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H+ K+ K+ and H+ exchange H+ K+ Acidosis/Alkalosis affects K+ because K+ and H+ exchange across the membrane.

-high H+ causes the cell to lose K+ -low H+ causes the cell to lose H+ and take up K+

Ca2+ H+

CAUSES Diarrhea Hyperkalemia Renal disease Hypercalcemia Diabetes Hypoaldosteronism Diet Alcohol

HCO3- =

H+ =

pH

= CO2

rapid breathing

COMPENSATION

Metabolic

Kidneys absorb and make HCO3in PCT and increase ventilation to decrease CO2.

EFFECTS Alters shapes of proteins Hyperkalemia Hypercalcemia


Albumin

slow breathing CAUSES Impaired gas exchange Rapid shallow breathing Narcotic overdose

CO2 =

H+ =

pH

= HCO3COMPENSATION
Kidneys secrete H+ and make HCO3- in PCT

Respiratory

H+ and OH- alter hydrogen bonds hydrogen bonds hold proteins (especially enzymes) in their correct shape. H+ and OH- will alter protein function

Acidosis pH < 7.35


+

Acid [H + ]
Alkalosis pH >7.45
EFFECTS Alters shapes of proteins Hypokalemia Hypocalcemia
H+ and OH- alter hydrogen bonds hydrogen bonds hold proteins (especially enzymes) in their correct shape. H+ and OH- will alter protein function

High base = high pH


CO2 + H2O H2CO3
Carbonic Acid

H+ + HCO3OH
Bicarbonate

High Acid = low pH


COMPENSATION
Kidneys secrete HCO3- in PCT

rapid breathing

CO2 =
Respiratory

H+ =

pH

CAUSES Hyperventilation Tumors that affect respiration Altitude Psychoneurosis CAUSES Vomiting Hypocalcemia Diuretics Hypokalemia Constipation Loss of HCO3Excess aldosterone
H+ K+ K+ and H+ exchange H+ K+

3 solutions to acid/base imbalances are 1. Chemical buffers a. Bicarbonate-carbonic acid b. Protein c. Phosphate 2. Respiratory a. Increase C02, increase acid b. Decrease CO2, decrease acid 3.Kidneys a. High acid, excrete acid, absorb/make bicarbonate b. Low acid, excrete bicarbonate.

COMPENSATION
Kidneys secrete HCO3- in PCT and decrease ventilation to increase CO2

H+ = pH =

CO2
Metabolic

slow breathing

Acidosis/Alkalosis affects K+ because K+ and H+ exchange across the membrane. -high H+ causes the cell to lose K+ -low H+ causes the cell to lose H+ and take up K+

Ca2+ H+

Albumin