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(Hiragana Katakana Kanji)


Hin nay, trn th gii, ting Nht (ang dn tr nn thng dng.Vi v tr th 9 trn bng
xp hng cc ngn ng thng dng trn th gii, ting Nht khng nh c tm quan trng ca
n i vi cuc sng thng ngy. Cng vi s pht trin nhanh chng ca nn kinh t ni chung,
v ca cc cng ty Nht Bn ngy nay ni ring, vic hc ting Nht tr nn tht s cn thit
c th d dng hi nhp vo cuc sng ca t nc mt tri mc ny.

Gii Thiu Chung


Ting Nht hin nay bao gm 3 b ch c bn, l cc b ch:
(Hiragana) - y l b ch c bn nht cho nhng ngi bt u hc ting Nht, n c
cng dng gip gin lc ha trong vic c v vit ting Nht, v gip cho ngi mi bt u c
th d dng nm bt c phn cn bn ting Nht. Ngoi ra, Hiragana cn thng c s dng
vit cc tr t, gip h tr cho hon thnh cu vn (S ni r hn cc phn sau)
(Katakana) - y l b ch c sng to nhm gip h tr cho vic vay mn t trong
ting Nht. Vi b ch ny, ngi vit c th d dng phin dch li mt t hay thm ch l mt cu
vn bng ting nc ngoi ( nh ting Anh, Php, ) m khng th vit li bng cc ngn t sn
c trong ting Nht
(Kanji) y l b ch ch o ca ting Nht, c pht trin t b Hn T ca Trung Hoa.
Chim hn 85% t vng ca ting Nht, b ch ny thng c s dng lm ngn gn cu
vn, v hn ch hin tng hiu sai ngha trong ting Nht (y chnh l iu m b ch Hiragana
cn thiu st). Ngoi ra, n cn gp phn ng k cho vic ng ha cc ngn ng ca ng
( Ting Trung Quc v Hn Quc)
Mt v d () in hnh cho vic s dng c 3 b ch trn:

-(Hiroshima no Kamera wa yasashii desu)


-(Nhng chic my chp hnh ca Qung o th r)
Trong , ta thy c vai tr ca c 3 b ch nh sau:
- Xut hin qua ch (no), ch (wa) v ch (shii), gp phn lm lin kt cu
( y l ch mnh quan h) v gip hon thin cho tnh t
- Xut hin thng qua ch (kamera), gp phn phin m cho cu ( y, chnh l
s phin m ch Camera trong ting Anh)
Xut hin thng qua ch (hiroshima) v (yasa), gp phn lm ngn gn cu vn, v
gip lm r ngha hn cho cu vn, trnh hin tng hiu sai ngha.
T v d trn, ta thy rng vic hc v hon thin c 3 b ch l iu v cng cn thit i vi mt
ngi hc ting Nht

Cch Pht m Trong Ting Nht

Ting Nht c tng cng 46 m c c bn, bao gm 5 m ch v 41 m pht trin. C th hiu 5


m ch ny nh cc nguyn m ca ting Vit. Cn 41 m pht trin c th c hiu n gin l
s kt hp ca nguyn m vi cc ph m
Bng sau s cho ta hiu r hn v cc m c ny:
(lu , cc m c ny c phin m v ting Vit gip cc bn d tip thu hn)
m ch
A
m pht trin Ka
Sa
Ta
Na
Ha
Ma
Ya
Ra
Wa
Nn

I
Ki
Shi
Chi
Ni
Hi
Mi
Ri

U
Ku
Su
Tsu
Nu
Fu
Mu
Yu
Ru

E
Ke
Se
Te
Ne
He
Me
Re

O
Ko
So
To
No
Ho
Mo
Yo
Ro
Wo

Ngoi 46 m k trn, ting Nht cn c thm cc m khc gi l Trc m v o m. Bng sau


y lit k y tt c o m v trc m ca ting Nht
Trc m

Ga
Za
Da
Ba
Pa

Gi
Zhi
Ji
Bi
Pi

Gu
Zu
Dzu
Bu
Pu

o m

Kya
Gya
Sha
Jya
Chya
Nya
Hya
Bya
Pya
Mya
Rya

Kyu
Gyu
Shu
Jyu
Chyu
Nyu
Hyu
Byu
Pyu
Myu
Ryu

Kyo
Gyo
Sho
Jyo
Chyo
Nyo
Hyo
Byo
Pyo
Myo
Ryo

Ge
Ze
De
Be
Pe

Go
Zo
Do
Bo
Po

Vic nm r cch pht m trong ting Nht l vic rt quan trng, v n khng ch gip ta d giao
tip hn vi ngi bn x, m n cn gip ta hc t vng v m thoi mt cch d dng hn, gip
tng tc c v ni mt cch ng k

Hai B Ch C Bn Hiragana & Katakana


Tng ng vi cc m c gii thiu trn, chng ta c 2 b ch Hiragana v Katakana l 2 b
ch c bn trong ting Nht, mi b ch bao gm 46 k t, tng ng vi 46 m c c bn (Khng
k trc m v o m)
Bng sau s cho ta khi nim v c 2 b ch
(V cch pht m tng k t c th i chiu vi bng 46 m c bn vit trn)

- Hiragana

- Katakana

Ngoi ra, i vi 2 b ch ny, chng ta cn c cc cch vit cho Trc m v o m


- Hiragana
Trc m

o m

- Katakana
Trc m

o m

Cch c Ghp, Trng m & Xc m


Trong 46 m c c bn th c l m th 46 (nn) l m c bit nht, bi l n khng th pht m
mt cch n l m phi ghp vi mt m khc ng trc n
Sau y l cch c i vi m th 46 ny
Lu , i vi Katakana th cch c vn gi nguyn nh i vi Hiragana
1/i vi m c khng bm mi
i vi cc m c khng bm mi (V d ta c m nh ni vi ch "n" trong
ting Vit

c l kan

c l san

c l man

2/i vi m c phi bm mi
i vi cc m c phi bm mi (V d ta c m nh ni vi ch "m" trong ting
Vit

c l Empitsu

c l Sammai

c l Shimbun

Ngoi ra, trong ting Nht, nhm gip hn ch cc t ng m vi nhau, ta cn c thm s xut
hin ca Trng m v Xc m
1/Trng m
Trng m thng l 5 m c bn, c vit sau cc m pht trin t n (V d nh vi
lc ny, ta s c m pht trin di ra gp i (nhng khng c m c bn) (Lu , i vi
Katakana, tt c trng m c k hiu l

- c l Okaasan
- c l Otoosan
- c l Obaasan

- c l Supootsu

- c l Nooto

Lu : Cc m pht trin t c th ly lm trng m cho mnh. Tng t, cc m pht trin


t cng c th ly lm trng m cho mnh

- c l Eiga

- c l Sachou
2/Xc m
i khi trong ting Nht, chng ta bt gp ch trong Hiragana hay trong Katakana c vit
nh hn nhng ch bnh thng. Chng gi l xc m. Khi bt gp nhng xc m nh vy, chng
ta ch cn thm vo ui ca m ng trc n ch u tin ca m ng sau n

- c l Gakkou

- c l Zasshi

~~

Hy tp pht m nhng t, cm t v cu sau