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Recent Trends in Power System

Dr. Chandan Kumar Chanda Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, Bengal Engineering & Science University, Shibpur. MIEEE, FIE(I), MISTE

Topics to be briefly discussed


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Power System Fundamentals Problems in the Indian Power Sector & the New Era Indian Electricity Act 2003 Latest Facts & Figures (Indian Power Sector) Indian Grid System Grid Discipline Worlds Worst Power Outage Changing Trends: Power Deregulation New Technologies coming up in the Power System (WAMS v/s SCADA) 10. Smart Grids 11. Energy Audit 12. Carbon Footprint
Prof C K Chanda, BESU, India 2

11 kV. 132/220 kV. bare conductors,

At the substation, the 132 kV is transformed to 33kV, and then eventually to 440V (threephase) OR, 220-240 V(single phase) which we use in our homes & small industries. OR , depending upon geographical location

11 kV

Prof C K Chanda, BESU, India

Power System Segments


GENERATION TRANSMISSION

DISTRIBUTION
Prof C K Chanda, BESU, India

POWER TRADING
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Prof C K Chanda, BESU, India

Keeping in mind the modern challenges, Indian Government came up with a new Indian Electricity Act in 2003.

Prof C K Chanda, BESU, India

WHICH IS THE ROOT OF SEVERAL OTHER PROBLEMS IN INDIA LIKE IRRIGATION & EDUCATION Financial constraints. Non uniform load density. Limited resource utilization. Limited no. of EHV lines.

Lack of grid discipline.


Limited power margins. Inadequate power supply Low capacity utilization of nuclear and non-conventional energy. Poor quality of supply (low voltage), bad frequency profile and frequent loadsheddings.
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Prof C K Chanda, BESU, India

Control area: divided by area System Voltage Profile System Frequency

UNIT COMMITMENT
Determining the generators that must be operated to meet daily demand.
POWER SYSTEM SCHEDULING

POWER SYSTEM CONTROL

MANUAL

COMPUTER 1. Reliable 2. Economic 3. Fast


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Prof C K Chanda, BESU, India

Indias Installed Capacity = 205341 MW (5TH


Thermal = 136436 MW Nuclear = 4780 MW Hydro = 39291 MW Renewable = 24832 MW

in world)

(as on 30th June, 2012 latest installation of 660MW plant at Jhajjar, Haryana) MAHARASHTRA is #1 in terms of installed capacity WEST BENGAL is #9 in terms of installed capacity

Captive Power Plant Generation = 31500 MW


GUJRAT IS INDIAS ONLY POWER SURPLUS STATE (Excess 2-3GW generation)
Source: Ministry of Power, Government of India 10

FIVE INDIAN GRIDS

Heart of the National Grid system = POWERGRID CORPORATION OF INDIA

SHARING CONCEPT
To distribute resources uniformly all through out India. [i.e. places far away from coal & hydel sources shouldnt be at a loss].

Connected using EHV Transmission lines, above 383,000 circuit kilometers

The power generating stations are hooked onto an interconnected network of transmission lines and substations

Exchange of surplus and compensation of deficit power now possible.


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technical minimum
Prof C K Chanda, BESU, India

INTER-REGIONAL LINKS AT PRESENT

Prof C K Chanda, BESU, India

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INDIAN GRIDS BY THE END OF 2012


NOTE: A back-to-back HVDC arrangement is used when two asynchronous AC systems need to be interconnected for bulk power transmission or for AC system stabilization reasons. ADVANTAGES Reduction of short circuit current in strong AC systems. Better Frequency Control Asynchronous connection between weak AC networks

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ENERGY RESOURCES IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF INDIA

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BUT, WE HAVE 205 GW


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*the data of the C K Chanda, BESU, India 12th plan, 2007-2012 is not yet published Prof

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Formally Mentioned in: Indian Electricity Grid Code 2010, (w.e.f 3rd May, 2010) It brings together a single set of technical and commercial rules, encompassing all the Utilities connected to/or using the inter-state transmission system (ISTS) It determines the responsibilities & defines the relationship between the various Users of the inter-State transmission system (ISTS), National Load Despatch Centre (NLDC), Regional and State Load Despatch Centers (RLDC & SLDC).

KEY RESPONSIBILITIES
1. OPTIMAL POWER SCHEDULING 2. POWER SYSTEM SECURITY 3. OUTAGE PLANNING 4. DEVELOP RENEWABLE SOURCES
IF GRID DISCIPLINE IS NOT MAINTAINED

ANOTHER DISASTROUS BLACKOUT


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Prof C K Chanda, BESU, India

IMPORTANT POINTS OF GRID DISCIPLINE


Ensure that, grid frequency always remains within the 49.5

50.2 Hz band.

Except under an emergency, or to prevent an imminent damage to a costly equipment, no User shall suddenly reduce his generating unit output by more than 100 MW ( 20 MW in case of NER) without prior intimation to and consent of the RLDC, particularly when frequency is falling or is below 49.5 Hz no User / SEB shall cause a sudden variation in its load by more than 100 MW without prior intimation to and consent of the RLDC. All generating units shall normally have their automatic voltage regulators (AVRs). All SEBS, distribution licensees / STUs shall provide automatic under-frequency and df/dt relays for load shedding in their respective systems, to arrest frequency decline that could result in a collapse/disintegration of the grid.

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Electricity traders and producers export excess electricity to other countries or procure the electricity they lack from other grids. A limited volume of electricity conforming to the system security criteria can be transmitted in a power grid. transmission capacity of the network is limited, and this can lead to congestion in the grid.

1. Consumers may not get access to power 2. Grid Stability & Power System security problems.

Auctions are the key tool of congestion management


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WORLDS WORST POWER OUTAGE


WHERE AFFECTED WHEN WHY 22 States in North, East & N.E India 700 Million People JULY 30-31, 2012 IMPACT Cause yet to be determined accurately. July 30 Failure: According to IPPAI, oversupply and not overdrawal At 2.35AM, when grid collapsed: line frequency was 50.4 Hz(above normal) July 31 Failure: Overdrawal from a weak grid. 2001 N.E.India Blackout: Was due to machinery failure. Daily life badly hit. Train transportation stopped Schools, colleges, public offices were shut down. Huge economic losses Prof C K Chanda, BESU, world. Bad impression of India to theIndia

PREVENTION
States must declare to Center how much power it requires next day. Prevent Power Theft ISLANDING

REAL PROBLEM POWER DEMAND


INCREASING

POWER SUPPLY
DECREASING

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A CONSEQUENCE OF ALL THESE MODERNIZATIONS IN POWER SECTOR

o o o o o o o

Vertically integrated vertically unbundled Regulated cost based unregulated price based Monopoly competition Service commodity Consumer customer Privilege choice Engineers Manager+Engineer+Lawyer+Economist
WHAT DEREGULATION PRACTICALLY IMPLIES?
Price Drop
Due to competition Consumer Importance
Prof C K Chanda, BESU, India

Innovation

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Independent Power Producers

T & BS Regulated Market

Limited Competition for the market of bulk supply Competitive market segments

D & RS

POST ELECTRICITY ACT 2003 PRE


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POTENTIAL PROBLEMS OF DEREGULATION


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Congestion and market power Obligation to serve Some suppliers at disadvantages Price volatility Loss operating flexibility Pricing of energy and transmission services 7. ATC calculations 8. Market settlement and disputes

AN EXAMPLE FROM TEXAS, USA

You can see the Texan success story of Power Deregulation in this website: http://www.texaspolicy.com/center/economicfreedom/reports/texas-electricity-market
Indian Power Deregulation is still an incomplete dream Prof C K Chanda, BESU, India 23

UPCOMING TECHNOLOGIES IN THE POWER SYSTEM


NOTE: WHAT IS SURGE IMPEDANCE LOADING? A transmission line loaded to its surge impedance loading: (i) has no net reactive power flow into or out of the line, and (ii) will have approximately a flat voltage profile along its length.

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WHY IS IT NOW REQUIRED?


Power system is dynamic, and the operating conditions are changing continuously. System topology (network interconnections) also changes frequently. Uncertainties in the Rapid growth in the demand of electricity. Power system components are being operated closer to their designed limits. High penetration of renewable energy sources adds to power quality and control problems.

Prof C K Chanda, BESU, India

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COMPONENTS OF ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

(E.M.S)

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SUPERVISORY CONTROL AND DATA ACQUISITION (SCADA)

CURRENT TECHNOLOGY

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UPCOMING TECHNOLOGY: WIDE AREA MONITORING

(WAM)

WHAT WAM CAN DO? 1. Capturing the power system data in real-time Clearer anticipation of incipient problems Development of faster control action to improve power grid security 2. Measuring the power system data with precise time stamping Electric grid behavior over a wide area can be tracked in a synchronized manner Development of wide-area controls. Has SCADA at the heart of the system!

Figure: A Typical PMU based WAMS Architecture

A Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU or SYNCHROPHASOR) is a device which measures the electrical waves on an electricity grid, using a common time source for synchronization. It can be a dedicated device or incorporated in Relays. The technology has the potential to change the economics of power Prof C K Chanda, BESU, India 28 delivery by allowing increased power flow over existing lines.

COMPARISON BETWEEN SCADA & WAMS

Demerit of WAMS: Synchro-Phasor Technology is currently very expensive!

Prof C K Chanda, BESU, India

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EXAMPLE OF WAMS IMPLEMENTATION IN WEST INDIA


The Project is approved by CSIR & Funded by CSIR (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research) under New Millennium India Technology Leadership Initiative (NMITLI)

Along with POWERGRID (PGCIL) other members of this project are:TCS-Leader IIT Bombay Tata Power Company Limited (Tata Power)

EXAMPLE OF WAMS IMPLEMENTATION IN NORTH INDIA


According to PGCILs 2010 Pilot Project plan in N.India, it was claimed that:
PMUs (Phasor Measurement Units ) with GPS system, will be installed at four substations of Northern Region and PDC at NRLDC, Delhi. PMU Locations: Moga- 400 KV, Kanpur- 400 KV S/s, Vindhyachal- HVDC, Dadri- HVDC

To use Phasor Measurements data for better situational awareness and technology evaluation using minimal hardware & software.
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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Empower the Customer Enhance Transmission & Distribution Improve Efficiency Reduce Costs Assist use of renewable energy sources

BETTER ENERGY MANAGEMENT

In longer term, we can expect the Smart Grid to spur the kind of transformation that the internet has already brought to the way we live, work, play and learn.

FIRST POWER GRID

1896, based on Nikola Teslas design


109 Years Population increased by 5 billion people Energy demand increased, Fossil Fuels decreased.

FIRST SMART GRID

2005, by ENEL S.P.A in Italy

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While modernizing, simply replacing the copper wires in our transmission grids, will not improve its efficiency. We need a technological overhaul in our power system.

1. Integrate isolated technologies : Smart Grid enables better energy management. 2. Proactive management of electrical network during emergency situations. 3. Better demand supply / demand response management. 4. Better power quality 5. Reduce carbon emissions. 6. Increasing demand for energy : requires more complex and critical solution with better energy management Prof C K Chanda, BESU, India

2-way communication Between Utility & User SELF-HEALING

WORLD NEWS
All Smart Grid Companies have shown great revenue projections in the coming years.
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AN OVERVIEW OF SMART GRID

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DISTRIBUTION IN SMART GRID WHAT IT MEANS A.M.I


Automatic Distribution Demand Optimization - Selective Load Control Operation Islanding of Micro-grids Managing Distribution Network Model Outage management and AMI Integration DMS & Advanced Switching Applications Integrated Voltage / VAR Control
WORLD NEWS Smart Grid Distribution Automation Spending to Total $46 Billion Worldwide by 2015
Prof C K Chanda, BESU, India

Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) is an architecture for automated, two-way communication between a smart meter with an IP address and a utility company. The goal of an AMI is to provides utility companies with realtime data about power consumption and allow customers to make informed choices about energy usage based on the price at the time of use.
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ASPECTS OF THE SMART GRID

A smart meter is usually an electrical meter that records consumption of electric energy in intervals of an hour or less and communicates that information at least daily back to the utility for monitoring and billing purposes.

Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) describes a system in which plug-in electric vehicles, such as electric cars (BEVs) and plug-in hybrids (PHEVs), communicate with the power grid to sell demand response services by either delivering electricity into the grid or by throttling their charging rate. One very, very promising V2G project in the US is at the University of Delaware
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THE NEAR-FUTURE

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As per the Energy Conservation Act, 2001, Energy Audit is defined:

the verification, monitoring and analysis of use of energy including submission of technical report containing recommendations for improving energy efficiency with cost benefit analysis and an action plan to reduce energy consumption.
TYPES OF ENERGY AUDIT The type of Energy Audit to be performed depends on: - Function and type of industry - Depth to which final audit is needed, and - Potential and magnitude of cost reduction desired ADVANTAGES OF ENERGY AUDITING Gives us a very accurate picture of your property (both the good and the bad). Gives the end-buyer significant peaceof-mind. YOU CAN ACTUALLY DO IT AT YOUR HOME TO DETERMINE YOUR OWN ELECTRICITY CONSUMTION & SEE WHERE YOU CAN SAVE!
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Thus Energy Audit can be classified into the following two types. i) Preliminary Audit ii) Detailed Audit

Prof C K Chanda, BESU, India

GOALS OF AN ENERGY AUDIT


1. Determine the overall efficiency in the energy usage of a property. 2. Discover any and all problem areas as they relate to #1. 3. Provide an impartial recommendation of what the property owner/tenant should do to fix #2.

HOW TO DO AN ENERGY AUDIT?


1. Visual inspection of the home and appliances/systems. 2. Blower door test Used to de-pressurize the home, see airflow patterns and see where there are leaks that need to be fixed. 3. Thermal imaging pictures Used to spot potential problem areas behind walls/ceilings and floors. These infrared pictures can literally see through drywall to give you an accurate view of hot spots, missing insulation, electrical issues, etc. 4. A typical energy audit will take about 3-4 hours to complete. Prof C K Chanda, BESU, India
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EXAMPLE OF THERMAL IMAGING PICTURE DURING ENERGY AUDIT

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It is a MEASURE of the impact human activities have on the environment in terms of the amount of CO2 & other green house gases produced, measured in units of carbon dioxide. So that every person or industry understands his/ its own impact upon the health of our environment

HIGH CARBON FOOTPRINT

More Pollution More Penalties (Bills)

Modern Objective: Greener & Cleaner Power


So, we should REDUCE Carbon Footprint

So, we should REDUCE CO2 production during entire life cycle of power production.
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UNIT: grams of CO2 equivalent per kilowatt hour of generation (gCO2eq/kWh)


Calculated using a method called Life-Cycle-Approach (LCA), calculated at every step from production to consumption of electricity

Calculation method accredited internationally by: ISO 14000

Robust Method of Calculation [means ranking of electricity generation


technologies does not change with different sources of data.] Prof C K Chanda, BESU, India
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Direct Impact While power production and consumption

Indirect Impact While to fuel extraction

Carbon Footprint of Typical Coal Power Plant: >1,000 gCO2eq/kWh

Approaches to deal with it


1. CARBON CAPTURE & STORAGE (CCS)
It is a technology attempting to prevent the release of large quantities of CO2 into the atmosphere from fossil fuel use in power generation and other industries by capturing CO2, transporting it and ultimately, pumping it into underground geologic formations to securely store it away from the atmosphere.

2. LOW CARBON TECHNOLOGIES Wind Energy [4-6gCO2eq/kWh] PV Cells [58gCO2eq/kWh] Biomass [25gCO2eq/kWh] Wave & Tidal [25-50gCO2eq/kWh]

Nuclear [5gCO2eq/kWh]
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Prof C K Chanda, BESU, India

THANK YU
Feel free to contact me with any query at: Website: www.ckchanda.co.cc Email: ckc@ee.becs.ac.in , ckc_math@yahoo.com