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A N I M P R I N TO F MUSIC PLAYERNETWORK

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guitar Diango's
It is rare in the guitar world for a player to be linked throughout his career with just one company, let alone just one type of guitar. Yet, by u series of coincidences,a classical guitarist and luthier with little knowledge of the jazz world was to design a guitar that gradually evolved to become the only guitar Django Reinhardt was ever to endorse.The vast majority of his recordings and concerts were performed on this one model. and by association it has become the first choice for guitarists around the world seekins that elusive Gipsy-jazz authenticity.

MARIO MACCAFERRI
In 1930 Mario Maccaferri was well known across Europe as a classical guitarist. having given recitals in his native Italy and in France. Switzerland and Germany. As a young man he had been apprenticed to the instrument maker Luigi Mozzani in his hometown of Cento. FIe had learned to make guitars, harpguitars, mandolins. violins and other stringed instruments. while simultaneously studying the guitar. He had been living in London for two years. teaching and giving the occasional concert or touring. In his spare time he had built a few prototypes of experimental guitars. intended to improve the range and projection of t he ins t r u m e n t. n o d o u b t s p u rre d o n by the need to be heard at the back of the larger concert halls. He believ e d th a t c o n ta c t b e tw e e n th e pl ayer' s body and the back of the gui tar robbed the guitar of its tone. and devised a two part structure to fit inside the guitar and resonate unhindered by contact with the player. Firstly there was an inner box t h a t fi tte d c l o s e l y i n s i d e th e back and si des of the l ow er bout of the guitar, with an opening where it faced the soundhole.There was then added a'reflector' that curved from the back of the guitar towards the opposite s ide of t he s o u n d h o l e ,s o th a t s o u n d e m e rgi ng through the box openi ng would be reflected out through the soundhole. This internal soundbox and reflector are the reason for the characteristic large D-shaped soundhole on the original Maccaferri desisn.

T H E E L M EM A C C A F E R R I S R
I n 1931, M ac c a fe rri , a n a s tu te b u s i n e s smanas w el l as a musi ci an and inv ent or . s h o w e d h i s p l a n s to B e n Davi s, the manager of the S elm er s hop i n L o n d o n . H e i n tu rn s uggested a meeti ng w i th Henri Selmer in Paris to discuss setting up a workshop at the Selmer factory to manufacture guitars under Maccaferri's dir ec t ion. A s a c l a s s i c a lp l a y e r. th e d e s i gner' smai n i nterest w as i n gut-stringed guitars, but Davis was kcen to compete with his bus ines s r iv a l s w h o w e rc i mp o rti n g steel -stri nged E pi phones. Gibsons and Martins from the LJSA. As he ran a shop frequented
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by all the best jazz players in England he was also aware of the shift away from banjo towards guitar in jazz groups. Seeing a business opportunity, he requested th a t th e p ro d u c t l i n e b e expandcd to i ncl ude steel -stri ngedi nstruments. In s e e k i n g i n s p i rati on for thi s addi ti onal gui tar, Mari o turned to the ma n d o l i n , a n i n s tru me n t he knew to be l oud rel ati ve to i ts si ze and capabl e of g o o d a rti c u l a ti o n a n d rc s ponse.H e took some el ements of gui tar desi gn - eg, an a rc h e d to p - a n d c o mb i n ed them w i th the bent dow n shape that w as tradi ti onal i n ma n d o l i n d e s i g n ,w h e re the top angl es tow ard the back of the i nstrument behi nd th e b ri d g e , w h i c h i s h e l d i n pl ace by the dow nw ard pressure of the stri ngs,rather th a n g l u e d . T h e s o u n d b o x and refl ector w ere part of thi s gui tar desi gn too, w hi ch m e a n t i t a l s o h a d th e D -shaped soundhol e. M a n u fa c tu ri n g g u i ta r s i n the 1930sw as a semi -i ndustri al process.Lathes and c u tti n g ma c h i n e s w e re u sed to prepare w ood and metal parts, and di es needed to b e m a d e fo r s ta mp i n g o ut parts such as the bent metal tai l pi ece and tuner covers . W o rk e rs a t S e l mer. w orl d l eaders i n brass and w oodw i nd i nstruments . were expcricnccd in both metalwork and woodwork and Maccaferri had supervised production in Mozzani's workshop as a young man. Production quickly gathered pace during 1931 and the first guitars were shipped in IL)32.almost all going to London. T h e l e v e l of commi tment from the S el mer C ompany to i ts new rol e o f g u i tz rr m zrker i s show n by the i ncl usi on of no few er than fi ve mo d e l s i n t he catal osue i n that fi rst vear.

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THE GUITARS
The guitars fall neatly into two types. There were the classical m o d e l s , i n tended for gut stri ngs. w hi ch w ere cal l ed C oncert, Es p a g n o l a nd C l assi que.Then there w ere tw o steel stri ng model s:
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th e Orc h e stre (l ater know n as the Jazz) and the H aw ai i an. A l l w ere m a rk e d i n si de ' H enri S el mer. P ari s' . i ni ti al l y by means of a bakel i te p l a tc ; l a te r arl abcl w as gl ued to the i nsi de ol the gui tar show i ng the

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was also engraved on the face ol the m o d e l n a m e a n d serial number. The Selmer logc-r he a d s to c k a l o n g w i th o n e o f Maccaferri ' s vari ous patent numbers.

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T h c C o n c c rt mo d e l c l o s e l y re sembl ed the more f amous Orchestre or Jazz model , and wa s p ro b a b l y th e d e s i g n c l o s e stto Maccaferri ' spersonal i dea of gui tar heaven.The body enti rel y thc desi gner' sow n , wa s l a rg c r th a n u s u a l 1 ' o ra c l assi calgui tar and of a shzrpe pa rtl y to g i v e a g re a te r v o l u me but al so to make room for the i nner soundbox. It had a de e p c u ta w a y to th e l 5 th fret. a feerturethat i s not uni versal l y accepted on cl assi cal gu i ta rs e v e n to d a y .T h e h e e l was fl at w here the neck j oi ns thc body. rather than poi nted as n o rm a l . T h e re w e re 1 2 fre ts to the body on the w i de fl at ebony fi ngerboard. w i th 24 fre ts u n d e r th e h i e h E stri ns accommodated bv an extensi on over the l arg c D soundhole.

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T he hea d . n e c k a n d h e e l w e re ma d e from three pi eces of w al nut and gl ued together wit h t he h e a d a n d n e c k s tre n g th e n e d by a curved tongue-l i ke tc-nonj oi nt under the f inger boar d .T h e w i d e r th a n u s u a l g l u e d-dow n cl assi calstyl e bri dge w as made of cbony and had a tw o -p a rt s a d d l e to i m p ro v e i ntonati on. The i nternal ' fan' strutti ng of thi s guit ar was s i mi l a r to th e n o rm a l p ra c ti ce for cl assi calgui tars.and the E uropean spruce t op was f la t. w i th o u t th e a rc h o f th e j azz model . Thcre w as el di sti ncti ve trapezoi d heads t oc k w i th a n e b o n y v e n e e r a n d a zero fret, the l atter bei ng common to al l the guit ar s in th e ra n g e .

TheEspagnol
T his guit ar h a d a mo re c o n v e n ti o n a l appearance,w i thout the l arge D soundhol e or c ut away , an d h a d a c o n v e n ti o n a l c l a s s i calheadstock. In other respects i t retai ned the ot her es s e n ti a l fe a tu re s o f th e C o n c e rt. The soundbox w as modi fi ed to al l ow for the s m aller r ou n d s o u n d h o l e .

The Classique
M ac c af er r i o r S e l me r s e e m s to h a v e d e ci ded that a conventi onal sui tar w as essenti alto c om plet e th e ra n g e . a n d th i s g u i ta r h a d none of the i nnovati on of the others. It w as a s t andar d c l a s s i c a li n s tru me n t i n e v e ry respect.

The0rchestre
T his was t h e i n s tru me n t th a t c a me to b e know n as the Jazz model . It w as the same shape and size as the Concert though it could be ordered without a cutaway. There were 24 f r et s on t he s a me fi n g e rb o a rd e x te n s i on and the same fl at heel . It al so had the i nternal s oundbox , D s o u n d h o l e a n d th re e -p i ece neck. Four l ateral struts repl aced the fan br ac ing of th e ' c l a s s i c a l 'C o n c e rt mo d e l and a central strut w as added to strengthen the glue joint w h e re th e tw o h a l v e s o f th e top met. T he ar c h i n th e s p ru c e to p w a s o b ta ined by curvi ng the struts and then gl ui ng the top t o f i t : t h e g u i t a r w a s n o t a n ' a r c h - t o p ' i n t h e s e n s eo f b e i n g c a r v e d l i k e a t y p i c a l 1 9 3 0 s ar c h- t op gu i ta r. T h e to p w a s b e n t d o w n behi nd the bri dge. mzrndol i nstyl e.and the back and s ides w e re u s u a l l y ma d e fro m a three-pl y combi nati on of mahosany on the i nsi de and r os ewo o d o n th e o u ts i d e .T h e c e n t rc l ami nate w as usual l y popl ar. l ai d w i th i ts grai n at a r ight a n g l e to th e o u te r w o o d s . M accaferri had di scovered that correctl y made ply wood c a n b e b o th s tro n s a n d l i g h t. a l though today i t i s often w rongl y associ atcdonl y with cheap guitars. T he s t r i n g s w e re a tta c h e d to th e mandol i n-styl e tai l pi ece screw ed to the bottom of t he guit ar , w h i c h c o u l d ta k e e i th e r l o o p or bal l end stri ngs. The bri dge w as not gl ued but held in plac e b y th e d o w n w a rd p re s s u reof the stri ngs and had w ooden extensi onsei ther s ide.whic h w e re g l u e d i n p l a c e a n d h e l ped w i th l ocati on as w el l as bei ng decorati vc.The s lot t ed hea d s to c ko f th e C o n c e rt m o d e l. w i th i ts trapezoi d shape.w as sti l l present but the t uner s pind l e sw e re ma d e o f s te e l to ta ke the steel stri ngs.Maccaferri ' s i nnovati ve tuners wer e enc a s e di n a s c re w e d d o w n b o x . protecti ng them and ensuri ng a ti ght fi t. and thc t c et h of t he c o g s w e re c u t a t a n a n g l e so that more w ere i n contact w i th the sear. The

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me c h a n i s n tw a s l u b ri c a te d p e r mancntl v at the poi nt cl f matnufacturc: these featurcs have s i n c e b e c o m e s ta n d a rd o n m c tdern manufacturers' tuners.

T h eH a w a i i a n
A m o d i fi e d v e rs i o n o f th e O rchestre modcl w as made to sati sfy the demand for gui tar s t h a t c o u l d b e p l a y e d fl a t o n th e l ap w i th a steel bar. H erw ai i anmusi c w zrsvery popul ar in t h e L ISA . a n d h a d a l s o c a u g h t on i n France and B ri tai n. The soundbox w as retai ned. bu t t h c c u ta rw a y a s re mc l v e d a s unnecessarv. ' rc stri ngs are hcl cl o1' lthe I' i ngcrboardby a w Tl ' hi g h n u t. th e fre ts s e rv i n s o n l y as mzrrkers. seven-stri ngversi on w as offcred. but i t is A e s s c n t i a l l y h c s a m e a s t h c s i x - s t r i n gw i t h a l a r g e r n u t t c t t a k e t h c c x t r a s t r i n g a n d f o u r t t u n c rs o n th e to p s i d e o f th e h eadstock.

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N e wM o d e l s
I n th e l o l l c l w i n g v e e l rs o me n e w model s w erc added to tl -rcrange.i ncl udi ng a hzrrpgui tar wi th th re c e x tra s tri n g s (M a c cafcrri w as zrdcvotee). a four-stri ng tcnor gui tar. the fours t r i n g t e n o r ' G r a n d - M o d d l e ' a n d t h e E d d i e F r c e m a ns u i t z r rw h i c h a t t e m p t e d t o m o d i f l , . t h e tu n i n g o f a tc n o r b a n j o to obtai n the sonori ty of a gui tar. The l attcr sui tar is no te w o rth y o n l y i n th a t i t s p e ci fi cal l vexcl uded the soundbox zrsi neffi ci ent.

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SUCCESS D AILURE AN F
I t i s l -e rito s a y th a t th e ra n g e as a w hol e w zrsnot a success. l ayers di d not take to the r P in n c r s o u n d b o x . w h i c h s e e m cd tcl choke the dvnami cs of the cl assi carl n-rodel san d c o n tri b u te d l i ttl e to th c s te e l stri ng model s. It di ct si ve the cl assi calgui tars a very even r e s p o n s e th ro u s h o u t th e i r ra nge. but consi deri ng the addi ti onal ti me and expensc it c z tu s e d u ri n g ma n u l ' e rc tu re i ncl usi on i n thc cl esi gn d i ts coul d hardl y be j usti fi ecl .N o morc t h a n a I' e w c l o z e no f m o s t o f t he model s w cre mardc. the cxcepti on bei ng the Orchestr e mo d e l . w i th u p to 2 0 0 b e i n g shi pped to E ngl and i n the fi rst vcars. w here they w cre c e ru ti o u s l y rd o p te db y s o m e p romi nent pl ayers.The E ddi e Freemarn as macl e i n som c a w nu mb e rs .th o u g h a n v s u rv i v i n q exampl es tcr-rd herve to becn converteclto 6-stri ng use. If s a l e s w e re s l o w i n E,n g l and.how ever. they began to pi ck up i n France, not l cast be c a u s ea c e rta i n s u i ta r p l a y i ng sensati on.D j ango R ci nharcl t.had di scovcred the gui ta r an d b e e n w i d c l y p h o to g ra p h ed pl ayi ng i t. A s the Qui ntette du H ot C l l ub de Franc e be c a m e mo rc a n d m o re fa mo us. so di d thc S el mer gui tars w i th w hi ch i t w as associ ate d. 19 3 4 w tl s th e v e a r th e Qu i n tette made i ts recordi ns brezrkthrough. but by then Ma c c a fe rri h a d s e v e rc d a l l c o nnecti on w i th the S el n' rerC ompany and w i th the gui ta r that he had designed.

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SELMER WITHOUT MACCAFERRI


Du ri n g th c c o u rs e o f 1 9 3 3 .a di spute devel oped bctw een Maccal erri and H cnri S el n-rer . I t s fu l l d c ta i l s c z rno n l y b c s u e s sedat. but the desi gnerw as unhappv w i th certai n cl auses i n h i s c o n t r a r c ta n d S e l m e r m a v h a v e b e e n u n h a p p v w i t h t h e s u i t a r i s t ' si n t e r e s ti n o t h e r . ars p e c ts f h i s b u s i n e s s . a c caferri l atcr l ounded a hi ghl v successfulw oodw i ncl reeclo (M n-ra k i n gb u s i n e s s i n A m e ri c a . competi ns di rectl l ,w i th S el mer.) producti on w arsw cll

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es t ablis h e di n th e g u i ta r w o rk s h o p a nd coul d conti nue w i thout the desi gner' spresence, but there were some immediate problems, not least that Maccaferri had taken out patents on his soundbox design and it could no longer be used without his permission. The result was that during the years 1934 to 1936 the exact appearance of the Selmer guitar varied widely. D-holes, round holes and small oval holes, classical and trapezoid headstocks,cutaway and non-cutaway bodies, and 12- and 74-fret necks all appeared on these guitars in random order. Output fell steeply and gut-stringed models were dis c ont i n u e d .

T h en e wM o d d l ea z z l
During the course of 1936 a standard guitar was gradually developed which was to r em ain in p ro d u c ti o n , a p a rt fro m a few years duri ng the w ar, unti l l 952.The D -hol e w as gone for good, as was the soundbox and the 12-fret neck join. Players had come to expect a 14-fret neck. which together with the cutaway gave excellent high fret access. The original shape tailpiece, bridge and headstock were kept. but a small oval soundhole replaced the now unnecessaryD-hole. The fingerboard extension was discontinued and 21 frets were fixed to the board, which ended curved round the oval soundhole. The same woods were used as before, although there are occasional minor variations particularly during wartime. Django had publicised the Orchestre model and continued to be photographecl with the new Jazz mc-tdel. Over the years he was to own and play many Selmers,as in exchange for his support he was encouraged to visit the Selmer shop and equip himself and his musicians as he wished. Guitars were often subsequently given away to friends, family and c olle a g u e s .H o w e v e r h e e v e n tu al l y settl ed on one parti cul ar i nstrument. number 503, m ad e i n 1 9 4 0 ,a n d k e p t i t u n ti l hi s death i n 1953.In 1964 D j ango' s w i fe N agui ne donat ed th i s g u i ta r to th e C i t6 d e l a M usi que, P ari s,w here i t can sti l l be seen. In 1939. hoping to exploit Django's growins successand association with the Jazz m odel, Se l m e r b e g a n to i n s c ri b e 'Moddl e D j ango R ei nhardt' on the face of the headstock between the string slots.This was mostly in flowing script, but some, including Django's own No 503,just have 'Django Reinhardt' in capitals.These guitars are in every other respect standard Jazz models,however, and the practice was discontinued within a year. The only other variation on the now establishedJazz model was when a maple neck with a flat. rather than slotted, headstock was fitted to a run of about 20 guitars during t he y ears 1 9 4 1 to l g 4 2 .T h e s e g u i ta rs al so had mapl e bodi es and may w el l be the resul t of shortagesof the usual materials due to the war. Some suitars made near to the end of production can be found with rosewood necks.

THE DEMAND COPIES FOR


B y 1952 , u i ta r p ro d u c ti o n w a s a m i n ute and i rrel evant part of the acti vi ty of the S el mer g c om pany a n d th e d e c i s i o nw a s ta k e n to shut dow n producti on.The enti re contents of the guit ar wo rk s h o p w e re s o l d to th e Pa ri s-based uthi er Jean B euscher.Many unfi ni shed or l dam aged g u i ta rs w e re c o mp l e te d o r r epai red i n hi s w orkshop. and many parts w ere sol d t o ot her m a k e rs to b e u s e d o n c o p i e s.In fact, the S el mer copy i ndustry w as al ready w el l

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under way in France. with many independent builders, often of Italian extraction, offering Selmer-inspired instruments often at more affordable prices. Busato and Di Mauro were among the most prolific imitators, though their instruments are rarely exact copies and tend instead to have Selmer-like features such as the abrupt cutaway and the oval soundhole. In th e e a rl y 1 9 7 0 s . th e E ngl i sh publ i sher and i nstrument i mporter Mauri ce Summerfield arranged for around 1,300 Selmer copies to be made in Japan for the IJK market and sold under the CSL brand. These were good quality instruments and have since become valued by guitarists.All had I 2-fret necks but both D and oval soundholes were featured. In 1979 he instigated a further run of about 400 D-hole guitars under the

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Ibanez brand, this time with Maccaferri's approval and signature on each one, until Maccaferri became unhappy with the quality of the product and refused to sign any more labels.Japan's Saga company was next in line, with a series more closely based on the Selmer tradition, including both l2-fret D-hole and 14-fret oval hole guitars.Thanks to the spread of Django's music around the world and to his many followers there are now countless makers producing copies of varying levels of accuracy.

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LEGACY THE SELMER


The Selmer company made guitars for just 20 years and probably produced fewer than 1000 instruments in that time, mostlv steel-string guitars of a type not really intended by the original designer.That they were innovative is beyond dispute, and though many of the features that go together to make a Selmer can be found individually on other guitars it is the combination of headstock. tuners, body shape, woods and construction methods that makes them unique both in appearance and sound quality. M o s t g u i ta r b u i l d e rs w o u l d not set out to create an i nstrument w i th the qual i ti es of the Selmer Maccaferri. The bass is powerful without being boomy. the trcble can be fast sharllow incisive or sweet, depending how the guitar is played. The deep cutzrwavar-rd neck cry out for a virtuoso to exploit the entire fingerboard. but in thc \\'rons hands its can sound dry and bri ttl e. A strctngvi brato i s im m e d i a c y o f a tta c k a n d re s p onsi veness r eq u i re d to p re s e rv e i ts s u s ta i n ,though i ts savi ng grace i s i ts abi l i tv to proj cct: si nce the \\' onl y w a y fo r D j a n g o to a m p l i fy hi s gui tar i n the earl v 1c)30s i i s to pl ay i nto a m ic ro p h o n e h e s e e m sto h a v e a ppreci ated thi s qual i tv rnore than anv othcr. i T h e Se l m e r c a p tu re s th e s p i ri t of the age i n w hi ch i t rvzrsnvented. and has become a des i g n i c o n i n m u c h th e s a m e way as the Fender S tratocasteror Gi bson Les P aul . One of pho to o n a C D c o v e r c o n j u re s up the era of sw i r-rg. Gi psv j azz. of 1930s P ari s and Lon d o n . w h e n g u i ta ri s tsw e re emergi ng I' rom the rhvthm secti on to pl ay si ngl e note and c ho rd s o l o s a t th e fro n t o f th e band. The S el mer Mzrccaferrigrew out of the same need f or l o u d n e s s th a t. a c ro s s th e Atl anti c. had created the Marti n D readnought and the Do b ro R e s o n a to rl g u i ta rs w h i ch have al so found thei r' ni che' (i n bl uegrassand bl ues ) because of qualities that in other fields would be viewed as faults. Mario Maccaferri never met Django, and Django was a phenomenon on any guitar, but it is fortunate for us a l l th a t th e S e l me r c a m e a long at exactl y the ri ght ti me for D j ango to expl ore hi s c r e a ti v i ty to i ts l i m i ts . a n d i n d oi ng so to create and popul ari se an enti re genre ol ' musi c .

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PlayIike Django
ANYONE LISTENING TO DJANGO REINHARDT play on the classic
Hot Clu b rc c o rd i n s s c a n p ro b a b l y tel l he w as one of the most remarkabl e gui tari sts t her c ha s c v e r b e e n . E v e n a c a s u a l l ook through the transcri pti ons i n thi s book w i l l c onf ir m th c e x te n t o f h i s m a s te ry of both the gui tar and the i mprovi sati on that i s es s c nt ia l to th e Gy p s y i a z z s ty l e . Is i t possi bl e to pl ay l i ke hi m? The fact that i t i s not going t o b e e a s y d o e s n o t d i s c o u r age thousancl sof peopl e around the w orl d from c njoy ing th e a tte m p t. W i th s o me s u i dance. bzrsedon careful anal ysi s of w hat D j ango ac t ually d o e s .i t i s p o s s i b l c to p l a y s o me great. and styl i sti cal l yappropri ate musi c.

THE OUND S
A s t eel s tri n s e d a c o u s ti cg u i ta r i s i d e al . and though i t cl oesnot have to be a S el mer-styl e guit ar it d o e s n e e d to b e s u i ta b l c fo r pl cctrum pl ayi ng.A fai rl y hi gh acti on i s preferabl e, f or a c fea n b u z z ,-l } e e o u n d a n d l o ts of cl ynami crange, though the stri ngs don' t need to s be par t ic u l a rl y h c a v y .D j a n g o u s e d ' A rgenti nes' w hi ch are rel ati vel y ti ght and have a soft s ilv er - pl a te dc o p p e r w ra p o n a s te e l c ore, l endi ng them a responsi vebut mel l ow qual i ty. LJ s ea s t i l f p i c k a n d g e t u s e d to p l a yi ns nearer the bri dge than normal for an i nci si ve t onc . m o v i n g n e a re r th c n e c k fo r the w armer tones needed for bal l ads and those ex pr es s i v em o m c n ts . Id c a l l y v o u s h oul d keep vour w hol e pi cki ng hand off the gui tar, m ov ing frc e l y fro m th e w h o l e w ri s t a nd arm rather than resti ng the fi ngers on the gui tar t op. Y ou s h o u l c l a l s c l a i m to p i c k v i rtual l y evcry note. as D j ango uses rel ati vel y few ham m er - o n sa n d p u l l -o fl s (o r s l u rs .a r s they w i l l be cal l ed from now on). For the l eft hand. apar t f r om s tre n s th .s p c e d ,a g i l i ty a n d co-orcl i nati on. i ntense vi brato w oul d be useful . an Conc entra te c l n ' w i g g l i n g ' th e s tri n g f rom si de to si de very rhythmi catl y to devel op thi s.

DJANGO'S TRICKS
M as t er in g a fe w o f th e fo l l o w i n g w i l l makc your pl ayi ng morc authenti c:they al so come in handy i f y o u ru n o u t o f me l o d i c i n spi rati on.

Rakes sweeps and


Her e' s a s i m p l c s w e e p frc tm ' M i n o r S w i ng' . bar 36:

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Hold the first 4 notes down and play them with one dow nstroke acrossfour stri nss. t he n a d d th e l a s t n o te w i th a n u pstroke. i s l esseasy.though agai n you need to start w i th thc fingers down on the E and A strings beforc making a qui ck j ump to thc D , G. and B s t r i n g s a n d s l i d i n g d o w n o n c f ret to arri ve on E . U se one dow nstroke across al l fi ve s t r i n g s .Go o d l u c k ! T h i s o n e fro m' Bo u n c i n ' Aro und'

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Bends
M o s t o f D j a n g o ' s b e n d s a re o f one s e m i t o n e . I n ' M i n r t r S ' , ' n ' i n q('b a r 7 3 ) t h e - 5 t ho f A m in o r i s b e n t u p to th e fl a tte n ed 6th a n d r e l e a s c c l :

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T h e s h a rp 4 th i s o fte n b e n t u p to the 5th. as i n ' S w eet C horus' . bar 12:

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I n' M inor Sw i n g ' . b a r 5 9 , th e mi n o r 3 rd of D mi nor i s bent up to the maj or 3rd, F#:

You will find many other examplesin the following pages.

0ctaves
Django plays octaves in two ways, with either a one-string gap or a two-string gap, with the middle strinss muted with the left hand. Both are illustrated here: 'Djangology' bars 53-57

'Minor

Swins' bars 77-78

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Octaves are a powerful sound: use downstrokes for the downbeats in the first version. and alternate down and up strokes in the second.

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Glissandi
You can slide along the frets to a new note in either upward or downward directions, and you can pick the note again when you arrive or not. Django's playing is full of subtle and expressive glissandi of all types; here is an excerpt from'Djangology' (bars 42-44) thal demonstrates just a few.

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(Straight 8s)

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picking Tremolando ortremolo


Essentially this technique is the creation of a sustained sound by means of very fast alte rn a te p i c k i n g . D j a n g o u ses thi s on chords, parti cul arl y w hen accompanyi ng '. Grappelli's solos,such as in 'Sweet Chorus bars 48-49:

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glissando Tremolo
tremol ando A s well a s th e rc g u l a r g l i s s a n d ime nti oncd above,D j ango somcti mes zrppl i es ' sostenuto' .Thi s can be heard i n pic k ing a s h e s l i d c s .c re a ti n g a ro mernti cmandol i n-l i ke t h i s e x a m p l e a l s o t a k e n f r g m ' S w e e t C h o r u s ' .b a r s 1 6 - l B :

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chromatics Fast
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HARMONY/MELODY
All the above are in the end just tricks, however, and without a good understanding of the melodic possibilities of the chords of a song you're going to be left without any true substanceto your improvisation. Here's an analysis of Django's playing from a harmony viewpoint.

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Arpeggios
Generally speaking Django does not use scalesat all.The odd melodic passagemay refer to a scale but his runs are based on arpeggios.(An arpeggio is a chord played one note at a time.) If the chord is minor, use the minor 6th arpeggio and emphasise the 6th. This e x a m p l e i s fro m ' D j a n g o l o g y ' , bar19: Cm6

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If the chord is major. use the major 6th arpeggio, emphasise the 6th and add the 9th o c c a s i o n a l l y o o ( ' D j a n g o l o g y ' .b a r 1 1 1 ) : t

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I f t he c h o rd i s a 7 th , Django sometimes uses a 9th chord arpeggio as i n thi s exampl e, als o f r om ' D j a n g o l o g y ' , b a r 3 0 : (A?)

Frequently on a 7th c h o rd D j a n g o bui l ds a di mi ni shed 7th arpeggi o on the 3rd,5th, or 7th of the chord and u s e s th a t, a s i n thi s extract from ' D j angol ogy' , bar 18: A7e

Note that Django often plays arpeggios with some open strings. I n a mi n o r k e y , w i th s o n g s s u c h a s ' Mi nor S w i ng' and ' B ounci n' A round' , the above substitution will give you notes from the harmonic minor scale,for that authentic Gypsy flavour. It is important to remember to play melodically and not slavishly follow the chords with one arpeggio after another. One way of making arpeggios sound more melodically interesting is the 'decorated arpeggio'. Here you play a note above or below, or both, before or after playing the chord tone, as in these examples from'Minor Swing':

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Django does not use ' b o x ' shapesl i ke b l u e s s c a l e st.h o u g h h c does l i kc the sound of ' D j a n g ol ogy' , bar 1 6 : the flattened third as in

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'call Finally, make a conscious effort to use the whole guitar. for exantplc br ;rlaving a n d re s p o n s e ' p h ra s e s i n a l t ernatel y hi gh and l ow regi sters.as i n sevcral pl aces in 'Bouncin'Around'.

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RHYTHM GUITAR
If all this is too much for you, stick with the hard plectrum and tl-rchigh action and plav r h y th m. At i ts mo s t fu n d a me ntal , H ot C l ub rhythm gui tar i s l i ke a pi l e dri ver hi tti ng all f o u r b e a ts i n a b a r, e a c h s l i g htl y staccato and w i th a sl i ght accent on thc second and f o u rth b e a ts .M a k e n o a tte m p t to pl ay any ei ghth-notesat al l . V ari ati ons on thi s can be 'Bouncin'Around'. h e a r d i n ' M i n o r S w i n g ' a n d t h e m u c h m o r e e x p a n s i v ea n d ' f i l l e d i n ' Use the kinds of chord shape found in the following pages.avctidingthe bland bar-chords that guitarists so often fall into using. With careful listenins. the rhythm parts can be h e a rd q u i te c l e a rl y o n th e C D , so j ust pl ay al ong and i nri tate. Which brings us to the most important piece of advice of all: to listen. Keep going b a c k to th e C D a n d l i s te n to the tone. the phrasi ng.the notes.the accompani ment an d anything else you can think of. Learning to listen makes us all better musicians. Play along with the solos and then try making up vour own in the spaces left for the violin solos.If you like what you hear. do it some more; if you don't, experiment until you find something you do like. There are no rules, so just be guided by your own taste and experience.That, after all, is how Django learned.

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The Transcriptions
In this section of the book you will find complete song transcriptions of six important Django Reinhardt recordings.There are two medium tempo tunes, one in a major key and one minor, and two slower tunes. again one major and one minor. The fifth tune is ' Honey su c k l e R o s e ' , a fa s t te m p o e xampl e of the Qui ntette' s abi l i ty at i nterpreti ng the 'Nuages', representing the later work of other composers, and the sixth is the classic wartime period of recordings without Stdphane Grappelli.

'swing' time. and some have sections in 'straight' All of these tunes feature sections in t im e t oo . Bo th ' fe e l s ' a re n o ta te d th e same,but i n' sw i ng' the quavers are pl ayed as the outer two of a triplet (below). If you find this confusing just listen to the enclosed CD and copy what you hear.

NOTATION

Written:

Played:

TABLATURE
The usual 'tab' conventions are followed, rhythms being found only on the notation stave. Fingerings have not been included, as Django's own fingerings are rarely appropriate for the four-fingered guitarist. It is possible,however, to play all of Django's single-note guitar parts as found in the tab with just fingers one and two, and trying this can reveal a deeper understanding of his style. For example. using only the strongest two fingers of the fretting hand can produce a more powerful tone than that produced with fingers three and four by the normal player. Also certain arpeggio shapes become more logical when this fingering limitation is applied. Tiy it: you may wish to alter the tab to suit in some places.Remember that a note can be found one string lower by moving five frets higher, except between the G and B strings,where the interval is four frets.

Slurs
Play the first note with the pick and sound the others with the left hand by pulling-off or hammering-on as appropriate.

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Risingslur or hammer-on:

Fallingsluror pull-off:

Combined slurs:

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Slides rglissandi o
T he s e a re n o ta te d u s i n g a s tra i ght l i ne (bel ow ). P l ay the l i rst note and sl i de al ong the string holding it down against the frets.

Slides glissandi: or

Singlenoteand chordtremolando:

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Tremolando
This is rapid alternate picking, either on single notes or on chords (above right). Double bars mark the ends of sections.These are usually, but not always, eight bars in length. The tab for each song is followed by a chord chart showing the basic structure, with diagrams showing the chord shapes as played by the rhythm guitarists.The chord nam e a b o v e th e s ta v e s re fe r t o thi s underl yi ng harmony, rather than to the passi ng harmony generated by the soloist. Where Django plays chords as part of his solo their nam e s a re s h o w n b e tw e e n th e gui tar staves to avoi d confusi on.A l l rhythm chords are as su me d to b e i n ro o t p o s i ti o n .' S l ash' chords are used w here thi s i s not the case.For ex a mp l e . D T l A m e a n s a D 7 c h ord w i th A i n the bass.

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Djangology
In this tune. fittingly named for the study of all things Django. the guitarist takes us on a romp through a selection from his endless repertoire of guitar effects and tricks. The whole piece is characterised by fast arpeggios and the free use of the entire fingerboard. we also find rapid alternate picking (bars 2il2g and 36/37), the occasional ,rake, or s weep ( b a rs 3 0 a n d 5 9 ), ' tre m o l o p i c ki ng' sl i des (bar 114) and regul ar sl i des or .gl i sses, both up and down. Django also throws in some chord fills (bars 56 and 62) anda passage in octaves.

INTRODUCTION
First, however we are treated to a virtuoso display of parallel arpeggios on guitar and violin, based only loosely on the chords of the theme. The first two bars are based on 49, f ollowed b y c ma j 1 3 w i th a n F # . (s u g gesti ngthe Lydi an #1 1) provi ded by rhe vi ol i n. For iaz z in 19 3 5 .th i s i s i mp re s s i v e l y m o d ern. B bdi mT then l eads to an F#7 chord i n bar 6, which is the start of a chromatic descent passing through a held F7. to arrive on E major in bar 9' we have come a long way from the opening chord of 47 and the home key of G major is still nowhere in sight. The solo guitar then brings us first to 87, then chromatically again to Bb7 and finally back to A7.and the start of the theme, though the melody is only hinted at in the first eight bars as Django improvises freely throughout his choruses.

STRUCTURE
There is an eight bar A' section, which is repeated, with a 'B' section followed by once more through the 'A'. This is a common form for jazz and popular songs of the time and is of t en r e fe rre d to a s ' A AB A' . Ea c h ti m e through the form i s cal l ed a.chorus,.N ormal l y the B section would be the same length as the A, but here it is only four bars, giving a length of 28 bars for the whole chorus. Django and Stdphane take two choruses each, but in t he f ina l c h o ru s D j a n g o ta k e s th e ' B ' secti on,l eavi ng S teph to fi ni sh the l ast ei ght bars. The opening arpeggios then come back. modified to end on a held F#dim7 in bar 128 before the arrival back on G and the conclusion with Django's guitar harmonics. It,s worth noting that the violin notes at the end can only be played on a guitar with at least 23 frets' (An early D-hole Maccaferri, with 24, would do nicely.) The best alternative is to take the last four notes down an octave.

RHYTHM GUITAR
Django was capable of coming up with strange and quirky chord sequences;.Rhythm F ut ur ' or ' B l a c k a n d w h i te ' s p ri n g to mi nd but there are many exampl esto choose from. T her e is s o me th i n g s o ri g h t a n d l o g i c a l about thi s one. how ever, that i t i s easy to i gnore its originality. Note how the shapes flow from one to the next on the fingerboard, there is deep guitar logic in this unusual progression. It also reveals how Django was able to play fully fleshcd out rhythm parts despite the injury to his left hand. The notes on the

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sixth and fourth strings are played with fingers one or two, whilst the injured fingers three or four are wedged in to play the G string. The Ab and A major chords in the B s e c ti o n w o u l d b e p l a y e d ' th u m b over' , i e, w i th the l eft hand thumb hol di ng dow n the l o w E string, a technique which Django used a great deal to compensate for the lack of flexibility in his third and fourth fingers.

HARMONY ANALYSIS AND


I n s o l o i n g o n th i s tu n e D j a n g o begi ns w i th a mel odi c i dea based on the arpeggi o of the , A.7c h o rd i n th e a c c o mp a n i m ent.ri si ng to the 9th. B natural . H e repeats the B over the C m6 c h o rd to o ; th e s tre n g th of the mel odi c i nventi on mzrkesl i ght of such di ssonances. A s u s u a l a rp e g g i o s te n d to b e favoured over scal es:C #di m7 i s regul arl v used over the A 7 c h o rd s (re s u l ti n g i n a n A7b9 harmony) and C m6 arpeggi osoccur i n bars 11,19. 47
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b u t o th e r d e v i c e si n c l u d e c h romati c fragments (bars 15 and 22) and the use of the' bl ues' m i n o r 3 rd , B b , o v e r th e G maj or chord i n bars 16 and 24.D j ango al so puts i n some of his trademark decorative turns. based on notes above and below a chord tone. such as those i n b a rs 3 3 ,4 1 ,4 8 , e tc . N o ti c e al so how i n bars 76171and more obvi ousl y i n bars 33/35,he , creates tension by repeating the same short phrase again and again over the descending c h o rd s e q u e n c e .D j a n g o i mi tators hopi ng to devel op thei r ' tw o-fi nger' abi l i ty sho uld look closely at bars 28-29,a classicDjango lick played with rapid alternate pick strokes and just fingers one and two. For its variety. breadth of expression and sheer effortless mastery, Djangology is a

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DJANGOLOGY CHORDS

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Sweet Chorus
Django plays a typically quirkv solo introduction before bringing in the band for this slow tune in G major. There are fewcr spectacular guitar gymnastics in this piece. And a l th o u g h th e re a re s o me s e c ti onsof fast arpeggi os.D j ango prefers to el aborate on the b l u e s y c h ro m a ti c i s m o f th e mel odv w i th frcquent bends and i ntense vi brato.

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STRUCTURE
A fte r th e i n tro th e re a re j u s t tw o chorusesof the standard 32 bar' A A B A ' form. D j ango p l a y s th e tu n e i n th e fi rs t c h o rus.taki ng the opportuni tv to i mprovi se beauti ful fi l l s and f l o u ri s h e s w h e n e v e r p o s s i b l e . The vi ol i n takes over the l ead for the fi rst tw o .A ' secti ons of the second chorus, with Django providing some of his trademark tren-rolar-rclo chords a s a c c o m p a n i m e n t n b a r 4 9 . T h e s e c o n d ' B ' s e c t i o n i n v o l v c sb o t h S t e p h a n ea n d D j a n g o . i b u t i s i n o th e r re s p e c tsa re p e at of the fi rst ' B ' w i thout the sui tar i i l l s.The fi nal ei ght-b ar A ' i s a l l v i o l i n . b u t i t d o e s g i v e us an opportuni ty to exami ne D j ango' s rhvthm pl avi ng, an d h i s s tri k i n g ri s i n g a rp e g g i osat the end as the rhythm sui tars and bass drop out fo r t h e l a s t th re e b a rs .

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D j a n g o h a s o n c e a g a i n c o me u p w i th a di sti ncti vechord structurc.bui l di ne tensi on as th e mi n o r 6 th c h o rd s ri s e c h ro m a ti cal l y and then rel easi ngi t as the chords move to D 7 an d r e s o l v e to G . T h e ' B ' s e c ti on or bri dge i s a masterpi ece of understatement. si mp ly al te rn a ti n g b e tw e e n c h o rd s G and D 7 (I and V 7) before the conventi gnal ' turnaround ' of E m . A 7 a n d D 7 ' (o r V I. II7 and V 7). N oti ce the use of the di ssonanrsharpened fourth un d e r th e D 7 c h o rd h e re . b a l anci ng the sw eetnessof the mel ody yu,i thsome mor e qu i rk i n e s s . T h e G ma j o r c h o rd s i n th e rhythm part are pl ayed usi ng the l eft hand thumb over the neck to hold down the sixth string, leaving fingers one. two and three to fret the r e m a i n i n g n o te s ; th i s i s a c o mmon shape i n hot cl ub rhvthm pl avi ng and w el l w orth ma s te ri n g a s i ts s o u n d i s m o re transparent than the al ternzrti ve l si x-stri ng ful bar chord. Dj a n g o a l s o u s e sth i s ' th u m b -o ver' techni que to hol d dow n the si xth stri ng for the G6lg arp e g g i o a t th e e n d . H e s to p s the fourth and fi fth stri ngs w i th hi s second fi nger. l eavi ng t h e i n j u re d th i rd a n d fo u rth fi ngers to hol d dow n the top tw o stri ngs; i f you' ve eve r wondered how he managed to play chords with only two undamaged fingers this is well worth studying.

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B o th R e i n h a rd t a n d Gra p p e l l i seem to have been aw are that there w as a uni que qual i t y to the melody of this piece, as they both remain faithful to its spirit throughout their respective choruses. Django still manages to fit in some glorious fills, such as the m a n d o l i n -s ty l e tre m o l a n d o i n bars 16117 and the spectacul ar arpeggi o-based re interpretation of the tune from bar 38 to bar 40. He also seems to be able to come up

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RHYTHM
There is a good opportunity to hear the Hot Club piledriver effect in action in this tune. The rhythm guitars simply play the downbeats (with downstrokes) for much of the time, though occasionally the upbeats after the second and fourth beats are ghosted in with ups t r ok e s .T h e b a s s p l a y s ' tw o s ' ; i e , mostl y onl y the fi rst and thi rd beats,though i t' s not uncommon to add a four beat line, particularly at the ends of sections.This sort of r hy t hm p l a y i n g i s a n e s s e n ti a lp a rt of the authenti c H ot C l ub styl e ancl cl ose l i steni ns i s highly recommended. 'Sweet Chorus' was the last of the six tracks recorded for the Gramophone label of F r anc e o n O c to b e r 1 5 th 1 9 3 6 .It w as one of tw o ori gi nal s recorded that day: the other was t he c l a s s i c ' S w i n gG u i ta rs ' . Se ssi onrecords show that there w as onl y one take, a si gn of the relaxed confidence of the band under recording conditions. This was the year in which they undertook their first international tours, to Holland and Spain, and although the personnel was consistent on recording sessions and tour s, jazz was still not that popular in France and work for the Quintette was intermittent. All the more remarkable. then, that their casual approach should produce a work of such beauty and depth.

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This slow tune in G minor was written by the French trumpeter Gus Deloof and recorded in Paris on September gth 1931 for the Swing label. It is not one of Django's most famous performances, yet it features some of his most technically brilliant and ex pr es s iv ep l a y i n g . It a l s o h a s a s l i m m e d-dow n rhythm secti on.j ust one gui tar and bass. which gives us the opportunity to hear the superb rhythm guitar of Louis Gast6 unc lut t er e d b y o th e r i n s tru me n ts .

INTRODUCTION
Django int ro d u c e s th e tu n e w i th s o me of hi s typi cal l y qui rky arpeggi os: ri si ng G mi nor a is ans wer e d b y a fa l l i n g d i mi n i s h e d 7 th , then back to G mi nor. emphasi si ngas so often the 6th of the chord, E. The C major 6th chord sounds strange, as the normal chord IV in this minor key would be C minor. The two bar pattern is then repeated. this time ending on a chord of D+ or D augmented. the dominant chord to G minor with the 5th s har pened .T h e s o n g i s a s ta n d a rd 3 2 -b ar form. A A B A , and D j ango takes tw o choruses before finally returning to the introduction with a characteristic ending, again on a G minor 6th chord.

THE SOLO
The tune is played with typical flair and invention, using rapid decorative slurs,poignant bends and galloping arpeggios.There are also some amusing interjections. such as the open E an d fre tte d E to g e th e r i n b a r ei ght and the absurdl y fast' rakes' i n bars 14 and 30. The fast chromatic run in bars 59 and 60 should be played with the first finger of the left hand, with a glissando-like action along the frets co-ordinated with extremely fast alt er nat e p i c k i n g fro m th e ri g h t h a n d . Thi s may take a great deal of practi ce. but i t i s pos s ible! N o ti c e a l s o th e c h a n g e to a l ow regi ster for the start of the second chorus.and t he s ubs eq u e n tu s e o f th e v e ry h i g h e s t regi ster i n bar 61. a good exampl e of D j ango' s use of t he who l e g u i ta r. O th e r k e y mo me n ts i ncl ude D j ango' s stri dent use of octavesi n bars 43 and 44 (u s e o n l y d o w n s tro k e s w i th the pi ck to pl ay these),some tw o-fret bends (eg. in bar 53) a n d th e d e s o l a tes o u n d o f th e tune pl ayed i n paral l el 4ths i n the secondchorus.

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Club classic, this is arguably the most famous Reinhardt/Grappelli composition of them all. At first sight it appears to be a tune of remarkable simplicity. T her e is a c h o rd s e q u e n c ei n v o l v i n g c h o rds I,IV and V 7 i n A mi nor. (that' s A m, D m and E7) and a melody based on a rising arpeggio of each chord. Look a little deeper and the form is not so straightforward: the theme is just eight bars long and played twice. Unusually, it is not re-stated at the end, there being a new 'riff' based eight-bar'outro' with violin and guitar in unison. rather than in harmony as at the beginning. Neither of these two chord sequencesis used for the solos,as guitar and violin take repeated choruses (four each) of a different sequence,16 bars long this time. Nevertheless,the structural integrity of the whole piece is so strong that many musicians have played it without even realising they are using three different chord sequences! Tiuly a Hot

INTRODUCTION
Django characteristically puts the minor 6th, B natural, in his D minor arpeggio that underpins Grappelli's. Other jazz musicians of the time would have favoured C, the 7th, but Django's Gypsy heritage seems to come through in the use of this 'clarker' interval. Note also Django's typical use of a one-fret bend on the D minor chord. and that for once the bass player gets a moment to shine with two simple but classicfills.

RHYTHM GUITAR
The strumming pattern during the solos is slightly unusual here, the regulation Hot Club piledriver effect being abandoned for a more complex mix of a short downstroke on the first and third beats, with an accented downstroke on beats two and four, and a lighter upstroke on the following quavers.The resulting 'chack changa-chack' may need careful practice from even the most seasoned Hot Club aficionados.

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THE OLO S
Django's dramatic chordal entry involves the use of his third and fourth fingers; obviously not a problem when playing chords.The first note of the following pull-off is also likely to be played with finger four;it seems Django could use his injured fingers for single notes if he wished, though mainly on the E and B strings.Harmonically speaking, many trademarks can be found. The guitarist avoids the more common '1azzy' Dorian mode and instead goes for the dramatic-sounding harmonic minor scale.He also usesthe diminished 7th chord built on G# to play over the E7 chord, creating a harmony consisting of E, G#, B, D and F, which make an E7b9 chord. Typically, we find the 6th, B, used on the D minor chord and its counterpart F# used on the A minor chord.

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T h e re a re a fe w th i n g s i n th i s sol o that w i l l causeeven the rnost techni cerl l v competent gu i ta ri s t to b re a k i n to a rs w e a t.The ' sw ept' i i rpeggi o i n bar 36. the l ' rcqucnt bends an d gl i s s e s a n d th e ra p i d a rp e g g i o sare standard stuff for D j ango. as i s thc chromati c scale. . pr o b a b l y p l a y e d w i th o n e l e ft hand fi nger. i n bars 4.1to -16. The tre mol :rndo chord sl i d e f ro m th e 1 Othfre t to th e l 5 th and back dow n to the 3rd mav ci l use prrobl cn-rs. hou,ever : t ry g e tti n g th e ri g h t h a n d u p t o speed on i ts ow n. fi rst. A nd the I' ol l ou' i ngl ' astchrontat ic s ca l e i n tri p l e ts , w i th a n e v e n faster arpeggi o at the end. mav i nduce l ' rustrati on nn d resignation in equal measure. T h e b a n d re c o rd e d fo u r tra cks duri ng the N ovember 25th 1937sessi onthat i ncl ude d 'Minor Swing', three of which were Reinhardt/Grappelli compositions. Beforc the end of th e y e a r th e y h a d re c o rd e d seven more ori gi nal composi ti ons i n vari ous l i ne-ups. ranging from l3-piece band to the usual quintet. This was one of the most fruitl'ul periods for Django, and clearly composition had become a significant part of his creative life.

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Rose Honeysuckle
This recording was made at Decca recording studios in London, at the start of one of the Quintette's most successful tours of England. where the band so often received a ' H oneysuckl e R ose' w oul d have been w el l know n to r a p tu ro u s w e l c o m e .T h e m e l o dv of au d i e n c e si n th e 1 9 3 0 ss o th e Qui ntette du H ot C l ub de France approach the song w i t h c h a ra c te ri s ti cfre e d o m. a n d D j ango prefers to quote onl v the openi ng bars of the voca l r e fra i n b e fo re l a u n c h i n g i n to hi s sol o. Fi rst. how ever. w c are treated to a ri ff-base d in tro d u c ti o n w i th a b l u e s -ti n ged fl avour pl aved i n hatrmon)'by D j ango and S t6phane Grappelli.

STRUCTURE
of four ei ght-bar secti ons. T h e s o n g fo l l o w s th e s ta n d ard j azz-tune' A A B A ' format m a k i n g 3 2 b a rs a l to g e th e r,p receeded by an ei ght-bar i ntroducti on i n w hi ch the vi ol in an d g u i ta r p l a y i n h a rmo n y . Dj ango takes the fi rst tw o choruses and there i s then one chorus of Stdphane Grappelli's violin. In the fourth and final chorus. violin and guitar play a riff similar to the intro over the A sections,and, urged on by Django. Stdphane solos on the last B section.The intro is then used as the outro, bringing the arrangement to a satisfying symmetrical conclusion.

THE SOLO
The first two bars of Django's solo quote the melody of the song, but from there on he improvises freely, and occasionally playfully, over the harmonically straightforward changes.He plays a cute chromatic line in bars 79-2I, and avoids being bogged-down in the otherwise simple harmony by using devices like a GdimT arpeggio in bar 23, even though the underlying chord is F major. This chord is one of Django's favourite tricks. GdimT consistsof G. Bb, Db and E (or to be precise,Fb), which can be reorganised into a chord of C7b9 with the root omitted: C,E,G,Bb and Db. He is therefore playing over the F major chord with a C7b9 arpeggio. A similar diminished arpeggio can be found over C7 in bar 45, (starting on C# this time) and over F7 in bar 59. In bar 43 there is a different use of a diminished arpeggio as Cdim is played over a C7 chord. This arpeggio gives the root (C), the #gth (Eb or D#), the #l1th (F#) and the 1 3 th (A ) a n d th u s c o n ta i n s m o st of the di ssonant,more i nteresti ng notes of an extended dominant chord. Notice how Django also delays the resolution of this C7 line to F major, as in bar 46 he continues with C7 harmony even though the chords have moved on to F. All in all he is able to mix up chromatic lines. arpeggios. and octave passagesinto a seamlesswhole as though every note was in place before he even began to play.

RHYTHM
The rhythm guitars play Hot Club at its simplest;downstrokes on the downbeats,slightly staccato and with beats two and four slightly accented. This is the most common approach to Hot Club rhythm and grew out of the swing feel found in the rhythm

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sections of bands of the 1920s, such as Duke Ellington or Louis Armstrong. Django is such a great player that it is easy to lose sight of the importance of the ensemble playing in these tracks. we take it for granted that the band is .tight,, but we should notice the lively bounce of the rhythm section and the originality of the arrangement in the intro and outro (often copied note for note by Hot club-inspired bands the world over). Adcl the subtle blues-inflected su,ing of St6phane Grappelli and Django's relaxed and inventive solo and once again we have a classic.This was the first of eight tracks recorded on January 31st 193u.The others include exemplary renditions of the standards 'Sweet Georgia Brown' and 'Night and Duy'. and no fewer than five Reinhardt/Grappelli originals.A good day,s work.

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With the outbreak of war, in 1939. Stdphane Grappelli stayed in England, where the Quintette du Hot Club de France had been on tour, whilst Django hurried back across the Channel to Paris. Gradually over the next few months he formed a new Quintette. wi th a s o u n d m o re c l e a rl y i n fluenced by the A meri can i azz of B enny Goodman. Gone we re th e s e c o n d rh v th m g u i ta ri st and the vi ol i n. and i n thei r pl ace came the drums o f P ie rre F o u a d a n d th e c l a ri n e t of H ubert R ostai ne. Wi th th e fa l l o f P a ri s a n d t he German occupati on camc a thi rst. i n France. for the f r e e d o m a s s o c i a te dw i th a l l thi ngs A meri can. D j ango coul d hardl v have been better pla c e d , a n d w a s i n g re a t d e m a nd as a performer and recordi ng arti st. 'Nuages' w a s fi rs t re c o rd e d w i th the band' s regul ar i nstrumentei ti onon October l st 7940,but the record, though only slightly different in form from the versign heard here. wa s n e v e r i s s u e d .On D e c e m b er 13th 1940,D j ango and hi s new qroup tri ed asai n. thi s time with the addition of a second clarinet, played by Alix Combelle. The record was an instant success,has become an icon of French jazz, and is Django's most famous composition.

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The track begins with a scurrying, edgy introduction, first centred on 89, then sliding chromatically up a step to C9, with the first clarinet providing the tension through a riff using the flattened 5th of these chords.The solo clarinet then brings in the melody over an implied Db7, the contrast with the intro made more dramatic by the rest of the band joining in a bar later as the harmony moves through Gdim, C7 and finally to the home chord of F major. Progressionsusing variations of II, V, I are common in jazz, but here the II chord is substituted by a dominant built on the bVI, allowing Django to create an unusually chromatic melody. The fact that Django does not himself play the melody is no disadvantage to us, as we have a chance to hear his delightful fills and tremolandos behind Rostaing's expressive playing; both are transcribed, so you have the full picture. Interestingly, this version of 'Nuages' is slower than the earlier one, adding to the ominous portent of the introduction, and the extra clarinet allows for a thicker texture both here and on the later big-band inspired riff section.

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Though the melody of 'Nuages' is 32 bars in length, the commonplace AABA form is not used here, as each eight-bar section is different from the others, giving us a form best represented as ABCD. The only repeated material is found in the A section. which is made up of two identical four-bar phrases.This same four-bar phrase also makes up the second half of the D section, though altered to bring the melody to a close.The structure of the whole track is even more complex, as we shall see.

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RIFFS
The solo is followed by a great piece of arranging. Instead of re-stating the tune, as so often happens after the solos in a iazz record, the two clarinets and Django's guitar join in three-part harmony to play a riff based on the chords of the opening four bars. Essentially Django has shared out the three-note chords that he might have played on the guitar between the three musicians to excellent effect. These chords, and Django's t hink ing, ca n b e s e e n b e l o w :

For the next section the form is now shortened slightly, the B section and first four bars of C being omitted. as the clarinets play in thirds on the second half of C and Django plays rhythm. For the first half of D the roles are reversed as the clarinets play a sustained supporting figure and the guitar plays a variation of the melody, before the solo clarinet returns to finish the tune accompanied by Django's arpeggios and final chordal comments. W it h' Nu a g e s ' . D j a n g o c a me u p w i t h a beauti ful and cl assi cmel ody, a startl i ng and original introduction and a solo of typical inventiveness.He also managed to include an interesting piece of harmony writing for guitar and two clarinets and to maintain interest by tinkering with the form. At this point in his career Django's mastery of composition and arranging as well as of the guitar could hardly be more clearly demonstrated.

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T h e C D c o n ta i n s re c o rd i n g s o f the si x D j ango R ei nhardt transcri pti ons i n thi s book, in c l u d i n g l e a d g u i ta r. tw o rh ythm gui tars and bass.Th" y are model l ed on avai l ab le Dj a n g o re c o rd i n g s .v o uc a n tra ck cl ow n usi ng the sessi ondates and catal ogue numbers. T h e C D w a s re c o rd e d u s i ng a techni que know n as ' mi cl cl l eand si de' . i n w hi ch pair a ' fi g u re of o f e i g h t' mi c ro p h o n es are fi xed at ri ght-angl es. C ol es 4040ri bbon mi c faci ng A in to th e ro o m c a p tu re d th e ' mi ddl e' i mage,w hi l e a C ol es 4038 provi ded the .si de' or l ef t an d ri g h t i ma q e s .a l l o w i n g c o ntrol over stereo w i dth. R o d F o g g p l a v e d a l l th e p a rts, begi nni ng w i th rhvthm sui tar onc. to the ri ght of the mi c s . H e th e n mo v e d to th e l e ft si de to pl ay rhythm gui tar tw o. thel added bzrss. i n the c e n tre a n d b a c k fro m th e mi c s. Fi nal l y the l ead (D j ango) parts w ere pl aved i n mono im m e d i a te l v i n fro n t o f th e Col es 4040.The recordi ngs capture the acousti c cffect o f mu s i c i a n sg ro u p e d to g e th e r a round a mi crophone i n a l i ve room. as i n the ori ei natl H ot Cl u b re c o rd i n g s .b u t a l l o w th e promi nence of the l ead gui tar and the dcsrce o1 sl erccr s p re a d to b e d e te rm i n e d a t m i xdow n. Thi s method w as devi sed bv H uw pri ce. w ho recorded. mixed and co-produced the cD with Rod Fogg. TRACK 1: TUNING TONES

T R AC K 2 :' D J A N GOL OGy ' (R ei nhardr, Grappel l i ) Based on P77540,recorded September 1935 by Django Reinhardt, guitar; St6phane Grappelli. violin: Joseph Reinhardt and Pierre Ferret, rhythm guitars; Louis Vola. bass. T R A C K 3 : ' S WE ET C H O R U S ' (R ei nhardt, Grappel l i ) B a s e d o n OL A 1 2 9 5 -1 re c o rd ed October 15th 1936w i th the same l i ne-up. , T R A C K 4 :' BOU N C IN ' A R OU N D ' (Gus D el oof) B a s e d o n OL A 1 9 5 3 -1 , c o rd eclS eptember 9th l g37 by D j ango R ei nhardt. re gui tar: Lo u i s G a s t6 , rh y th m g u i ta r; Eugdne d' H el l emmes, bass. T R AC K 5 :' M IN OR S WIN G ' (R ei nhardr, Grappel l i ) Based on OLA 1990-1,recorded November 25th 1937by Django Reinhardt, guitar; Stephane Grappelli, violin; Joseph Reinhardt and Pierre Ferret. rhythm guitars; Louis Vola. bass. TRACK 6:'HONEYSUCKLE ROSE' (Waller/Razaf) Based on DTB3s23-I,recorded January3tst 1938by Django Reinhardt, guitar;St6phane Grappelli, violin' Roger Chaput and Eugene v6es, rhythm guitars; Louis vola, bass. T R A C K 7 :' N U AGE S' (R e i n h a rdt) Based on OSW146-I, recorded December 13th 1940by Django Reinhardt, guitar; J os e p h R e i n h a rd t, rh y th m g u i tar; H ubert R ostai ng,cl ari net;A l i x C ombel l e. cl ari net: Tory Rovira, bass;Pierre Fouad. drums.

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Bibl iography
M a n v b o o k s a n c la r t i c l c s o n t h c s u b j c c t o f D j z i n g o .t h c H o t C ' l u b Q u i n t c t t c i i n d C l i p s v i a z . ri,n s e n e r a l h a v c b c e n p u b l i s h e d o v c r t h e v c a r s i n s e v c r a l l a n u u a g c sJ - h e l ' o l l o w i n q a r c . p i r r t c u l l r ' l vi n t e r e s t i n c . i Django Reinhardr by C'harlcs [)e launzrv ( A s h l c v M a i r k .1 9 E l ) English translatior-r a mernoir [-r1, French of thc c r i t i c a n c l c o - f o u n c l e ro f t h c H o t C l u b d c F r a n c e .w h o k n e w D . l a n g ot h r o u s h o u t l t i s career.Tiro anecdotal to bc a true biogriiphv. but full ol'intercst. D.jango's Gltpsies bv Iiin Cruickshank (Ashlcy Mark. 1994) S u b t i t l e d ' T h e n t v s t i q u e o f D . j : r n e oR c i n h a r d t a n d h i s P e o p l c ' .t h i s c o l l c c t i o n o f r n c n t o r z t b i l i a .

c l u o t a t i o n s p r e s sc u t t i n g s a n c l p h c t t o e r a p h s . p r e s e n t sa v i v i c l p i c t u r c o f D j a n g c ' r ' w o r l c l . s then and nclw. Stiphane Grappelli b1,'Gcol'l'r'ev Sr-nith ( P a v i l i o n/ M i c h a e l J o s c p h 1 9 8 7 ) Exemplarv biographv of Django's long-tinre partner.with a great deal about Djarnecr hirnself. La Tristessede Saint Louis bv Michael Zwcrir-r (Quartet.l9[J-5) T h e s u b t i t l c . ' S w i n g[ J n c l c rt h e N a z i s ' . d e s c r i b c st h e c o n t c n t s n e r l ' e c t l v . Jazz Awal: From Home by Chris Gedclarcl ( P a d d i n g t o n P r e s s .1 9 7 1 ) ) The early impact ol-iazzon Europc. particularlv Francc.

NOT E -fhe t e r m C i i p s v ( o r G v p s v ) i s I ' r o w n c d u p c l n i n s o m e q u a r t e r s n o w a d a v s .: r n d t h c w o r d R o m a i s c o m i n g l r o r e i n t o f a v o u r . I h a v e s t u c k t o G i p s y . n o t o u t o f c l i s r e s p e cb u t b e c a u s c R o m a h a s n o t t y e t a t t a i n e d u n i v e r s z t c u r r e n c v a n d m a v n o t b e u n d c r s t c t o db y s o n l e r e a c l c r s . l Tcr learn ntore ztbout todav's flourishing Gipsv-jazz scenc.try wwwjazzpartout.com or.il'you h a v e p l e n t y o f t i r - n ej .u s t t v p c " D j a n e o R e i n l ' r i i r d t "o r " H o t C l u b " i n t o v o u r s c a r c h e n g i n e . - l - h e a m o u n t o f m i i t e r i a l . i n E n g l i s h . F r e n c h .( i c r m i i n . D u t c h . e t c . i s q u i t e a s t o n i s l - r i n g .

Suggested ings record


D j a n e o ' s r c c o r d i n g si t r c c o n s t a n t l vb c i n g c o r n p i l e d .r e l e a s c d .d e l e t e d a n d r e p a c k a g e db y r c c o r d l z r b c l s r o u n d t h e w o r l c l . B e c a u s eo 1 a t h i s . i t i s i m p o s s i b l et o d r a w u p a p e r m a n c n t . d e fi n i t i v e l i s t o f t h e b c s t a v z i i l a b l e e l e c t i o n . s T h c m z i t c r i a ll i s t c c lb c l o w w a s a l l c u r r e n t i n Junc 2(X)4. nnd aclve rtisecl on zrt least one ol' thc big mail-order wehsites. Djangology (1934-35) Naxos8120-51-5 ( T h e f i r s t l 8 r c l c a s c d t r z i c k sb v t h e Q u i n t e t t e . Thc following two Naxos CDs covcr the rcst o 1 t h c o r i g i n a l Q u i n t e t t e ' sl i f c . ) '

S i n g l e Dc o m p i l a t i o n s C
Quintessentiol: Le Quintette du Hot Club de France 25 Classics 1934-10 ASV Living Ertr 5267 ( A w e l l - c h o s e ns c l c c t i o r rl ' r o m t h c c l a s s i c period.)

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Four-CD boxes
Django 50th Anniversary Memorial EPM 1602()2 (Frencl-atnthokrsv eaturins two CDs by the r f c l r i s i n a lQ u i n t e t t c a n c l o n e e a c h f r o m t h e w a r t i m e a n c lp o s t - w a r p c r i c l c l s . ) Django & his American Friends I93q-45 D e l - i n i t i v c| | 1 6 7 ( S c s s i o n sI ' c a t u r i n sC o l c n t a r r H a l v k i n s . D i c k v W c l l s . R e x S t e r , v i i r tL a r r v A c l l c r . ( i l c n n M i l l c r . s i d c m c n- 1 0 I t r z r c k sn a l l . ) i Swing de Paris

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Pdche d Ia .llouche Vcrrc S3-5 lN-l + ( P o s t - r i a r r c c o r d i n g s .i n c l u d i n g t h e c o n t p l e t c \ l l r r c l t 1 9 . i 33 1 u " S t a r a l b u n i . ) Gipsl' Jazz School: Django,s Legacl, I r i s \ l L r s i c3 ( X ) l 8 - + 5 ( F a s c i n a t i n g o l l c c t i o r . ro n t a i n i n ga f e w c c D.januo tracks ulor-tgsicle wclnclcrful paraclc o1' er n r u t c r i a lb v o t h er C i i p s v . j a z e u i t a r i s t s z F c r r c t . V c c s . R o s en b e r g .J o s e p h a n d B a h i k

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Acknowledgements

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V I a n V k i n d a r l d s c n e r o u s o l ' f c r so f h c l p w e r e r c c e i v c c lc l u r i n g t h c r n a k i n g o l ' t h i s b o o k : p l c . s c a c c c p t I l r v t h a n k s a n d a p o l o g i e si l ' I h a v e m i s s e c v o u l ' l r m t h i s l i s t . l F o r t h c l o i l l i o f q u i t a r s .a n d v a l u a b l e b a c k g r c u n c li n f o r m z r t i o no n S c l m e r s :N i l s S o l b e r s a'cl R c b c c c a B r t l w r t : R o g e r P e a r c e ; u r r j o G u i t z i r s .L o n c l o n ( w w w . w u n . j o e u i t a r s . c o m B:i l l p u p l e t t . W ) F o r r e c o r d i r - r gh e C D : H u w P r i c e . t For his esscntial boctk. (www.lutherie.nct). D a v c A l e x a n d c r ( w w w . h o t c l u b . c o . u k. ) S t r i n g s b y N e w t o n c S t r i n g s ( w w w . n e w t o n e s t r i n s s . c r - r r G)u i t a r s b v . k r h n L e V o i n . (www.levoi.frecserve.co.u. k ) v i s i t w w w . r o d f o g g . c o mf o r m o r c o n p l a v i n e D j i i n g o R c i n h a r . c l t . -l-he Strtrt,o.t''selnter-Muc't'ufetri Gtriturs: Franqois Charlc

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