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OTHMAN SAFDAR (20050032)

Supervised by Dr. Esmat Kameshki

by Othman

Designing of beams, columns, base plates and connections form the

core of elementary steel design. All these topics have been covered
in this project and it is hoped that the readers will find this report to
be useful. The given project is the design of a single storey, two-bay
steel building frame. According to the requirements, this report
furnishes the design and calculation of laterally supported and
laterally unsupported beams, a column, the column base plate and
bolt connection. The practice code which has been followed is BS
5950 Part 1:2000. The calculations have been verified by softwares
“StaadPro” and “ProSteel 5”.
Table of Contents

1. Abstract ………………….......................... 1
2. Introduction ………………......................... 4
3. Laterally Supported Beam........................... 8
4. Laterally Unsupported Beam …………... 11
5. Column …………………………………. 14
6. Base Plate ……………………………... 16
7. Connection …………………………….... 18
8. Conclusion…………. …………………... 22
9. Appendix ………………………………. 23
by Hani & Othman

General Introduction: By Hani

This project is a steel design 1 project, which collect all the design
procedures taken during the course. The project gives the chance for
the students to practice design procedures and using tables and
codes. The B.S. 5950 1 – 2000 code was used.
Beams: By Othman
Beams are members that carry loading primarily in bending. They
span between supports or connections. Beams are available in many
varieties which differ in the shape of cross-section. A common type is
an I-Section. Some more types are shown in the following figure:

Under the action of loads, the beam may buckle, which means the shape
of the member deforms. This appears something like this:

Lateral-Torsional Buckling:
If an I-section of beam is subjected to
vertical loading, it may move laterally
with the beam. Since beam will try to
resist this movement, its shape will
slightly distort.

Due to bending, the flange of the beam will be in compression and

therefore buckle sideways. And because the bottom flange will resist
this sideways buckling, the section will twist. This entire action is
known as Lateral-Torsional Buckling and it is shown in this figure:

Laterally-Supported Beam: In context of the above discussion, a beam

which does not laterally move nor rotate is known as Laterally-
Supported Beam. It depends upon the kind of restraint provided at
the supports as well as on the loading. If, for example, beam is
supporting a slab, then this beam will be laterally-Supported beam.
Laterally-Unsupported Beam: However, if a point load is acting on the
beam, then it will exhibit lateral-torsional buckling and therefore such
a beam will be called Laterally-Unsupported.
If the beam is restrained at intervals, then lateral torsional buckling
will take place between the restraints and intermediate supports.
Columns: by Hani
A column in structural engineering is a vertical structural element that
transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to
other structural elements below. In simple constructions it appears that
columns are not subject to moment. But, in most cases there is bending
moment due to the eccentricity of the shear load from the beam. The
place where beam or roof truss is sits or supported on column can be
assumed that the load –Reactions-is transmitted to axial load on the

Connections: by Hani
Connections are joints used to transfer the load from part of the
structure to other one. The connection include connectors such as:
bolts, pins, rivets or welds. The type and arrangement of the
connectors depend on the force being transferred and on the
member connectors. But, during designing the connections minimum
cost should be considered. On this project the only connection will be
used is the pre-loaded bolts.

Base Plates: by Hani

Are the endplate of a column, which rests on the supporting
substructure surface. Baseplates provide the interface between the
columns and the foundation system. The baseplates are used to
provide both a smooth and level bearing surface for the columns and
to distribute the column load into the foundation. The baseplates are
set over anchor bolts, previously cast into the foundation, and then
leveled. The leveled baseplates are then grouted into position to
ensure a positive load transfer from the columns to the foundation.
Laterally Supported Beam
by Othman

Design the following beam assuming it is laterally supported

along its entire length. Use steel grade S275.

Shear and moment diagram are provided at the appendix

Section Data: (UB457x191x89)
D=463.4 mm
t= 10.5 mm
T=17.7 mm
rx=19 cm
ry=4.29 cm
Zx=1770 cm3
Sx=2014 cm3
A=114 cm2

Section Classification (UB457x191x89) T11

b/T ≤ 9ε
py=265 N/mm2 T9
ε= (275/265)0.5 =1.02 T11 (note b)
b/T ≤ 9ε  5.42≤9.18
d/T ≤ 80ε . 38.8≤81.6
Therefore the entire section is plastic
Shear Capacity 4.2.3
Pv=0.6pyAv=0.6xpytD=773.64 KN
Fv(=229.06 KN) < 0.6Pv( =464.184 KN)
Therefore Section is OK in shear
Moment Capacity 4.2.5
Mc=pySx=265(N/mm2)x2014(cm3)=533.71 KN.m
Mc=1.2pyZx=562.86 KN.m
 Mc( =533.71KN.m) > Mmax( =529.701)
 Mc < 1.2pyZx
Therefore section is OK in moment.
Serviceability Check:
5wi L4/ 384 E I < Span/200
5.4 mm<Span/200
Therefore servicibility check is satisfied.

Check by ProSteel5
Laterally Unsupported Beam
by Othman


Design the following beam assuming it is laterally

unsupported along its entire length. Use steel grade S275.

Shear and moment diagram are provided at the appendix

Section Data: (UB 610x305x179)
D=620.2 mm
t= 14.1 mm
T=23.6 mm
ry=47.07 cm
Sx=5550 cm3
Section Classification T11

py265 N/mm2

b/T ≤ 9ε
d/t ≤ 80ε
Section is Plastic.

Effective Length
LE=11.04 mm
βw=1 Section tab;le
pb=108.7 N/mm2
V=0.788 T16
Mb=pbxSx=603.294 KN.m > Mmax
Therefore section is OK with respect to buckling resistance
Shear Capacity
0.6pytD = 1390 KN > 229 KN
Therefore Section is OK in shear.

Deflection Check
5wi L4/ 384 E I < Span/200
5.4 mm<Span/200

Check by ProSteel 5
by Hani


Design the following unbraced column using steel grade S275.

Section Data: (UC 152x152x30)

D=157.6 mm
t= 6.5 mm
T=9.4 mm
ry=3.83 cm
rx= 6.76 mm
Sx=248 cm3
Section Classification
py265 N/mm2

Section Classification (UB457x191x89) T11

b/T ≤ 40ε
8.13 < 40.8

d/t ≤ 40ε
19 < 40.8
Therefore both the web and flange are semi-compact.

Axis of Buckling
LEX=600 T22
Λx = 88.76
pcx = 163.48 N/mm2

LEY = 600
Λy = 156.66
 pcy = 63,37 N/mm2
 Pc=Agxpcy = 243.86 KN

4.7.4 (a)
 Therefore section is safe and economical.
Base Plate
by Hani


Design the column Base plate.

Section Classification (UB152x152x30)

T = 9.4 mm
D = 157.6 mm
B = 152.9 mm
t = 6.5 mm

Assume the base plate is on ground which has 30 N/mm2 strengh

Abc ≥ (229.06 x 103)/(0.6x30) = 1.27x104mm2

Therefore Aeff=1.27x104
= [(152.9+2C)(157.6+2C)]-[(152.9+2C)-(2C+6.5)].(157.6-
C= 9.38 (simplifying the above equations and using quadratic

 D+2C = 157.6+(2x9.38)=177mm 180x180

 B+2C = 152.9+(2x9.38) = 172 mm

Therefore tp = c[3w/Pyp]0.5 = 9.38[3(0.6x30)/275]=2mm

Therefore Baseplate: 180x180x2
Design of Connection
by Hani


Grade 8.8 non-preloaded/ordinary bolts

In clearance hole.

Assuming that there is thread, so we take the area of shank

and assuming it is M16 of grade 8.8
As= 157 mm2 T4.22
Shear Capacity = Ps = ps.As
ps = 375 N/mm2 T30
Ps = 375 N/mm2 . 157x10-3 = 58.88 KN  for single shear
Ps = 58.88x2 = 117.76 KN  for double shear
Bearing Capacity of Bolts
Pbb = dtppbb = 16x10x1000x10-3=160 KN T31
Bearing Capacity of Connected Portion T32
Pbs = kbsdtppbs < 0.5
= 1.0x16x10x460x10-3 = 73.6 KN

Assume e=2d=32 mm
0.5kbsetppbs = 73.6 KN
Therefore Pbs = 73.6 KN

Therefore governing capacity = 73.6 KN

Lap length
No. of bolts required = 229.06/73.6 = 4 bolts
Bolt Spacing = Smin = 2.5d=40mm 6.2.1
Smax = 14t = 140 mm

End Distance (e) 6.2.2

emin= 1.25D = 22.5 mm T29
emax= 11tε = 110 mm
ε=(275/py)0.5 = 1 T9

Checking e and s:
(Smax = 140mm) > (S=76 mm) > (Smin=40mm)
S is acceptable
(emin= 110) >(e= 32 mm) > (emax=225mm)
e is acceptable

e = 35mm
S = (290-(2C35))/3 = 74 mm
Therefore 4M16
Non-preloaded bolts required.
by Hani and Othman


At the end of this project, we hope that we have provided

a good idea about the design of the given project.
Software like “StaadPro” and “Prosteel” were used for
shear and bending moment diagram and design checking
respectively. The economical part was considered in the
project. We have learned a lot from this project which is
definitely going to help us in the future.

Here is the calculation of the applied load:


Shear Moment Diagram using StaadPro


Trials Carried out while selection of sections:

Laterally Supported Beam:
UB 457x191x 82
UB 457x191x 74

Laterally Unsupported Beam:

UB 533x210x122
UB 610x305x149
UB 686x254x170

UC 203x203x46
UC 152x152x23