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Three Weeks, Eight Seconds

Three Weeks, Eight Seconds

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Three Weeks, Eight Seconds

309 pages
4 heures
Apr 2, 2019


“I was convinced deep inside that I could not lose. I could not see how it could happen.” —Laurent Fignon “I didn't think. I just rode.” —Greg LeMondFor a race as long as the mighty Tour (three weeks of testing the limits of human endurance), to have the ultimate victory decided by a margin of just eight seconds almost boggles the mind. But that’s exactly what happened between American legend Greg LeMond and Laurent Fignon. And LeMond did it on the final stage, as the two sprinted through down the Champs Elysees. It remains the smallest margin of victory in the Tour's 100+ year history. But as dramatic as that Sunday afternoon was, the race wasn't just about that one time-trial. The leader's yellow jersey had swapped back and forth between LeMond and Fignon in a titanic struggle for supremacy, a battle with more twists and turns than an Alpine mountain pass. At no point during the entire three weeks were the pair separated by more than 53 seconds, a razor thin margin between ultimate triumph or agonizing torment. And all this despite LeMond's body still carrying more than 30 shotgun pellets after a shooting accident. Three Weeks, Eight Seconds brings one of cycling's most astonishing stories to life, examining that extraordinary race in all its multifaceted glory.
Apr 2, 2019

À propos de l'auteur

Nige Tassell has been a journalist for more than twenty years. He has written extensively about sport for a range of titles, including FourFourTwo, the Guardian, 220 Triathlon, the Word and BBC History. He was the editor and writer of World in Motion, chronicling the history of the England team at the World Cup, and is the author of Three Weeks, Eight Seconds: The Epic Tour de France of 1989 published in 2017 by Polaris Publishing Ltd and The Bottom Corner: A Season with the Dreamers of Non-League Footbal published in 2016 by Yellow Jersey.

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Three Weeks, Eight Seconds - Nige Tassell






‘I’d again become salesworthy in the eyes of the press. Pictures of the likely winner shift a newspaper or two’ – Laurent Fignon

TWO YEARS, TWO months and eleven days after Greg LeMond’s gurney crashed through the doors of that emergency room in Sacramento, the American was back in competition in the world’s greatest bike race. It was 1 July 1989 and the occasion was the Prologue time trial of the Tour de France, the opening encounter of that year’s race. It was also LeMond’s first appearance since his victory three years earlier. Back then, he was radiating in the golden glow of the feted yellow jersey as the Tour’s first North American winner. By 1989, however, he was wearing the lime green and indigo colours of the Belgian ADR squad, a wildcard outfit who’d only been accepted into the race after LeMond himself organised an additional, half-past-the-eleventh-hour sponsor who could cover the team’s entrance fee.

Here in Luxembourg, the city around which the Prologue was to kick off the Tour, LeMond’s presence was somewhat remarkable. Following the near-death experience of the hunting accident, he had missed the two subsequent Tours, back under the surgeon’s knife for appendicitis and tendinitis respectively. By now, LeMond was a pale shadow of his former formidable self – a man rebuilding his career, learning his craft again, all the while battling demons both physical and psychological.

Were he signed to a more prestigious, more reliable and better-funded team than ADR, one or two more observers might have taken his participation a little more seriously. But the team’s raggle-taggle roster, allied to his lack of form over the previous 18 months, meant the collective verdict on LeMond was that he was an also-ran. A spent force. Yesterday’s man.

While the eyes of the Luxembourg crowd were fixed on him, it was more out of morbid curiosity than viewing him as the man most likely to succeed both that afternoon and over the following three weeks. While he didn’t exactly represent a freak show, the talk that day was more about him actually competing than indulging him with talk of possibly being crowned champion ever again. It was LeMond’s bravery that was being admired. This was, after all, a man who still had more than 30 shotgun pellets lodged in various muscles and organs, including that pair in the lining of his heart. By the time he arrived in Luxembourg, he viewed the pellets as part of my body now, part of my character’.

Nowhere – not on the lips of fans, pundits or bookmakers, nor among the tactical plans of various team directeurs sportif – was the name of Greg LeMond being touted as a serious contender for the title come the peloton’s arrival in Paris three weeks hence.

Instead, the sensible eyes and the safe money were on reigning champion Pedro Delgado – the clear favourite. An exhilarating climber whose riding style became more explosive the steeper the gradient, the Spaniard’s triumph on the Champs-Élysées the previous July had been more than comfortable, his seven-minute margin of victory indisputably made easier by the absence of both LeMond and the 1987 champion, Ireland’s Stephen Roche. Delgado’s elevation into the Tour’s history books, though, was a tarnished one.

After the 17th stage of the ’88 Tour, the French TV channel Antenne2 reported that Delgado had failed a doping test. The next morning, the substance he had been tested positive for was revealed to be probenecid, a drug used to either assist the kidneys or mask the use of anabolic steroids. However, while it was banned by the International Olympic Committee, cycling’s governing body – the Union Cycliste Internationale – had yet to declare it an illegal substance. And the Tour marched to the UCI’s tune. Legally, Delgado had no case to answer.

‘I took probenecid just after the Alpe d’Huez stage,’ he explained to the Spanish newspaper AS. ‘We used it to assist draining from the kidneys. If I’d wanted to hide something, I would have had to have used it every day and it only appeared on that one [test].’

No matter his protestations, suspicions lingered and opinions were aired. A huge question mark floated over the legitimacy of Delgado’s title. The Irish rider Paul Kimmage – who doubled as a correspondent for the Dublin-based Sunday Tribune – likened Delgado to ‘the politician caught leaving the brothel who claims he is only canvassing’. The Spaniard had his supporters too, though. The affair led to a mini international incident when loyal fans stormed the French Embassy in Madrid to protest at their hero’s treatment by the race authorities.

Nonetheless, controversy had followed Delgado into 1989 when rumours of skulduggery abounded after his victory at the Vuelta a España in mid-May. Having seen off the challenge of Colombia’s Fabio Parra – the pair were separated by just two seconds going into the final days – a Colombian TV crew alleged that they had filmed Delgado giving an envelope to the young Russian rider Ivan Ivanov. Ivanov’s pursuit of Parra on one particular stage had effectively assured Delgado of the race-winner’s crown. The TV crew, armed with little hard evidence, claimed the envelope contained cash; Delgado responded with the counterclaim that, having become friendly with the Russian over the course of the race, he had been merely giving him his address in nearby Segovia.

While anxious to put in another dominant display in the general classification to shush – or to even silence – the doubters, Delgado’s shoulders were heavy with expectation and pressure as the Tour entourage gathered in Luxembourg. Being a serious contender was one thing; being the even-money favourite was another. ‘The difference was enormous,’ he nods, nearly 30 years later. That said, Delgado – starting his sixth Tour after podium finishes in both the previous two years – was also buoyed by an assuredness and confidence when it came to his fitness. ‘My physical condition was at its peak,’ he smiles. ‘I won the Vuelta a España. I finished fourth at, and nearly won, Liège-Bastogne-Liège. I spent two months in a training camp at altitude and I arrived at the Tour very focused. I felt very, very well. Until the first day...’

It ended up being a first day to forget, a day to erase from the career history. For now, though, prior to the Prologue’s start, controlled optimism was the dominant mood in the ranks of Delgado’s Reynolds team. He was certainly the rider in the peloton whose good form had been sustained over the longest time. With him installed as the clear – if not nailed-on – favourite, the next two most-fancied riders were both on the comeback trail, both former Tour champions wishing to retrace their tyre tracks to glory.

Like Greg LeMond, Stephen Roche never had the chance to defend his Tour title, absent from the start line in 1988 because of an ongoing knee problem sustained two years previously, an injury that would make reappearances throughout the rest of his riding days. But the first half of 1989 showed signs that Roche might be able to taste again the form that had propelled him to the top of the pro cycling tree. He won the Tour of the Basque Country, placed second overall in the eight-day Paris-Nice (the evocatively nicknamed ‘Race to the Sun) and, less than three weeks before the Tour, enjoyed a top-ten finish at the Giro d’Italia. While these performances weren’t suggestive of Roche’s scintillating form of 1987 when he achieved cycling’s Triple Crown, scooping the Giro, Tour and World Championship titles, there was at least a sunny belief that a high finish in Paris was more than possible.

‘After what I’d gone through, I would have definitely been grateful for a top five or podium,’ he says. ‘They always say, One month out is two months to get back, so one year out takes two years to get back. And that’s very hard to cope with.’ There was also the unknown quantity of his Fagor team. Having lost key men at the end of the previous season – hardy perennials like the climber Robert Millar and the uber-domestique Sean Yates – the squad was in a state of flux and chaos, the source of which was a power struggle among the team bosses. Not that, incidentally, this internal civil war had prevented Fagor from becoming the highest-placed team at the Giro less than a month before.

If Roche was moderately encouraged by his form in Italy, Laurent Fignon surfed into Luxembourg on a wave of unstoppable confidence – a confidence that, Fignon being Fignon, blurred the distinction between self-belief and God-given arrogance. A double Tour winner as a young professional, his first victory, in 1983, had come in his very first Tour at the age of 22. He repeated the feat a year later. He had endured several anni miserabilis in the years since, thanks to long-term injuries. 1989, though, was shaping up to be something of a renaissance. Fignon followed up success in March’s one-day Milan-San Remo with an even more impressive Italian victory; the Parisian returned home from the Giro with the winner’s maglia rosa jersey in his luggage. These successes stoked the internal fire of an athlete written off as a busted flush. ‘I was still going strong after being given up for dead at least a hundred times,’ he later wrote.

The notion of a French victory at the 1989 Tour was showing itself to be irresistible – even if the tempestuous, temperamental Fignon had earned himself a love-hate relationship with both the press and the public in his home country. ‘Before and after the Prologue, the photographers were going berserk around me. I was still radiant with the reflected glory of the Giro’s pink jersey, so I’d again become salesworthy in the eyes of the press. Pictures of the likely winner shift a newspaper or two, as we all know.’ Short on confidence Monsieur Fignon was not.

And the leader’s confidence trickled down into the ranks of his ambitious Super U team. This was a squad stuffed to the gills with tried, tested and proven French talent: the eight-Tour veteran Pascal Simon; former yellow jersey-wearer Thierry Marie; and Vincent Barteau, who’d led the Tour for 12 days in 1984, the year of Fignon’s last triumph.

The Super U ranks also contained a rookie Danish rider who, while ‘gulping the wind’ as a determined domestique for Fignon in the Giro, helped himself to a stage win there too. Seven years later, he would end up being a Tour winner in his own right. His name was Bjarne Riis.

And controlling this powerful team – or, at least, pulling the strings as much as a headstrong team leader like Fignon would allow – was the wily Cyrille Guimard, cycling’s true starmaker. As a rider, Guimard had won seven stages in the Tour during the 1970s. As a directeur sportif, he claimed overall Tour titles through several of his decorated charges – Fignon, Bernard Hinault and Lucien Van Impe. Seven Tour victories in his first nine years as a team boss was a statistic envied by every other directeur sportif.

French hopes weren’t exclusively pinned on Fignon, though. At the same time that he was slipping on the leader’s jersey at the Giro, his compatriot Charly Mottet was winning the Critérium du Dauphiné Libéré in and around his native Alps, the eight-stage race often studied as a measure of form ahead of the Tour. It was the second of what would be three Dauphiné titles for Mottet, earning this modest rider the ranking of world number one following other victories earlier in the season, including the prestigious Four Days of Dunkirk.

Mottet’s modesty, cast into the deepest shadow by the force of Fignon’s ebullience, certainly allowed him to operate comparatively unnoticed, despite topping the world rankings. A fourth-place finisher behind Roche, Delgado and Jean-François Bernard in 1987, he had left Super U – or Système U as it was still then known – at the end of 1988, graduating to team leader by signing for RMO, the squad managed by former rider Bernard Vallet.

A one-time King of the Mountains, the recently retired Vallet had history with Mottet. Good history. They had been victorious partners in the Six Days of Grenoble series two years previously. Now, as directeur sportif and team leader respectively, they made a great potential pairing, particularly when the race reached Mottet’s Alpine backyard. ‘Bernard knew the Grand Tours well,’ he confirms. But while the partnership might have looked mutually attractive, not everyone believed in Mottet’s promise. ‘We already sensed he was not a three-weeks guy,’ says the journalist François Thomazeau, at the time covering the Tour for the Reuters news agency. Whether Mottet could cope with the expectation of being a team leader was moot. He seemed to have doubts himself. ‘I was leading a new team, so I was under pressure to perform for my new sponsors.’ (France’s other great white hope – Toshiba’s Jean-François Bernard – was absent in 1989, at home recovering from a knee operation.)

Mottet had taken the world number one ranking from Sean Kelly, a position the Irishman had held for five years straight. A glance at Kelly’s racing successes, his palmàres, leaves no one in any doubt as to why the man from Carrick-on-Suir enjoyed a half-decade of uncontested dominance. By the time he rolled his bike into the start house at the Prologue in Luxembourg in 1989, Kelly had amassed an astonishing 151 career victories since turning professional 12 years earlier. (The story of how he turned pro is a peach. He was driving a tractor along a rural lane in County Waterford in bleak midwinter, pulling a muck-spreading tank, when a taxi blocked the road. Out stepped legendary team boss Jean de Gribaldy, dapper in a pinstriped suit and Brylcreemed hair, and carrying a contract to sign for his Flandria outfit. ‘Are you Sean Kelly...?’)

Kelly’s victories as a professional weren’t small fry. Among them were 16 stage wins at the Vuelta a España (he also took the overall title in 1988) and seven back-to-back titles at Paris-Nice. That was just the stage races. He was also no slouch when it came to the one-day classics, with two victories apiece in Liège-Bastogne-Liège, Milan-San Remo and Paris-Roubaix. Then there were the five stage wins in the Tour, along with being crowned the green jersey points winner three times over.

In short, Kelly was a winner. But the maillot jaune had always eluded him, save for one day in 1983 when an overall lead of just a single second allowed him to don yellow for the one and only time. In 1989, at the age of 33, he was still upbeat as he headed into the late afternoon of a formidable career. He seemed to be enjoying himself more than before in the dimming of the day, a smile now regularly playing on his lips during interviews. Freshly signed to the well-financed Dutch team PDM after several years with the Spanish KAS squad, Kelly’s eye was firmly focused on winning the green jersey for a record-breaking fourth time.

The PDM team had other contenders for high placings in the general classification. They were especially blessed in the climbing department, where two Dutchmen, often inseparable on the road, came as a pair. Steven Rooks had won the polka-dot King of the Mountains jersey the previous July, when his assault on Alpe d’Huez had helped deliver him to second place overall. But it was difficult to read too much into the early months of his 1989 season. PDM had steered clear of both the Giro and the Vuelta, its Grand Tour preparation exclusively reserved for those three weeks in France. Rooks’ performances in the Spring Classics were solid if unspectacular, ranging from 2nd in La Flèche Wallonne to 14th at Milan-San Remo.

In the only pre-Tour stage race in which Rooks’ climbing form could be gauged, he finished an underwhelming 20th in the Tour of Switzerland. With the likes of Delgado, Roche and Fignon all already having a Grand Tour under their belts by the time they congregated in Luxembourg, the hope for PDM was that both Rooks and his compatriot Gert-Jan Theunisse would be fresher and less fatigued once the race reached the Pyrenees and the Alps.

If Rooks’ form in the Spring Classics was moderate, his team-mate and compatriot Gert-Jan Theunisse’s was even more anonymous. His best performances were an 11th in Milan-San Remo and 15th in Liège-Bastogne-Liège. He was coming into the Tour with broken ribs, too, a souvenir brought home from the Tour of Switzerland. And, like Delgado, a fog of suspicion followed the enigmatic, long-haired Dutchman around ahead of the Tour’s departure. In 1988, while in fourth place, he had tested positive for testosterone. The punishment at the time wasn’t immediate disqualification. Instead, Theunisse received a ten-minute time penalty, which took him out of the top ten overall, although he still did make it a Dutch 1-2 in the King of the Mountains competition behind his pal Rooks.

Although the bookmakers placed him at 20-1 to win the yellow jersey in 1989, Erik Breukink was another Dutchman very much worth keeping an eye on. He possessed all the qualities required for overall victory. A great time trialist who could also keep up in the mountains, he also had the support of one of the strongest teams, the fiercely competitive Panasonic. The squad were under the tutelage of the brilliant strategist Peter Post, one of the most successful directeur sportifs of the period. His management style delivered results but was unyielding. His former charge Robert Millar once moaned that ‘Post ran the team like an army.

Post’s methods clearly suited Breukink, though. Although 1989 would only be his third Tour de France, he had already shown a fine pedigree when it came to stage races. On his first Tour two years earlier, he outfoxed his rivals in a four-man break (which included Jean-François Bernard and the Colombian Luis Herrera) by sprinting for the line a kilometre from home and gliding to victory in the market square in Pau. The following year, Breukink took second place overall in the Giro, the highlight of which was his win on the famously snow-driven stage that traversed the Passo di Gavia. And his form thus far in 1989 was strong, having placed fourth at the Giro, a performance that included seven top-ten stage finishes. For his consistency over different terrain and formats, the blond-haired Breukink could prove to be something of a dark horse.

An entire continent was waiting for the man who beat Breukink to the maglia rosa in the ’88 Giro to stamp his authority on the Tour. With LeMond deemed a curiosity, Andy Hampsten was expected to step up to fill the void. North America thought it was about time. Hampsten’s best showing had been the quiet fourth place he took in his debut Tour in 1986, when his two La Vie Claire team-mates – LeMond and Bernard Hinault – were very loudly and very bitterly slugging it out for the overall victory.

The following year, Hampsten was ensconced as the leader of the American 7-Eleven team, but the squad’s relative inexperience couldn’t place him any higher than 16th in the general classification. While 1988 saw him blooming with that Giro triumph, he couldn’t replicate it in France, finishing down in 15th and only making the top ten on one single stage. Doubts were still audible about his credentials for an overall Tour victory. Living in Colorado, the mountains were his natural habitat. Time trials on the flat – in which all those harbouring ambitions to be in yellow come Paris needed to show prowess – were Hampsten’s Achilles heel.

The Canadian Steve Bauer was another La Vie Claire alumnus, but one who knew, unlike Hampsten, what it was like to have the maillot jaune on his back. In 1988, riding for the unfancied Weinmann-La Suisse team, he won the opening stage on a day that showcased his astute cycling brain. With a team time trial that afternoon, Bauer understood the reluctance of riders to do any chasing in the morning. He, though, was anything but reluctant. ‘From the gun, I made sure to cover everyone.’ His reward was the stage win and a total of five days in yellow.

While his overall placing of fourth place might have been slightly amplified by Roche’s absence and Theunisse’s time penalty, Bauer was nonetheless a combative rider more than capable of sneaking onto the podium come Paris. A third place in April’s Amstel Gold Race, allied to fourth overall at the Tour of Switzerland, also suggested a man with form in his legs.

The rider who deprived Bauer of a podium place at the Tour in 1988, Colombia’s Fabio Parra, was widely tipped to repeat the feat 12 months later, especially as the 1989 course included an increased number of mountain stages. Parra’s solo win at Morzine was the defining moment of that third place, although he could have finished higher in the general classification had just one of his attacks on Alpe d’Huez not been frustrated by camera-bikes causing congestion on the narrow road up the mountain. With seven stages to look forward to in 1989 – two in the Pyrenees and five in the Alps – perhaps Parra could even deliver Colombia’s second Grand Tour triumph, following Luis Herrera’s capture of the Vuelta two years previously. He was certainly close to it in Spain in ’89, his defeat to Delgado in the Vuelta being by the narrow margin of 33 seconds after three weeks of racing.

Herreras form was notable too. The month before the Tour, the petit Colombian reached a landmark that would become his legacy in retirement. By winning the maglia verde at the Giro, he became only the second rider in history to win the mountains category at all three Grand Tours, after his wins at the Tour in ’85 and ’87, and at the Vuelta, also in ’87. Only the legendary Spanish climber Federico Bahamontes in the late 1950s had previously managed the feat. With his principal ambition for this season achieved, the modest Herrera now had the freedom to stir things up in the mountains on the Tour, on what would hopefully be a seven-day feast of climbing excellence. The shackles were off.

Scotland’s Robert Millar was another mountain man feeling the chimes of freedom flashing. Having been forced, by Stephen Roche’s injury problems, to lead the dysfunctional Fagor team in the ’88 Tour, the Glaswegian had jumped ship at the end of the season and retraced his steps. He was back in the fold at his first continental team, Peugeot, now co-sponsored by the French clothing company Z. Not only had he been relieved of the pressures of team leadership (Z’s captain at the Tour would be the French rider Eric Boyer who had finished fifth the previous year), but Millar’s preparation in ’89 was much more to his liking. A procession of directeurs sportif had always insisted he ride either the Vuelta or the Giro before heading to France. This year, though, that duty had been lifted. Every inch, every ounce, of Millar’s season could be focused on those seven mountain stages, the ultimate prize being a second polka-dot jersey after his King of the Mountains crown in 1984.

As he rolled his bike up to the start in Luxembourg, Millar would begin the Tour without fatigue already in his legs. ‘Despite the signs,’ he explained to the writer William Fotheringham, the managers I worked with didn’t seem to understand that I was capable of doing one [Grand] Tour well

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