This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Copyright is a form of protection that is granted by law for original works of authorship fixed in a tangible medium of expression. Copyright can cover almost any creative expression including a book, photograph, artwork, writing, or recording. Your copyright guarantees your right to determine who gets to copy, re-use, or alter your original work. Your original work is under copyright protection the moment it is created and fixed in a tangible form that it is perceptible either directly or with the aid of a machine or device.
The period for which a work remains under copyright varies from country to country. After a period of time, copyrights revert to the public domain.
Scribd is based in the United States and complies with United States legal code. Most countries, however, operate under treaties that standardize copyright laws with minor variations. We strongly encourage you to familiarize yourself with copyright laws, both in the United States and in your country of origin, before uploading content to Scribd.
For more information about copyright, we recommend the following resources:
“Copyright infringement” is the copying or other use of a copyrighted work without permission of the author or rights holder. Copyright infringement is strictly prohibited on Scribd. Copyright infringement can include copying all or part of a protected work for any purpose, or repurposing protected material in a derivative work. Copyright infringement, whether intentional or accidental, is illegal in most countries. You may be held liable for monetary damages if you infringe another’s copyright.
You can still be affected by a claim of copyright infringement even if you:
Scribd complies with all applicable copyright laws and fully complies with the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) of 1998. Under the DMCA, Scribd is not able to determine or mediate copyright ownership disputes. It is Scribd’s policy to respond to clear, legally-valid notices of alleged copyright infringement that comply with the criteria established by the DMCA (17 U.S.C. §512(c)). In addition, we terminate without notice the accounts of users that we determine are repeat infringers based on a "three-strikes" policy.
Most content creators agree that the two copyright options available in most countries, full copyright (“all rights reserved”) and public domain (“no rights reserved”), are insufficient to accommodate limited re-use of content in the digital era. Several alternatives to standard copyright have come about in attempt to mitigate this problem. The most flexible and well known alternative is Creative Commons. Other alternatives to copyright, such as copyleft and the GNU Public License, are in use across the Internet. Click here for more information about copyright alternatives.
Scribd’s legal team is on hand to respond to reports of copyright infringement, and to assist with disputes related to content on Scribd. Scribd, however, cannot provide legal advice related to your copyrights, or to provide recommendations on specific courses of action.