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Automated design of gantry girder

DEPARTMENT OF APPLIED MECHANICS


SARDAR VALLABHBHAI NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
SURAT-395007

PRESENTED BY

PRAVEEN KUMAR , an undergraduate student

DR. S. N DESAI, Head Of Department, AMD
INTRODUCTION
The travelling over head cranes are
commonly used in factories,
workshops, and heavy industrial
buildings to lift and move loads from
one point to other. The movement of
load is of three dimensional nature.

The cranes is required to lift heavy
mass vertically and horizontally, also
the crane with load is required to
move along the length of the shed.
This crane moves on rails which are at
its ends. The rails are provided on a
girder called gantry girder.

COMPONENTS OF OVER HEAD TRAVELLING CRANE RUNWAY
The crane : crane girder, crab, trolley, hoist, power
transmitting devices and a cab which houses
the controls and operator

Crane rails and their attachments

The gantry girder
The gantry girder supporting columns or brackets
The crane stops
MOVEMENTS
crab
Movement of loads
Wheel carriage
Crane rail
FORCES
Braking

surge

crab
Crane load + hook load
Wheel load
braking
Wheel load
surge

Wheel load
surge

Wheel load
surge

Crane frame weight
Vertical Forces

Vertical forces acting on the gantry girder are the vertical reaction from the
crane girder and self weight of the gantry girder.

The maximum wheel load is due to the weight of the crane girder, the crab
and the crane capacity and occurs when the crab is nearest to the gantry
girder. The effect of impact has to be included

Fatigue Effects
Gantry Girders are subjected to fatigue effects due to moving loads.
Normally light and medium duty cranes are not checked for fatigue
effects if the number of cycles of load is less than 5 x1010
6
.

Foe heavy duty cranes , the gantry girders are to be checked for
fatigue loads (IS 1024 and IS 807)
Horizontal Forces
Horizontal forces are of two types:
Longitudinal Forces are those which act parallel to the gantry girder. Lateral
Forces are those which act in a direction perpendicular to the gantry girder.

a. Longitudinal Forces
These are caused due to the starting/stopping or acceleration/deceleration
of the crane. These produce thrust along the longitudinal direction of the
gantry girder. These are transferred at the rail level. Therefore, the gantry
girders are subjected to moments due to these forces.

b. Lateral Forces
These are caused due to the starting/stopping or acceleration deceleration
of the crab. These produce thrust normal to the gantry girder. These
produce bending moment in the girder in a horizontal plane.
L
C
W
L/2
C/4
W
L/2
(2.l C)
2


(L/2-c/4)^2
Shear force and equation

4

Maximum bending moment
bending moment
= WcL3 [(3a/4L)-(a3/L3)]/(6EI)
STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF GANTRY GIRDER
Design of gantry girder is a classic example of
laterally unsupported beam

Its is subjected to in addition to vertical loads
and horizontal loads along and perpendicular
to its axis
Traction
Braking
Impact on crane stops
Loads are of dynamic nature and produce
vibrations

Compression flange requires critical attention

SELECTION OF GANTRY GIRDER
(a) shows a wide flange beam with out any reinforcement and
may be used for short spans and very light crane loads.
(b) a cover plate is used on the compression face which improves the
lateral buckling strength of the beam and provides larger moment of
inertia about the vertical axis against the lateral loads.
(c) a channel has been used instead of the cover plate to further
increase Ivv.
(d) the channel is used just below the compression flange of the wide
flange beam and is supported by brackets to increase the torsional
stiffness of the girder.
(e),(f) show plate girder sections used for longer spans and heavier crane
loads.
Sr.no. Choice Condition
1. I-section MOT cranes
2. I-sections with plates/channels spans up to 8 m and 50 kN cranes
3. Plate girders spans from 6 to 10 m
4. Plate girder with channels, angles etc. spans more than 10 m
5. Box girders with angles Span more than 12 m
REQUIRED FEATURES
Single span gantry girders are desirable
Span, short and beam depth large
Beam capable of taking localized loads, web crushing not
critical
Full penetration of groove weld between web and top flange
of welded plate gantry girder
Use of continuous welds rather than intermittent weld
Rail depth

k distance of I
section
Affected
length

Rail depth

k distance of I
section
Affected length

Welded or rolled gantry girder
bolted or riveted gantry girder
Affected length
3.5 x (rail depth + flange thickness)
Affected length
3.5 x(rail depth + cover plate
thickness + gauge distance)
Intermediate stiffeners underside of top flange and down the
web
0.75t
w

t
w
Lateral loads are resisted by the channel (or plates/ angles)
plus the top flange of the beam and vertical loads are resisted
by both beam and channel (or plates/ angles)
If clamps are used to fasten the rails above the girder, it is
necessary to select member sizes that accept the required
spacing
PROBLEMS
Prevent abrupt changes in cross sections
Prevent Cantilevered gantry girder
While using high strength steel, check deflection as section
may get smaller
End rotation and deflection

Stretching of rails
opening of splice joints
column bending
skewing of crane girders
undulating crane motion

Column
The crane girders are supported either on brackets connected to
columns of uniform section with brackets or on stepped columns
Column bracket stepped columns
Impact considered in design of brackets
Stiffeners at end of beam to prevent web buckling
Design bolts to resist longitudinal loads
Design bolts to resist longitudinal loads
shims used (bracket and bottom of flange) to re-level gantry
girders
Lonitudnal forces causes torque on columns with brackets,
horizontal struts used to minimize it
COLUMN BRACKET WITH LIGHT LOADS
STEPPED COLUMN
Used when bracket use turns uneconomical
Gantry column oriented in such a way that its strong axis resists
wind , seismic, lateral crane loads
Web of gantry girder should not be connected to columns by
diaphragm fatigue failure risk
When Top flange lateral bracing not of adequate strength add
diaphragm
Separate diaphragm for each beam
stepped columns
Diaphragm:
Should not be connected
this way, instead thorough
diaphragm should be
used
BRACINGS
Laterally and longitudinally
Most effective, simplest X bracings
Limit



Bracings should never be of rods
Locate braces near Centre of runway- allows contraction and
thermal expansion
knee Bracings should never be used
Types of bracings
Crane stops
Prevents crane moving past rail end
Located at any location
Gaps (25 mm per every 30m) are provide between and of rail
and face of stop to accommodate thermal expansion and
creep
Height of stop = 450 to 750 mm above rail top
2 types typical crane stop and heavy duty stop
Design steps
Calculate the Maximum Wheel load, assume size of girder
For depth = L/12 and width = L/30


Calculate the Maximum Bending Moment Due to Vertical Forces (M
z
)
Apply multiplication factor 1.5 for live load and dead load
Calculate the Maximum Shear Force
]
2
2
2
2 [
) ( 6 . 15
c
c
L L
LE
c L W
ZZ
I +

=
y p
f M Z / 4 . 1 =
Approximate

Classify the section (plastic, compact, semi-compact)
Calculate I
z
, Z
z
, Calculation of plastic sectional modulus (Z
pz
, Z
py
)
0 0
/ 2 . 1 /
m y e m y p b d
f Z f Z M | s =
1 < +
dy
y
dz
z
M
M
M
M
Check for local moment capacity

Combined local capacity check
bd p d
f Z M | =
LT

cr y p b
M f Z / |
cr y e
M f Z / 2 . 1 s
( ) | |
2
2 . 0 1 5 . 0
LT LT LT LT
o | + + =
( )
0 . 1
1
5 . 0
2 2
s
(

+
=
LT LT LT
LT
| |
_
5 . 0
2
2
2
1
/
/
20
1
1
) ( 2
(
(

(
(

+ =
f f
y LT
LT
f y
cr
t h
r L
L
h EI
C M
t
Check for buckling resistance

=

f
bd
=

_
LT
f
y
/
m0

1 < +
dy
y
dz
z
M
M
M
M
Check for shear
d
V V 6 . 0 s
d
V ) 3 /(
0 m yw v
f A
=

Check for deflection
l
f
s
mw
u
|
|
.
|

\
|
3
7 . 0
Z
I y VA q / =
Weld design
strength of weld =
Biaxial bending
Automated design inputs..
Loads :-

Crane Capacity Wc
No. Of Eot Cranes
Self Wt. Of Crane Excl. Trolly
Self Wt. Of Troley,Hook Etc.

Minimum Hook Approach, rail hieght
Distance Between Wheel Centre C
Minimum Distance Between Cranes
Span Of Crane Between The Rails
Span Of Gantry Girder
Fy, E
Selection of sections
Diameter of wheel
Weld size


Screen shots.
THANK YOU