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Neuman, W.L. (2006). Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantiative Approaches. Toronto: Pearson. b.

core characteristics or distinguishing features of research studies found within this genre Page 28: Action Research - Applied research in which the primary goal is to facilitate social change or bring about a value-oriented political-social goal. - applied research - treats knowledge as a form of power - abolishes the line between research and social action Most common characteristics of AR: those that are being studied participate in research process research incorporates popular knowledge research focuses on power with a goal of empowerment research seeks to raise consciousness or increase awareness research is tied directly to political action Action researchers try to: equalize power relations between themselves and research subjects avoid having more control, status, and authority than those they study advance a cause or improve conditions by expanding public awareness explicitly political publishing in formal reports, articles, books becomes secondary to improving conditions/lives assume that knowledge develops from experience, particularly the experience of sociopolitical action. assume ordinary people can become aware of conditions and learn to take actions that can bring about improvement assist and provide expertise that guides participants in the study design, data-gathering, and data analysis/interpretation stages. balance upholding professional standards with adapting to local conditions, involving participants and addressing their concerns. Participants: assume an active role in formulating, designing, and carrying out the research. researchers and participants co-generate knowledge in collaborative processes that continuously incorporate the diverse experiences of local groups f. case examples that illustrate from research reports how the methodology is applied in research practice

Examples: 1) feminist researcher studying sexual harassment might recommend policy changes to reduce it as well as to inform potential victims so they can protect themselves 2) AR used to preserve a town that was to be destroyed by dam project. ARer worked with union officials to redesign work to prevent layoffs. 3) impoverished nations, ARers work among illiterate to teach literacy, study local conditions, and spread awareness of conditions to attempt to improve them d. major personalities in the construction of the current field of inquiry People: 1) Randy Stoeker (1999) argued the ultimate goal of PAR is to democratize the knowledgecreation process, reveal injustices, highlight the centrality of social conflict, and emphasize the importance of engaging in collective action to alter social structures. He discovered that study success requires research to be community initiated and have substantial community control. He found that grassroots participants often fear that professional researchers will use findings only to enhance their own careers.

Points that were missing: a. historical/philosophical/theoretical background - the discourses of the methodological field c. methodological variations that occur within the broad methodological perspective e. typical methods and techniques that characterize the genre g. tensions and contradictions within the field (across perspectives) h. critiques of this methodological genre both from inside and outside the field i. key references - ten best j. file collection of the core readings that served as basis of presentation