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# REPORT ON ECE 1101 : ENGINEERING LAB -1 BASIC OHMS LAW & SERIES AND PARALLEL CIRCUITS

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6

Evaluation Items Introduction Objectives Equipment Lists Experiment Set-Up Observation & Data Analysis Conclusion TOTAL

Marks 20% 2 2 2 2 10 2

Marks Obtain

Date of Experiment : 27 February 2012 & 5 March 2012 Date of Submission : 12 March 2012

Introduction :
Ohms law states that the voltage v across a resistor is directly proportional to the current i flowing through the resistor. The constant of proportionality is called the

"resistance", R.Thus ,the equation V=iR can be formed. In addition,the material that obeys Ohm's Law is called "ohmic" or "linear" because the potential difference across it varies linearly with the current.

As for series circuit is a circuit in which resistors are arranged in a chain, so the current has only one path to take. The current is the same through each resistor. The total resistance of the circuit is found by simply adding up the resistance values of the individual resistors. A parallel circuit is a circuit in which the resistors are arranged with their heads connected together, and their tails connected together. The current in a parallel circuit breaks up, with some flowing along each parallel branch and re-combining when the branches meet again. The voltage across each resistor in parallel is the same.

Series Circuit

Parallel Circuit

Objectives
Test (a) : Resistor Color Code 1. To determine the value of resistors from their Electronic Industries Association (EIA) color code. 2. To investigates the properties of potentiometer.

Test (b) : Voltage and Current Measurements 1. To measure voltage and current in DC circuit.

## Test (c) : Ohms Law 1. To verify Ohms Law (V=IR).

Test (d) : Series and Parallel 1. To verify that in a series circuit : a) The total resistance is equal to the sum of the individual resistors. b) The voltage drops across the resistors equals to the applied voltage. c) The value of the current is the same in all parts of the circuit

2. To verify that in a parallel circuit : a) The Equivalent resistance is the reciprocal of the sum of reciprocals of the individual resistors.

b) The branch current in parallel equal to the supply current. c) The voltage drop of each resistor in parallel is the same.

3. To verify by measurement and calculation for two different networks : the total current and the branch values, the voltage drop across various parts of the networks and the method for determining the equivalent resistance of such networks.

Equipment Lists

Test (a ) : Resistor Color Code Digital Multimeter Resistors : R1 = 6.8 k, R2 = 1.5 k, R3 = 1.0 k Linear 10 k potentiometer

Test (b) : Voltage and Current Measurement DC voltage supply 2 k resistor Two Digital Multimeters (2DMMs)

Test (c) : Ohms Law Voltage DC supply Resistors 5.1 k Two Digital Multimeters (2DMMs)

Test (d) : Series and Parallel Circuits 15 volt dc supply Two Digital Multimeters (2DMMs) Resistors : 6.8 k, 1.5 k, 1.0 k

Experiment Set-up
Test (a) : Resistor Color Code 1) Resistors color code a) The colour code is used to determine the nominal value of each resistor and the value is then recorded in Table 1a-2. The colour code on each resistor defines the nominal value about which the tolerance is defined. The nominal value is that value of resistance that the resistor would have if the tolerance is 0 percent. b) The tolerance is determined and values of each resistor are then recorded. c) The theoretical maximum values and minimum values for each resistor in turn is then determined. d) By using Digital Multimeter, the actual values of each resistor were measured and then recorded.

2) Variable Resistor a) The end terminals and the wiper terminal were identified for the potentiometer. They were numbered 1, 2 and 3 with 2 being the wiper. b) The ohmmeter was placed between terminals 1-2, 2-3 and 1-3 and these measured values is recorded in table 1a-3. c) Add the values measured between the terminals 1-2 and 2-3 and compare the result with the value measured between 1-3 (theoretical value). d) The shaft of the potentiometer was repositioned and steps 2 and 3 were repeated for the other two trials. Test (b) : Voltage and Current Measurements 1. The power supply is switched on and set for the minimum output voltage.

2. Set the digital multimeter to measure voltage. 3. The voltmeter directly is connected to the power supply terminals, 4. Observe the effect of tuning the output voltage controls and adjusts the voltage value to 2 volts. 5. The meter removed and connected to the 2 k resistor across the terminals of the power supply as shown below. Reconnect the meter as shown. Observe the value measured by the meter.

V dc

R1

2k

6. Now, break the circuit as shown below and insert the other meter set in mA current range. The meter will now be reading the current flowing in the circuit.

V dc

R1

2k

## 7. The current is then recorded in the table 1b-1.

8. Increase the voltage in 2-volt steps. For each of the voltage increment, measeure and record the current changes. Test (c) : Ohms Law 1. Measure the actual value of the resistor R and record the result in table 1c-1. 2. Connect the circuit in figure below with R = 5.1 k.

V dc

3. Beginning at 0 volt, increase the voltage across R in 1-volt steps until 9 volts. Measure and record the resulting current in table 1c-1 for each increment of voltage. 4. Plot the graph of I versus V for result in table 1c-1.

R1 R2 C

1 k

1.5k R3 6.8k

15 V D

## a) Connect the circuit as shown above

b) Adjust the supply voltage 15 v. (Note the value of the supply voltage and keep it constant throughout the test.) c) Switch off the supply. Connect the ammeter in position A. d) Switch on the supply. Read the current through resistor R1. e) Connect the voltmeter across R1 and measure the voltage drop across it. f) Repeat c until e for the ammeter position B, C and D and the voltmeter positioms across resistors R2 and R3. g) Record the voltage for close and open loop. Fill up the measured values in table 1d.-1.

2. Parallel Circuits

VI 15 V

RI 1.0k

R2 1.5k

R3 6.8k

a) Connect the circuit as shown above. b) Adjust the supply voltage 15V. (Note the value of the supplt voltage and keep it constant throughout the test. c) Switch off the power supply. Connect the ammeter in position A, the total current, Itotal.

## Observation and Data Analysis:

Test (a) : Resistor color code Resistor color code : Resistor R1 have a colour code blue, grey, red and gold which give the nominal value 6.8 k and tolerance of 5%. This resistor has a maximum value of 7.140 k and 6.460 k for the minimum value. The value that has been measured by using multimeter is 6.73 k. The percentage of relative error for R1 is just 1.04 %.

Resistor R2 has a color code of brown, green, red and gold which give the nominal value is 1.5 k. The 5% of tolerance made up the maximum value for R2 is 1.57k and the minimum value is 1.425 k. The measured value for R2 is 1.491. The percentage of relative error for R2 is 0.6%.

Resistor R3 has the color code of brown, black and red gives the nominal value of 1.0k. The 5% of tolerance for R3 has the value of 1.050 k for maximum value and 0.95 k for minimum value. The measured value for R3 is 0.984 k. The percentage of relative error is 1.63 %.

## % of relative error =|theoretical value-experimental value|*100 Theoretical value

Variable resistor : End terminal and the wiper terminal for the potentiometer had been identified. The first trial in between terminal R1-R2 give the value of 7.34 k,the second trial is 5.66 k and the third trial is 10.59k. For the terminal R2-R3,the value for the first trial is 4.90 k, followed by 6.49 k and 0.843 k. For the terminal R1-R3(theoretical values),the measured values are 11.16 k,11.12 k and 11.13 k.

Next, the values in the first trial,second trial and third trial for R1-R2 need to be added with the values for R2-R3 and compared it with the theoretical value in between terminal R1-R3. The added value for the first trial is 12.24 and the theoretical value is 11.16 k. The relative error for the first trial is 9.6%. The added value for second trial is 12.15k and the theoretical value is 11.12k. These two values give the second trial 9.26% of relative error. The third trial has 11.433 k for the added value and 11.13 k for theoretical value. The relative error for the third trial is 2.6%. All these errors might happen because of the careless in reading the values using multimeter and the wrong connection in circuit.

Test (b) : Voltage and current measurements: Voltage measurements: A voltmeter must always be connected with probes across the component under test and must place the correct leads at the proper nodes.2 k resistor connected to the terminal of power supply and the measured values have been noted. Next, calculate the current values by using the V=iR equation and compared it with the measured values. For the 2 V of voltage,the current measured is 1.07 mA and the calculated value is 1.00 mA which give the relative

error of 7%. For the 4 V of voltage, the current measured is 2.04mA and the calculated value is 2.00 mA which give the relative error of 2%. As for the 6 V of voltage, the current measured is 3.04 mA and the calculated value is 3.00 mA. The relative error is 1.3%.

Test (c) : Ohms Law For this experiment, a resistor with nominal value 5.100 k is used. This resistor is then measured to get the actual value which is 5.02 k. Next, the resistor is connected to the circuit. Begin with 0 volt, the current is measured and recorded in table 1c-1. The voltage is then increased systematically from 1 volt until 9 volts. The current measured for 0 volt is 0A. Same value goes for its theoretical current value. For 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 volts, the current measured is 0.200V, 0.400V, 0.590V, 0.780V, 0.970V, 1.200V, 1.390V, 1.580V and 1.820V respectively.

The theoretical value is then calculated using the formula V=iR for every volt. For 1 volt, the theoretical value is 0.196 and the percentage error is 2.04%. For 2 volt, the theoretical value is 0.392 and the percentage error is 2.04%. For 3 volt, the theoretical value is 0.588 and the percentage error is 0.34%. For 4 volt, the theoretical value is 0.784 and the percentage error is 0.51%. For 5 volt, the theoretical value is 0.980 and the percentage error is 1.02%. For 6 volt, the theoretical value is 1.176 and the percentage error is 2.04%. For 7 volt, the theoretical value is 1.372 and the percentage error is 1.31%. For 8 volt, the theoretical value is 1.568 and the percentage error is 0.77%. For 9 volt, the theoretical value is 1.764 and the percentage error is 3.17%.

A graph of current versus voltage is then plot. For measured value, slope is 0.208 and for theoretical value is 0.196. the percentage error between measured value and theoretical value is 6.1%. The slope in this graph also represents the conductance, G. The resistance for measured value is 4.807 k and for theoretical values is 5.100. these values is calculated for the formula R = 1/G.

Test (d) : Series and parallel circuit 1. Series Circuit The resistors is connected is series. Firstly, the supply voltage is adjusted to 15 V. then, the power supply is switched off and ammeter is connected to position A. the power supply is switched on and the current through resistor R1 is measured. The value is 1.61 mA. The current value for R2 and R3 is 1.61 mA for both resistors.

The supply voltage for V1, V2 and V3 is 1.611 V, 11.020 V and 2.441V respectively. Sum of voltage is 15.072 V. the value for R1, R2 and R3 is 1.00k, 6.84 k and 1.52 k respectively. The sum of resistance is 9.360 k. the percentage error is 0.064%.

2. Parallel circuit The resistors is connected in parallel. Supply current is 28.43 A. The current measured at I1, I2 and I3 is 15.32 A, 11.23 A and 2.20 A respectively. The sum of current is 28.75 A. the supply voltage is 15.03 V. The value of voltage at V1, V2 and V3 is the same at 15.03 V. The resistance at R1 is 0.98 k, at R2 is 1.33 k and the resistance at R3 is 6.83. The equivalent resistance is 0.521 k. The conductance at G1 is 1.020 S, at G2 is 0.752 S and the conductance at G3 is 0.146 S. the sum of

conductance is 1.918 S. The theoretical value of total conductance is 1.890 S. percentage error for conductance is 1.48%

Conclusion : Test (a) : resistor color code Based on the analysis and observation, all the aims for this experiment is compatible. Through this experiment, we will know how exactly to determine the value of resistors by their color code. The first color of resistor refers to the first significant bit, the second color refers to the second significant bit, third color refer to the number of zeros and the last color refers to the tolerance. As for the second aim, we will know the properties of the potentiometer which is an instrument for measuring the potential (voltage) in a circuit. The potentiometer may be used as a rheostat if the centre arm and one of the end terminals are connected into the circuit and the other end terminal is left disconnected. The precaution steps that we need to follow are about the connection of elements in circuit and the correct way of handling the multimeter and reading the values. If all the precaution steps are been ignored, the systematic error or random error will occurred.

Test (b) : voltage and current measurements: Based on the analysis and observation, the aim for this experiment is compatible. Through this experiment, we will know how to measure the voltage and current in DC circuit. A voltmeter must always be connected with probes in parallel connection. The ammeter is must always in series connection in circuit while measuring current and need to break the circuit. The Ohms law;V=iR is needed to calculate the current by the given voltage. The precaution steps that we need to follow are about the connection of elements in circuit and the correct way of handling the multimeter and reading the values. If all the precaution steps are been ignored, the systematic error or random error will occurred.

Test (c): Ohms Law From this experiment, we are able to verified Ohms Law. Ohms Law states that the voltage V across a resistor is directly proportional to the current I flowing through the resistor. That is,

Vi

Ohm defined the contants of proportionality for a resistor to be the resistance, R. Thus,

V = iR

From this experiment, the ohms law is verified when we calculated the current given the voltage and resistance. For example,

For 1 Volt,

## V = iR I = V/R = 1.00 / 5.02 = 0.196 k.

When the current is measured, the value is 0.200 k. With a very low percentage error, this proved the ohms law.

The factors that affect the resistance of a material with a uniform cross-sectional area is the resistivity and length. This is proved from following formula

Resistor is divided to two types. Fixed resistor and variable resistor. The most coomon resistor is wirewound type and carbon film type. Wirewound type of resistor is used in device that requires high handling capability of current, heat dissipation and resistance stability and accuracy. Carbon film type resistor is applications requiring high pulse stability. The most common variable resistor is composition type and potentiomer. Potentiometer is widely use as a volume control for a radio receiver.

Test (d): Series and Parallel Circuit All the objectives for this experiment has been achieved. In series circuit, the value of current is the same in all parts of the circuits. However, the voltage is the sum of the individual voltages across the circuit and the resistance is the sum of individual resistors throughout the circuit. The total resistance of the circuit (also called equivalent resistance) is equal to the sum of the individual resistances.

In parallel circuit, the equivalent resistance is the reciprocal of the sum of reciprocals of the individual resistors. The branch current in parallel equal to the supply current. The voltage drop across each resistor in parallel is the same.

One important thing to notice from this last equation is that the more branches you add to a parallel circuit the lower the total resistance becomes. Remember that as the total resistance decreases, the total current increases.