disabilities.

1.1.1. The Brain

The human brain is the most complex organ of the body; it can process information, thinking, memorizing, and so on. Anatomically, the nervous system is divided in two parts (Latarjet and Ruiz Liard, 1997):

1.The central nervous system: made up of the brain and the spinal cord.

2.The peripheral nervous system: consisting of the nerves. The central nervous system is connected with other organs of the body through the peripheral nervous system. Thus, the nerves transport information from the body and the outside world into the central nervous system. Besides, they carry commands from the central nervous system to the muscles and other organs.

Unfortunately, some diseases (see later in this chapter) affect the communication between the parts of the nervous system. This communication is interrupted or diminished for potential users of a BCI system. People suffering from severe disabilities can benefit from BCI technology.

1.1.2. Measuring Brain Activity

Richard Caton (1842–1926) was the first man to record the electrical activity of the brain. In 1875, he measured electrical activity from the surface of the brain in some animals. In those years, the experimental procedures were performed over living brains because of the technical difficulties to measure from the scalp. Later in 1924, Hans Berger (1873–1941) measured the electrical brain activity from the scalp of a person and detected the so-called Berger’s wave. Berger published his research in 1929 after many studies reporting the changes in brain activity resulting from open–close eyes, epileptic seizure, and so on. Unfortunately, his findings were not recognized until 1937 when other researchers could replicate his work.

However, acquiring the electrical activity of the brain is today a real challenge because of the small amplitude of the signal, the presence of artifacts, the many sources of noise (electrical, environmental, other potential from the body, etc.).

According to the place where the electrodes are located, we can mention three different techniques:

1.Electroencephalography: the electrodes are located over the scalp. The measure recorded with this technique is named EEG. The electrodes are distributed over the scalp according to the International 10–20 system (Fig. 1.2).

2.Electrocorticography: the electrodes are placed over the brain cortex. Surgery is needed to remove the bone of the skull. Sometimes this technique is named as intracranial EEG (iEEG). The measure recorded with this technique is named electrocorticogram (ECoG).

3.Deep records: in this case, microelectrodes are inserted into the deep structures of the brain.

Figure 1.2   International 10–20 System for Placing the EEG Electrodes.

The EEG is the most used technique for measuring the electrical activity of the brain, because the insertion of the electrodes into the skull is complicated. Moreover, the EEG is more economical than other ones. Thus, the EEG is used in most of the BCI applications and it is explained in detail in this book.

There are other methods for measuring the activity of the brain, such as magnetoencephalography (MEG), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). They measure the magnetic activity (MEG) and the blood oxygen level (fMRI and fNIRS). These techniques have been used for the BCI application but for different reasons; their application is minimal compared to EEG. Moreover, fMRI and MEG require large and heavy equipment and thus, it cannot be mounted on a wheelchair. As a consequence, fMRI and MEG are not presented in this book. The fNIRS method is described in Chapter 3.

1.1.3. Components of a BCI

A BCI is composed of different parts, beginning with the user and finishing with the device being controlled (Mason and Birch, 2003). Fig. 1.3 shows these components:

User: the person controlling the BCI by changing some feature on the brain signals. In this case, a person with disabilities but with a functional brain.

Electrodes and amplifiers: the electrodes are transducers because they transform the brain potential into electrical signals. These electrical signals are in the order of microvolts, and then the amplifiers should increase them to the order of the volts. Besides, the signal should be filtered to reduce the noise.

Signal processing: this stage is divided into three parts:

1.Preprocessing: different techniques are applied to reduce noise and eliminate artifacts. Generally, a digital filter (time or spatial filtering) is applied. The segmentation of the signal is performed in this stage as well.

2.Feature extraction: a set of features (feature vector) is extracted from the signal using different methods. These features should describe the mental state of the user.

3.Classifier: the feature vector is classified or translated into a limited set of outputs. Each output corresponds to a different mental state.

Control interface: this interface translates the outputs of the classifier into control signals that should be interpreted by the control system of the wheelchair. Moreover, the control interface plays a key role, because it must present a feedback to the User by using either a visual (screen), tactile or auditory feedback. This feedback presents vital information to the user and thus, the user can think new actions or commands. Finally, the control interface should synchronize the actions among the different parts of the entire system.

Wheelchair control: This part should translate the commands delivered by the control interface into velocities for the wheelchair. For this purpose, the wheelchair control applies a voltage to the motors attached to each wheel. Additionally, the sensors of the wheelchair measure the environment (e.g., distances to obstacles) and the status of the wheelchair itself (e.g., velocities) in order to allow safety navigation.

Wheelchair: in this book the devices being controlled is a smart-wheelchair, although a BCI can command devices, such as computers, prosthesis, and voice synthesizers.

Figure 1.3   Components of a BCI System.

Another aspect that should be considered is the environment (wall, floor, noise, obstacles, doors, moving objects, people, etc.) where the BCI and the wheelchair will operate. The environment can affect the user and, consequently, the functioning of the BCI system. Similarly, the environment can affect the sensors of the smart-wheelchair and, thus, the navigation of the wheelchair and the safety of the system.

The user is the most highly variable of the components of a BCI due to a diversity of factors, such as physiological and social factors, physical and mental status, motivation, tiredness, stress, and

Vous avez atteint la fin de cet aperçu. Inscrivez-vous pour en savoir plus !
Page 1 sur 1

Avis

Ce que les gens pensent de Smart Wheelchairs and Brain-computer Interfaces

0
0 évaluations / 0 Avis
Qu'avez-vous pensé ?
Évaluation : 0 sur 5 étoiles

Avis des lecteurs