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HISTORICAL FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION

Raffy B. Mabiling

RENAISSANCE

reawakening rebirth

RENAISSANCE
the thought process developed by scholasticism the broadening of the universities

the invention of the printing press


the findings of exploration and scientific discovery
the degeneration of the church the rise of free cities as well as rich middle class

Modern Theories of

HUMANISM

DISCIPLINISM

RENAISSANCE

REFORMATION AND COUNTERREFORMATION

REALISM

HUMANISM

Italian or Individualistic Humanism freedom of thought, selfexpression and creative activity

Northern or Social Humanism moral and social reforms

INDIVIDUALISTIC individual HUMANISM To develop AIM personality through nature, art, music, Literary, aesthetic and literature and practical architecture TYPES Physical education, social training in manners and personal conduct, and moral education were also

INDIVIDUALISTIC HUMANISM CONT Varied curriculum, with ENT exposure to classical art and literature, and nature AGENC Lyce IES Gymnasium Grammar school Court schools

Vittorino da Feltre

To educate a complete citizen through:


Good knowledge of reading Broad background of manners and graces Training in loyalty to Christian principles

DA FELTRES CONTRIBUTIONS adapting the work of the individual to sufficient capacities his need and motivation for students develop a balance between as motive to replace punishment mental activity and physical activity for learning developing the power to think

INDIVIDUALISTIC HUMANISM METH Text replacing much of the lectures and written OD themes displacing oral discourse

Social reform and the SOCIAL HUMANISM improvement of human AIM relationships Eliminating the ignorance of the common people and the Emphasis on religious, hypocrisy of social TYPES moral and social leaders education Secondary education in preparation for future

SOCIAL HUMANISM CONT Classical and biblical ENT literature

Erasmus of wanted the study of Rotterdam

classics for: broadening of knowledge refining taste gaining the ability to

SOCIAL HUMANISM
METH the need to study the OD of repetition and value
child carefully for mastery of small units of individualized work at a time instruction motivation and of games the use the importance of praise andin education rewards and exercise gentleness as opposed keeping education in to physical punishment close touch with the social needs and life of the times

Erasmus

SOCIAL HUMANISM
METH OD

the use of Juan Luis Vives vernacular parents as first teachers

Johannes imitation and Sturm memorization use of pupil monitors careful grading of

REFORMATION
Political, economic, moral, philosophical and institutional changes and not merely a reform in religious doctrine
It was intended to correct abuses in the church

Martin Luther

REFORMATIONprovide Education must Religious Moralism AIM adequate training in the = duties of the home, living a worthy life on occupation, church, and earth will guarantee a state glorious life thereafter Character Education TYPES (value of work over play) Advocacy for universal, compulsory and free education

study of the Bible and REFORMATION CONT all the skills required to ENT understand curricula includes history, mathematics, natural home science, music AGENC and gymnastic common vernacular IES primary school classical secondary school

reading through routine REFORMATION METH pronunciation of words, OD memorization of answers to questions from the in secondary level, gospel, hymns and students must learn psalms rules and passages by rigid teaching methods memory and strict discipline through religious

COUNTER-REFORMATION REFORMATION

Education to win back Education to promote dissenters their aims/objectives

teaching orders and teaching congregations a movement within the church itself that were founded, parish schools were organized corrected the abuses of the church and seminaries were opened to train leaders
Jean Baptiste Cornelius De La Salle Jansen

COUNTER-REFORMATION

Brethen of the Christian Schools

Jansenists

COUNTER-REFORMATION Religious Moralism AIM Aimed to develop an unquestioning obedience to the Jesuit authority of the church Christian convent Jansenists prepare young women to perform their Schools Brothers schools emphasiz train duties as Christian members of teach the e leaders especially establish and society, poor spiritual maintain chastity and piety, to refine taste and gentle manners salvation

Religious and moral COUNTER-REFORMATION education above TYPES everything else Domestic and vocational training in the hands of the parents Roman Catholic church for the professional education, graduate school of law and medicine, and teacher-

reading writing arithmeti c religion AGENC elementary for the poor CONT ENT
IES

COUNTER-REFORMATION

(Christian Brothers) secondary and higher education for training of leaders (Jesuits and

doing a small Jesuit amount of work at Schools a time, doing it well, and make sure it is retained prelection and repetition (teaching method) lesson adapted to abilities and interests of children participation through Q & A review

teaching COUNTER-REFORMATIONof

the Jansenists vernacular METH by the ODS phonetic method Christian nothing is to Brothers grade pupils be according to memorized ability unless recite to the understood class and not use of to the textbooks

REALISM
Refers to the philosophy which holds Humanistic that education should be Social Sense concerned with the actualities of life /Literary education Realism Realism classical incorporatio Realism could be best language n of achieved by and scientific direct literature content to contact with were the education people and ideal means and the use social to liberal of scientific activities and education method

understanding of human AIM society, with such understanding to fit the individual to the Literary type of education, environment in which he TYPES very practical and liberal lived (aimed to provide intellectual, moral, social, religious, and physical education to develop a

A complete knowledge LITERARY REALISM and

LITERARY REALISM
Francois Rabelais John Milton

Francois Rabelais

John Milton

LITERARY REALISM
Francois Rabelais scheme of education was largely in terms of tutor Incidental method of teaching = all learning is to be made pleasant Learning facilitated through naturalactivities Reasoning John Milton idea of education was in terms of an academy Use of resource person in the classroom Discussions and lectures by academic authorities Reading is done for content and not for

To prepare the aristocratic youth SOCIAL REALISM the for the life of a gentleman in world of affairs Highly individualistic education to develop relationship and enjoy leisure time Emphasis on practical judgement, social disposition and understanding rather than memorization Information is de Montaigne Michael learned better

SENSE REALISM
To develop a harmonious AIM society, working in accordance with natural Practical typelaws and universal of education with stress on scientific TYPES training Democratic education and the use of vernacular was favored Emphasis in content than

SOME SENSE REALISTS

RICHARD MULCASTER WOLFGANG RATKE

FRANCIS COMENIUS JOHN AMOS BACON

SENSE REALISM
JOHN AMOS COMENIUS

Recommendations Levels of School fixed yearly school opening date, with no a pre-school between home admittance in in every systematic organization of the schedule of class a vernacular elementary school in every village work a Latin school in every city separate room,every province and separate tests a university in separate teacher for each class Concepts of Education school days in agreement with uniformity of text the value of textbook and the childs nature (6 hours for older ones and 4 hours for younger ones) the importance of the teacher who is properly Morning hours should be devoted to intellectual trained subjects and the afternoon to physical and aesthetic subjects

SENSE REALISM
METH ODS
use of inductive method for learning all learning should follow the course of nature learning by senses first, then exploration children learn to do by doing a subject should not be left unless thoroughly mastered initial learning through the vernacular tongue learning should appeal to childs interests and and be fitted to childs understanding

DISCIPLINISM
character formation through physical, moral and mental education John Locke: the concept of tabula rasa wherein everything was learned from experience that was based on the perception of the senses formation of habits through discipline will result in development

JOHN LOCKE

To provide DISCIPLINISM exercises of


mind, of body and of selfcontrol The process of learning is TYPES important in education education of the physical, rather and intellectual moral than the thing learned & CONT limited curriculum that is ENT dominated by linguistics and mathematics drill subjects in the elementary school (spelling,

AIM

DISCIPLINISM elementary church


AGEN CIES

METH ODS

schools humanistic secondary schools tutorial system for the elite formal methods of training of the masses by exercise and drill apprenticeship three steps in learning: sensation, memory and

NATURALISM

JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU

necessity of the child to be free to develop according to his own natural impulses According to him, intellectual education was the development of sense discrimination, free expression, and acquisition of

Infancy (birth to 5)
Growth of body, motor activities, sense perception and feeling The child had to be free

Childhood (5 to 12)
Let the child develop as his inner nature demanded Avoid books, emphasize games, and let experience be the teacher

Boyhood (12 15)


The age of reason Education by human agencies should begin There should be a desire to learn

Adolescence (15 -20) Social stage wherein perception of human relations arises Appearance of sexual impulses

THREE MODERN PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING


The Principle of Individualization

The Principle of Pupil Activity The Principle of Growth

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