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Processing and Sustainability of Beverages: Volume 2: The Science of Beverages

Processing and Sustainability of Beverages: Volume 2: The Science of Beverages

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Processing and Sustainability of Beverages: Volume 2: The Science of Beverages

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1,103 pages
12 heures
Sortie:
Dec 7, 2018
ISBN:
9780128156995
Format:
Livre

Description

Processing and Sustainability of Beverages, Volume Two in the Science of Beverages series, is a general reference of the current and future actions for a sustainable beverage industry. This resource takes a unique approach, combining processing with sustainability. Topics of note include waste treatment and management, environmental analysis for a sustainable beverage industry, and modern technologies for beverage processing to reduce contaminants and increase the quality. This book is essential to scientists, researchers and technologists in the beverages field, covering both alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages.

  • Covers a broad range of beverage products to increase knowledge of quality improvement and product development
  • Presents novel food processing technologies on beverage antioxidants
  • Offers sustainable management strategies for implementing added value in beverage products
Sortie:
Dec 7, 2018
ISBN:
9780128156995
Format:
Livre

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Processing and Sustainability of Beverages - Elsevier Science

Processing and Sustainability of Beverages

Volume 2: The Science of Beverages

First Edition

Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu

Alina Maria Holban

Table of Contents

Cover image

Title page

Copyright

Contributors

Series Preface

Preface

1: Adding Sustainability to the Beverage Industry Through Nature-Based Wastewater Treatment

Abstract

Acknowledgments

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Environmental Problem Targeted

1.3 Water Use and Disposal in the Beverage Industry

1.4 Adding Sustainability to the Beverage Industry

1.5 Traditional Beverage Wastewater Treatment

1.6 Natural Treatment of Wastewater

1.7 Technologies Associated With Natural Wastewater Treatment in the Beverage Industry

1.8 Conclusions

2: Alcoholic Beverages: Current Situation and Generalities of Anthropological Interest

Abstract

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Production of Alcoholic Beverages

2.3 Regulations of Alcoholic Beverages

2.4 Market of Alcoholic Beverages

2.5 Anthropology of Alcoholic Beverages

2.6 Implications in Human Health for the of Consumption Alcoholic Beverages

2.7 Conclusions

3: Sustainable Business Models in Beverages Industry Networks: The Case Study of an Italian Breweries Network

Abstract

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Craft Breweries Industry and Italian NC Overview

3.3 The Theoretical Background: BM, BMI, and Sustainability

3.4 Methodology

3.5 Findings

3.6 Discussion and Conclusion

4: The Sustainability of Mexican Traditional Beverage Sotol: Ecological, Historical, and Technical Issues

Abstract

4.1 Introduction

4.2 The Genus Dasylirion

4.3 The Sotol in Prehispanic Times and During the Spanish Colony

4.4 Current Importance of Sotol

4.5 Natural History of Dasylirion spp.

4.6 Ecological Impact of Sotol Production

4.7 Preparation Process of Sotol Beverage

4.8 Issues and Perspectives on Sotol

4.9 Conclusions

5: Quality Improvement and New Product Development in the Hibiscus Beverage Industry

Abstract

Acknowledgments

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Hibiscus Calyces

5.3 Hibiscus Beverages

5.4 Conclusions

6: Tradition and Innovation Within the Wine Sector: How a Strong Combination Could Increase the Company’s Competitive Advantage

Abstract

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Literature Review

6.3 Methodology

6.4 Case Study: Enosis Meraviglia

6.5 Discussion and Conclusions

6.6 Implications and Limitations

7: UV-C Light for Processing Beverages: Principles, Applications, and Future Trends

Abstract

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Beverage Deterioration

7.3 Preservation of Beverages

7.4 UV-C Irradiation

7.5 Application of UV-C Irradiation in Fruit Juices

7.6 UV-C Equipment Design for Beverage Processing

7.7 Combination of UV-C Irradiation With Other Technologies

7.8 Current and Future Trends

8: Pectinases: Production and Applications for Fruit Juice Beverages

Abstract

Acknowledgments

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Pectin

8.3 Pectic Enzymes and Their Classification

8.4 Production System for Pectinases

8.5 Pectinolytic Microorganisms

8.6 SSF Process Conditions

8.7 Bioreactor Employed for Pectinolytic Enzyme Production Using SSF

8.8 Industrial Applications of Pectic Enzymes

8.9 Conclusion

9: In Situ Analysis Devices for Estimating the Environmental Footprint in Beverages Industry

Abstract

Acknowledgments

9.1 Environmental Footprint

9.2 Compounds Involved in the Estimation of the Categories of the EF

9.3 In Situ Analysis Devices

9.4 In Situ Devices to Control the EF During the Direct Industrial Process

9.5 Example of the Use of In Situ Devices for Monitoring the EF

9.6 Assessment of the Performance for a Given Analytical Method Regarding Environmental Impact and Other Related Characteristics

9.7 Conclusions

10: Hydrodynamic Cavitation Technologies: A Pathway to More Sustainable, Healthier Beverages, and Food Supply Chains

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Declaration of Interest

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Growth and Sustainability: Scientific Background

10.3 Sustainability of Food Supply Chains

10.4 Basics and Implementation of Controlled HC

10.5 Contribution of HC Technologies to the Sustainability of Food Supply Chains

10.6 Conclusions

11: Influence of Processing on Rheological and Textural Characteristics of Goat and Sheep Milk Beverages and Methods of Analysis

Abstract

Acknowledgment

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Goat and Sheep Milk: Characteristics and Peculiarities

11.3 Impact of Technological Processing

11.4 Rheological and Textural Characteristics of Goat and Sheep Milk Beverages

11.5 Rheology and Texture in Food: The Methods of Analysis

11.6 Practical Application

11.7 Conclusions

12: Effect of Novel Food Processing Technologies on Beverage Antioxidants

Abstract

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Novel Food Processing Technologies

12.3 Conclusion

13: Valorization of Residues From Beverage Production

Abstract

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Characteristics of By-Products and Waste From Beverage Production

13.3 Pathways to Valorize Bioresidues

13.4 Energetic Valorization of Bioresidues

13.5 Biochar From Residues of Beverage Production

13.6 Bioresidues From Beverage Production as Potential Sources of Bioactive Molecules: Recovery and Use of Bioactive Ingredients

13.7 Packaging Waste

13.8 Summary and Outlook

14: Law and Science Make a Common Effort to Enact a Zero Waste Strategy for Beverages

Abstract

14.1 Introduction

Part I: Legal Actions Toward the Circular Economy

Part II: Research and Innovations

Legislation

15: Processing of Beverages by Membranes

Abstract

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Membrane System

15.3 Membrane Separation Technology

15.4 Importance of Membrane-Based Separation Method in the Beverage Industries

15.5 Future Scope

Index

Copyright

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Notices

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Contributors

Cristóbal Noe Aguilar     Food Research Department, School of Chemistry, Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila, Saltillo, México

Lorenzo Albanese     Institute of Biometeorology, National Research Council, Florence, Italy

Adriana Antonio-Bautista     Departamento de Fitomejoramiento, Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Saltillo, Coahuila, México

O.T. Antonio-Gutiérrez     Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Alimentos, Universidad de las Américas Puebla, San Andrés Cholula, Puebla, México

Adalberto Benavides-Mendoza     Departamento de Horticultura, Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Saltillo, Coahuila, México

Pierantonio Bertero     Department of Management, University of Turin, Turin, Italy

S. Bocanegra-Rodríguez     MINTOTA Research Group, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Valencia, Burjassot, Spain

P. Campíns-Falcó     MINTOTA Research Group, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Valencia, Burjassot, Spain

Esra Capanoglu     Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

Ana Isabel A. Costa

Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina—Laboratório Associado, Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Porto

Católica Lisbon School of Business & Economics, Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Lisboa, Portugal

Francesca Culasso     Department of Management, University of Turin, Turin, Italy

Marion Pereira da Costa

Program in Animal Science of the Tropics

Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production, Escola de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Brazil

Vanessa Bonfim da Silva     Program in Animal Science of the Tropics, Escola de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Brazil

Sirshendu De     Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India

Paola De Bernardi     Department of Management, University of Turin, Turin, Italy

Adriana C. Flores-Gallegos     Food Research Department, School of Chemistry, Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila, Saltillo, México

Marta Fornabaio     Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

Lara Fornabaios     University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy

José D. García-García     Department of NanoBioscience, School of Chemistry, Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila, Saltillo, México

L. Georgina Michelena-Álvarez     Instituto Cubano de las Investigaciones de los Derivados de la caña de azúcar, La Habana, Cuba

Elisa Giacosa     Department of Management, University of Turin, Turin, Italy

Francesca Girotto     Industrial Engineering, University of Padua, Padua, Italy

R.A. González-Fuenzalida     MINTOTA Research Group, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Valencia, Burjassot, Spain

Burcu Guldiken     Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

Dolores Hidalgo     CARTIF Technology Center, Valladolid, Spain

M. Humberto Reyes-Valdés     Departamento de Fitomejoramiento, Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Saltillo, Coahuila, México

Anna Iliná     Department of NanoBioscience, School of Chemistry, Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila, Saltillo, México

Amit Jain     Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India

N. Jornet-Martínez     MINTOTA Research Group, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Valencia, Burjassot, Spain

Sigrid Kusch-Brandt

Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, University of Padua, Padua, Italy

Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom

Maria Cristina Lavagnolo     Industrial Engineering, University of Padua, Padua, Italy

A.S. López-Díaz     Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Alimentos, Universidad de las Américas Puebla, San Andrés Cholula, Puebla, México

A. López-Malo     Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Alimentos, Universidad de las Américas Puebla, San Andrés Cholula, Puebla, México

José L. Martínez-Hernández     Department of NanoBioscience, School of Chemistry, Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila, Saltillo, México

Jesús M. Martín-Marroquín     CARTIF Technology Center, Valladolid, Spain

Francesco Meneguzzo     Institute of Biometeorology, National Research Council, Florence, Italy

C. Molins-Legua     MINTOTA Research Group, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Valencia, Burjassot, Spain

Maria João P. Monteiro     Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina—Laboratório Associado, Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Porto, Portugal

Jan Mumme     UK Biochar Research Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Ossanna Nashalian     School of Nutrition Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada

Anand Nighojkar     Maharaja Ranjit Singh College of Professional Sciences, Indore, India

Sadhana Nighojkar     Mata Gujri College of Professional Studies, Indore, India

Arianna Núñez-Caraballo     Department of NanoBioscience, School of Chemistry, Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila, Saltillo, México

Gulay Ozkan     Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

Roberto Palacios     Destiladora La Tradición de la Familia SPR de RS, Saltillo, Coahuila, México

E. Palou     Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Alimentos, Universidad de las Américas Puebla, San Andrés Cholula, Puebla, México

Mukesh K. Patidar     Maharaja Ranjit Singh College of Professional Sciences, Indore, India

Manuela E. Pintado     Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina—Laboratório Associado, Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Porto, Portugal

Massimo Pollifroni     Department of Management, University of Turin, Turin, Italy

Margherita Paola Poto

K.G. Jebsen Centre for the Law of the Sea, UiT, Tromsø, Norway

Department of Management, University of Turin, Turin, Italy

N. Ramírez-Corona     Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Alimentos, Universidad de las Américas Puebla, San Andrés Cholula, Puebla, México

Erika Nohemi Rivas-Martínez     Departamento de Botánica, Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Saltillo, Coahuila, México

Armando Robledo-Olivo     Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos, Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Saltillo, Coahuila, México

Gerardo Rodríguez-Cutiño     Department of NanoBioscience, School of Chemistry, Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila, Saltillo, México

Federica Sordo     Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

Margherita Stupino     Department of Management, University of Turin, Turin, Italy

Keith I. Tomlins     Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich, Kent, United Kingdom

Chibuike Udenigwe     School of Nutrition Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada

Carlos Manuel Valdés-Dávila     Escuela de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila, Saltillo, Coahuila, México

José Ángel Villarreal-Quintanilla     Departamento de Botánica, Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Saltillo, Coahuila, México

Series Preface

Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu; Alina Maria Holban

Food and beverage industry accounts among the most developed sectors, being constantly changing. Even though a basic beverage industry could be found in every area of the globe, particular aspects in beverage production, processing, and consumption are identified in some geographic zones. An impressive progress has recently been observed in both traditional and modern beverage industries and these advances are leading beverages to a new era. Along with the cutting-edge technologies, developed to bring innovation and improve beverage industry, some other human-related changes also have a great impact on the development of such products. Emerging diseases with a high prevalence in the present, as well as a completely different lifestyle of the population in recent years have led to particular needs and preferences in terms of food and beverages. Advances in the production and processing of beverages have allowed for the development of personalized products to serve for a better health of overall population or for a particular class of individuals. Also, recent advances in the management of beverages offer the possibility to decrease any side effects associated with such an important industry, such as decreased pollution rates and improved recycling of all materials involved in beverage design and processing, while providing better quality products.

Beverages engineering has emerged in such way that we are now able to obtain specifically designed content beverages, such as nutritive products for children, decreased sugar content juices, energy drinks, and beverages with additionally added health-promoting factors. However, with the immense development of beverage processing technologies and because of their wide versatility, numerous products with questionable quality and unknown health impact have been also produced. Such products, despite their damaging health effect, gained a great success in particular population groups (i.e., children) because of some attractive properties, such as taste, smell, and color.

Nonetheless, engineering offered the possibility to obtain not only the innovative beverages but also packaging materials and contamination sensors useful in food and beverages quality and security sectors. Smart materials able to detect contamination or temperature differences which could impact food quality and even pose a hazardous situation for the consumer were recently developed and some are already utilized in packaging and food preservation.

This 20-volume series has emerged from the need to reveal the current situation in beverage industry and to highlight the progress of the last years, bringing together most recent technological innovations while discussing present and future trends. The series aims to increase awareness of the great variety of new tools developed for traditional and modern beverage products and also to discuss their potential health effects.

All volumes are clearly illustrated and contain chapters contributed by highly reputed authors, working in the field of beverage science, engineering, or biotechnology. Manuscripts are designed to provide necessary basic information in order to understand specific processes and novel technologies presented within the thematic volumes.

Volume 1, entitled Production and management of beverages, offers a recent perspective regarding the production of main types of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. Current management approaches in traditional and industrial beverages are also dissected within this volume.

In Volume 2, Processing and sustainability of beverages, novel information regarding the processing technologies and perspectives for a sustainable beverage industry are given.

Third volume, entitled Engineering tools in beverage industry dissects the newest advances made in beverage engineering, highlighting cutting-edge tools and recently developed processes to obtain modern and improved beverages.

Volume 4 presents updated information regarding Bottled and packaged waters. In this volume are discussed some wide interest problems, such as drinking water processing and security, contaminants, pollution and quality control of bottled waters, and advances made to obtain innovative water packaging.

Volume 5, Fermented beverages, deals with the description of traditional and recent technologies utilized in the industry of fermented beverages, highlighting the high impact of such products on consumer health. Because of their great beneficial effects, fermented products still represent an important industrial and research domain.

Volume 6 discusses recent progress in the industry of Nonalcoholic beverages. Teas and functional nonalcoholic beverages, as well as their impact on current beverage industry and traditional medicine are discussed.

In Volume 7, entitled Alcoholic beverages, recent tools and technologies in the manufacturing of alcoholic drinks are presented. Updated information is given about traditional and industrial spirits production and examples of current technologies in wine and beer industry are dissected.

Volume 8 deals with recent progress made in the field of Caffeinated and cocoa-based beverages. This volume presents the great variety of such popular products and offer new information regarding recent technologies, safety, and quality aspects as well as their impact on health. Also, recent data regarding the molecular technologies and genetic aspects in coffee useful for the development of high-quality raw materials could be found here.

In Volume 9, entitled Milk-based beverages, current status, developments, and consumers trends in milk-related products are discussed. Milk-based products represent an important industry and tools are constantly been developed to fit the versatile preferences of consumers and also nutritional and medical needs.

Volume 10, Sports and energy drinks, deals with the recent advances and health impact of sports and energy beverages, which became a flourishing industry in the recent years.

In Volume 11, main novelties in the field of Functional and medicinal beverages, as well as perspective of their use for future personalized medicine are given.

Volume 12 gives an updated overview regarding Nutrients in beverages. Types, production, intake, and health impact of nutrients in various beverage formulations are dissected through this volume.

In Volume 13, advances in the field of Natural beverages are provided, along with their great variety, impact on consumer health, and current and future beverage industry developments.

Volume 14, Value-added Ingredients and enrichments of beverages, talks about a relatively recently developed field which is currently widely investigated, namely the food and beverage enrichments. Novel technologies of extraction and production of enrichments, their variety, as well as their impact on product quality and consumers effects are dissected here.

Volume 15, Preservatives and preservation approaches in beverages, offer a wide perspective regarding conventional and innovative preservation methods in beverages, as well as main preservatives developed in recent years.

In Volume 16, Trends in beverage packaging, the most recent advances in the design of beverage packaging and novel materials designed to promote the content quality and freshness are presented.

Volume 17 is entitled Quality control in beverage industry. In this volume are discussed the newest tools and approaches in quality monitoring and product development in order to obtain advanced beverages.

Volume 18, Safety issues in beverage production, presents general aspects in safety control of beverages. Here, the readers can find not only the updated information regarding contaminants and risk factors in beverage production, but also novel tools for accurate detection and control.

Volume 19, Biotechnological progress and beverage consumption, reveals novel tools used for advanced biotechnology in beverage industry production.

Finally, Volume 20 entitled Nanoengineering in beverage industry take the readers into the nanotechnology world, while highlighting important progress made in the field of nanosized materials science aiming to obtain tools for a future beverage industry.

This 20-volume series is intended especially for researchers in the field of food and beverages, and also biotechnologists, industrial representatives interested in innovation, academic staff and students in food science, engineering, biology, and chemistry-related fields, pharmacology and medicine, and is a useful and updated resource for any reader interested to find the basics and recent innovations in the most investigated fields in beverage engineering.

Preface

Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania

Alina Maria Holban, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania

In Beverage science, novel processing approaches are intensively investigated and are of great importance for the development of a sustainable industry. Not only the quality improvement, tradition, and innovation, but also the regulatory aspects play a great role in the development of new products that have good resistance to changes in the market. The purpose of this book is to offer an updated collection of papers dealing with the current situation and future trends in beverage processing and sustainability.

This volume contains 15 chapters prepared by outstanding authors from Spain, México, Italy, Portugal, India, Brazil, and Turkey.

The selected manuscripts are clearly illustrated and contain accessible information for a wide audience, especially food and beverage scientists, engineers, biotechnologists, biochemists, industrial companies, students, and also any reader interested in learning about the most interesting and recent advances in the field of beverage science.

Chapter 1, Adding Sustainability to the Beverage Industry Through Nature-Based Wastewater Treatment, by Dolores Hidalgo et al., shows the feasibility of traditional and nature-based in situ treatment processes for beverage effluents addressing the environmental problems associated with its management and providing the relevant socioeconomic and environmental values.

Chapter 2, Alcoholic Beverages: Current Situation and Generalities of Anthropological Interest, by Arianna Núñez-Caraballo et al., discusses different aspects related to a sustainable alcoholic beverage industry. This chapter presents the relationship of these drinks with anthropology as they are the articulating elements, since they allow global cultural analysis through the social and symbolic expressions that occur from their collective uses. The aspects related to the regulation and market of these drinks and the relationship with consumer is also presented.

Chapter 3, Sustainable Business Models in Beverages Industry Networks. The Case Study of an Italian Breweries Network, by Pierantonio Bertero et al., analyzes a sustainable business model implemented by a network of Italian breweries with the aim of identifying its elements and drivers of success and explaining how and whether it can contribute to the sustainability of the related context.

Chapter 4, The Sustainability of Mexican Traditional Beverage Sotol: Ecological, Historical, and Technical Issues, by M. Humberto Reyes-Valdés et al., describes the technological process of transformation of the crown biomass into the distilled beverage, the topic of the Sotol designation of origin, as well as its characteristics regarding its composition and nutritional value. Presently, several Dasylirion species have an increasing economic importance for the manufacture of the distilled beverage called Sotol, which is consumed in Mexico and exported to other countries. Finally, research needs are mentioned in the context of the covered topics.

Chapter 5, Quality Improvement and New Product Development in the Hibiscus Beverage Industry, by Maria João P. Monteiro et al., summarizes and discusses the extant research on Hibiscus sabdariffa var. sabdariffa ruber calyx and extract production, the phytochemical and chemical-sensory properties of hibiscus extracts, the sensory characterization of hibiscus beverages, and consumer acceptance of such products in different countries.

Chapter 6, Tradition and Innovation Within the Wine Sector: How a Strong Combination Could Increase the Company’s Competitive Advantage, by Margherita Stupino et al., aims to study the effects of an external innovation strategy on a winery company with particular emphasis on both the synergies and benefits of an innovation strategy focused on products and processes. To reach this purpose authors have used a qualitative method and in particular, a case study. The case study is relevant as it indicates that the recourse of external innovation in the wine industry could represent a strategic path for enhancing innovativeness and competitiveness.

Chapter 7, UV-C Light for Processing Beverages: Principles, Applications, and Future Trends, by O.T. Antonio-Gutiérrez et al., provides updated information regarding the use of UV-C light in the beverage industry; including a review of conventional and novel methods for preservation of liquid products, including thermal and nonthermal technologies. In this chapter basic principles of UV-C light and associated technologies, required UV-C doses, food-borne microbial inactivation kinetics, and UV-C equipment design are also presented, and the efficacy of UV-C light in combination with other thermal and nonthermal technologies is discussed. The present status and future trends in beverages processing (fruit juices, nectars, soft drinks, beers, and wines) with UV-C light is also included in this chapter.

Chapter 8 entitled, Pectinases: Production and Applications for Fruit Juice Beverages, by Anand Nighojkar et al., contemplates on the pectin structure, the hydrolyzing enzymes, their sources, production and their application in the beverage industry. The purified or partially purified polygalacturonase and pectin methylesterase, or bioreactors have been employed for clarification of various fruit juices in solutions. The pectinases are an important biochemical tool for fruit liquefaction, pressing, clarification, and production of clear concentrated fruit juices.

Chapter 9, In Situ Analysis Devices for Estimating the Environmental Footprint in Beverages Industry, by N. Jornet-Martínez et al., exposes the need to calculate the environmental footprint which could mean the integration of sustainability in differentiation strategies for beverage industries. The parameters for estimating the footprint are outlined and discussed within the chapter. The main negative impacts are related to water pollution, atmospheric pollution, and solid waste.

Chapter 10, Hydrodynamic Cavitation Technologies: A Pathway to More Sustainable, Healthier Beverages and Food Supply Chains, by Lorenzo Albanese et al., dissects the applications of technologies based on controlled hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) processes of enhancing energy efficiency and yield of industrial processes dealing with liquid substances in the beverage science field. Large benefits are expected for the beverage industry, where HC processes can achieve fine crushing of solid particles, food-grade microbiological safety, homogenization, removal of undesired volatility, and extraction of bioactive compounds at a fraction of the current cost.

Chapter 11, Influence of Processing on Rheological and Textural Characteristics of Goat and Sheep Milk Beverages and Methods of Analysis, by Vanessa Bonfim da Silva et al., aims to present the most relevant aspects and concerns of the rheological and textural characteristic in goat and sheep milk and their derived beverages and approaching the influence of food process on these characteristics, as well as the methods of analysis for a sustainable sheep milk industry.

Chapter 12, Effect of Novel Food Processing Technologies on Beverage Antioxidants, by Gülay Özkan, reviews the antioxidant activities/capacities of nonalcoholic beverages including milk, fruit, vegetable, cereal, etc. based drinks and focuses on the effect of novel processing techniques on the antioxidant properties of these beverages. Additionally, this chapter also provides information on the application of novel technologies on beverage-type foods.

Chapter 13, Valorization of Residues From Beverage Production, by Sigrid Kusch-Brandt, discusses value-added utilization of residues (by-products and waste) from the industrial production of beverages. The occurrence of by-products and wastes and their key characteristics are addressed within this chapter. The assessment reveals that at least 60 million metric tons of bioresidues and likely more than 100 million metric tons occur each year during the industrial processing of agricultural products into beverages. A wide variety of valorization options exist. The approaches that make use of whole material streams and approaches that target the recuperation of specific components with potentially high market value are presented. These include energetic valorization via anaerobic digestion (biogas, biohydrogen) or other routes, biochar production, the recovery and use of bioactive molecules, and also packaging.

Chapter 14, Law and Science Make a Common Effort to Enact a Zero Waste Strategy for Beverages, by Lara Fornabaio et al., depicts the legal attempts and recent trends that the packaging specialists have been developing in order to pursue the objective of carbon footprint reduction and of a long-term production tending to a zero waste strategy. Several new environmental-friendly initiatives have been flourishing on the food market worldwide in order to reduce the amount of carbon footprints and the devastating impacts of food packaging on the environment.

Chapter 15, Processing of Beverages by Membranes, by Amit Jain, discusses the evolution of membrane technology in beverage processing, scope, potential of application, and future prospective. The membrane separation has emerged as an important technology and enjoys a variety of advantages over conventional separation techniques employed by the industries. With regard to food and beverage processing, membrane technologies score higher than other alternatives due to (i) low energy consumption, (ii) no involvement of phase change, and (iii) no need to add chemicals. Hence, use of membrane as separation media and its use in the clarification applications have attracted the attention of scientists and engineers.

1

Adding Sustainability to the Beverage Industry Through Nature-Based Wastewater Treatment

Dolores Hidalgo; Jesús M. Martín-Marroquín    CARTIF Technology Center, Valladolid, Spain

Abstract

Although wastewater composition varies from one facility to the other in the beverage industry, what these streams have in common is pollutant constituents and their potential negative effects on human and on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. These effluents present several risks to the environment and human health as they affect the present and future quality of water bodies due to the uncontrolled infiltration or voluntary direct discharge. This chapter presents the feasibility of traditional and nature-based in situ treatment processes for beverage effluents addressing the environmental problems associated with its management and providing the relevant socioeconomic and environmental values.

Keywords

Beverage industry sustainability; Circular economy; Microalgae; Nature-based solutions; Wastewater treatment

Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge support of this work by the Agencia de Innovación, Financiación e Internacionalización Empresarial de Castilla y León. Project: Economía circular en el sector agroalimentario (Circular Economy in the Agri-Food Sector).

1.1 Introduction

Although wastewater composition varies from one facility to the other in the beverage industry, what these streams have in common is pollutant constituents and their potential negative effects on human and on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. These effluents presents several risks to the environment and human health as they affect the present and future quality of water bodies due to the uncontrolled infiltration or voluntary direct discharge. The organic loading can cause a high depletion of dissolved oxygen in the receiving body of water through biochemical oxygen demand, which impacts a variety of larger organisms such as fish. Level of dissolved oxygen below 2 mg/L reduces cell functioning, disrupts circulatory fluid balance in aquatic species, and can cause their death. Nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus contents also cause water quality issues. If the nutrient in the wastewater is discharged directly into a water body without processing, it could potentially cause eutrophication, leading to a decrease in the diversity of the fauna and death of animal life over time. Inorganic compounds also result in increase of conductivity and salinity of the water and soil. When their level in water changes, it can be detrimental to aquatic life and can cause decrease in biodiversity in the affected area. High salinity also negatively affects the agriculture and infrastructure by creating unhealthy vegetation. Xenobiotic organic compounds as pesticides or fungicides are toxic to humans and ecotoxic and can cause serious illnesses. Therefore, control and treatment of liquid effluents is one of the biggest environmental issues in the beverage industry.

Direct discharge of beverage effluents into watercourses, although existing, is a forbidden practice today. Small beverage processing facilities usually do not have in situ treatment plants and they transport their effluents to sewer systems or municipal wastewater treatment plants, mixing them with the municipal waste streams. However, due to its high organic and ammonium concentrations, these streams cause problems due to extra loading in the biological sewage treatment plant. As consequence, the treatment plant needs excess energy, chemical addition, and more demanding operational skills to comply with the effluent limits. Sometimes this wastewater transfer causes the treatment plant overloading in certain periods of the year, thus, avoiding its correct operation. Bigger facilities usually pretreat their effluents by aerobic digestion, reducing the nutrient and organic loading before sending them to a municipal treatment plant for polishing.

Furthermore, this aerobic treatment generates large amounts of sludge that is usually managed as a waste. The most common sludge disposal option in these cases is landfilling. This sludge landfilling has clear negative environmental aspects: it is an inefficient way to use organic feedstocks-wasting resources, reducing nutrients valorization possibilities, and potentially increasing greenhouse gas emissions. As the European Union (EU) focuses on mitigating and preventing the consequences of global climate change there is a heightened awareness of the significant impact of landfill-generated methane emissions. This recognition is increasing the importance of recovering organics through composting, anaerobic digestion, or other emerging methods, since it is the organics that are buried in landfills that are the source of this methane.

This chapter presents the feasibility of nature-based in situ treatment processes for beverage effluents addressing the environmental problems associated with its management and providing the relevant socioeconomic and environmental values.

1.2 Environmental Problem Targeted

The beverage industry includes two major categories: (1) the nonalcoholic category comprising soft drink and water bottling and canning, soft drink syrup manufacture, fruit juices bottling, canning and boxing, the coffee and the tea industry, and (2) the alcoholic beverage categories including distilled spirits, wine, and brewing. This industry encompasses the harvesting of raw materials, the processing, packaging, transport, and distribution of the final products to consumers (Franson, 2013).

Between these different sectors there is a great variation in water consumption and wastewater generation. The same is observed even for the manufacturing of the same product from different industrial units. Despite these differences, drink sector requires considerable resources of water and energy and produces waste and wastewater, so, inevitably it has an impact on the environment. The European food and drink industry is responsible for approximately 1.8% of Europe’s total water use. Water is an essential input for the food and drink industry, as an ingredient, as a key processing element, and as a cooling agent in many production processes. Wastewater is the most common waste in the food and drink industry. It is characterized by organic contamination, and is generally biologically treated before discharge (Food Drink Europe (FDE), 2012).

Wastewater pollution load depends on numerous parameters, such as the type of product being processed, the equipment and process used, and the cleaning system applied, while the common characteristic is a high organic content in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD). This fact is reflected in the wastewater treatment technology employed which, in most of the occasions, is biological, with special emphasis on the application of anaerobic digestion processes (Tshuma et al., 2016).

The organic load of wastewater is generally easily biodegradable and mainly consists of sugars, soluble starches, ethanol, fatty acids, etc., while heavy metals or pesticides are normally present in very low concentrations (European Commission (EC), 2017a). Table 1.1 illustrates some of the most important parameters for different effluents of beverages facilities.

Table 1.1

Beverage industry requires enormous amount of fresh water, since water is one of the main ingredients of the products. As a consequence, a significant amount of polluted wastewater is generated during different processes, including drink production, plant wash down, washing bottles, as well as washing general work area. Approximately, 3–4 L of fresh water is required to produce 1 L of soft drink (Gumbo et al., 2003). Most of the facilities do not reuse the wastewater and consume large quantities of fresh water for each cycle (Haroon et al., 2013).

Only cleaning activities supposes almost 50% of the total wastewater generated by this industry (Abdel-Fatah et al., 2016). Caustic soda and sugar are also released along with water as major pollutants (Valta et al., 2015). Beverage industries require large quantities of fresh water for cleaning and rinsing operations. Wasting such a huge quantity of fresh water in the beverage industry has been a debate since many decades.

One basic cause of freshwater wastage is the reuse of glass bottles which requires a huge amount of water as a rinsing and cleaning agent before they are refilled (Pasqualino et al., 2011). The bottle washing causes most of the water consumption. Modern bottle washers need 150–200 mL per bottle; whereas the older one consumes up to 600 mL (Camperos et al., 2004).

Beer, for example, is about 95% water in composition; however, the amount of water used to produce and/or clean a container of beer is far greater than the amount of water contained in the beer that is actually packaged and shipped out (Brewers Association, 2016).

Beverage container washing is usually conducted for two purposes that is, to remove microorganisms and other chemicals to render the bottles safe for the human health and to clean the bottles for a good presentation of the product by removing the debris, solids, and other pollutants from its surfaces. Different chemicals used for washing bottles include sodium hydroxide, detergent, and chlorine solution.

But in general, apart from water the main constituent of beverage industry liquid waste is sugar (Abrha and Chen, 2017). This subclass of carbohydrates is highly biodegradable and is the primary contributor to biodegradable COD, and the aqueous oxygen depletion and eutrophication potential of the waste. The sugars potentially undergo a number of abiotic and biotic reactions such as the formation of carboxylic acid in the presence of oxygen, lactic acid as an intermediate product of the oxidation of sugar, sugar inversion in the presence of H+ ions, and fermentation (in anaerobic environments). The carboxylic acid generated decreases pH of the solution resulting in a very acidic postreaction condition. The lactic acid, which is an intermediate product of the above-mentioned reaction, and the acid-based flavors also contribute to the acid conditions of the effluent. The high total solids levels in the effluent are mainly contributed by the pulp from the juice concentrates and coagulation products formed by the destabilization of acid-based flavors and colorants upon addition of the detergents used in cleaning the equipment, which results in the formation of the scum (Laubscher et al., 2001).

Substantial reductions in the volume of wastewater generated in this sector can be achieved through waste minimization techniques. There is no simple relationship between the amount of water used in cleaning and hygiene standards, and food safety legislation requirements prevent minimization of water use from causing unsatisfactory levels of cleanliness, hygiene, or product quality.

Wastewater flowrates may be very variable on a daily, weekly, or seasonal basis. The wastewater profile is largely dependent on production and cleaning patterns. In some industries, processing takes place on a campaign basis (e.g., wine) and there is little or no wastewater generated for part of the year.

Being a diverse industrial sector, the different beverage industries have different environmental issues and challenges. Table 1.2 illustrates data on yearly average concentrations and specific loads for different parameters in the effluent of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) by drink industry and type of discharge according to the reference document on best available techniques (BAT) in the food, drink, and milk Industries (European Commission (EC), 2017b).

Table 1.2

COD, chemical oxygen demand; NI, no information provided; TN, total nitrogen; TOC, total organic carbon; TP, total phosphorus; TSS, total suspended solids.

Beverages processing wastewater vary from very acidic, that is, pH 3.5, to very alkaline, that is, pH 11. Factors affecting wastewater pH include:

−the natural pH of the raw material;

−pH adjustment to prevent raw material deterioration;

−use of acid or caustic solutions in processing operations;

−use of acid or caustic solutions in cleaning operations;

−acidic waste streams;

−acid-forming reactions in the wastewater;

−nature of raw water source, either hard or soft.

Wastewater contains few compounds that individually have an adverse effect on WWTPs or a receiving water body. Possible exceptions include:

−salt where large amounts are used;

−pesticide residues not readily degraded during treatment;

−residues and by-products from the use of chemical disinfection techniques;

−some cleaning products.

1.3 Water Use and Disposal in the Beverage Industry

1.3.1 The Brewing Industry

Beer is an alcoholic drink derived from malted barley that may or may not contain other unmalted cereal grains, and flavored with hops. Sugar may also be added. There are three basic steps in the process: mashing, fermentation, and maturation/conditioning. Fig. 1.1 shows an overview of the brewing production process.

Fig. 1.1 Overview of the brewing production process.

Breweries use significant amounts of water and energy and produce wastewater and solid residues, by-products, and waste. The water consumption figure varies depending on the type of beer, the number of beer brands, the size of brews, the existence of a bottle washer, how the beer is packaged and pasteurized, the age of the facility, the system used for cleaning and the type of equipment used. If an on-site well is used, the water may require treatment before use, during which losses of up to 30% may occur. Bottling consumes more water than kegging. Consumption levels are high for once-through cooling systems and/or losses due to evaporation in hot climates.

At the end of mash separation, the residual very dilute worts are allowed to freely drain until an acceptable level of brewers’ grains moisture is achieved. After grains discharge, the fines deposited beneath the false floor are removed by a hot water underplate pressure cleaning and the false floor slots are kept unobstructed by an overhead hot water rinsing. These very dilute worts are high in total suspended solids (TSS), lipids, and polyphenols and, traditionally, have been considered unacceptable for process reuse and are consequently sent to the WWTP. This loss is significant in terms of water, energy, and extract.

Wastewater from the lauter tun is a significant contributor to a brewery’s total wastewater. The pollutant load of the lauter tun wastewater depends on several factors. In terms of water balance, the lower the spent grain moisture content, the greater the wastewater volume. It is advantageous to reduce further the volume of dilute wort drainings, but care is needed not to entrain air or extend the time of wort collection. It is also common practice to apply deep bed raking during the bed drain down to speed up the draining of the residual dilute worts after completion of the wort collection into the kettle. The more aggressively this technique is employed, the more fines pass through to the wastewater. A higher level of retained spent grain after discharge, inevitably results in more fines (COD) being entrapped in the false floor plate and removed by the underplate pressure cleaning and going to the wastewater.

To enable the reuse of the wastewater as process water for mashing, the removal of the very fine colloidal size particles from the weak worts is necessary. This can be achieved by centrifugation or two-stage filtration, that is, coarse filtration followed by ultrafiltration. After the coarse filtration stage, the wastewater is subject to a cross-flow membrane process.

During primary treatment, neutralization is essential. The dosing capacity of the neutralization plant depends on the operation of the brewery, especially the design and operation of the discharge of the caustic baths in the bottle washers. Other alternatives are using flue gases from the boiler plant or surplus CO2 from the fermentation to neutralize caustic or overflow from bottle cleaning facilities. The equipment can be a scrubber or a simpler system with venting of the gas to a sump. Secondary treatment includes aerobic and/or anaerobic processes. The most common aerobic method applied for brewery wastewater treatment is the activated sludge process. Nevertheless, using an anaerobic process gives the advantage that less (or no) nutrient is needed for nutrient- deficient brewery wastewater. The most commonly used anaerobic techniques are Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) and Expanded Granular Sludge Bed (EGSB) reactors. If wastewater requirements are more stringent than biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of 15 mg/L and a TSS of 20–30 mg/L, tertiary treatment is necessary.

1.3.2 The Soft Drinks and Nectar/Juice Industry

Typical ingredients found in most soft drinks include water, acid, sweeteners, and flavorings. Optional ingredients include fruit, vegetables, carbon dioxide, preservatives, and color. Water is the primary ingredient of all soft drinks and, as a consequence, the quality of the water, in reference to its microbiological loading and other parameters, are important because they affect the final sensory qualities of the drink. Natural sweeteners, such as sugar and sugar syrups, and/or intense sweeteners, such as saccharin and aspartame, are the most popular to sweetener in soft drinks. Flavorings used in this industry are often derived from highly concentrated liquid mixtures of plant extracts such as flowers, fruit, leaves, seeds, bark, and root. Alternatively, they may be synthetic.

The processes for the manufacture of soft drinks usually also involves the mixing of ingredients in the syrup room, and then the addition of water that has been subjected to various treatments. The mixture is heat processed or chemically preserved at this stage. The product may be carbonated if required. Alternatively, the product may be filled into packaging and in-pack heat processed after the syrup and water are combined. Sometimes syrups require filtration or homogenization and may be pasteurized. Packaging is cleaned prior to filling by rinsing with water or by air blasting.

In order to save water, effluents from the rinsing process can go directly to a store tank and, after possible treatment, can be used at auxiliary services. Moreover, wastewater from the fillers can be used for cooling purposes.

1.3.3 Distilled Beverages

Main raw materials used for the production of spirit drinks include agricultural raw materials (cereals, grape, fruits, sugar cane, potato, etc.), water, and yeast.

A large proportion of spirit drinks productions have once-through cooling water system. Other water uses include production water used to make the distilled spirits and process water for cleaning of the plant and equipment and other ancillary use. The flavor profile of the product being manufactured may dictate the production water source based on quality/flavor profile etc.

The two-stage wastewater treatment system, anaerobic following aerobic, is the most common effluent treatment in these cases.

1.3.4 Wine Production

Fresh grapes are the raw materials used for the production of wine. Cleaning water and, in a smaller proportion, cooling water in fermentation tanks constitute the main water uses in wineries.

After primary treatment, the wastewater may be sent to the municipal WWTP if acceptable, or further treated on site. During secondary treatment, the yeast can provoke severe problems; the activated sludge can die and be washed out. Therefore, the separation of yeast and other solids is a necessary primary treatment step.

Anaerobic processes and particularly anaerobic lagoons and anaerobic filters are reported to be the most suitable treatments for winery wastewater (Strong and Burgess, 2008). Alternatively, aerobic processes can be used, for example, aerated storage for 3 months is used at small wineries with low wastewater volumes. Activated sludge or trickling filters are used. Activated sludge systems tend to be over dimensioned, due to the seasonal variations and are, therefore, expensive to install and operate. Trickling filters are reported to be 70% effective and, therefore, require further polishing (Kim et al., 2014).

Tertiary treatment is used as a polishing stage for the removal of the remaining pollutants. The use of landspreading and evaporation lagoons have been reportedly used in vineyards (Christen et al., 2010).

1.4 Adding Sustainability to the Beverage Industry

The level of pollutants in wastewater and the amount of waste produced by the industry can represent a significant load in some countries or regions. While most emissions from the industry are biodegradable, it usually uses materials such as detergents which are resistant to conventional treatment methods and can introduce, for example, in the juice and nectars industry, pesticide residues used on the source crop.

The modern beverage industry focuses on proactive environmental management systems, natural resource conservation, and the performance of waste minimization techniques (European Commission (EC), 2017b). To ensure sustainability, the effects of the raw material supply, beverages processing, transport, distribution, preparation, packaging, and disposal must be considered and controlled. Both primary production and processing critically depend on a reliable water supply and adequate water quality, in conformity with legal requirements.

As mentioned before, water consumption is one of the key environmental issues of the beverage sector. Fig. 1.2 shows the water cycle in this industry. Water, which is not used as an ingredient, ultimately appears in the wastewater stream or is transformed into steam and emitted to air. Typically, untreated beverages wastewater is high in both COD and BOD contents. Emission levels can be 10–500 times higher than in domestic wastewater. The TSS concentration varies from negligible to more than 100 g/L. Wastewater from the drink industry is, in most cases, biodegradable and hence can be treated together with domestic wastewater or wastewater from other industrial sectors (e.g., carbon source for denitrification or for biological phosphorus removal). The solid output from beverage installations is composed of by-products, residues, coproducts, and waste. The main sources of solid waste output are inherent losses besides spillage, leakage, overflow, defects/returned products, retained material that cannot freely drain to the next stage in the process and heat deposited waste. Table 1.3 gathers the key environmental issues for some of the beverage sectors.

Fig. 1.2 Water cycle in the beverage industry.

Table 1.3

a For cleaning operations.

Focusing on water, this element is used in the drinks sector for:

−beverage processing, where the water either comes into contact with, or is added to, the product;

−equipment and installation cleaning;

−washing of raw materials;

−water which does not come into contact with the product, for example, boilers or cooling.

In order to improve the sustainability of the beverage industry, reuse and recycling of process water and wastewater should be a must. The potential role of treated wastewater as an alternative source of water supply is now well acknowledged and embedded within European and national strategies (European Commission (EC), 2015). But recycling and reuse is not always possible. Water that comes into contact with the product must, with a few exceptions, at least be of drinking water standard. For the production of soft drinks and beer, often special quality characteristics are required that sometimes exceed those of drinking water quality. On the other hand, water of varying quality can be used for cleaning and disinfection purposes. Water is also needed for cleaning the outside of equipment, walls, and floors. In this case, contact with the final product is rather unlikely, so drinking water quality is not required. However, often drinking water quality is used to avoid any hazard.

When it is decided which water sources can be reused and/or recycled in the beverage installation, several issues might require consideration such as the following:

−Legal requirements related to safety and hygiene.

−Customer requirements related to safety, cleaning, etc.

−Risks related to water consumption. The installation might consider the possibility of monitoring the hygiene quality of the water to assess the risk of contamination of products. If contamination of products occurs, the installation might weigh up the benefits and disadvantages of reusing a certain water source.

−The consequences of reusing a specific water source, such as energy and chemical consumption for treatment of the water before reuse/recycling.

−Possible water shortage.

When looking at water consumption, it is not only the volume that should be taken into consideration. As most water usage in the beverage industry requires some treatment, such as cooling and heating of the water before use, the water consumption should be reduced as much as possible. This also reduces energy use, for example, for pumping and treatment. Moreover, both water shortage and excess of water at local level should be considered, where relevant. Different requirements on safety and hygiene for products also have an influence on the water consumption. In addition, the water quality itself can have an influence on how much water is needed for a specific use.

1.5 Traditional Beverage Wastewater Treatment

Water pollution control can be carried out in the beverage industry by reducing the volume and pollutant load strength of the wastewater generated, by an appropriate combination of:

−process-integrated techniques such as eliminating or decreasing the concentration of certain pollutants, for example, dangerous and priority hazardous substances, reducing water consumption, recycling/reducing raw materials, and by-products, recycling, or reusing water;

−end-of-pipe techniques, that is, wastewater treatment.

Wastewater treatment is applied after process-integrated operations have minimized both the consumption and the contamination of water. Techniques widely applicable in the beverage sector achieve environmental benefits such as waste minimization and may achieve some or all of the following effects related to a specific wastewater stream:

−reduction in the volume;

−reduction in the pollutant load;

−elimination of, or decrease in, the concentration of certain substances;

−increase in the suitability for recycling or reuse.

The descriptions of the various wastewater treatment techniques in the following sections show the sequence that the techniques typically follow to achieve progressively a better quality of wastewater. Due to the nature of the raw materials used and the products produced, wastewater arising from the beverage sector is primarily biodegradable in nature. However, cleaning and disinfection agents may represent a problem if they are poorly biodegradable. Table 1.4 presents the most typical wastewater treatment techniques, which are applied in beverages industries.

Table 1.4

Modified from BATs, European Commission (EC), 2017. European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau (EIPPCB), 2017. Reference document on Best Available Techniques (BAT) in the Food, Drink and Milk Industries, EIPPCB, Seville. Available from: http://eippcb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/reference/BREF/FDM/FDM_31-01-2017-D1_b_w.pdf (Accessed 20 September 2017).

Primary treatment is designed to remove gross, suspended and floating solids from raw sewage. It includes screening to trap solid objects and sedimentation by gravity to remove suspended solids. This level is sometimes referred to as mechanical treatment, but chemicals are often added to accelerate the sedimentation process. Primary treatment can reduce the BOD of the incoming wastewater by 20%–30% and the total suspended solids by 50%–60%. Primary treatment is usually the first stage of wastewater treatment (World Bank Group (WBG), 2016).

Secondary treatment is directed principally toward the removal of biodegradable organics and suspended solids using biological methods. Adsorption of pollutants to the organic sludge produced also removes nonbiodegradable materials, for example, heavy metals. Organic nitrogen and phosphorus can also be partially removed from the wastewater. Secondary treatment options can be used alone or in combination, depending on the characteristics of the wastewater and the requirements before discharge. There are essentially three types of metabolic processes, that is, aerobic processes, using dissolved oxygen, anaerobic processes, without oxygen supply, and anoxic processes, using biological reduction of oxygen donors.

Aerobic processes are only generally applicable and cost-effective when the wastewater is readily biodegradable. Microorganisms in the mixed liquor can receive the oxygen input from either the surface or diffusers submerged in the wastewater. Surface injection of oxygen is carried out by means of either surface aerators or oxygenation cages.

In the absence of oxygen, organic matter is broken down, producing methane (CH4) as a by-product. This gas can be used to heat the reactors. In standard anaerobic processes, the reactors are usually unheated, but in high rate anaerobic processes, the reactors are usually heated. In both cases, the temperature of the reactor has to be maintained at around 30–35°C (mesophilic) or 45–50°C (thermophilic), and whether heat is required or not depends essentially on the temperature of the feed.

Although anaerobic process is slower than an aerobic process, higher BOD loadings are achievable with an anaerobic technique (in terms of kg BOD/m³ of reactor volume) for highly polluted wastewater. Anaerobic techniques are generally utilized in those industries where there is a high level of soluble and readily biodegradable organic material and the concentration of the wastewater, expressed in COD, is generally greater than 1500–2000 mg/L. For the beverage sector, the application of anaerobic wastewater treatment is largely confined to relatively heavily polluted wastewater with a COD between 3000 and 40,000 mg/L, for example, in the alcoholic drink sectors. There has recently been some success in using certain anaerobic systems even for less heavily polluted wastewater with a COD between 1500 and 3000 mg/L, for example, in breweries, in the fruit juice, mineral water, and the soft drinks sectors. Where there are large fluctuations in volume and pollutant load, this treatment is less effective.

One of the most fundamental aspects of anaerobic wastewater treatment is that the vast majority of organic carbon associated with the influent BOD is converted to methane as opposed to being used for new cell growth. The differences are clear with aerobic processes, which convert most of the organic carbon to new cells which eventually form waste biosolids that require either further treatment or off-site disposal. Anaerobic processes produce much less waste sludge. Also the methane produced has a high calorific value and as such can be reused as fuel.

After secondary treatment, further treatment may be needed either to enable the water to be reused as process water or low grade wash water, or to meet discharge requirements. Tertiary treatment refers to any process that is considered a polishing step, up to and including disinfection and sterilization systems.

1.6 Natural Treatment of Wastewater

Natural ecosystems have been used for wastewater treatment for hundreds of years. However, this special kind of treatment has often represented only an uncontrolled waste stream water disposal and, as a result, many ecosystems have been irreversibly damaged. Natural systems for the treatment of wastewater have always drawn attention because of low maintenance and operation costs as well as low capital investment. However, it was only recently the remediation processes involved in wastewater treatment in natural ecosystems were used in artificially built treatment systems (Rozkošny et al., 2014).

In the natural environment, biological and physicochemical processes occur when water, soil, plants, microorganisms, and the atmosphere interact. Natural treatment systems are designed to take advantage of these processes to provide wastewater treatment. The processes involved include many of those used in conventional wastewater treatment systems, such as sedimentation, filtration, precipitation, and chemical oxidation, but occur at natural rates (Tchobanoglous et al., 2003). They are slower than conventional

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