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TRIGONOMETRY REVIEW SHEET 2005 Jon Wittwer, www.vertex42.

com
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PLANE TRIANGLE RELATIONSHIPS

QUADRANTS & SIGNS OF FUNCTIONS

sin & csc pos.


others neg.

a
b
c
Law of sines: ----------- = ----------- = -----------sin A
sin B
sin C

All positive

II

Law of cosines: c 2 = a 2 + b 2 2ab cos C ,

B
a

a2 + b2 c2
C = acos ---------------------------

2ab

III IV

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1
tan --- ( A + B )
a+b
2
Law of tangents: ------------ = -----------------------------ab
1
tan --- ( A B )
2
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RIGHT-ANGLE TRIANGLE RELATIONSHIPS

INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

tan & cot pos.


others neg.

a = opposite side
b = adjacent side
c = hypotenuse
side opposite
a
sin = ------------------------------------ = --hypotenuse
c

90 -

Function

I and II

1 x 1

2 y 2

I and IV

all reals

2 < y < 2

I and IV

x 1 or x 1

0y, y2

I and II

x 1 or x 1

2 y 2 , y 0

I and IV

all reals

0<y<

I and II

y = tan x
y = sec x
y = csc x

FUNDAMENTAL IDENTITIES

y = cot x

1
2. sec x = ----------cos x

1
3. csc x = ---------sin x
2

5. cos x + sin x = 1

6. 1 + tan x = sec x

8a. cos ( 2 x ) = sin x

8b. cos ( 2 + x ) = sin x

9a. sin ( 2 x ) = cos x

9b. sin ( 2 + x ) = cos x

1
cos x
4. cot x = ----------- = ----------tan x
sin x
2

Principal values for x 0

0 sin x 2

2 sin x < 0

0 cos x 2

2 < cos x

0 tan x < 2

2 < tan x < 0

0 < cot x 2
1

2 < cot x <

0 sec x < 2

2 < sec x

0 < csc x 2

2 csc x < 0

1. cos ( x ) = cos x

2. sin ( x ) = sin x

3. tan ( x ) = tan x

4. sec ( x ) = sec x

5. csc ( x ) = csc x

6. cot ( x ) = cot x

ADDITION LAWS
2. sin ( x y ) = sin x cos y cos x sin y

DOUBLE-ANGLE IDENTITIES
2

Principal values for x < 0

OPPOSITE-ANGLE IDENTITIES

PRINCIPAL VALUES FOR INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

7. cot x + 1 = csc x

10. tan ( 2 x ) = cot x

sin x sin y
1. cos ( x y ) = cos x cos y +
tan x tan y
3. tan ( x y ) = ------------------------------1
+ tan x tan y

1a. cos 2x = cos x sin x

1b. cos 2x = 2 cos x 1

1
2
1d. sin x = --- ( 1 cos 2x )
2

1
2
1e. cos x = --- ( 1 + cos 2x )
2

2. sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x

2 tan x
3. tan 2x = -------------------2
1 tan x

1c. cos 2x = 1 2 sin x

HALF-ANGLE IDENTITIES

x
1 cos x + if x/2 is in quadrant I or II
2. sin --- = --------------------
2
2
- if x/2 is in quadrant III or IV
x
1 cos x + if x/2 is in quadrant I or III
3a. tan --- = ---------------------
2
1 + cos x - if x/2 is in quadrant II or IV
1 cos x
sin x
x
3b. tan --- = -------------------- = --------------------- = csc x cot x
sin x
1 + cos x
2

INVERSE IDENTITIES (ASSUMING PRINCIPAL VALUES ARE USED)


1. sin x + cos x = 2

7. sin ( x ) = sin x

2. tan x + cot x = 2

8. cos ( x ) = cos x

3. sec x + csc x = 2

9. tan ( x ) = tan x

4. csc x = sin ( 1 x )

10. cot ( x ) = cot x

5. sec x = cos ( 1 x )

11. sec ( x ) = sec x

6. cot x = tan ( 1 x )

12. csc ( x ) = csc x

1
1
1

+ cos x- + if x/2 is in quadrant I or IV


1. cos --x- = 1
-------------------
2
2
- if x/2 is in quadrant II or III

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COMPLEX IDENTITIES
e iw e iw
e iw + e iw
Euler Identity: e iw = cos w + i sin w
i sin w = -------------------cos w = --------------------2
2
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QUADRATIC FORMULA
b b 2 4ac
x = -------------------------------------2a
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1. 2 cos x cos y = cos ( x y ) + cos ( x + y )

2. 2 sin x sin y = cos ( x y ) cos ( x + y )

3. 2 sin x cos y = sin ( x + y ) + sin ( x y )

4. 2 cos x sin y = sin ( x + y ) sin ( x y )

5. cos mx cos nx = cos ( m + n )x + cos ( m n )x

SUM IDENTITIES
x+y
xy
1. cos x + cos y = 2 cos ----------- cos -----------
2
2

x+y
xy
2. cos x cos y = 2 sin ----------- sin -----------
2
2

xy
x+y
3. sin x + sin y = 2 sin ----------- cos -----------
2
2

x+y
xy
4. sin x sin y = 2 sin ----------- cos -----------
2
2

EXACT VALUES
Angle (deg)

Angle (rad)

cos(x)

30

32

45

22

60

12

90

180

270

3 2

sin(x)
0

REDUCTION IDENTITY
a 2 + b 2 sin ( x + y ) , where y is chosen so that

tan(x)
0

12
22

33
1

32

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b
a
cos y = -------------------- and sin y = -------------------a2 + b2
a2 + b2

Solution to ax 2 + bx + c = 0 :

PRODUCT IDENTITIES

1. a sin x + b cos x =

Quadrants

0y

Pythagorean theorem: c 2 = a 2 + b 2
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sin x
1. tan x = ----------cos x

Range

1 x 1

y = sin x

side opposite
a
tan = ------------------------------------------ = --side adjacent to
b

Domain

y = cos x

side adjacent to
b
cos = ------------------------------------------ = --hypotenuse
c

90

cos & sec pos.


others neg.

-1

-1