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Year

1855
1856
1857
1858
1859
1860
1861
1862
1863
1864
1865
1866
1867
1868
1869
1870
1871
1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
1878
1879
1880
1881
1882
1883
1884
1885
1886
1887
1888
1889
1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905

Ice On (Modified)
Ice On
321
352
310
341
298
329
311
342
310
341
318
349
305
336
329
360
321
352
312
343
317
348
321
352
315
346
314
345
305
336
327
358
322
353
304
335
302
333
313
344
344
375
312
343
340
371
324
355
320
351
297
328
336
367
313
344
321
352
321
352
315
346
308
339
327
358
336
367
348
379
329
360
330
361
320
351
307
338
331
362
339
370
325
356
320
351
312
343
330
361
328
359
318
349
328
359
316
347
318
349
335
366

Ice on Date Ice Off (Modified) Ice Off


12/18/1855
74
105
12/6/1856
95
126
11/25/1857
54
85
12/8/1858
42
73
12/7/1859
55
86
12/14/1860
69
100
12/2/1861
72
103
12/26/1862
68
99
12/18/1863
81
112
12/8/1864
64
95
12/14/1865
77
108
12/18/1866
79
110
12/12/1867
60
91
12/10/1868
75
106
12/2/1869
71
102
12/24/1870
61
92
12/19/1871
83
114
11/30/1872
82
113
11/29/1873
73
104
12/10/1874
74
105
1/10/1876
70
101
12/8/1876
76
107
1/6/1878
37
68
12/21/1878
71
102
12/17/1879
54
85
11/23/1880
92
123
1/2/1882
49
80
12/10/1882
72
103
12/18/1883
75
106
12/17/1884
79
110
12/12/1885
78
109
12/5/1886
74
105
12/24/1887
75
106
1/2/1889
59
90
1/14/1890
58
89
12/26/1890
75
106
12/27/1891
62
93
12/16/1892
66
97
12/4/1893
43
74
12/28/1894
67
98
1/5/1896
65
96
12/21/1896
69
100
12/17/1897
55
86
12/9/1898
77
108
12/27/1899
76
107
12/25/1900
70
101
12/15/1901
58
89
12/25/1902
52
83
12/13/1903
77
108
12/14/1904
60
91
1/1/1906
67
98

Ice Off Date


4/14/1856
5/6/1857
3/26/1858
3/14/1859
3/26/1860
4/10/1861
4/13/1862
4/9/1863
4/21/1864
4/5/1865
4/18/1866
4/20/1867
3/31/1868
4/16/1869
4/12/1870
4/2/1871
4/23/1872
4/23/1873
4/14/1874
4/15/1875
4/10/1876
4/17/1877
3/9/1878
4/12/1879
3/25/1880
5/3/1881
3/21/1882
4/13/1883
4/15/1884
4/20/1885
4/19/1886
4/15/1887
4/15/1888
3/31/1889
3/30/1890
4/16/1891
4/2/1892
4/7/1893
3/15/1894
4/8/1895
4/5/1896
4/10/1897
3/27/1898
4/18/1899
4/17/1900
4/11/1901
3/30/1902
3/24/1903
4/17/1904
4/1/1905
4/8/1906

1906
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957

323
335
326
321
312
331
328
346
319
331
320
314
337
312
329
328
319
335
323
319
309
320
325
306
319
364
314
328
327
323
311
310
331
336
339
337
310
319
322
316
333
324
328
326
314
319
334
333
336
315
318
333

354
366
357
352
343
362
359
377
350
362
351
345
368
343
360
359
350
366
354
350
340
351
356
337
350
395
345
359
358
354
342
341
362
367
370
368
341
350
353
347
364
355
359
357
345
350
365
364
367
346
349
364

12/20/1906
1/1/1908
12/22/1908
12/18/1909
12/9/1910
12/28/1911
12/24/1912
1/12/1914
12/16/1914
12/28/1915
12/16/1916
12/11/1917
1/3/1919
12/9/1919
12/25/1920
12/25/1921
12/16/1922
1/1/1924
12/19/1924
12/16/1925
12/6/1926
12/17/1927
12/21/1928
12/3/1929
12/16/1930
1/30/1932
12/10/1932
12/25/1933
12/24/1934
12/20/1935
12/7/1936
12/7/1937
12/28/1938
1/2/1940
1/5/1941
1/3/1942
12/7/1942
12/16/1943
12/18/1944
12/13/1945
12/30/1946
12/21/1947
12/24/1948
12/23/1949
12/11/1950
12/16/1951
12/30/1952
12/30/1953
1/2/1955
12/12/1955
12/14/1956
12/30/1957

52
53
66
54
48
74
61
69
69
68
70
64
54
57
44
59
79
74
62
78
47
61
55
48
52
64
63
54
56
59
72
50
63
76
70
54
61
68
48
49
69
63
58
70
71
68
49
53
63
64
63
63

83
84
97
85
79
105
92
100
100
99
101
95
85
88
75
90
110
105
93
109
78
92
86
79
83
95
94
85
87
90
103
81
94
107
101
85
92
99
79
80
100
94
89
101
102
99
80
84
94
95
94
94

3/24/1907
3/24/1908
4/7/1909
3/26/1910
3/20/1911
4/14/1912
4/2/1913
4/10/1914
4/10/1915
4/8/1916
4/11/1917
4/5/1918
3/26/1919
3/28/1920
3/16/1921
3/31/1922
4/20/1923
4/14/1924
4/3/1925
4/19/1926
3/19/1927
4/1/1928
3/27/1929
3/20/1930
3/24/1931
4/4/1932
4/4/1933
3/26/1934
3/28/1935
3/30/1936
4/13/1937
3/22/1938
4/4/1939
4/16/1940
4/11/1941
3/26/1942
4/2/1943
4/8/1944
3/20/1945
3/21/1946
4/10/1947
4/3/1948
3/30/1949
4/11/1950
4/12/1951
4/8/1952
3/21/1953
3/25/1954
4/4/1955
4/4/1956
4/4/1957
4/4/1958

1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001

Variance

312
332
323
319
315
323
319
345
329
330
321
319
327
339
311
324
336
330
307
310
313
332
324
331
347
322
329
317
316
336
333
315
329
321
328
330
340
313
324
345
333
348
317
336

343
363
354
350
346
354
350
376
360
361
352
350
358
370
342
355
367
361
338
341
344
363
355
362
378
353
360
348
347
367
364
346
360
352
359
361
371
344
355
376
364
379
348
367

124.57907 124.5791

12/9/1958
12/29/1959
12/19/1960
12/16/1961
12/12/1962
12/20/1963
12/15/1964
1/11/1966
12/26/1966
12/27/1967
12/17/1968
12/16/1969
12/24/1970
1/5/1972
12/7/1972
12/21/1973
1/2/1975
12/27/1975
12/3/1976
12/7/1977
12/10/1978
12/29/1979
12/20/1980
12/28/1981
1/13/1983
12/19/1983
12/25/1984
12/14/1985
12/13/1986
1/2/1988
12/29/1988
12/12/1989
12/26/1990
12/18/1991
12/24/1992
12/27/1993
1/6/1995
12/10/1995
12/20/1996
1/11/1998
12/30/1998
1/14/2000
12/13/2000
1/2/2002

73
72
65
71
62
71
73
45
62
56
69
67
72
79
42
64
78
53
56
70
78
66
51
62
36
68
55
59
40
58
64
43
52
55
70
59
49
67
60
27
49
36
66
43

104
103
96
102
93
102
104
76
93
87
100
98
103
110
73
95
109
84
87
101
109
97
82
93
67
99
86
90
71
89
95
74
83
86
101
90
80
98
91
58
80
67
97
74

136.465567 136.4656

4/14/1959
4/12/1960
4/6/1961
4/12/1962
4/3/1963
4/11/1964
4/14/1965
3/17/1966
4/3/1967
3/27/1968
4/10/1969
4/8/1970
4/13/1971
4/19/1972
3/14/1973
4/5/1974
4/19/1975
3/24/1976
3/28/1977
4/11/1978
4/19/1979
4/6/1980
3/23/1981
4/3/1982
3/8/1983
4/8/1984
3/27/1985
3/31/1986
3/12/1987
3/29/1988
4/5/1989
3/15/1990
3/24/1991
3/26/1992
4/11/1993
3/31/1994
3/21/1995
4/7/1996
4/1/1997
2/27/1998
3/21/1999
3/7/2000
4/7/2005
3/15/2002

Ice Duration
118
151
121
96
110
117
132
104
125
118
125
123
110
127
131
99
126
144
136
126
91
130
62
112
99
161
78
124
119
124
128
131
113
88
75
111
97
112
101
101
91
110
100
130
111
107
105
89
126
108
97

Year From Dec 1st to Nov 3oth

94
83
106
98
101
108
99
88
115
102
116
115
82
110
81
96
125
104
105
124
103
106
96
107
98
65
115
91
94
101
121
105
97
105
96
82
116
114
92
98
101
104
96
109
122
114
81
85
92
114
111
95

126
105
108
117
112
113
120
65
98
91
108
113
110
105
97
105
107
88
115
123
118
99
93
96
54
111
85
107
89
87
97
93
88
99
108
94
74
119
102
47
81
53
115
21

364.0565651

Ice On
Mean
Standard Error
Median
Mode
Standard Deviation
Sample Variance
Kurtosis
Skewness
Range
Minimum
Maximum
Sum
Count
Largest(1)
Smallest(1)
Confidence Level(95.0%)

Ice Off
325.3010753
1.106610777
324
319
10.67176786
113.8866293
0.758826819
0.628682112
58
306
364
30253
93
364
306
2.197824472

t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances

Mean
Variance
Observations
Hypothesized Mean Difference
df
t Stat
P(T<=t) one-tail
t Critical one-tail
P(T<=t) two-tail
t Critical two-tail

Ice On
Ice Off
323.537415 62.98639
124.57907 136.4656
147
147
0
291
195.5212918
0
1.650106759
0
1.968149491

Mean
Standard Error
Median
Mode
Standard Deviation
Sample Variance
Kurtosis
Skewness
Range
Minimum
Maximum
Sum
Count
Largest(1)
Smallest(1)
Confidence Level(95.0%)

60.44086022
1.117716395
62
63
10.77886657
116.1839645
0.047280854
-0.535654319
52
27
79
5621
93
79
27
2.219881189

Ice Duration
Mean
Standard Error
Median
Mode
Standard Deviation
Sample Variance
Kurtosis
Skewness
Range
Minimum
Maximum
Sum
Count
Largest(1)
Smallest(1)
Confidence Level(95.0%)

99.47311828
1.827187501
102
105
17.62075814
310.4911173
4.336128304
-1.623026533
105
21
126
9251
93
126
21
3.628952012

400

180

350

160

140

300

120
250
100
200
80

Number of Days

Julian Day (Where Year is Dec 1 to Nov 30)

Ice Duration in North Temperate Lakes Primary Study -- Lake Mendota

150
60
100

40

50

20
Ice On
(Modified)

Year

Ice Off
(Modified)
Ice Duration

Ice Duration in North Temperate Lakes Primary Study -- Lake Mendota


Ice On
Ice Off
(Day of
Ice On
(Day of
Ice Off
Year
Year)
(Date)
Year)
(Date)
Ice Duration (days)

1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960

352
343
362
359
377
350
362
351
345
368
343
360
359
350
366
354
350
340
351
356
337
350
395
345
359
358
354
342
341
362
367
370
368
341
350
353
347
364
355
359
357
345
350
365
364
367
346
349
364
343
363
354

12/18/1909
12/9/1910
12/28/1911
12/24/1912
1/12/1914
12/16/1914
12/28/1915
12/16/1916
12/11/1917
1/3/1919
12/9/1919
12/25/1920
12/25/1921
12/16/1922
1/1/1924
12/19/1924
12/16/1925
12/6/1926
12/17/1927
12/21/1928
12/3/1929
12/16/1930
1/30/1932
12/10/1932
12/25/1933
12/24/1934
12/20/1935
12/7/1936
12/7/1937
12/28/1938
1/2/1940
1/5/1941
1/3/1942
12/7/1942
12/16/1943
12/18/1944
12/13/1945
12/30/1946
12/21/1947
12/24/1948
12/23/1949
12/11/1950
12/16/1951
12/30/1952
12/30/1953
1/2/1955
12/12/1955
12/14/1956
12/30/1957
12/9/1958
12/29/1959
12/19/1960

85
79
105
92
100
100
99
101
95
85
88
75
90
110
105
93
109
78
92
86
79
83
95
94
85
87
90
103
81
94
107
101
85
92
99
79
80
100
94
89
101
102
99
80
84
94
95
94
94
104
103
96

3/26/1910
3/20/1911
4/14/1912
4/2/1913
4/10/1914
4/10/1915
4/8/1916
4/11/1917
4/5/1918
3/26/1919
3/28/1920
3/16/1921
3/31/1922
4/20/1923
4/14/1924
4/3/1925
4/19/1926
3/19/1927
4/1/1928
3/27/1929
3/20/1930
3/24/1931
4/4/1932
4/4/1933
3/26/1934
3/28/1935
3/30/1936
4/13/1937
3/22/1938
4/4/1939
4/16/1940
4/11/1941
3/26/1942
4/2/1943
4/8/1944
3/20/1945
3/21/1946
4/10/1947
4/3/1948
3/30/1949
4/11/1950
4/12/1951
4/8/1952
3/21/1953
3/25/1954
4/4/1955
4/4/1956
4/4/1957
4/4/1958
4/14/1959
4/12/1960
4/6/1961

98
101
108
99
88
115
102
116
115
82
110
81
96
125
104
105
124
103
106
96
107
98
65
115
91
94
101
121
105
97
105
96
82
116
114
92
98
101
104
96
109
122
114
81
85
92
114
111
95
126
105
108

1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001

350
346
354
350
376
360
361
352
350
358
370
342
355
367
361
338
341
344
363
355
362
378
353
360
348
347
367
364
346
360
352
359
361
371
344
355
376
364
14
348
2

12/16/1961
12/12/1962
12/20/1963
12/15/1964
1/11/1966
12/26/1966
12/27/1967
12/17/1968
12/16/1969
12/24/1970
1/5/1972
12/7/1972
12/21/1973
1/2/1975
12/27/1975
12/3/1976
12/7/1977
12/10/1978
12/29/1979
12/20/1980
12/28/1981
1/13/1983
12/19/1983
12/25/1984
12/14/1985
12/13/1986
1/2/1988
12/29/1988
12/12/1989
12/26/1990
12/18/1991
12/24/1992
12/27/1993
1/6/1995
12/10/1995
12/20/1996
1/11/1998
12/30/1998
1/14/2000
12/13/2000
1/2/2002

102
93
102
104
76
93
87
100
98
103
110
73
95
109
84
87
101
109
97
82
93
67
99
86
90
71
89
95
74
83
86
101
90
80
98
91
58
80
67
97
74

4/12/1962
4/3/1963
4/11/1964
4/14/1965
3/17/1966
4/3/1967
3/27/1968
4/10/1969
4/8/1970
4/13/1971
4/19/1972
3/14/1973
4/5/1974
4/19/1975
3/24/1976
3/28/1977
4/11/1978
4/19/1979
4/6/1980
3/23/1981
4/3/1982
3/8/1983
4/8/1984
3/27/1985
3/31/1986
3/12/1987
3/29/1988
4/5/1989
3/15/1990
3/24/1991
3/26/1992
4/11/1993
3/31/1994
3/21/1995
4/7/1996
4/1/1997
2/27/1998
3/21/1999
3/7/2000
4/7/2005
3/15/2002

117
112
113
120
65
98
91
108
113
110
105
97
105
107
88
115
123
118
99
93
96
54
111
85
107
89
87
97
93
88
99
108
94
74
119
102
47
81
53
115
21