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NESREA AND THE NIGERIAN ENVIRONMENT


By

Dr. (Mrs.) Ngeri. S. Benebo, JP


Director General/CEO, National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA)

AT THE INTERNATIONAL SUMMIT ON ENVIRONMENT, ORGANIZED BY

NIGERIAN MEDICAL STUDENTS ASSOCIATION (NIMSA) STANDING COMMITTEE ON ENVIRONMENT AND POPULATION ACTIVITIES (SCOEPA), AT THE NATIONAL SECRETARIAT, COLLEGE OF HEALTH SCIENCES, UNIVERSITY OF ABUJA
6TH SEPTEMBER, 2012
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0VERVIEW OF PRESENTATION
The Environment The Nigerian Environment Major Environmental Issues confronting Nigeria Causes of Environmental Degradation, Pollution and Contamination in Nigeria History of Environmental Standards and Enforcement in Nigeria National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA) Some achievements of NESREA in the field of Environmental Compliance and Enforcement Way forward in Reducing/mitigating environmental problems in Nigeria Responsibilities Conclusion

The Environment

The environment comprises all living and non-living things that occur naturally on earth. In other words, environment is mans immediate surroundings, namely water, land, and air and the associated living organisms and non-living resources. This term includes the following key components:

The surrounding that are common to all of us, including space, water, rocks, atmosphere, land, etc.

The Environment (cont.)


The following terms are relevant to the understanding and meaning of the environment: Ecology This is the scientific study of the distribution and abundance of life and the interactions between organisms and their environment. The word ecology is often used in common parlance as a synonym for natural environment or environmentalism.

The Environment (cont)


Ecosystem A central principle of ecology is that each living organism has an ongoing and continual relationship with every other element that makes up its environment. The sum total of interacting living organisms and the non-living environment in an area is termed ecosystem. Different types of ecosystem are forests, grasslands, rivers, coastal and deep sea waters, islands, mountains, even cities, etc. Environmental Contamination This is the introduction into water, air, or soil of micro-organisms, chemicals, toxic substances, wastes, or wastewater in a concentration that makes the medium unfit for its intended use. It also applies to surfaces of objects, buildings and various household and agricultural products. There could be soil contamination, water contamination and air contamination.
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The Environment (cont)


Environmental Pollution This is the introduction of contaminants into the environment that cause harm or discomfort to the environment and human health. Environmental Health Environmental Health means the control of all factors in mans environment which exercise or may exercise a deleterious effect on his development, health or survival. It also refers to the theory and practice of assessing, correcting, controlling and preventing these factors that can potentially affect adversely the health of present and future generations.
Environmental Degradation Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through the depletion of the productive capacity of environmental resources such as air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems 7 and the extinction of wildlife.

The Environment (cont.)


Environmental Degradation is also defined by the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction as The reduction of the capacity of the environment to meet social and ecological objectives, and needs. The great demands placed on the environment by an ever increasing human population is draining the earths limited natural resources. Conservation This is the science of preserving, guarding or protecting and the keeping (of a thing) in a safe or entire state, so that the resource does not deplete over time. It connotes a wise use of natural resources, such as in conservation ethic, energy conservation, habitat conservation, marine conservation, soil conservation, water conservation, wildlife conservation, etc. It is the sustainable management of resources to ensure that the resources do not deplete nor degrade over time

The Nigerian Environment


Nigeria occupies a unique geographic position in Africa and the variability in climate and geographic features endow her with one of the richest environments in the continent. Nigeria has a total land area of 923,773 square Kilometres (Land area: 910,770 km2; Water area: 13,000 km2) with vegetation ranging from the mangrove and rain forests of the south, through the various savannahs, to the semi-arid ecosystems of the north, and is richly endowed with rich and diverse mineral, physical, biological and energy resources like fishery, wildlife, timber, medicinal plants, minerals, water, ornamental and food crops, both renewable and nonrenewable.
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The Nigerian Environment (cont.)

The mineral wealth of the country is vast and should enable it to establish a firm industrial base for rapid economic development. Generally, the topography is varied with rugged hills, undulating slopes, gullies, waterlogged areas, flat and undulating land surfaces. Specifically, it is characterized by southern lowlands merging into central hills and plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in the North.

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Environmental issues confronting Nigeria


Nigerias environment is under increasing threat from human activities. The key environmental issues facing Nigeria are many and multifaceted. They include; water pollution, indoor and outdoor air pollution, industrial pollution, biodiversity loss, erosion, Coastal and Marine erosion and land subsidence, land degradation, drought and desertification, Municipal solid wastes, Urban decay and squatter settlements, Flooding; coastal flooding, river flooding and urban flooding, Oil pollution from spills, oil well blow-outs, open/bush burning, noise pollution, visual pollution, environmental pollution and wildlife crimes, climate change, ozone layer depletion, loss of Fauna and Flora etc. There is also growing problem of near-end-of-life electrical/electronic products, otherwise called e-wastes. and end-of-life

All these problems are here with us, and they keep on growing more and more every day.
The main challenge of addressing these problems is the lack of compliance with environmental standards and regulations. 11

Environmental issues confronting Nigeria (Cont...)


Erosion: Erosion is the gradual wearing away of rock or soil by physical breakdown, chemical solution, and transportation of material as caused by water, wind or ice. The surface water runoff due to erosion removes the fertile top soil, and impoverishes the soil, depleting its fertility and diminishing its capacity for food production and to support food security. It also lays the soil bare and defenceless against other types of erosion. About 60% of the total land area of Nigeria is prone to flood and erosion (FMEH&UD, 2008). Over 50 million Nigerians reside in areas at risk of soil degradation due to erosion. There is also the issue of coastal erosion from Calabar to Lagos has resulted, over the years, in the southern coastline of this country, being washed away by the Atlantic Ocean.

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Environmental issues confronting Nigeria (Cont...)


About 400 km of the national coastline are degraded and lost annually
at the rate of 5% by tidal erosion and flood (FMEH&UD, 2008). The almost yearly flooding of the Bar Beach is an issue that we are all familiar with. Remediation/ restoration of such sites and the solution to these environmental problems cost huge sums of money and consume large amounts of resources.

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Gully Erosion threatening the community settlement at the background in the Eastern part of Nigeria.

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Highway washed away after heavy rainfalls

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Highway washed away after heavy rainfalls

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Environmental issues confronting Nigeria (Cont..)


Flooding: The exceptionally heavy rains in Sub-Saharan Africa throughout July, August and September, result to severe flooding, loss of life and extensive displacement of families across the region. In Nigeria, the most seriously affected states are: Lagos, Oyo, Ogun, Benue, Plateau, Nasarawa, Bauchi, Sokoto, Yobe, Borno and Kebbi. In August 2007, more than 46 people lost their lives and more than 2,500 families were been displaced, and in 2012 Lagos, Plateau, Niger , Jigawa, Oyo State etc have all been seriously affected by floods with loss of lives and property.
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Environmental issues confronting Nigeria (Contd)


Flood waters destroy a number of homes, farmlands, crops, and livestock. Poor drainage systems, the untimely release of water from dams and the indiscriminate building of houses on drainage channels, river banks and flood plain all contribute to exacerbating the effects of the flooding. Usually, such flooding occurs due to blocked drainages and waterways, and absence of proper drainage system or maintenance of existing ones. Sometimes, people ignore the dangers inherent in building structures in such flood-prone areas. Littering with nylon and confectionary wrappers, used packages wrappers are a common sight in urban streets. Drainage channels and storm drains in the cities are blocked with refuse. Domestic wastes are dumped in water passages, thereby blocking them.
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Flooding

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Flooding

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Flooding

Flooded house with family in Ikorodu Lagos

Homes submerged by flooding in Sokoto state.


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Environmental issues confronting Nigeria (Cont..)


Deforestation: Deforestation is the removal of the productive vegetation from an area of land for various reasons, including, logging (provision of wood/timber for production of paper, furniture, housing and other construction), collection of poles, wood fuel, land preparation for agriculture, creation of pasture for livestock breeding, development of dams for aquaculture, urbanization and settlements (and associated infrastructure), creation of right of way for infrastructure such as roads/railway, telecommunication, water/sewer, electricity transmission lines, etc. The impact of deforestation is expressed in the unsustainable production of forest resources, loss of bio-diversities while the environment is exposed to degradation through the forces of erosion.

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Environmental issues confronting Nigeria (Contd)


Drought: Drought is a natural phenomenon in which the rainfall precipitation drastically falls below the survival requirements of the ecosystem. It is customary to speak of drought and desertification in the same breath. Although both are related phenomena, they should not be confused to mean the same thing.

Drought is linked to desertification, a situation of semi-aridity, featuring a tree-less landscape, sparse grasses and thorn bush interspersed with bare soil. Drought has occurred in the Sahel region of Northern Nigeria for a considerable period in the past. The droughts of 1972-74 and 1982-84 in Nigeria were very prolonged and severe indicating that land use patterns, population growth and soils are important elements driving this phenomenon.
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Effects of drought
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Environmental issues confronting Nigeria (Contd)


Desertification: Desertification is defined as land degradation in the arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors including climatic variations and human activities. In other words, desertification is a process by which land becomes increasingly dry, covered with sand until almost no vegetation grows on it, making it a desert.

The precarious and delicate balance of the ecosystem is exacerbated by the massive intervention of human activities, especially, peasant farming and shifting cultivation, animal husbandry, annual bush fires and various construction works for development.
Desertification is seriously affecting some parts of the northern states like Kebbi, Yobe, Jigawa States were they are experiencing desert encroachments.

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Desertification

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Desert land
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Environmental issues confronting Nigeria (Cont..)


Forest Fires: Of all the factors causing depletion of forest resources and environmental degradation, uncontrolled forest fires are the most destructive.

Forest fires cause loss of biodiversity and release gases that cause air pollution and climate change into the atmosphere. It also exposes land to elements of degradation including erosion, drying and desertification which affects the socioeconomic activities of people in affected areas. In our local communities forest fires set by nomadic cattle rearers, hunters and agricultural activities have caused extensive loss of vegetation and wild life with local people subjected to loss of means of income and food. Smoke and particulate matter released by forest fires have been implicated in air pollution and global warming. Forest fires also expose land to various agents of degradation thereby promoting loss of arable land.
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Environmental issues confronting Nigeria (cont)

Forest Fire, near Abaji, F.C.T.


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Environmental issues confronting Nigeria


Water Pollution:
Water pollution results from a host of human activities including poor waste management, oil spillage, discharge of industrial effluents, run offs from agricultural activities and burying of hazardous substances which pollute ground water.
Lack of potable water has made water pollution a threat to both urban and rural areas of Nigeria. This has been evidenced in various outbreaks of water borne diseases arising from pollution of water sources and loss of aquatic life. Industrial discharge and solid waste deposition into water bodies have reduced the aesthetics of surface bodies and in some cases caused death of water bodies that are sources of livelihood to most communities. The Agency surveyed Lagos/Lekki Lagoons for heavy metal concentration and found the lagoons, sediments, underground water, plants and soils to be contaminated. The contamination was evident in areas with high industrial activities and human population/activities.

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Water Pollution

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Polluted Water Body


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Squatter Settlement
According to the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP), 37% per cent of the developing worlds population i.e. 2.5 billion people lack improved sanitation facilities, and over 780 million people still use unsafe drinking water sources. Inadequate access to safe water and sanitation services, coupled with poor hygiene practices, kill and sicken thousands of children every day, and lead to impoverishment and diminished opportunities for thousands more.

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Squatter Settlement

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Environmental issues confronting Nigeria: Energy production and utilization in Nigeria


Access to clean and affordable modern energy is critical to fostering lasting social and economic development and to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Worldwide, some 2.7 billion people rely on traditional biomass for cooking and heating, and 1.4 billion have no access to electricity, with one billion more having access only to unreliable electricity networks. Smoke from polluting and inefficient cooking, lighting, and heating devices kills nearly two million women and young children prematurely every year and causes a range of chronic illnesses and other health impacts. Black carbon emissions from these devices worsen global climate change and foraging for fuel contributes to deforestation.
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Environmental issues confronting Nigeria: Energy production and utilization in Nigeria (cont.)
Installing fluorescent lights or natural skylights reduces the amount of energy required to attain the same level of illumination compared to using traditional incandescent light bulbs. Compact fluorescent lights use two-thirds less energy and may last 6 to 10 times longer than incandescent lights. Scientists claim that if you replace the conventional bulbs in your 5 most frequently used light fixtures with bulbs that are energy efficient, you reduce GHGs while saving money on energy bills. According to the Scientists, if every household in the U.S. could take this simple action, they would prevent GHGs equivalent to the emissions from nearly 10 million cars. Waste - Reduce, reuse and recycle newspapers, beverage containers, paper and other goods. Waste prevention and recycling reduce methane emissions and save energy.
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Energy Bulbs

Incandescent light bulb.

Compact fluorescent light

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Environmental issues confronting Nigeria: Energy production and utilization in Nigeria (cont.)
Recognizing that access to affordable modern energy services is essential for sustainable development, reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), UN General Assembly (UNGA) adopted a resolution proclaiming 2012 as the "International Year for Sustainable Energy for All There is need to encourage the use of renewable energies in Nigeria. A major benefit of substituting bio-fuels for fossil fuels is that, if done in a sustainable fashion, it would greatly reduce emissions of greenhouses gases. Sustainable energy Sustainable energy is the provision of energy that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
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Environmental issues confronting Nigeria: Energy production and utilization in Nigeria (cont.)
Buy new or used vehicle that is fuel efficient. Drive smart. To improve fuel economy and reduce GHG emissions, go easy on the brakes and gas pedal, avoid hard accelerations, reduce time spent idling and unload unnecessary items in your trunk to reduce weight. Use overdrive if you have it. A well-maintained vehicle is more fuel-efficient. Keep your car well tuned and use the recommended grade of motor oil. Check and replace your vehicles air filter regularly. Check your tire pressure regularly. Under-inflation increases tire wear, reduces your fuel economy and leads to higher GHG emissions and releases of air pollutants.

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Environmental issues confronting Nigeria: Vehicular Emissions in Nigeria


Motor Vehicles include cars, trucks, or other vehicles powered by an engine e.g. motorcycles, boats, etc. In the process of combustion, a number of changes occur. Some of the fuel is passed out unburned or partly burnt fuel which changes form into a number of gases. The products of combustion which are emitted into the environment as exhaust gases have created serious environmental and health concerns. These emissions contain carbon dioxide (CO2), oxides of sulphur (SOx), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), hydrocarbons and particulate matter. These gases are called Greenhouse Gases.

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Environmental issues confronting Nigeria: Vehicular Emissions in Nigeria (cont)


Due to poor economic disposition, majority of the vehicles on our roads are usually second hand vehicles with poor engine performance imported into the country for use and these emit huge quantities of harmful pollutants. Vehicular emissions cause air pollution - severe environmental hazards such as acid rain which corrode statues and buildings, damage crops and forests, make lakes and streams unsuitable for fish and other plant and animal life, global warming, etc, as well as adverse health problems. To control the toxic emissions from vehicles with their attendant environmental and health hazards , the Agency has commenced the implementation of the National Environmental (Control of Vehicular Emissions from Petrol and Diesel Engines) Regulations, S.I. No. 20.

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Environmental issues confronting Nigeria: Vehicular Emissions in Nigeria (cont)


Application of the Regulations - Focus Ban on the importation of: Two-stroke engine motor vehicles with effect from 1st January, 2012 Motor vehicles not having approved emission reduction technology. Four stroke engine can however be used in place of a 2 (two) stroke engine. No visible smoke when vehicle is running or idling. Establishment of approved emission testing centres.

Yearly emissions testing for all private and commercial vehicles.


New vehicles will commence yearly emission testing after 3 years of operation in the country.
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Environmental issues confronting Nigeria: Vehicular Emissions in Nigeria (cont)


Secretary to the Government of the Federation passed a Circular, Ref. No. SGF.6/S.18/Vol.VII/907 of 3rd May, 2012, regarding the ban on the importation of 2-stroke engines and the need for all stakeholders to comply accordingly. 2-stroke engines emit significant amounts of Particulate Matter (PM), unburnt Hydrocarbons (HC) e.g benzene, carbon Monoxide (CO) and Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) called the greenhouse gases into the environment, and these have also been incriminated in the global warming issue. 2-Stroke Engines have detrimental effects on human health. They cause respiratory problems and even cancer. The 2-stroke cycle of an internal combustion engine has only two strokes (linear movements of the piston) instead of four, although the same four operations (intake, compression, combustion, exhaust) still occur. It is usually found in low power applications like generators (I better pass my neighbour), motor cycles, mopeds, marine outboard motors, gardening equipment including lawn mowers, leaf blowers, trimmers, chainsaws, etc.

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Environmental issues confronting Nigeria: Vehicular Emissions in Nigeria (cont)


The 2-Stroke Engines have no dedicated lubrication system; the lubricant is mixed with fuel and therefore do not last as long as 4-Stroke as their parts wear out faster. The oil makes all two-stroke engines smoky. 2-stroke engines are not fuel efficient and as such produce more pollution. Advantages of 4- Stroke Engines Last longer than 2-stroke engines More energy-efficient Pollute less than two stroke engines

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Emissions from Motor vehicles

Emissions from Diesel Engines


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Air Pollution

A model of accumulated Emissions in the Atmosphere Emissions from Motorcycles


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Environmental issues confronting Nigeria:

Global Warming
Air pollution makes people sickit aggravates asthmatic attacks, causes breathing (respiratory) problems - and promotes, in some instances, permanent lung damage, and cancer. Some air pollutants return to Earth in the form of acid rain, which corrode statues and buildings, damage crops and forests, and make lakes and streams unsuitable for fish and other plant and animal life. It harms plants, animals, and the ecosystems in which they live. Scientists predict that the temperature increase, referred to as global warming, will affect world food supply, alter sea level, make weather more extreme, and increase the spread of tropical diseases.

Scientists project that global temperatures are expected to continue rising as a result of increased emissions of GHGs into the atmosphere. Warmer temperatures could melt parts of polar ice caps and most mountain glaciers, causing a rise in sea level that could flood coastal regions.
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Environmental issues confronting Nigeria: Global Warming (cont)


Global warming could also affect weather patterns causing, among other problems, prolonged drought or increased flooding in some of the worlds leading agricultural regions. Emissions from vehicles contain large quantities of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide traps the Earths heat and thus can cause global warming. GHGs have great global warming potential. Recent research reveals that climate change threat is greater in Africa than in many parts of the world. On the average, the continent is 0.5C warmer than it was 100 years ago.

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The Greenhouse Gas Effect

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Environmental issues confronting Nigeria: Implications of Climate Change

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Some Critical Environmental issues confronting Nigeria: Waste Management and Disposal in Nigeria
Waste management remains one of the most daunting environmental challenges facing the country today. It has continually remained at its lowest ebb despite huge investments in the sector. Currently, as a result of urbanization and rapid population growth wastes generation are faster than their management (collection, transportation and disposal) in many cities and towns because there are no corresponding infrastructural facilities to manage them. The management of wastes is far from being satisfactory in Nigeria for the following reasons: Town and cities do not really benefit from any organized waste management services; Where they are collected, it is often irregular and sporadic; They are disposed off indiscriminately, buried or burnt; and Recycling of waste is negligible and the final disposal methods are very crude. Such waste when left unattended to for some-time, constitutes serious health hazards, causes offensive odour, pollutes underground water sources, decreases aesthetics and environmental quality.
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Environmental issues confronting Nigeria: Waste Management and Disposal in Nigeria (cont) What Is Waste? Waste could be defined as any unwanted, rejected, discarded and overused material that is no longer required for its original purpose. Another school of thought defines waste as a resource in a wrong place. This is because a waste to an individual may be a raw material to another person. There are basically two types of waste, namely: Municipal Waste or Non-hazardous waste which includes garbage, rubbish, ashes, street refuse, dead animals, abandoned vehicles, industrial waste, special waste (from hospitals, abattoirs); and Hazardous waste includes Medical, Chemical, E-Waste, Radioactive waste, etc 53

Environmental issues confronting Nigeria: Waste Management and Disposal in Nigeria (cont) Major problems confronting effective solid waste management in these cities are multi-dimensional and can be attributed to the following factors: Urbanisation; Lack of foresight; Centralization; Shortage of manpower; Inadequate equipment/tools; Lack of maintenance culture; Lack of funds; Traffic congestion; Location of disposal site; and Weather condition and bad roads

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Environmental issues confronting Nigeria: Waste Management and Disposal in Nigeria (cont)
The problems associated with waste disposal could be solved through the following strategies: Discourage migration of people from rural to urban areas through provision of social amenities in the rural areas; Adequate or appropriate town planning; Discourage over centralisation of waste disposal to single body; Training and retraining of personnel/labourers should be intensified; Provision and maintenance of vehicles and facilities; Adequate funding; Political will by the Government; Involving private sector participation; Robust awareness creation; Development and enforcement of Regulations; Effective management strategy involving all Stakeholders; Waste minimization: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, Refurbish, Repair; Accountability and Transparency; Good record keeping; and Setting up waste recycling facilities across the nation.
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Improper Waste disposal

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Canal blocked with waste

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Drainage blocked with waste

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Improper disposal of clinic waste

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Environmental issues confronting Nigeria: Waste Management and Disposal in Nigeria (cont)
E-Waste in Nigeria. Nigeria is a recipient of a growing amount of used electronic and electrical equipment (UEEE) imported into the coumtry. Surveys show that over 500 containers of used computers and other electrical and electronic appliances are imported into the port of Lagos each month, primarily from Europe and North America.

It is known from various researches and studies carried out, that these equipment contain toxic substances such as Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, etc and when burnt, release highly toxic by-products into the air and pollute underground water, with high risks to human health and the environment. Due to the risk in these e-waste, the Agency is strictly implementing the National Environmental (Electrical, Electronic Sector) Regulations, S.I. No. 23
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Environmental issues confronting Nigeria: Waste Management and Disposal in Nigeria (cont)
SOME SHIPMENTS OF E-WASTE REPATRIATED SO FAR MV Nashville lead acid batteries and used tyres (15th April, 2010); MV Gumel - The shipment of used refrigerators containing compressors with CFCs, used blenders, used water boilers, old carpets, used and old kitchen sinks, used and old videos, used old radios and TV sets, used old auto parts, 3rd June, 2010; Vera D - The shipment of used/old end-of-life CRT TV sets (6th October, 2010); Grand America -Two 40 feet sized containers of Used refrigerators containing compressors with CFCs, old model monitors, used/old CRT TV sets with no cable in some of them, used loud speaker, 15th October , 2010; Pac Antilia Used entertainment and consumer equipment (audio video surround receiver, console stereo amplifier, DVD Players) with broken parts and not properly packaged (16th May, 2012); Louis S - Used entertainment and consumer equipment (audio video surround receiver, console stereo amplifier, DVD Players) with broken parts and not properly packaged (July 11th July, 2012).

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E-Waste being burnt

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Environmental issues confronting Nigeria


Noise Pollution
Noise is an unpleasant, usually loud sound that reaches the ear. All sounds that are distracting, annoying, or harmful to everyday activities such as work, rest, entertainment, study and so forth are regarded as noise. In fact, any sound judged by the recipient as undesirable can be considered as noise. Sources of Noise Pollution in Nigeria are: automobiles (motorcycles, cars, construction vehicles etc); generators; grinding machines; commercial music sellers; talking; household entertainment sets; etc.

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Environmental issues confronting Nigeria

Some of the effects of Noise Pollution on Human Health and the Environment include: Deafness: Sleep Disturbance: Interference with Communication: Disturbance in Mental Health: Heart Problems: Effect on Pregnant Women and Unborn Babies Effects on Animals:
What is needed in reducing Noise Pollution from vehicles and Its Effects include: Keeping our vehicles in good condition; Driving considerably and not horning unnecessarily; Lower the volume of musical sets; etc.

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Environmental issues confronting Nigeria: Sustainable Mining in Nigeria


Mining of stone and metal has been done since pre-historic times. In Nigeria, organized mining began in 1903 when the Mineral Survey of the Northern Protectorates was created by the British colonial government. A year later, the Mineral Survey of the Southern Protectorates was founded. By the 1940s, Nigeria was a major producer of tin, columbite, and coal. The discovery of oil in 1956 affected the mineral extraction industries, as government and industry both began to focus more on oil. Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an ore body, vein or (coal) seam. Mineral that were discovered in Nigeria include coal, oil, gold, columbite, tin, tourmaline etc. Materials recovered by mining include base metals, precious metals, iron, uranium, coal, diamonds, limestone, oil shale, rock salt and potash. Mining in a wider sense comprises extraction of any nonrenewable resource (e.g., petroleum, natural gas, or even water).
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Environmental issues confronting Nigeria: Sustainable Mining in Nigeria (cont)


Environmental Effects of Mining If adequate preventive measures are not provided, mining can greatly alter the environment around the sites. There may be changes in landscapes, water tables, and animal habitats, as well as air and water pollution, and permanent degradation of land. Toxic pollutants such as chemical, dusts, heat and noise can seriously affect the health of workers, and sometimes their families. A clear example was the issue of the lead poisoning in about 13 Local Government Areas of Zamfara State where more than 1,500 children have been poisoned and deformed, many died and some blinded due to unwholesome practice of gold mining operations. Illegal mining is still being practiced in many States of the Federation e.g. Nassarawa, Ebonyi, Kwara States, etc.
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Environmental issues confronting Nigeria: Sustainable Mining in Nigeria (cont.) Exposure to toxic substances in mining operations can lead to the following: DEATH, Headaches, Nausea, Fever, Coma, Asthma, Cramps, Allergies, Diarrhoea, Dizziness, Vomiting, Convulsions, Memory Loss, Blurred Vision, Chronic Fatigue, Rapid Heartbeat, Soreness of Joints, Tightness in Chest, Flu Like Symptoms, Respiratory Paralysis, Reproductive Failures, Elevated Blood Pressure, Immune Deficiency Disorders, Central Nervous System (CNS) Disorders, Multiple chemical Sensitivities (MCS), Irritations to Skin, Eyes, Nose and Throat, Muscle Twitches, Loss of Coordination, Changes in Heart Rate and Liver function, Behavioural Abnormalities, Hyperactivity, Moodiness, Genetic Damage, Various Cancers. 67

Death trap at Barite mining Site (40m deep)

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Contamination of surface water due to mining activities (Typical Artisanal Tourmaline Mine Site)
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Deep exploration for Lead and Zinc in Nassarawa State

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Water issuing from main adit, Okpara coal mine, Enugu

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Children used for washing/segregation of Barites

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Environmental issues confronting Nigeria: Sustainable Mining in Nigeria (cont)


Control of Pollution in Mining Enforcement of the National Environmental (Mining and processing of Coal, Ores and Industrial Minerals) Regulations, 2009, S.I. No. 31 Environmental Planning and Management: For mining operations, it is vital to plan for minimization of impact at the earliest stages, as few changes in layout may not be possible once operations have commenced. Accordingly, it is important that the EIA process is professionally and impartially handled from the onset, and regular monitoring and auditing by personnel with environmental expertise maintained after operations commence. Mitigation/minimization of impact: A number of mining techniques are in widespread use depending on the site-specific characteristics, the environment and other constraints that may be imposed. The Agency is currently carrying out intensive sensitization of the illegal artisanal miners on the best practices that should be employed in 73 operations

Causes of Environmental Degradation, Pollution and Contamination in Nigeria


Over-cultivation: Over cultivation occurs when farmlands are not sufficiently fallowed to allow the land to recover in between cultivations.

Logging and Unsustainable Forest Exploitation: Logging is the harvesting of trees to provide timber for domestic use or export. The natural forests have completely disappeared. The forest reserves have also been illegally exploited in terms of timber, ropes and fuel-wood, exposing the environment to severe degradation.
Wood-Fuel Exploitation: There is widespread felling of wood for fuel, especially in rural areas that depend mainly on this source of energy. The dependence of the rural population (80% of the total population) on wood fire for energy needs and the production of charcoal have contributed to serious depletion of forest resources and environmental degradation. Hence, there is a call for alternative sources of energy in Nigeria especially in the use of renewable energy.
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Causes of Environmental Degradation, Pollution and Contamination in Nigeria


Overgrazing: The arid and semi-arid areas of Nigeria account for the production of over 60% of the nations livestock resources of cattle, goats, sheep, camels, etc. This region is therefore highly overgrazed resulting to degradation. Poverty: Poverty is a major factor contributing to land degradation with respect to felling of trees for fuel, sand mining, etc. Urbanization and Industrialization: In Nigeria today, small town and cities are fast growing into mega cities with so much industrial activities like mining, mechanized agriculture, construction, telecommunication, manufacturing, printing, heavy air/road/sea traffic, and use of machines. These activities generate solid, liquid and gaseous wastes that degrade the environment.
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Causes of Environmental Degradation, Pollution and Contamination in Nigeria

For instance: gas flaring, vehicular and machines emissions reduce air quality, deplete ozone layer and causes various diseases; effluent discharge from manufacturing and printing degrade both land and water, and also causes various diseases; pesticides and herbicides used in mechanized agriculture degrade land and water; construction and associated quarry operations when not properly handled, degrade land and deplete bio-diversity; telecommunication transceiver mast affect environment aesthetic and in some cases, pollute ground water.

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History of Environmental Standards Enforcement in Nigeria


Prior to the establishment of Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA), Federal Ministry of Environment and eventually, National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA), there was no national policy on environmental control. Protection of the environment was the responsibility of each government department which was expected to deal with environmental problems as it affects its mandate. Environmental protection was only incidental to the performance of the primary duties of Ministries and Departments while environmental matters of inter-ministerial concern were dealt with on ad hoc basis by inter-ministerial committees.

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History of Environmental Standards Enforcement in Nigeria (cont)


In 1988, a ship of toxic waste from industrial activities was found dumped in Koko, Delta State, this prompted the Federal Government to Promulgate the Harmful Waste Decree 42, subsequently the creation of the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) (1988). FEPA articulated some National Policy on Environment, developed some regulations and standards. Government also promulgated the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Decree at that time and became active in global environmental protection and sustainable development matters. With increasing dynamic demand on the environment, partly because of urbanization and industrialization, the mandate and powers of FEPA soon became inadequate to tackle the environmental challenges by 1999, and then the need arose for another policy change.

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History of Environmental Standards Enforcement in Nigeria (cont)


At the inception of democratic government in 1999, FEPA and some Departments and Agencies from existing Ministries were merged and gave birth to the Federal Ministry of Environment (FMEnv) with more activities and emphasis on policy matters and less or no enabling law on enforcement issues Series of Committees were set up to proffer solution on the identified gaps. After due diligence of the recommendations of the committee, The National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA) was established in November 2006 for effective enforcement of environmental Laws , Regulations and Standards in Nigeria.

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National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA)


The Bill for an Act establishing the Agency was signed into law by President Umaru Musa YarAdua, GCFR, and this has been published in the Federal Republic of Nigeria Official Gazette No. 92, Vol. 94 of 31st July, 2007. By the NESREA Act, the Federal Environmental Protection Agency Act Cap F 10 LFN 2004 has been repealed.
NESREA is the new mechanism for environmental protection and sustainable development in Nigeria and by its enabling law (NESREA Establishment Act, 2007) has the powers to enforce all environmental laws, regulations, standards, etc. NESREA has the vision to ensure a cleaner and healthier environment for Nigerians, and with the mission to inspire personal and collective responsibility in building an environmentally conscious society for the achievement of sustainable development in Nigeria. The mandate is for the protection of the environment, biodiversity conservation and sustainable development of Nigerias natural resources in general and environmental technology including coordination, and liaison with, relevant stakeholders within and outside Nigeria on matters of enforcement of environmental standards, regulations, rules, laws, policies and guidelines. 80

National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA).(cont)


The main thrust of the Agency is to ensure that individuals, facilities, corporate organizations and the public comply with environmental laws, regulations and standards through the building of strategic alliances and partnerships in pursuit of voluntary compliance. Functions of the Agency Enforce compliance with laws, guidelines, policies and standards on environmental matters; Coordinate and liaise with stakeholders, within and outside Nigeria, on matters of environmental standards, regulations and enforcement; Enforce compliance with the provisions of international agreements, protocols, conventions and treaties on the environment, including climate change, biodiversity, conservation, desertification, forestry, oil and gas, chemicals, hazardous wastes, ozone depletion, marine, wildlife, pollution, sanitation, and such other environmental agreements as may from time to time come into force;
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National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA)..(cont)


Enforce compliance with policies, standards, legislation and guidelines on water quality, environmental health and sanitation, including pollution abatement;

Enforce compliance with guidelines and legislations on sustainable management of the ecosystem, biodiversity conservation and the development of Nigerias natural resources; Enforce compliance with any legislation on sound chemical management, safe use of pesticides and disposal of spent packages thereof;

Enforce compliance with regulations on the importation, exportation, production, distribution, storage, sale, use, handling and disposal of hazardous chemicals and waste other than in the oil and gas sector;
Enforce through compliance monitoring, the environmental regulations and standards on noise, air, land, seas, oceans and other water bodies other than in the oil and gas sector;
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National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA)..(cont)


Ensure that environmental projects funded by donor organisations and external support agencies adhere to regulations in environmental safety and protection; Enforce environmental control measures through registration, licensing and permitting systems other than in the oil and gas sector; Conduct environmental audit and establish data bank on regulatory and enforcement mechanisms of environmental standards other than in the oil and gas sector; and Create public awareness and provide environmental education on sustainable environmental management, promote private sector compliance with environmental regulations other than in the oil and gas sector and publish general scientific or other data resulting from the performance of its functions.
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National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA)..(cont) Implementation strategy of NESREA The Agency uses amongst others, the following strategy to implement its mandate: Development of new, and review of existing environmental guidelines, regulations and standards; Advocacy visits to public and private institutions and major stakeholder Establishment of Zonal Offices in each of the six Geopolitical Zones, and State Offices in all the States of the Federation; Development of Public Awareness, Outreach and Environmental Education Programmes;

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National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA)..(cont)


Development of Sectoral Strategic Alliance Programmes for enhanced environmental compliance; Implementation of the National Urban Air Quality Monitoring and Vehicular Emission Programme; Establishment of Zonal Reference Environmental Laboratories; Establishment of effective library resources and services; Integrating Environmental Standards and Regulations into formal education curriculum at all levels; Continuous stakeholders consultation programme for effective voluntary compliance.
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Some of the achievement of NESREA in the field of Environmental Standards Compliance


Developed Twenty-Four (24) sectoral environmental Standards and Regulations; These regulations as listed below cover almost all aspects of the environment to ensure good quality: National Environmental (Telecommunication Sector) Regulations, S.I. No. 11 of 2011. National Environmental (Soil Erosion and Flood Control) Regulations, S.I. No. 12 of 2011 National Environmental (Desertification Control and Drought Mitigation) Regulations, S.I. No. 13 of 2011 National Environmental (Base Metal, Iron and Steel Manufacturing/Recycling Sector) Regulations, S.I. No. 14 of 2011 National Environmental (Control of Bush or Forest Fire and Open Burning) Regulations, S.I. No. 15 of 2011. National Environmental (Domestic and Industrial Plastic, Rubber and Foam Sector) Regulations, S.I. No. 17 of 2011 National Environmental (Coastal and Marine Area Protection) Regulations, S.I. No. 18 of 2011 86

Some of the achievement of NESREA in the field of Environmental Standards Compliance (cont.)
National Environmental (Construction Sector) Regulations, S.I. No. 19 of 2011 National Environmental (Control of Vehicular Emissions from Petrol and Diesel Engines) Regulations, S.I. No. 20 of 2011 National Environmental (Non Metallic Mineral Industries) Regulations, S.I. No. 21 of 2011 National Environmental (Surface and Ground Water Quality Control) Regulations, S.I. No. 22 of 2011 National Environmental (Electrical, Electronic Sector) Regulations, S.I. No. 23 of 2011 National Environmental (Wetlands, River Banks and Lake Shores) Regulations, 2009, S.I. No. 26, Gazette No 58, vol 96 of 2nd October, 2009 National Environmental (Watershed, Mountainous, Hilly and Catchments Areas) Regulations, 2009 S.I. No 27, Gazette No 59, vol. 96 of 5th October, 2009 National Environmental (Sanitation and Wastes Control) Regulations, 2009, S.I. No 28, Gazette No 60, vol. 96 of 6th October, 2009
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Some of the achievement of NESREA in the field of Environmental Standards Compliance (cont.)
National Environmental (Permitting and Licensing System) Regulations, 2009, S.I. no. 29, Gazette No 61, vol. 96 of 7th October, 2009 National Environmental (Mining and processing of Coal, Ores and Industrial Minerals) Regulations, 2009, S.I. no 31, Gazette No 63, vol. 96 of 12th October, 2009 National Environmental (Ozone Layer Protection) Regulations, 2009, S.I. No. 32, Gazette No 64, vol. 96 of 13th October, 2009 National Environmental (Food, Beverages and Tobacco Sector) Regulations, 2009, S.I. No. 33, Gazette No 65, vol. 96 of 14th October, 2009 National Environmental (Textile, Wearing Apparel, Leather and Footwear Industry) Regulations, 2009, S.I. No 34, Gazette No 66, vol. 96 of 16th October, 2009 National Environmental (Noise Standards and Control) Regulations, 2009, S.I. No 35, Gazette No 67, vol. 96 of 19th October, 2009 National Environmental (Chemicals, Pharmaceuticals, Soap and Detergent Manufacturing Industries) Regulations, 2009, S.I. No 36, Gazette No 68, vol. 96 of 20th October, 2009 88

Some of the achievement of NESREA in the field of Environmental Standards Compliance (cont.)
Undertook compliance monitoring of major operators across the nation to ascertain their level of compliance and amicably settled Public Complaints on environment related matters. Commenced prosecution of environmental crime cases; with appreciable success; Established reference laboratories in Kano and Port-Harcourt to assist the Agency in its enforcement functions ; Mounting of massive awareness campaign on radio, billboards and posters on various aspect of environment, including protection of endangered species;

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Some of the achievement of NESREA in the field of Environmental Standards Compliance (cont.)
Acquired Air Quality Monitoring Stations installed by the Agency in Abuja and Port Harcourt and operates handheld air quality measuring devices in some States to evaluate the quality of the ambient air; To find a lasting solution to influx and dumping of near end of life /end of life EEE in Nigeria , the Agency organized an International Conference on EWaste to address the issue and came up with the Abuja Platform for countries implementation and as input into the global discussion under SAICM. Has impounded and repatriated so many containers of end-of-life and near-end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (E-waste);

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Some of the achievement of NESREA in the field of Environmental Standards Compliance (cont.)
Established working relationships with key stakeholders including, Police, Customs, INTERPOL and other security outfit to create synergy for effective enforcement; Development of curriculum on environmental enforcement, including CITES enforcement, for the Police Academy and their other colleges; Development of environmental training modules (including on wildlife matters) for other security outfits; In April 2012, the Agency embarked on profiling and environmental compliance monitoring of industrial facilities and Quarries in the country with so many environmental compliance letters and abatement notices issued. Facilities have started complying

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Some of the achievement of NESREA in the field of Environmental Standards Compliance (cont.)
Embarked on reconnaissance survey of artisanal mining in concerned states in the country, with the view of developing a compliance monitoring programme for artisanal miners; Continuous Sensitization in quarry sites on the use of PPE, good mining practices and general evaluation of the sites. Places visited include some LGAs in Nassarawa State, Kwara State, Zamfara State, and some states are yet to be visited; Begun the full enforcement of the provisions of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Act in the construction and quarry sectors;

Conducting regular environmental awareness outreach programmes including production and distribution of Environmental Information, Education and Communication (IEC) materials;
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Some of the achievement of NESREA in the field of Environmental Standards Compliance (cont.)
Enforces fully, the provisions of the National Environmental (Control of Emissions from Petrol and Diesel Engines) Regulation, which culminates in the effective ban on the importation of 2 stroke engines; and Motor vehicles not having emission reduction technology; Carried out a Demonstration Waste Control Project at Lokun and Emirin Polio Road, in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State; and Amadi Flats, Elekahia Housing Estates, Rumuibekwe Housing Estates, and Rumuodara Area in Port Harcourt, Rivers State. This entailed the distribution of three (3) colourcoded Waste Bins to each household in the designated areas, Training of the waste handlers; Sensitization of the residents on sorting of waste at source; and Construction of Waste Compost Plants to produce manure for gardening and farming;

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Some of the achievement of NESREA in the field of Environmental Standards Compliance (cont.)
Put in place consistent strategies towards protecting endangered species and curbing illicit trade in animal parts which recently resulted in the arrest and prosecution of a Chinese woman attempting to smuggle 6 pieces of polished ivory out of the country through the Murtala Mohammed Airport; Lifting of trade suspension on Nigeria and the rise of a new dawn in CITES implementation in Nigeria. Developed strategies for the establishment of Emission Testing Centers across the country through Public Private Partnership (PPP). Yearly emissions testing for all private and commercial vehicles will be carried out.

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Way forward in Reducing/mitigating environmental problems in Nigeria


Forests are carbon stores, and they are CO2 sinks. Plants remove CO2 from the air through a process known as carbon sequestration. Encourage forest conservation activities i.e. activities avoiding deforestation e.g. discourage felling of trees, use of fuel wood as a source of energy, etc. Plant trees, practice sustainable forestry, use conservation tillage on croplands. Discourage bush burning. Waste - Reduce, reuse and recycle newspapers, beverage containers, paper and other goods. Waste prevention and recycling reduce methane emissions and save energy.

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Way forward in Reducing/mitigating environmental problems in Nigeria (cont)


Be green in all operations that might have negative impact on the environment. The world body is saying go green. Be green in your yard. Use a push mower, which unlike the electric mower, consumes no fossil fuels and emits no GHGs. Composting your food and yard waste reduces the amount of waste that you send to landfills and reduces GHGs emissions. Smart landscaping can save energy, save money and reduce your households GHG emissions. Use water efficiently. Municipal water systems require a lit of energy to purify and distribute water to households and offices, and saving water, especially hot water, can lower GHG emissions. Be smart when irrigating your lawn or landscape. Irrigate during the coolest part of the day, early morning is best. Turn the water off while shaving or brushing your teeth. Do not use your toilet as a waste basket water is wasted with each flush. Repair all toilet and faucet leaks right away. 96

Way forward in Reducing/mitigating environmental problems in Nigeria (cont)


Installing fluorescent lights or natural skylights reduces the amount of energy required to attain the same level of illumination compared to using traditional incandescent light bulbs. Compact fluorescent lights use two-thirds less energy and may last 6 to 10 times longer than incandescent lights. Biomass sources of energy -- such as alcohol fermented from sugar, combustible oils extracted from soybeans, and methane gas emitted by waste dumps -- can help cut GHGs emissions, but only if vegetation used for the purpose is replaced by equal amounts of replanted vegetation (so that the CO2 released by biomass combustion is recaptured through photosynthesis).

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Responsibilities
NESREA will like to seize this opportunity to encourage the Medical Students Association and the Medical body at large, to:

Be part of the NESREA process


Join the NESREA Green Corps. Members serve as environmental vanguards in their local communities; Imbibe the attitude of proper waste disposal especially medical waste which are being classified as hazardous and very toxic to the environment and human health.

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Conclusion
NESREA is the new institutional mechanism created by the Federal Government of Nigeria to ensure effective environmental governance through compliance monitoring and enforcement of environmental laws, conventions, standards and regulations; and NESREA is building and promoting partnerships with both public and private sectors, including civil societies, professionals like you and international organizations, to ensure proper policing and protection of the Nigerian environment , its natural and human resources. Everyone is important on this issue. It is a collective effort. The Medical Students are key Stakeholders to the effective implementation of the existing National Environmental Regulations, recognizing the fact that most ailments treated in the hospitals have environmental undertone. NESREA is looking forward to effectively partnering with you to ensure a cleaner and healthier environment for Nigerians.
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THANK YOU
NESREA

ensuring a cleaner and healthier environment for Nigerians


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