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EEG Brain Signal Classification for Epileptic Seizure Disorder Detection

EEG Brain Signal Classification for Epileptic Seizure Disorder Detection

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EEG Brain Signal Classification for Epileptic Seizure Disorder Detection

Longueur:
247 pages
1 heure
Sortie:
Feb 10, 2019
ISBN:
9780128174272
Format:
Livre

Description

EEG Brain Signal Classification for Epileptic Seizure Disorder Detection provides the knowledge necessary to classify EEG brain signals to detect epileptic seizures using machine learning techniques. Chapters present an overview of machine learning techniques and the tools available, discuss previous studies, present empirical studies on the performance of the NN and SVM classifiers, discuss RBF neural networks trained with an improved PSO algorithm for epilepsy identification, and cover ABC algorithm optimized RBFNN for classification of EEG signal. Final chapter present future developments in the field.

This book is a valuable source for bioinformaticians, medical doctors and other members of the biomedical field who need the most recent and promising automated techniques for EEG classification.

  • Explores machine learning techniques that have been modified and validated for the purpose of EEG signal classification using Discrete Wavelet Transform for the identification of epileptic seizures
  • Encompasses machine learning techniques, providing an easily understood resource for both non-specialized readers and biomedical researchers
  • Provides a number of experimental analyses, with their results discussed and appropriately validated
Sortie:
Feb 10, 2019
ISBN:
9780128174272
Format:
Livre

À propos de l'auteur

Dr. Sandeep Kumar Satapathy is currently working as an Associate Professor in the Department of Computer Science & Engineering and is also the Head of the Department of Information Technology at Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology. Dr. Satapathy did his doctorate in the field of Data Mining & Machine Learning, and his thesis included a detailed classification of brain EEG signals using machine learning techniques. He has been member to various academic committees within the institution. Also, he has been an active reviewer in various peer reviewed journals and presented papers in prestigious conferences. He has also reviewed many research articles and books for Elsevier for possible publication. Prof. Satapathy is highly engrossed into the area of deep learning and image processing. He has many research publications to his credit, that is more than 25 research articles, book chapters and has guided more than 10 master thesis. Dr. Satapathy has also authored a book entitled Frequent Pattern Discovery from Gene Expression Data: An Experimental Approach. He is currently member of many professional organizations and societies. His research interest includes Bioinformatics and computational approaches to biomedical field.

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EEG Brain Signal Classification for Epileptic Seizure Disorder Detection - Sandeep Kumar Satapathy

India

Preface

EEG signals are the electric waves generated in the human brain which is the main cause of different tasks performed by a person. These signals are very small in magnitude but collectively it defines the behavior of a person. Hence, careful and complete analysis of these signals can solve different diseases occurring in our brain. High volume and uncertainty of these signals make it very difficult for any medical person to diagnose a brain disorder disease just by looking at the graphical representation of these signals. Hence, there are plentiful opportunities for computer scientists to produce a computer-based model that can detect efficiently any specific neurological disease after proper analysis of these signals. The signals recorded from human brain contain several features, those needs to be extracted by some feature extraction technique. After this any disease detection problem can be solved by the application of different data mining techniques. The classification technique is basically used for solving these kinds of problems that takes the help of different supervised or unsupervised machine learning techniques.

The primary objective of this research is to classify the EEG brain signal for detection of epileptic seizures using machine learning techniques. Machine learning techniques have recently developed most efficient techniques for solving different kinds of problems. We are mainly concentrating on supervised machine learning techniques. These techniques require a prior knowledge about data that make the machine learn for recognizing new data and perform classification operation. But it is necessary to preprocess the raw EEG data collected from patients to bring them into a form feature sample-based dataset. The signals are analyzed by decomposition using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) with Daubechies wavelet of order 2 up to level 4. After this decomposition different statistical features for different coefficient are collected together to build the dataset. We performed an empirical survey of different machine learning techniques applied for designing classifier model for epilepsy identification. The different techniques used are Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network (MLPNN) with different learning algorithms (such as back-propagation, resilient-propagation, and Manhattan update rule), different variations of neural network such as Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN), Recurrent Neural Network (RNN), Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN), and so on, and Support Vector Machines (SVM) with different kernel functions (such as linear, polynomial, and RBF kernel).

Further, we have enhanced the performance of RBFNN network by implementing different swarm intelligence-based optimization techniques as training algorithm. Swarm intelligence is one of the most efficient fields for the optimization problems. The swarm intelligence methods used in this work are Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithms. This work proposes a novel hybrid technique to train RBFNN by optimizing the parameters of this network using the improved PSO algorithm and ABC algorithm. PSO is one of the most effective optimization technique used so far. But again we have modified the existing PSO algorithm to enhance the performance by adding a new technique for finding the value of the inertia weight used in the calculation of velocity update. The experimental evaluations have proved that the performance of the proposed technique is higher than RBFNN trained with gradient decent approach as well as RBFNN trained with the conventional PSO algorithm. We have also suggested a change to existing ABC algorithm, where we have used tournament selection in place of roulette wheel selection in onlookers bees phase. Besides, the operation of the proposed technique was shown to be more efficient by different experimental evaluations. For this work, ABC algorithm was chosen as more efficient algorithm because of the less number of dependable parameters and improved accuracy of RBFNN as compared to PSO algorithm.

Along with classification accuracy, specificity, sensitivity, and many other different parameters were considered for measuring the performance of classification algorithms. Also, the experimental evaluations are supported by a k-fold cross validation technique to validate the results obtained by different experiments.

Chapter 1

Introduction

Abstract

This chapter presents the basic introduction for the research work carried out in this book. It presents the introduction to electroencephalogram (EEG) signals and its characteristics and behaviors along with the methodologies used for recording of these signals. General and specific goals are briefly discussed in this chapter. It also introduces the motivation and objectives of the research work, along with different techniques used to support them. This chapter also gives a clear picture of the popularly used machine learning algorithms which support in fulfilling our objectives. Different feature extractions to extract the features from EEG signal are also discussed here.

Keywords

Electroencephalogram (EEG); Feature extraction; Discrete wavelet transform (DWT); Artificial neural network (ANN); Support vector machine (SVM)

Electroencephalogram or electroencephalography (EEG) is a trial performed on mental capacity to record the electrical activity in brain. The neural structure of the brain consists of several neurons in terms of lacs. These neurons communicate by colliding among themselves and passing information to each other. This collision leads to the generation of a very small amount of electricity. This is utterly different from the general electricity, which is very high in magnitude. This electric signal flow decides the behavior of a person. In a human brain the normal stream of electrical signal leads to a healthy person. And an abnormal electrical signal flow can pass to an unhealthy person. Hence, these signs can be recorded and analyzed to solve many neurological disorder diseases. The transcription of the electrical activity is essentially caused by putting electrodes on the scalp for 20–40 min, which evaluates the potential fluctuations in the brain [1]. The nerve cells in the psyche are the origin of electric charge, and then they exchange ions with the extracellular milieu. Ions of the same charge repel each other and in this manner they are forced out of the neurons when a number of ions are driven out at the same time they promote each other and form a way known as volume conduction [2]. When this wave reaches the electrode they push or force the ions along the air foil of the electrode which create potential difference and this voltage difference recorded over time gives EEG signals. The key motivation behind this research work is the rapid growth in volume of biological and clinical data or records. To extract knowledge from these data which can be served to be a clinical application, there are different data analysis difficulties which need to be overcome. Many analytical tools based on machine learning (ML) approaches have been invented to tackle with such challenging task of data analysis problems. Around 1% of the total population in the world are affected by a neurological disease called epilepsy. A careful analysis of these EEG signals can solve many neurological disorder diseases.

1.1 Problem Statement

Nowadays, the recording of EEG signal can be easily managed with the aid of various hardware and software techniques. By simply seeing at these signals with naked eyes one cannot make out any abnormality in the sign. Hence, the most important problem is to study these signals properly and extract the hidden features present inside. A neurological disease can occur in a human brain due to abnormal EEG flow. This abnormality should be properly analyzed to specify the pattern of this disease that can help with prediction of any such type of diseases in human brains. EEG recording generally leads to the collection of a huge amount of numerical information that consists of the state of electrical activity at different time. This recording is generally taken for 10–15 transactions. This duration is sufficient to understand the state of a human brain which leads to collection of huge quantities of data. By plotting this information graphically, we can conclude some behavior of the brain, though not completely. As a result, it is more significant to collect these data and pull information from this. In this research study, the main concentration is on the neurological disorder disease called epilepsy. The whole problem of this research work has been broadly classified into two groups. First, is feature extraction and analysis of a very nonstationary signal like EEG signal. Second, is the classification of EEG signals to detect epileptic seizures.

First, we have developed a well-defined and well-structured process for extracting the hidden features from a very transient and nonstationary signal like EEG signal. For this a signal transformation technique called as discrete wavelet transform (DWT) was used. To compare the significance of these extracted features, other features based on some mathematical computations were also

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