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Systems Analysis and Design, Ninth Edition

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Systems Analysis and Design


Ninth Edition

End of Chapter Solutions


CHAPTER EIGHT

OUTPUT AND USER INTERFACE DESIGN


ANSWERS TO CASE-SIM: SCR ASSOCIATES 1. Create a detail report that will display all SCR courses in alphabetical order, with the course name and the instructor name in a group header; the Social Security number, name, and telephone number of each current student in the detail section; and the student count in a group footer. Answers will vary. A sample report, and its design, might appear as follows:

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2. Create a switchboard design with control buttons that lead to students, instructors, courses, course schedules, and course rosters. Allow a user to add, update, or delete records in each area. Jesse wants to see storyboards that show the proposed screens. Students should come up with a design that is attractive and easy to understand. Lowerlevel screens should present a consistent design. Sample designs for the main switchboard and a student sub-form follow: Main switchboard:

Systems Analysis and Design, Ninth Edition Student form:

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3. Suggest data validation checks for data entry screens. Answers will vary. Students should suggest any suitable design features explained in this chapter. Students might recommend several of the data validation checks described on pages 367-368. For example, an existence check would prevent empty data fields; a data type check would prevent inappropriate data entry (such as alphabetic data in the member Number field); and a reasonableness check would set suitable limits. 4. Create a source document for an SCR mail-in registration form. Also need a design for a Web-based course registration form. The paper form should follow the guidelines described on pages 360-361. Students should suggest designs that are easy to use, with effective caption techniques, clearly identifiable zones, and a logical flow. The Web-based form could use some of the features used in the online form shown in Figure 8-33 on page 365. These features include command buttons, drop-down list boxes, and input masks. In any case, the online design should provide a logical layout that is easy to understand and use.

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ANSWERS TO CHAPTER EXERCISES Review Questions 1. Explain the concept of human-computer interaction (HCI). Human-computer interaction describes the relationship between computers and people who use them to perform business-related tasks. HCI concepts apply to everything from a PC desktop to the main menu for a global network. HCI includes all the communications and instructions necessary to enter input to the system and to obtain output in the form of screen displays or printed reports. (Page 338) 2. Explain the concept of a GUI and a switchboard. How does a GUI design differ from a character-based screen design? A GUI uses graphical objects and techniques. A well-designed GUI helps users learn and use a system effectively. Now that GUIs have become universal in application packages, users expect in-house software also to have GUIs. Unlike a character-based screen design, a GUI combines process control and data entry. A switchboard is an opening screen that introduces an application and allows users to view the main options. A switchboard contains command buttons that enable users to navigate the system and select tasks. (Pages 342, 348 - 352) 3. Describe seven principles for a user-centered interface design. The seven principles are: Understand the business Maximize graphical effectiveness Think like a user Use models and prototypes Focus on usability Invite feedback Document everything (Page 341-342) 4. Describe six types of user interface controls, and provide an example of how you could use each type in a data entry screen. Controls can include menu bars, toolbars, dialog boxes, text boxes, toggle buttons, list boxes, scroll bars, drop-down list boxes, option buttons, check boxes, command buttons, and calendar controls, among others. Controls can be used as follows: Menu bar: The main menu options display at the top of the screen in a menu bar. Some software packages allow you to create customized menu bars and toolbars. Toolbar: A toolbar contains icons or buttons that represent shortcuts for executing common commands. The commands might be navigation shortcuts or can trigger other actions. Command button: Command buttons initiate an action such as printing a form or requesting Help. Dialog box: A dialog box allows a user to enter information about a task that the system will perform. Text box: A text box can display messages or provide a place for a user to enter data.

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Toggle button: A toggle button is used to represent on or off status clicking the toggle button switches to the other status. List box: A list box displays a list of choices that the user can select. Scroll bar: A scroll bar allows the user to move through the available choices when they do not all fit on the screen. Drop-down list box: A drop-down list box displays the current selection. When the user clicks the arrow, a list of the available choices displays. Option button: Option buttons, or radio buttons, represent groups of options. The user can select only one option at a time; selected options contain a black dot. Check box: A check box is used to select one or more choices from a group. A checkmark or an X represents selected options. Calendar control: A calendar control allows the user to select a date that the system will display and store as a field value. (Pages 347 - 349)

5. Define detail reports, exception reports, and summary reports. Explain the concept of a control field and how it is used to produce a control-break report. A detail report produces at least one line of output for every record processed. In an exception report, only those records that satisfy a specific condition are reported. A summary report displays only subtotals and totals. A control field is a field that controls the output by determining its sequence and defining a control break. A control break occurs when the value of a control field changes. A control break report is one that uses one or more control fields and generates some type of special output, such as printed subtotals or totals, at control break points. (Pages 352 - 354) 6. List and describe various types of output, including technology-based forms of information delivery. Technology advances have had an enormous impact on how people communicate and obtain information. In addition to printed output, other forms of output include: Internet-based information delivery. Millions of firms use the Internet to reach new customers and markets around the world. To support the explosive growth in ecommerce, Web designers must provide user-friendly screen interfaces that display output and accept input from customers. For example, a business can link its inventory system to its Web site so the output from the inventory system is displayed as an online catalog. Customers visiting the site can review the items, obtain current prices, and check product availability. E-mail: E-mail has become an essential means of internal and external business communication. Employees use e-mail to exchange documents, data, and schedules and to share business-related information they need to perform their jobs. In many firms, e-mail has virtually replaced traditional memos and printed correspondence. Blogs, which are useful for posting news, reviewing current events, and promoting products. Instant Messaging. This popular form of communication is another way for individuals and companies to communicate effectively over the Internet. Although some users feel that it can be a distraction, others like the constant flow of communication, especially as team members in a collaborative situation.

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Wireless Devices. Messages and data can be transmitted to a wide array of mobile devices, including PDAs, handheld computers, smart cell phones, and similar wireless products that combine portable computing power, multimedia capability, and Internet access. Digital Audio, Images, and Video. Sounds, images, and video clips can be captured, stored in digital format, and transmitted as output to users who can reproduce the content. Audio or video output can be attached to an e-mail message or inserted as a clip in a Microsoft Word document, as shown in Figure 8-27. Businesses also use automated systems to handle voice transactions and provide information to customers. Audio output can be attached to an e-mail message or inserted as an audio clip in a document. In addition, many firms use automated systems to handle voice transactions and provide information to customers. Podcasts. A podcast is a specially formatted digital audio file that can be downloaded by Internet users from a variety of content providers. Many firms use podcasts as sales and marketing tools, and to communicate with their own employees. Automated Facsimile systems: Some firms use automated facsimile, sometimes called faxback systems, to allow a customer to request a fax using e-mail, the company Web site, or by telephone. The response is transmitted in a matter of seconds back to the users fax machine. Computer output to microfilm (COM): COM systems, such as microfilm and microfiche, capture an image of a document and produce film output. COM systems are especially important for legal reasons, or where it is necessary to display a signature, date stamp, or other visual features of a document. Computer output to digital media: Computer output to digital media is a relatively new way to store images of paper documents. Using this technology, a paper document is scanned, and the digital image is stored. Digital storage enables rapid information retrieval. For example, if an insurance company stores thousands of paper application forms in digital form, an application can extract data from a particular column or area on the form. Specialized forms of output: Businesses require a variety of specialized output devices, such as portable, Web-connected devices; retail point-of-sale terminals that handle computer-based credit card transactions; automatic teller machines (ATMs) that can process bank transactions; special-purpose printers that can produce labels, employee ID cards, drivers licenses, gasoline pump receipts, and, in some states, lottery tickets; plotters that can produce high-quality images such as blueprints, maps, and electronic circuit diagrams; electronic detection of data embedded in credit cards, bank cards, and employee identification cards; and programmable devices (such as television sets, VCRs, and microwave ovens) that produce visual output displays. (Pages 357 - 359)

7. Explain each of the data validation rules mentioned in this chapter. Data validation rules include the following: Sequence checks are used when the data must be in some predetermined sequence. Existence checks are used for mandatory data items. Data type checks test to ensure that a data item fits the required data type. Range checks test data items to verify that they fall between a specified minimum and maximum value.

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Reasonableness checks identify values that are questionable, but not necessarily wrong. Validity checks are used for data items that must have certain values. Combination checks are performed on two or more fields to ensure that they are consistent or reasonable when considered together. Batch controls are totals used to verify batch input and might involve checking data items such as record counts and numeric field totals. (Pages 367 - 368)

8. What are the main principles of source document design? Principles of source document design include the following: Provide enough space, both vertically and horizontally, for users to enter the data. Indicate data entry positions clearly using blank lines or boxes and descriptive captions. Use a heading zone that contains the company name or logo and the title and number of the form. Use a control zone that contains codes, identification information, numbers, and dates that are used for storing completed forms. Use an instruction zone that contains instructions for completing the form. Use a body zone that contains captions and areas for entering variable data. If totals are included on the form, place them in a totals zone. Use an authorization zone if any signatures or approvals are required. Provide an information flow from left to right and top to bottom, to match the way users read documents naturally. (Pages 360 - 361) 9. Explain batch and online input methods. Define source data automation and provide an example. Using batch input, data entry is performed on a specified time schedule, such as daily, weekly, monthly, or longer. Although batch input is used in specific situations, most business activity requires online input. Online input offers immediate validation and availability of data. A popular online input method is source data automation, which combines online data entry and automated data capture using input devices such as magnetic data strips, or swipe scanners. Examples of source data automation include retail stores that use portable bar code scanners to log new shipments and update inventory data, and libraries that use handheld scanners to read optical strips on books. (Pages 368 - 369) 10. Provide four guidelines for reducing input volume. Four guidelines for reducing input volume are: Input necessary data only. Do not input a data item unless it is needed by the system. Do not input data that the user can retrieve from system files or calculate from other data. Do not input constant data. If orders are in batches with the same date, then a user should enter the order date only once for the first order in the batch. If orders are entered online, then the user can retrieve the order date automatically using the current system date. Use codes whenever possible. Codes are shorter than the data they represent, and coded input can reduce data entry time. (Page 370)

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Discussion Topics 1. Some systems analysts maintain that source documents are unnecessary. They say that all input can be entered directly into the system, without wasting time in an intermediate step. Do you agree? Can you think of any situations where source documents are essential? The answer depends on the business processes involved. In many situations, a source document is the only way to capture and record data. In other situations, a source document is unnecessary. For example, if a school adopts an online registration system, data can be entered directly into the system. Even when not required, a source document might be desirable as a working document that allows a user to review data before entering it into the system. During interviews, observation, and other forms of fact-finding, many people find it quicker and easier to take handwritten notes, which become source documents for later data entry. Given the trend toward handheld computers, automated data capture, and voice recognition software, traditional keyboard data entry might disappear. 2. Some systems analysts argue, Give users what they ask for. If they want lots of reports and reams of data, then that is what you should provide. Otherwise, they will feel that you are trying to tell them how to do their jobs. Others say, Systems analysts should let users know what information can be obtained from the system. If you listen to users, youll never get anywhere, because they really dont know what they want and dont understand information systems. What do you think of these arguments? Neither of these arguments, which present two extreme viewpoints, is totally justifiable. The best policy probably is somewhere between these two views. The first argument has some truth because information systems are designed for the users. When a user really needs information in the form of a long printed report, then that information must be provided. The implication about user attitudes is unfair. Users and IT professionals have a common goal to serve the organization. The second viewpoint is even weaker. A systems analyst should always be willing to offer suggestions. It is true that users sometimes do not know what information to ask for, and a business-oriented systems analyst can help them define their requirements. 3. Suppose your network support company employs 75 technicians who travel constantly and work at customer sites. Your task is to design an information system that provides technical data and information to the field team. What types of output and information delivery would you suggest for the system? Answers will vary. This type of organization probably would require an information system capable of providing remote access on a 24/7 basis. Automated facsimile would give the representatives the ability to obtain printed reports, and e-mail would allow them to keep in touch. Technical support representatives would need access to an online technical library with links to relevant documents and information. An Internet-accessible knowledge base would provide strong support for the field service team. Using a Web-based system, technical support representatives could input technical data and symptoms, receive suggestions, determine parts availability, and receive service assignments. This system might be enhanced by wireless technology. Encourage students to

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research real-world practices, and to contact firms that provide field service to learn more about current technology applications. 4. A user interface can be quite restrictive. For example, the interface design might not allow a user to exit to a Windows desktop or to log on to the Internet. Should a user interface include such restrictions? Why or why not? The answer depends on security issues. In a high security environment, it might be desirable to have the information system launch automatically when a user powers up a workstation. The design also might prevent users from exiting to Windows or obtaining Internet access, due to sensitive data or security concerns. This is the same type of built-in security that a diskless workstation offers. If user options are limited by hardware or software configuration, then fewer security concerns exist. Of course, no system is foolproof, and system administrators constantly must be vigilant. Ask students whether they ever worked in situations where their workstation processing or data access options were limited purposely, and how that affected their work. Projects 1. Visit the administrative office at your school or a local company. Ask to see examples of output documents, such as computer-printed invoices, form letters, or class rosters. Analyze the design and appearance of each document, and try to identify at least one possible improvement for each. Using the guidelines in the chapter, students should be able to suggest various improvements to the output documents they find. It might be interesting to ask students to submit their suggestions to the class and see whether other students agree or disagree with the recommendations. 2. Search the Web to find an example of an attractive user interface. Document your research and discuss it with your class. Answers will vary. It might be interesting to ask students what criteria they think are important in determining whether an interface is attractive to them. Another approach might be to have the instructor choose a site and have students rate the design, using the criteria explained in this chapter. 3. Examine various application software packages to find examples of good (or bad) user interface design. Document your research and discuss it with your class. Again, answers will vary depending on what the student thinks is good or bad design. The important thing is to share individual viewpoints and reasons. One student might see an attribute or design element that another student might ignore. If the entire class analyzes a specific software package, most design strengths and weaknesses will come to light. 4. Search your own files or review other sources to find good (or bad) examples of source document design. Document your research and discuss it with your class. This task is similar to the previous assignment. It might be especially interesting to review documents that are familiar to the entire class, such as registration documents at the school.

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ANSWERS TO APPLY YOUR KNOWLEDGE 1 North Shore Boat Sales Situation: North Shore Boat Sales sells new and used boats and operates a Web-based boat brokerage business in Toronto. The company has grown and North Shore needs a new information system to manage the inventory, the brokerage operation, and information about prospective buyers and sellers. Dan Robeson, the owner, asked you to design samples of computer screens and reports that the new system might produce. 1. Design a switchboard that includes the main information management functions that North Shore might require. Create a storyboard with a design layout that allows customers to perform the following functions: obtain information about new boats, obtain information about used boats, send an e-mail to North Shore, learn more about the company, or review links to other marine-related sites. Students can use their online form design skills to suggest a layout like this sample:

2. Prospective buyers might want to search for boats by type, size, price range, or manufacturer. Develop a screen design that would permit those choices. A screen design might resemble the Web page shown here. Note the multiple search criteria.

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3. Suggest reports that might be useful to North Shores management. Answers will vary. Based on the fact statement and information from the chapter, students should be able to suggest specific examples of detail, exception, and summary reports that would be valuable to North Shores management. Ask students to state any assumptions they used, and find out whether other class members agree. 4. Suggest the general layout for a Web-based source document that prospective sellers could use to describe their boats. The information should include boat type (sail or power), manufacturer, year, length, type of engine, hull color, and asking price. A design might resemble the online form shown here.

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Terrier News Situation: Terrier News is a monthly newsletter devoted to various breeds of terriers and topics of interest to terrier owners and breeders. Annie West, the editor and publisher, asked you to help her design a system to enter and manage the hundreds of classified ads that Terrier News publishes. Some ads are for dogs wanted; some are for dogs for sale; and some offer products and services. 1. Design a suitable source document for ads that are telephoned or mailed in. Answers will vary. Students should apply the skills and principles they learned in the chapter. Students should consider form layout, including the placement of a heading zone, instruction zone, body zone, and authorization zone. Information flow also is important.

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2. Explain user-centered design principles in a brief memo to Annie. Good user-centered design depends on eight basic principles, which are: Understand the underlying business functions Maximize graphical effectiveness Profile the systems users Think like a user Use prototyping Design a comprehensive interface Continue the feedback process Document the interface design 3. Suggest at least four user interface design guidelines that could be used for the new system. A list of user interface design guidelines includes the following: Focus on basic objectives Build an interface that is easy to learn and use Provide features that promote efficiency Make it easy for users to obtain help or correct errors Minimize input data problems Provide feedback to users Create an attractive layout and design Use familiar terms and images 4. Suggest several types of controls that might be used on the switchboard you plan to design. Explain why you chose each control, and create a storyboard that shows the switchboard layout. Control Menu bar Toolbar Command button Dialog box Text box Toggle button Reason A menu bar displays the main options at the top of the screen. A toolbar contains icons or buttons that represent shortcuts for executing common commands. Command buttons initiate an action such as printing a form or requesting Help. A dialog box allows a user to enter information about a task that the system will perform. A text box can display messages or provide a place for a user to enter data. A toggle button is used to represent on or off status clicking the toggle button switches to the other status. A list box displays a list of choices that the user can select. A scroll bar allows the user to move through the available choices.

List box Scroll bar

Systems Analysis and Design, Ninth Edition Control Drop-down list box

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Option button

Check box

Spin bar Calendar control

Reason A drop-down list box displays the current selection; when the user clicks the arrow, a list of the available choices displays. Option buttons, or radio buttons, represent groups of options. The user can select only one option at a time; selected options contain a black dot. A check box is used to select one or more choices from a group. Selected options are represented by a checkmark or an X. A spin bar allows a user to flip through various choices that appear in a window. A calendar control allows the user to select a date that the system will display and store as a field value.

A storyboard is a sketch of the screen layout and design. Answers will vary, but the main concerns should be ease of use, attractiveness, and efficiency. 3 Sky-High Internet Services Situation: Sky-High Internet Services is a leading Internet service provider in a metropolitan area. The new customer billing system has caused an increase in complaints. Tammy Jones, the office manager, asked you to investigate the situation. After interviewing data entry operators and observing the online data input process, you are fairly certain that most errors occur when data is entered. 1. Write a brief memo to Tammy explaining the importance of data validation during the input process. Students should understand that when it comes to data validation, an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. A data validation check improves input quality by testing the data and rejecting any entry that fails to meet specified conditions. Responses should point out that the best defense against incorrect data is to identify and correct errors by using data validation checks before they enter the system. 2. Suggest at least three specific data validation checks that might help reduce input errors. Students can suggest at least eight types of data validation checks into the input process. a) Sequence checks, which are used when the data must be in some predetermined sequence. b) Existence checks, which are used for mandatory data items such as Social Security number. c) Data type checks, which test to ensure that a data item fits the required data type, such as numeric or alphabetic. d) Range checks, which test data items to verify that they fall between a specified minimum and maximum value. e) Reasonableness checks, which identify values that are questionable, but not necessarily wrong. f) Validity checks, which are used for data items that must have certain specified values.

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g) Combination checks, which are performed on two or more fields to ensure that they are consistent or reasonable when considered together. h) Batch controls, which are totals used to verify batch input. Batch controls might check data items such as record counts and numeric field totals. 3. Would a batch input system offer any advantages? Write a brief memo to Tammy stating your views. Students should understand that batch input involves data entry on a specified time schedule, such as daily, weekly, monthly, or longer. As an Internet service provider, SkyHigh must set up and configure customer accounts at any time, and a batch input method would interfere with customer service and delay Internet access for new accounts. Monthly billing for established accounts, however, might be done on a batch basis, on a designated day (such as the last business day of the month). If Sky-High provides multi-level accounts, where a specific number of dollars buys a specific number of hours, assume that the company has industry-specific ISP software that automatically tracks usage and billing so the results could be applied to customer accounts in a batch at months end. In this sense, batch input offers the advantage of a scheduled, automated procedure that is unlikely to introduce human data entry errors. Even so, SkyHigh probably will have to input various changes or adjustments manually, so data validation checks still will be needed in many situations. 4. Suppose that Sky-High is predicting 25 percent annual growth, on a current base of 90,000 customers. If the growth pattern holds, how many customers will Sky-High have in three years? If it takes about 12 minutes to enter a new customer into the system, how many additional data entry operators will be needed to handle the growth next year? Assume that an operator works about 2,000 hours per year. Also assume a 30 percent annual attrition rate for existing customers. In this assignment, students must calculate staffing needs based on specific assumptions. Answers might vary, depending on assumptions used. The main goal is to have students apply realistic methods and accurate calculation skills. The sample spreadsheet shown below is based on the facts stated in the assignment, and fractional staffing is rounded up or down to a whole number.

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Castle Point Antique Auction Situation: Castle Point Antique Auction operates a successful Web site that offers an auction forum for buyers and sellers of fine antiques. Monica Creighton, the owner, asked you to help her design some new documents and reports. 1. Suggest the general layout for a Web-based source document that prospective bidders would submit. The information should include user ID, password, name, address, telephone, e-mail address, item number, bid offered, and method of payment (money order, check, American Express, MasterCard, or Visa). Suggest to students that they view real-world examples of Internet auction site documents before completing their own designs. The Web has numerous examples, and excellent models are readily available. This chapter contains many tips and suggestions about form design. You might ask class members to critique various sites and develop a checklist of dos and donts for designing the required documents. 2. Suggest the general layout for a Web-based source document that prospective sellers could use to describe their antiques. The information should include the user ID, password, item, dimensions, origin, condition, and asking price. This assignment is similar to the previous one. Again, suggest to students that they view real-world examples of Web-based item description forms for auction sites. Also remind them to apply tips and suggestions described in the chapter. Answers will vary the objective is to come up with realistic, effective examples that demonstrate good design principles. 3. Write a brief memo to Monica explaining the difference between detail reports, exception reports, and summary reports. Suggest at least one example of each type of report that she might want to consider. For each report, student responses should include characteristics and examples similar to the following.

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Report Type Detail

Exception

Characteristics A detail report produces one or more lines of output for each record processed. Each line of output printed is called a detail line. All the fields in the record do not have to be printed, nor do the fields have to be printed in the sequence in which they appear in the record. A detail report should provide totals for numeric fields, using a control-break field to determine the subtotal groupings. An exception report displays only those records that meet a specific condition or conditions. Exception reports are useful when the user wants information only on records that might require action, but does not need to know the details.

Castle Point Examples Castle Point probably requires an overall transaction report that would show each auction sale. Information on the detail line might include date, time, item, price, payment method, and other specific data about the transaction.

Summary

Summary reports are used by managers who want to see total figures rather than supporting details.

The company might be interested in a variety of exception reports. Examples might include a report on items that were sold or offered above (or below) a specific price level; transactions that took place at peak Internet usage periods; or buyer or seller information for certain types of items. In each case, management wants to focus on specific information to support marketing analysis or decision-making. Castle Point managers might want to see various summary reports, depending on their needs. Examples might include an overall daily transaction total, the total number of items offered at auction each day, the total number of bidders, and so on.

4. Suggest several types of data validation checks that could be used when input data is entered. The chapter describes many types of data validation checks that students can suggest. These include sequence checks, existence checks, data type checks, range checks, reasonableness checks, validity checks, combination checks, and batch controls.

Systems Analysis and Design, Ninth Edition ANSWERS TO CASE STUDIES New Century Health Clinic Assignments

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1. Dr. Jones has asked you to create a monthly Claim Status Summary report. He wants you to include the insurance company number, the patient number and name, the procedure date, the procedure code and description, the fee, the date the claim was filed, the amount of the claim, the amount of reimbursement, and the amount remaining unpaid. He wants you to group the data by insurance company number, with subtotals by company and grand totals, for each numeric field. When you design the report, make sure to include a mock-up report, and a report analysis form. During the requirements modeling in Chapter 4, students were asked to prepare interview questions for New Century employees, and sample responses were provided for instructor use. One of the people interviewed was Tom Capaletti, who handles insurance processing. Tom mentioned that he had a problem with the Claim Status Summary, because it took so much time to prepare the information and to put the unpaid claims into the four aging brackets. Now students have the opportunity to design the Claim Status Summary to which Tom referred. A sample of a mock-up report and a report analysis form follow.

Systems Analysis and Design, Ninth Edition a. Report mock-up:


NEW CENTURY HEALTH CLINIC CLAIM STATUS SUMMARY MONTH OF JULY, 2010

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INSURANCE COMPANY NUMBER --------------------------

PATIENT NAME --------------------------------

PROCEDURE DESCRIPTION -------------------------

PROCEDURE CODE ------------------

PROCEDURE DATE -------------------------

DATE CLAIM FILED -------------------------

PATIENT NUMBER

FEE

AMOUNT OF CLAIM

AMOUNT OF REIMBURSEMENT

AMOUNT UNPAID

123

John Q. Smith 11221

Physical Examination 150.90

32145.00 165.85

2/10/11 150.90

2/12/11 0.00

John Doe 13133 SUBTOTALS FOR COMPANY 123

Blood Test 50.00 -----------200.90

91762.00 55.99 ----------------221.84

4/05/11 50.00 ----------------200.90

4/06/11 0.00 ----------------0.00

124

Bob Johnson 43532

X-ray 100.00

43567.00 115.50

2/13/11 100.00

2/16/11 15.50

SUBTOTALS FOR COMPANY 124

-----------100.00

----------------115.50

----------------100.00

---------------7,048,24.00

TOTAL UNPAID BY AGING BRACKET

0 - 30 DAYS: 31 - 60 DAYS: 61 - 90 DAYS: OVER 90 DAYS:

1,230.99 3,789.95 1,157.34 2,100.95

GRAND TOTALS

------------------------300.90

-----------------337.34

----------------------300.90

---------------------0.00

TOTAL UNPAID BY AGING BRACKET

0 - 30 DAYS: 31 - 60 DAYS: 61 - 90 DAYS: OVER 90 DAYS:

62,530.99 88,789.95 91,157.34 42,110.95

Systems Analysis and Design, Ninth Edition c. Report analysis form:

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SYSTEM DOCUMENTATION NAME OF SYSTEM New Century Health Clinic ANALYST Sally Student FIELD Insurance Company Number Patient Number Patient Name Procedure Date Procedure Code Procedure Description Fee Date Claim Filed Amount of Claim Amount of Reimbursement Amount Unpaid Unpaid 0 - 30 Days Unpaid 31 - 60 Days Unpaid 61 - 90 Days Unpaid over 90 Days DATE April 1, 2011 PAGE 1 of 1

PURPOSE OF DOCUMENTATION Monthly Claim Status Analysis FIELD TYPE Numeric Alphanumeric Alphanumeric Numeric Alphanumeric Alphanumeric Numeric Numeric Numeric Numeric Numeric Numeric Numeric Numeric Numeric LENGTH 3 5 30 8 5.2 20 5.2 8 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2

COMMENTS Report heading includes month and year of report. Column headings are stacked in two rows separated by dashed lines and are repeated on each page. Two detail lines are printed for each record. Records are grouped by Insurance Company Number. At each control break, subtotals are printed for each numeric monetary field. At the end of the report, grand totals are printed for each numeric monetary field. The report is printed on single-ply, standard stock paper. One copy of the report is printed for each associate. FREQUENCY The report is generated monthly, typically on the first weekday of the following month for distribution during the first week. ATTACHMENTS A printer spacing chart and a mock-up report are attached.

2. Design the daily appointment list and a monthly statement to make it readable and visually attractive. Include a mock-up report and a report analysis form for each report. The design should follow the general guidelines described on pages 353-354. Students should consider overall layout, report headings, page headings, column headings, alignment, and spacing. The appointment list will not require numeric totals, subtotals, or footings.

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The following is a sample design for the daily appointment list based on the manual form that was described earlier in the textbook (see Chapter 4 of the Instructors Manual, which contains the New Century fact-finding summary and a sample of the form). NEW CENTURY HEALTH CLINIC DAILY APPOINTMENT LIST DATE: TIME 8:00 am 5/11/11 PATIENT John Frick PROVIDER: Dr. Garcia

SERVICE __________________ 99385 - Initial preventive maintenance evaluation 97022 - Diathermy treatment 99450 - Basic life exam 99401 - Preventive med. counseling

8:30 am 9:00 am 9:30 am 10:00 am

Amelia Johnson Jan Riley Susan Creighton Hospital conference

4:00 pm 5:00 pm

Bill Monroe Dictate reports

97022 - Whirlpool treatment

Systems Analysis and Design, Ninth Edition A sample report analysis form for the daily appointment list follows:

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SYSTEM DOCUMENTATION SYSTEM NAME New Century Health Clinic ANALYST Joan James Field Page Number Provider Date Time Patient First Name Patient Last Name CPT Code Procedure Description DATE May 11, 2011 PAGE 1
OF

PURPOSE OF DOCUMENTATION Daily Appointment List Report Analysis Data Type Numeric Alphanumeric Numeric Alphanumeric Alphanumeric Alphanumeric Numeric Alphanumeric Field Length 1 20 8 6 12 16 7 20

COMMENTS: 1. Print a separate report for each provider, with two copies. One copy is sent to the provider; the other copy is kept at the reception desk. 2. For all appointments on the specified date, print a line with appointment time, patient first and last name, CPT code, and procedure description. 3. The report is printed on stock, 8 x 11 paper. FREQUENCY: The report is printed and distributed to each provider daily at 5 p.m.

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The following figure is a sample design for the monthly statement based on the manual form that was described in Chapter 4. NEW CENTURY HEALTH CLINIC 407 Court Street Fullerton, CA 99690 999-123-4567

To:

Andrew Stevens 65 East Melody Lane Fullerton, CA 99690 Account 13224

Date: Prior Balance: Charges: Payments New Balance:

3/3/11 125.50 220.00 280.00 65.50

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Please return the top portion with your payment. Retain this portion for your records. Date 2/4/11 2/4/11 2/12/11 2/19/11 Andrew Stevens 93015.00 Patient Maria Stevens Maria Stevens Code 99201.00 92283.00 Service New patient evaluation Color vision exam Insurance payment Cardiovascular stress test Fee 100.00 25.00 CR 80.00 95.00 Balance 125.50 225.50 250.50 170.50 265.50

2/23/11

Patient payment

CR 200.00

65.50

Systems Analysis and Design, Ninth Edition A sample report analysis form for the monthly statement follows:

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SYSTEM DOCUMENTATION SYSTEM NAME New Century Health Clinic ANALYST Joan James Field Patient First Name Patient Last Name Appointment Date CPT Code Procedure Description Household Address Household City Household State Household ZIP Code Household Number MTD Charges MTD Payments Fee Payment Amount Prior Balance New Balance Balance DATE PAGE 1 OF 1 January 11, 2011 PURPOSE OF DOCUMENTATION Analysis of monthly statement Data Type Field Length Alphanumeric 12 Alphanumeric 16 Numeric 8 Numeric 7 Alphanumeric 20 Alphanumeric 25 Alphanumeric 20 Alphanumeric 2 Numeric 5 Numeric 5 Numeric 8 Numeric 8 Numeric 7 Numeric 8 Numeric 8 Numeric 8 Numeric 8

COMMENTS: 1. In the top portion of the statement, print: a. First Name, Last Name, Household Address, Household City, Household State, Household ZIP Code, Household Number. b. Current Date, Prior Balance, MTD Charges, MTD Payments, New Balance 2. For each service fee or payment, print Appointment Date, Patient First Name, Patient Last Name, CPT Code, Procedure Description, and Balance. 3. The report is produced on preprinted stock, 8 x 11, suitable for window envelopes. FREQUENCY: The report is printed and mailed on the last business day of each month. 3. Determine the data required for a new patient. Design an input source document that will be used to capture the data and a data entry screen to input the information. If students developed a list of data elements in Chapter 5 (see New Century case study Assignment 3 on page 239), they should refer to it now. Otherwise, they can use the sample

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list provided. Each data element should link to an item in the input source document. A sample list of data elements follows: Patient Data: PATIENT FIRST NAME PATIENT LAST NAME PATIENT DATE OF BIRTH RELATIONSHIP CODE LAST EXAM DATE Household Data: HOUSEHOLD FIRST NAME HOUSEHOLD LAST NAME HOUSEHOLD ADDRESS HOUSEHOLD CITY HOUSEHOLD ZIP HOUSEHOLD HOME PHONE HOUSEHOLD WORK PHONE EMPLOYER GROUP NUMBER In addition to these data elements, a typical input form might request a Social Security number, and information on medical history, allergies, insurance, and other data necessary to set up a patients medical file. In laying out the new patient form, students should follow the guidelines for source document design. They should pay particular attention to designing the forms captions (Figure 8-28 on page 360), document zones (see Figure 8-29 on page 361), and information flow. The data entry screen should follow the guidelines in the chapter. The screen form should resemble the paper source document, so it will be easy for a user to transfer the information from the paper form to the computer-based screen form. 4. What data validation checks would the clinic need for the new patient data entry screen? Write a brief memo with your recommendations. Students might suggest several of the data validation checks described in the chapter. For example, an existence check would prevent empty data fields; a data type check would prevent inappropriate data entry (such as alphabetic data in the Social Security Number field); and a reasonableness check would set suitable limits in other fields.

Personal Trainer, Inc. Assignments 1. Create a detail report that will display all Personal Trainer courses in alphabetical order, with the course name and the instructor name in a group header; the Social Security number, name, and telephone number of each current student in the detail section; and the student count in a group footer. A sample report design follows, with a sample of the printed report.

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2. Create a switchboard design with control buttons that lead to members, fitness instructors, activities and services, schedules, and fitness class rosters. Allow a user to add, update, or delete records in each area. Answers will vary. A sample switchboard is shown below:

3. Suggest context-sensitive and specific Help for the switchboard and lower-level menus and forms. Prepare storyboards that show the proposed screens. Also suggest at least six types of data validation checks for data entry screens. As the chapter explains on page 345, context-sensitive Help offers assistance for the task in progress. Figure 8-15 on page 346 provides an example of context-sensitive Help. A sample of context-sensitive Help for the Personal Trainer system might include the following: Area Members Specific Task Add a Member Suggested Help Remind user that the SSN is a primary key, and will not allow duplicates. If the member is already in the system, the message This Member Already Entered will be displayed.

Systems Analysis and Design, Ninth Edition Area Specific Task Delete a Member

Page 28 of 37 Suggested Help Inform user that, without specific confirmation, the system will not allow a member to be deleted if that member currently is registered in one or more courses. The user first must click the button labeled OK to delete member and cancel courses. Inform user about various data validation checks that apply to fields in this area.

Update Member Information

A list of specific Help topics might include the following: Calendar functions Course minimum and maximum sizes Daily backup procedures Input masks Listing courses Lookup functions Missing information Previewing a report Report titles and content System maintenance Students should list any six of the data validation checks described on pages 367-368. These include sequence checks, existence checks, data type checks, range checks, reasonableness checks, validity checks, combination checks, and batch controls. 4. Design a mail-in source document that members can use to register for fitness classes. Also design a Web-based registration form. Answers will vary. Students should follow the guidelines in the chapter and create designs that are attractive and easy to use. The textbook provides several examples of source documents and online forms that can be used as samples. Also refer students to the SWL case, beginning on page 382, for examples of paper source documents. Also, students can visit online magazine sites, such as PC Magazine or ZDNet, for examples of Web-based subscription forms that could provide design ideas for the Personal Trainer registration form. Video Superstore Assignments 1. Design a weekly operations summary report that will include overall data on rentals, new customers, late charges, and anything else you think a store manager might want to review. Be sure to include numeric activity and dollar totals. Answers will vary. Students should review the summary report shown in Figure 8-23 on

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page 353, and the SWL summary report shown in Figure 8-42 on page 384. With regard to additional data that a manager might want, encourage students to think about cost-benefit issues such as overtime, unusual expenses, inventory problems, employee absenteeism, or customer complaints. 2. Design a data entry screen for entering new members. A data entry screen design should follow the principles discussed in the chapter, and can include menu bars, toolbars, dialog boxes, text boxes, toggle buttons, list boxes, scroll bars, drop-down list boxes, option buttons, check boxes, command buttons, and calendar controls, among others. It would be a good idea to include a system-generated member number, similar to the system-generated order number used in Figure 8-32 on page 363. A sample screen follows:

3. Design a video rental input screen. In addition to the video data, the video rental form must include the following fields: Member Number, Name, and Date. Answers will vary. A sample screen might appear as follows:

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4. Suggest at least three data validation rules that might help reduce input errors for the video rental system. Students might suggest several of the data validation checks described on pages 367-368. For example, an existence check would prevent empty data fields; a data type check would prevent inappropriate data entry (such as alphabetic data in the Member Number field); and a reasonableness check would set suitable limits in the Fee field.

ANSWERS TO CHAPTER CAPSTONE CASE: SOFTWEAR, LIMITED (SWL) 1. Review the mock-up report shown in Figure 8-41 on page 383. When Carla showed this report to Mike Feiner, director of human resources, he said that he wanted to see the data grouped by the type of ESIP deduction with the appropriate subtotals. Carla wants you to modify the report design to satisfy his request. You can use Microsoft Access, a report generator, or simply construct a sample layout using any Word processing or drawing program. Be sure to show the placement and grouping of all fields. Answers will vary. The mockup in Figure 8-41 displays the deductions chronologically by pay period. Changing the grouping field to ESIP Option, and adding subtotals, might be the best approach. This issue is similar to the one raised in Case in Point 8.4 on page 362. The first question is whether screen design is an ergonomic issue that can affect productivity and user satisfaction. Clearly, screens that are attractive, well laid out, and intuitive are likely to please users who will probably make fewer input errors and be more productive. What about users designing their own screens? Is it okay to permit some degree of personal preference or should a standard policy be used? Ask students what they think. The best answer might be it depends. A systems analysts job typically is to set the boundaries for individual preference. If possible, users should be allowed to control their work environment as long they do not adversely affect the information system, the data itself, or other users. The key question involves the issue of user-driven design. As the textbook points out, the best results usually occur when users manage their own information needs. Unfortunately,

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it is difficult to design a system that is both powerful and flexible enough for users to operate without special training and support. To get a better idea of what users really want, you can ask, If you could design your own screens, what would they look like? Depending on the responses, it might be possible either to build in the specific elements or, even better, to design screens that would give users some flexibility as to the look and feel. Many companies allow users to customize their Microsoft Windows interface by selecting background colors, icon arrangement, and similar visual design features that do not affect data security or integrity issues. 2. Carla Moore also wants employees to have an online information request form that they can use to learn more about ESIP options and request up-to-date balances for their ESIP accounts. Follow the guidelines and suggestions in this chapter, and design an online screen form for Carla. Answers will vary the main objective is to demonstrate an understanding of good form and screen design. Guidelines for source document design are covered on pages 360-361, and several samples of online forms are provided. The online form is part of an overall user interface for an employee information access system, and students should apply the user interface design guidelines explained in the chapter. When designing input screens, students should apply good data entry screen design principles. It is possible that one or more data checks might be used to avoid input errors. The screen layout should resemble the source document, so users will not be confused. 3. In addition to being available online, Carla wants the information request form to be available as a paper source document, which can be used by employees who do not have easy access to the online form. Follow the guidelines and suggestions in this chapter, and design a paper source document for Carla. Ask students to lay out a paper form with clearly defined zones, an obvious place to enter personal information, and check boxes for user choices. The form should be easy to understand, and follow the guidelines suggested in the chapter. Answers will vary, but the main point is that the source document should follow the same overall design layout as the online form. Source document design is discussed on pages 360-361. 4. Carla wants an update on usability, how users read on the Web. Review the material in this chapter and visit the Web to learn more about this topic. Summarize the results of your research in a memo to Carla. Numerous articles and sources of information about usability are available on the Web. Encourage students to use search techniques described in Part D of the Systems Analysts Toolkit, and especially to explore the invisible Web. The IBM and Microsoft sites also will provide additional information and reference material.

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Manage the SWL Project You have been asked to manage SWLs new information system project. One of your most important activities will be to identify project tasks and determine when they will be performed. Before you begin, you should review the SWL case in this chapter. Then list and analyze the tasks, as follows: LIST THE TASKS Start by listing and numbering at least ten tasks that the SWL team needs to perform to fulfill the objectives of this chapter. Your list can include SWL Team Tasks and any other tasks that are described in this chapter. For example, Task 3 might be to Find out what output is needed, and Task 6 might be to Design an output screen. An answer might include tasks listed in the Chapter Introduction Case, and other examples of tasks found in the SWL case or elsewhere in the chapter. A sample answer follows: Task List Determine what printed output users will need Determine what screen output users will need Determine how input will enter the system Identify all the input devices that will interact with the system Develop necessary output controls and security Consider basic principles of human-computer interaction Develop guidelines for effective user interface design Design detail reports Design exception reports Design summary reports Design effective source documents Develop various checks to minimize input errors ANALYZE THE TASKS Now study the tasks to determine the order in which they should be performed. First identify all concurrent tasks, which are not dependent on other tasks. In the example shown in Figure 8-47, Tasks 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 are concurrent tasks, and could begin at the same time if resources were available. Other tasks are called dependent tasks, because they cannot be performed until one or more earlier tasks have been completed. For each dependent task, you must identify specific tasks that need to be completed before this task can begin. For example, you would want to find out what output is needed before you could design an output screen, so Task 6 cannot begin until Task 3 is completed, as Figure 8-47 shows. Answers will vary. A sample answer follows: Concurrent Tasks 1. Determine what printed output users will need 2. Determine what screen output users will need 3. Determine how input will enter the system Dependent Tasks 8. Design detail reports 9. Design exception reports 10. Design summary reports

Systems Analysis and Design, Ninth Edition 4. Identify all the input devices that will interact with the system 5. Develop necessary output controls and security 6. Consider basic principles of humancomputer interaction 7. Develop guidelines for effective user interface design

Page 33 of 37 11. Calculate printing volume and time 12. Design effective source documents 13. Develop various checks to minimize input errors

For each dependent task, a sample list of predecessor tasks follows: Dependent Tasks 8. Design detail reports 9. Design exception reports 10. Design summary reports 11. Design effective source documents 12. Develop various checks to minimize input errors Predecessor Tasks 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 8 9 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 1,2,3,4,5,6,7

Chapter 3 describes project management tools, techniques, and software. To learn more, you can use the Features section on your Student Study Tool CD-ROM, or visit the Management Information Systems CourseMate Web site at www.cengagebrain.com and locate the project management resources library for this book. On the Web, Microsoft offers demo versions, training, and tips for using Project 2010. You also can visit the OpenWorkbench.org site to learn more about this free, open-source software. The Features section on the Student Study Tool CD-ROM includes Web links for Microsoft Project and Open Workbench, and a user guide for Open Workbench. Instructors can demonstrate Microsoft Project if it is available, and show students how to download and install Open Workbench. Instructors also can create additional assignments that use project management software skills in a systems development environment.

ANSWERS TO READY FOR A CHALLENGE Instructor Note: Remind students that to view sample answers to Practice Tasks, they can visit the Management Information Systems CourseMate Web site at www.cengagebrain.com, navigate to the resources for this chapter, and locate Ready for a Challenge.

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Data Item First Name Middle Initial Last Name Category Postal Code

Input Mask >L<L???????? >? >L<L?????????? >LL00 00000-9999

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HANDOUT: VALIDATION RULES


A data validation rule limits what users can enter into a database. Data validation rules improve input quality by testing the data and rejecting any entry that fails to meet specified conditions. Data validation rules ensure that inappropriate data is prevented from entering the system. These checks can include data sequence, existence, range and limits, reasonableness, and validity, among others. A database also can have built-in validation checks. For example, a system can verify that a customer number on an order matches a valid customer number in the customer file. Because the value entered must refer to another value, that type of check also is called referential integrity. Another validity check might verify that a new customer number does not match a number already stored in the customer master file. One of the most restrictive types of validation rules is called a validity check, because it limits the input to certain specific values. For example, if an inventory system has 20 valid item classes, then any input that does not match one of the valid classes will fail the check. A validity check also can restrict input to values that are between certain limits. For example, a rule such as >100 And <1000 will force users to enter values between 100 and 1,000. To insure a user-friendly interface, you can use the validation text property to display a message such as "Please enter a value greater than 100 and less than 1,000."

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In the following example, the user must enter a capital A or B. An input mask is not shown, but it would be good to include a mask such as >? to insure that a single capital letter is entered. Used this way, input masks and validation rules work well together.

Notice that the field size has been limited to one character.

Data Item Customer ID Password

Input Mask >L9999 AAAAAAaaaaaa

Note: MS Access offers a special type of field called Password. If this type is selected, the characters will appear as asterisks, but the input would not otherwise be restricted. In contrast, the input mask suggested above will restrict the input as shown.

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Notice that in this example, an input mask has been combined with the validation rule, and the field size has been limited to two.