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Immunology Flash Facts

Q0001:What test is done to diagnose CGD?

Immunology Flash Facts

Nitroblue tetrazolium reduction test (NBT). It is negative in patients with CGD because there is no production of oxygen radicals.

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0002:What is the valence of an Ig molecule equal to?

Immunology Flash Facts

The number of Ags that the Ab can bind

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0003:What is the name of the process that ensures that each B cell produces only one heavychain variable domain and one light chain?

Immunology Flash Facts

Allelic exclusion. It is to ensure that one B cell produces only one Ab.

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0004:What is the major Ab of the primary immune response?

Immunology Flash Facts

IgM

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0005:What form of immunity is responsible for removal of intracellular infections?

Immunology Flash Facts

Cell-mediated immunity

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Q0006:True or false? Direct fluorescent Ab test is used to detect Abs in a patient?

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Immunology Flash Facts

False. Direct tests detect Ags; indirect tests detect Abs.

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Immunology Flash Facts

Q0007:What is the triad of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome?

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Immunology Flash Facts

Thrombocytopenia; eczema; and immunodeficiency is the triad of this X-linked recessive disorder.

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Immunology Flash Facts

Q0008:What complement factor deficiency leads to;? Increased susceptibility to pyogenic infections?

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C3 deficiency

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Immunology Flash Facts

Q0009:What complement factor deficiency leads to;? Recurrent gonococcal infections?

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C5-C8 deficiency

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Q0010:What complement factor deficiency leads to;? Leukocyte adhesion deficiency with poor opsonization?

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C1; C2; or C4 deficiency

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Q0011:What complement factor deficiency leads to;? Hereditary angioedema?

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C1 inhibitor (C1-INH)

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Q0012:Which IgG cannot activate complement?

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IgG4

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Q0013:Name the T-cell CD marker;? Essential for Ab isotype switching (for B cell binding)

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CD40 ligand

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Q0014:Name the T-cell CD marker;? Interacts with MHC class I molecules

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CD8

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Q0015:Name the T-cell CD marker;? Expressed on all T cells and is needed as a signal transducer for the T cell receptor

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Immunology Flash Facts

CD3

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Q0016:Name the T-cell CD marker;? Interacts with MHC class II molecules

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CD4

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Q0017:Name the T-cell CD marker;Is a costimulatory molecule in T cell activation

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CD28

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Q0018:What three cells are essential for T-cell differentiation in the thymus?

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Immunology Flash Facts

Dendritic cells; macrophages; and thymic epithelial cells

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Q0019:What is the only specific Ag-presenting cell?

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Immunology Flash Facts

B cells; macrophages and dendritic cells are nonspecific.

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Immunology Flash Facts

Q0020:What is the tetrad of Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction?

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Immunology Flash Facts

Rigors; leukopenia; decrease in blood pressure; and increase in temperature

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Immunology Flash Facts

Q0021:What is the name of the B cell that secretes Ig?

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Immunology Flash Facts

Plasma cell (mature B lymphocyte)

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Q0022:What would be the result if an Ab were cleaved with papain?

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Immunology Flash Facts

There would be two Fab and Fc regions.

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Q0023:What is the bone marrow maturation time for a phagocytic cell?

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Immunology Flash Facts

14 days

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Q0024:Which leukotrienes are associated with the late-phase inflammatory response?

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Immunology Flash Facts

LTC4 and LTD4

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Q0025:What is the term for the strength of the association between Ag and an Ab?

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Immunology Flash Facts

Affinity (one of each)

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Q0026:True or false? More Ag is needed to produce a secondary immune response than a first immune response.

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False. Fewer Ags are needed to trigger a secondary response.

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Q0027:What is the term for the strength of association between multiple Abbinding sites and multiple antigenic determinants?

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Immunology Flash Facts

Avidity (more than one binding site)

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Q0028:What Ig mediates ADCC via K cells; opsonizes; and is the Ig of the secondary immune response?

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Immunology Flash Facts

IgG

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Immunology Flash Facts

Q0029:What test is used to detect anti-RBC Abs seen in hemolytic anemia?

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Immunology Flash Facts

Coombs test

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Q0030:What subset of T cells recognizes the MHC class I Ags?

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Immunology Flash Facts

CD8+ T cells (cytotoxic);Remember; 81=8 (CD8 MHC class I=8); 42=8 (CD4 MHC class II 8)

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Q0031:What cell surface marker is found on activated helper T cells?

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CD40

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Q0032:What are the five Ig isotypes?

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IgA; IgD; IgE; IgG; and IgM

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Q0033:Which integrin mediates the adhesion to endothelial cells for migration in and out of the blood during an immune response?

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Beta2-integrins

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Q0034:What type of hypersensitivity is an Abmediated response against our own cells; receptors; or membranes via IgG or IgM?

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Type II hypersensitivity reaction

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Q0035:What is the term to describe the limited portion of an Ag that is recognized by an Ab?

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Immunology Flash Facts

Antigenic determinant (epitope)

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Q0036:What cytokine do Th1 cells secrete to inhibit Th2 cell function?

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INF-gamma

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Q0037:What three cells are essential for T-cell maturation?

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Thymic epithelial cells; dendritic cells; and macrophages

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Q0038:What is the term for a single isolated antigenic determinant?

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Hapten (not immunogenic)

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Q0039:What are the two opsonizing factors?

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The Fc region of IgG and C3b

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Q0040:What is the most common Ig deficiency?

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IgA deficiency; patients commonly present with recurrent sinopulmonary infections and GI disturbances.

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Q0041:What is the name of the B cellrich area of the spleen?

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Primary follicle (in the white pulp)

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Q0042:What IL; produced by macrophages; is chemotactic for neutrophils?

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IL-8. It not only is chemotactic; it also acts as an adhesive for neutrophils.

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Q0043:What Ig prevents bacterial adherence to mucosal surfaces?

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IgA

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Q0044:What are the three rules of clonal selection?

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1. One cell type ;2. One Ab type ;3. Random selection of hypervariable regions; and only cells with bound Ag undergo clonal expansion

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Q0045:What is a plasma cell's life expectancy?

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7 to 14 days

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Q0046:What are defined by Ag-binding specificity?

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Idiotypes

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Q0047:What type of binding occurs with one Fab or one idiotype of IgG?

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Affinity

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Q0048:What molecule that is needed to trigger T cell activation is noncovalently linked to TCR?

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CD3 molecule. It transmits signals to the inside of the T cell to trigger activation

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Q0049:What is the term for Ags that activate B cells without T-cell signaling?

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Thymus-independent Ags

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Q0050:What are the three rules governing a secondary immune response?

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1. Covalent bonding between the hapten and carrier ;2. B-cell exposure to hapten twice ;3. T-cell exposure to carrier twice

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Q0051:What type of hypersensitivity is a T cellmediated response to Ags that are not activated by Ab or complement?

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Immunology Flash Facts

Type IV hypersensitivity reaction (delayed type because of the 4896 hour latency)

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Q0052:Name the macrophages by location;? Liver

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Kupffer cells

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Q0053:Name the macrophages by location;? Lungs

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Alveolar macrophages

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Q0054:Name the macrophages by location;? CNS

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Microglial cells

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Q0055:Name the macrophages by location;? Kidney

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Mesangial macrophages

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Q0056:What is the first human disease successfully treated with gene therapy?

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Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency

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Q0057:What receptors are the best markers for NK cells?

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CD16 and CD56

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Immunology Flash Facts

Q0058:True or false? Ag-Ab binding is irreversible

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Immunology Flash Facts

False. It is reversible because the Ags and Abs are not linked covalently.

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Immunology Flash Facts

Q0059:What three major cell lines participate in the acquired immune system?

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Immunology Flash Facts

T cells; B cells; and macrophages

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Immunology Flash Facts

Q0060:What test is used to screen for HIV?

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Immunology Flash Facts

ELISA. It detects anti-p24 IgG.

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Q0061:During what stage of B-cell development is IgM first seen on the surface?

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Immature B cells

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Immunology Flash Facts

Q0062:What Ig is responsible for AntibodyDependent Cell-mediated Cytotoxicity of parasites; has a high-affinity Fc receptor on mast cells and basophils; and is responsible for the allergic response?

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Immunology Flash Facts

IgE

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Q0063:True or false? B-cell Ag receptors can be secreted.

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True. B cell antigen receptors are Abs.

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Q0064:Are more Abs produced in a primary or a secondary immune response?

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More Ab is produced in less time in a secondary immune response (shorter lag period).

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Q0065:By which process do Abs make microorganisms more easily ingested via phagocytosis?

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Opsonization

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Q0066:What MHC class acts to remove foreign Ags from the body?

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MHC class II Ags. This is accomplished via CD4 T cells.

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Q0067:What disorder is characterized by autoantibodies to IF?

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Pernicious anemia

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Immunology Flash Facts

Q0068:What cytokines do Th2 cells secrete to inhibit Th1 cell function?

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Immunology Flash Facts

IL-4; IL-10; and IL-13

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Q0069:What is the term for the number of Agbinding sites on an Ig?

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Immunology Flash Facts

Valence

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Q0070:Which major cell type is found in the red pulp of the spleen?

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RBCs. That is why it is called red pulp.

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Q0071:What is the name of the pathway that produces leukotrienes?

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Lipoxygenase pathway; from arachidonic acid

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Q0072:What is the term to describe basophils that have left the bloodstream and entered a tissue?

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Mast cells

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Q0073:What are the three major functions of secretory IgA?

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1. IgA receptor ;2. Transport of IgA across epithelial barriers ;3. Protection of IgA from degradative proteases

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Immunology Flash Facts

Q0074:What IL is important in myeloid cell development?

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Immunology Flash Facts

IL-3 (3 face down is an M)

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Immunology Flash Facts

Q0075:What is the term for different classes and subclasses of the same gene products?

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Immunology Flash Facts

Isotypes

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Q0076:What is the first Ab a baby makes?

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Immunology Flash Facts

IgM

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Immunology Flash Facts

Q0077:What test; by using specific Abs to different receptors; allows for rapid analysis of cell types in a blood sample?

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Flow cytometric analysis

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Q0078:What is the name of the T cellrich area of the spleen?

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PALS (Parietolateral lymphocytic sheath)

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Q0079:What three complement fragments are also anaphylatoxins?

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Immunology Flash Facts

C3a; C4a; and C5a

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Q0080:Name the B-cell CD marker;? Required for class switching signals from T cells

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Immunology Flash Facts

CD40

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Q0081:Name the B-cell CD marker;? Receptor for EBV

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CD21; it is a complement receptor for cleaved C3

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Q0082:Name the B-cell CD marker;? Used clinically to count B cells in blood

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CD19

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Q0083:What immunologic test checks for a reaction between Abs and a particular Ag? (hint: ABO typing)

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Agglutination test

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Q0084:Which leukotriene is chemotactic for neutrophils?

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Immunology Flash Facts

LTB4

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Q0085:What Ig is associated with mucosal surfaces and external secretions?

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IgA

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Immunology Flash Facts

Q0086:What are the genetic variants of a molecule within members of the same species?

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Allotypes

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Q0087:What cytokine do CD4 T cells secrete to activate B cells when the specific peptide in the groove of the MHC II molecule interacts with the TCR?

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Immunology Flash Facts

IL-4 is secreted to activate B cells. This begins the second step in the immune response; known as Activation. CD4 T cells secrete INF-alpha to activate macrophages

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Q0088:Which protein prevents internal binding of self proteins within an MHC class II cell?

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Invariant chain

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Q0089:What would be the result if an Ab were cleaved with pepsin?

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Immunology Flash Facts

There would be a Fab' region; thus; it would still be able to participate in precipitation and agglutination.

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Q0090:Why are patients with Chronic Granulomatous Disease not prone to develop infections from catalase-negative bacteria?

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Catalase-negative bacteria secrete H2O2 as a byproduct (remember; catalase breaks down H2O2); allowing the neutrophils to use it as the substrate for the other toxic metabolites. Patients with CGD are prone to catalase-positive bacterial infections.

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Q0091:What are the two chains of the TCR that are mainly found on the skin and mucosal surfaces?

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gamma and delta chains

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Q0092:Which IL is associated with increases of IgG and IgE?

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IL-4

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Q0093:What branch of the immune system is acquired in response to an Ag?

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Adaptive branch. The adaptive branch of the immune system has a slow initiation with rapid responses thereafter.

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Q0094:True or false? T cells can recognize; bind; and internalize unprocessed Ags.

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False. B cells recognize unprocessed Ags; but T cells can recognize only processed Ags.

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Q0095:What type of hypersensitivity is a result of high circulating levels of soluble immune complexes made up of IgG or IgM Abs?

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Type III hypersensitivity reaction

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Q0096:At what stage of B-cell development can IgM or IgD be expressed on the cell surface?

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Mature B cell; the memory B cell can have IgG; IgA; or IgE on its surface.

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Q0097:What T cell deficiency syndrome is associated with facial anomalies; hypoparathyroidism; thymic hypoplasia; and recurrent viral and fungal infections?

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DiGeorge syndrome; which is due to a failure of the third and fourth pharyngeal pouch development. Remember; B cell deficiencies are associated with extracellular infection. T cell deficiencies are associated with intracellular infections

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Q0098:What is the stimulus for the classical pathway activation?

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Ag-Ab complexes. The alternative pathway protects without use of Abs; the pathogen is the stimulus.

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Q0099:What is the first membrane-bound Ig on B cell membranes?

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IgM; IgD follows shortly thereafter.

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Q0100:What region of the Ig does not change with class switching?

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Hypervariable region

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Q0101:In MHC class II molecules; what chain blocks access to the peptide-binding groove during transportation within the cell; ensuring that the MHC class IIpeptide complex is transported to the surface?

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Invariant chain. This is essential because the CD4 T cells have antigen receptors only for peptides bound to the MHC II molecule. (MHC restriction)

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Q0102:What chromosome codes for HLA gene products?

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The short arm of chromosome 6

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Q0103:What cells are atypical on a peripheral blood smear in heterophil-positive mononucleosis?

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T cells; not B cells

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Immunology Flash Facts

Q0104:What is the major Ig of the secondary immune response in the mucosal barriers?

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IgA

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Q0105:What AR disorder is seen by age 1 to 2 with recurrent sinopulmonary infections; uncoordinated muscle movements; and dilation of the blood vessels?

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Ataxia-telangiectasia

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Q0106:What are the four chemotactic agents?

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1. C5a ;2. Leukotriene B4 ;3. IL-8 ;4. Bacterial peptides

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Q0107:What subset of CD4 helper T cells stimulate B-cell division and differentiation?

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Th2

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Q0108:Which region of the variable domain comprises the Ag-binding site of the Ab?

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Hypervariable region (three per light chain; three per heavy chain)

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Q0109:True or false? The increased oxygen consumption after phagocytosis is for ATP production.

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False; it is for the production of toxic metabolites.

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Q0110:What is the limited portion of a large Ag that will actually be recognized and bound to an Ab and that contains approximately five to six amino acids or four to five hexose units?

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Antigenic determinant (epitope). (Idiotypes bind to epitopes.)

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Q0111:What complement factor or factors are associated with;? Chemotaxis?

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C5a

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Q0112:What complement factor or factors are associated with;? Membrane attack complex (MAC)?

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C5C9

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Q0113:What complement factor or factors are associated with;? Opsonization?

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C3b

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Q0114:What complement factor or factors are associated with;? Anaphylaxis?

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C3a; C4a; C5a

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Q0115:What happens to the Ab specificity when class switching occurs in mature B cells?

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As the isotype is switched; the Ab specificity does not change because it does not affect the variable chains.

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Q0116:What IL down-regulates cell mediated immunity?

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Immunology Flash Facts

IL-10

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Q0117:Name the type of graft described by these transplants;? From one site to another on the same person

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Autograft

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Q0118:Name the type of graft described by these transplants;Between genetically identical individuals

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Isograft

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Q0119:Name the type of graft described by these transplants;? From one person to the next (the same species)

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Allograft

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Q0120:Name the type of graft described by these transplants;? From one species to another

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Xenograft

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Q0121:What is the name of the process in which cells migrate toward an attractant along a concentration gradient?

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Chemotaxis

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Q0122:What are the two functions of the thymus in T-cell differentiation?

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Hormone secretion for T-cell differentiation and T-cell education to recognize self from nonself

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Q0123:What is the name of the T cellrich area of the lymph node?

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Paracortex

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Q0124:What cell surface marker do all T cells have?

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CD3

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Immunology Flash Facts

Q0125:True or false? Patients with common variable hypogammaglobinemia have B cells in the peripheral blood.

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True. Common variable hypogammaglobinemia first appears by the time patients reach their 20s and is associated with a gradual decrease in Ig levels over time.

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Q0126:What is the Ig associated with the primary immune response?

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IgM

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Q0127:What MHC class of antigens do all nucleated cells carry on their surface membranes?

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MHC class I antigens; they are also found on the surface of platelets.

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Q0128:What Ig is responsible for activation of complement; opsonization; and ADCC and is actively transported across the placenta?

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IgG

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Q0129:What type of Ag do T cells recognize?

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Processed antigenic peptides bound in the groove of the MHC molecule

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Q0130:What Ig is the major protective factor in colostrum?

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IgA

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Q0131:What is the second cell involved in the immune response?

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The CD4 T cell; the APC is the first cell in the immune response.

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Q0132:What is the term for thymic induction of T cells with high-affinity Ag receptors for self that are programmed to undergo apoptosis?

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Negative selection. This helps to prevent autoimmune diseases.

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Q0133:What five main oxidizing reactions are used to kill ingested organisms?

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1. H2O2 ;2. Superoxide ;3. Hydroxyl radical ;4. Myeloperoxidase ;5. Hypochlorous acid

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Q0134:What Ig is associated with ADCC for parasites?

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IgE

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Q0135:True or false? RBCs do not have MHC class I Ags on their surface.

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True. Remember; all nucleated cells (and platelets) have MHC class I Ags; and RBCs are not nucleated.

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Q0136:What Ig is associated with mast cell and basophil binding?

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IgE. It attaches via receptor for the Fc region of the heavy epsilon chain

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Q0137:What IL do T cells secrete to induce T-and B-cell division?

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IL-2. T cells express IL-2 receptors on their surface to induce self-expression.

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Q0138:Development of what T cell line follows low affinity for self-MHC class II Ags in the thymus?

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CD4+T cells

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Q0139:What is the term for a substance secreted by a leukocyte in response to a stimulus?

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Cytokine. If a cytokine affects another class of leukocytes; it is called an interleukin.

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Q0140:What subset of CD4 T cells is responsible for mast cell and eosinophil precursor proliferation?

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Th2 cells

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Q0141:What are the four major functions of the acquired immune system?

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1. Recognize self from nonself ;2. Amplify via cell division or complementation ;3. Control the level of the response ;4. Remove foreign material

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Q0142:What endotoxin receptor is the best marker for macrophages?

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CD14

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Q0143:What is the term for the inherent ability to induce a specific immune response?

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Immunogenicity; antigenicity refers to Ab/lymphocyte reaction to a specific substance.

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Q0144:What molecule differentiates the MHC class I from II Ag? (Hint: it's in the light chain.)

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The Beta-2-microglobin. It is the separately encoded Beta-chain for class I Ags.

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Q0145:What B cell disorder is characterized by pre-B cells in the bone marrow; no circulating B cells in plasma; normal cell-mediated immunity; low Igs; and appearance by 6 months of age?

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Bruton X-linked hypogammaglobinemia. Tyrosine kinase deficiency leads to inadequate B cell maturation.

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Q0146:What subtype of IgG does not bind to staphylococcal A protein?

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IgG3

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Q0147:What mast cell mediator is a chemotactic agent?

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Eosinophil chemotactic factor A

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Q0148:What is the major Ig of the secondary immune response?

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IgG

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Q0149:What T-cell surface projection recognizes and reacts to foreign Ags (presented by APCs)?

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TCR

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Q0150:What is the confirmatory test for HIV?

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Western blot

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Q0151:What is the name of the major chemotactic agent released from;? Neutrophils?

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Leukotriene B4 (LTB4)

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Q0152:What is the name of the major chemotactic agent released from;? Macrophages?

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IL-8 (IL-1 and TNF-gamma also)

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Q0153:What is the name of the major chemotactic agent released from;? The blood serum? (Hint: it is a complement factor.)

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C5a

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Q0154:What is the name of the major chemotactic agent released from;? Bacteria?

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F-Met-Peptides

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Q0155:What cell surface marker is found on blood B cells?

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CD19

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Q0156:What is the name of the B cellrich area in the lymph node?

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Primary follicle of the cortex

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Q0157:What are the four ways to down-regulate the immune system?

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1. Decrease concentrations of Ag levels ;2. Administer IgG in high concentrations ;3. Inhibit B cells with Ag bound to IgG (complexes) ;4. Turn off the original T or B cell with anti-Ab

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Q0158:What is the only Ig that crosses the placenta?

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IgG

316

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0159:What is given to pregnant women within 24 hours after birth to eliminate Rh+ fetal blood cells from their circulation?

317

Immunology Flash Facts

Rho (D) immune globulin (RhoGAM); an anti-RhD IgG antibody; prevents generation of RhD-specific memory B cells in the mother.

318

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0160:What IL is essential for lymphoid cell development?

319

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-7 (A 7 upside down is an L; L is for Lymphoid)

320

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0161:What type of cell can never leave the lymph node?

321

Immunology Flash Facts

Plasma cell

322

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0162:Via what pathway is glycolysis increased after phagocytosis?

323

Immunology Flash Facts

HMP shunt

324

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0163:What is the term for a delay in the onset of normal IgG synthesis seen in the fifth to sixth month of life?

325

Immunology Flash Facts

Transient hypogammaglobinemia of infancy; it usually resolves by age 16 to 30 months.

326

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0164:What subset of CD4 helper T-cell function is helping the development of CD8 T cells?

327

Immunology Flash Facts

Th1; they are also responsible for delayed-type hypersensitivity (type IV)

328

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0165:What is the term for the strength of the association between Ags and Abs?

329

Immunology Flash Facts

Avidity. There is a positive correlation between valence numbers and avidity.

330

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0166:What type of Ag do B cells recognize?

331

Immunology Flash Facts

Free; unprocessed Ag

332

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0167:What Ig is associated with Ag recognition receptor on the surface of mature B cells?

333

Immunology Flash Facts

IgD; IgM is also correct.

334

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0168:Which chromosome is associated with MHC genes?

335

Immunology Flash Facts

Chromosome 6

336

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0169:What is the term for processing an APC's pinocytosed material by fusing with a lysosomal granule and cleaving the Ag into peptide fragments?

337

Immunology Flash Facts

Ag processing; it is needed for class I molecules. Class II molecules have an invariant chain that protects them from breakdown.

338

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0170:What is the most common precipitin test used in clinical medicine?

339

Immunology Flash Facts

Radial Immuno Diffusion (RID) for Ig levels.

340

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0171:What Ig activates the complement cascade most efficiently?

341

Immunology Flash Facts

IgM

342

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0172:What assay is used to identify MHC class I molecules?

343

Immunology Flash Facts

Microcytotoxic assay

344

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0173:Which IL increases IgA synthesis?

345

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-5. It also stimulates eosinophil proliferation.

346

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0174:What is the term for an immunogenic agent that is too small to elicit an immune response?

347

Immunology Flash Facts

Hapten; if it is coupled with a carrier; it may become immunogenic.

348

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0175:What type II hypersensitivity disorder is defined as;? Autoantibodies directed against ACh receptors?

349

Immunology Flash Facts

Myasthenia gravis

350

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0176:What type II hypersensitivity disorder is defined as;? Autoantibodies directed against platelet integrin?

351

Immunology Flash Facts

Autoimmune thrombocytopenia purpura

352

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0177:What type II hypersensitivity disorder is defined as;? Autoantibodies against the type IV collagen in the basement membrane of the kidneys and lungs?

353

Immunology Flash Facts

Goodpasture syndrome

354

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0178:What type II hypersensitivity disorder is defined as;? Autoantibodies directed against the TSH receptor?

355

Immunology Flash Facts

Graves disease

356

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0179:What type II hypersensitivity disorder is defined as;? Autoantibodies directed against RBC Ag I?

357

Immunology Flash Facts

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia

358

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0180:What Ig activates the alternate pathway; neutralizes bacterial endotoxins and viruses; and prevents bacterial adherence?

359

Immunology Flash Facts

IgA

360

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0181:What enzyme is deficient in patients with CGD?

361

Immunology Flash Facts

NADPH oxidase is deficient; resulting in an inability to produce toxic metabolites.

362

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0182:What subtype of IgG does not activate complement cascade?

363

Immunology Flash Facts

IgG4

364

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0183:What two cell lines of the immune system do not belong to the innate branch?

365

Immunology Flash Facts

T and B-cells belong to the adaptive branch; whereas PMNs; NK cells; eosinophils; macrophages; and monocytes belong to the innate branch.

366

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0184:What subset of T cells recognizes the MHC class II Ags?

367

Immunology Flash Facts

CD4+ T cells (helper)

368

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0185:What T cell line arises from low affinity for self-MHC class I Ags in the thymus?

369

Immunology Flash Facts

CD8+ T cells

370

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0186:What MHC class functions as a target for elimination of abnormal host cells?

371

Immunology Flash Facts

MHC class I Ags (the endogenous pathway). This allows the body to eliminate tumor cells; virusinfected cellsanything the body recognizes as nonself via CD8+ T cells.

372

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0187:What are the three polymorphonuclear leukocytes? Be specific.

373

Immunology Flash Facts

Neutrophils; eosinophils; and basophils

374

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0188:What disease is associated with the HLA-A3 allele

375

Immunology Flash Facts

Primary Hemochromatosis

376

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0189:What diseases are associated with the HLAB27 allele

377

Immunology Flash Facts

Psoriasis; ankylosing spondylitis; inflammatory bowel disease; and Reiter's syndrome

378

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0190:What disease is associated with the HLA-DR2 and HLA-DR3 alleles

379

Immunology Flash Facts

Systemic lupus erythematosus

380

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0191:What diseases are associated with the HLADR3 allele

381

Immunology Flash Facts

Sjogren's syndrome; active hepatitis; systemic lupus erythematosus (with HLA-DR2) and type 1 diabetes (with HLA-DR4)

382

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0192:What diseases are associated with HLA-DR4

383

Immunology Flash Facts

Rheumatoid arthritis and type 1 diabetes (with HLA-DR3)

384

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0193:Lymph drainage: What does the right lymphatic duct drain?

385

Immunology Flash Facts

Right arm and right half of head

386

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0194:Lymph drainage: What does the thoracic duct drain?

387

Immunology Flash Facts

Everything except for the right arm and the right half of head

388

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0195:Splenic sinusoids: What are they?

389

Immunology Flash Facts

Long; vascular channels in red pulp with fenestrated "barrel hoop" basement membrane and macrophages nearby. Adjacent to splenic cords and contain blood.

390

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0196:How can the spleen be distinguished from a lymph node on histologic section?

391

Immunology Flash Facts

Spleens have no subscapsular sinus and no cortex or medulla. They have white pulp and red pulp.

392

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0197:What does the white pulp of the spleen contain?

393

Immunology Flash Facts

Contains;1. Lymphoid follicles with germinal centers (mostly B cells). Can see aggregation of dark basophilic lymphocytic nuclei;2. Characteristic central arterioles. Surrounded by a Periarterial lymphatic sheath (PALS) which is a collection of T-lymphocytes.

394

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0198:Where is the red pulp of the spleen located?

395

Immunology Flash Facts

Around and between the lymphatic nodules of the white pulp

396

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0199:Splenic cords: What are they?

397

Immunology Flash Facts

Structures containing macrophages; plasma cells; lymphocytes; and few RBCs. Separated from each other by splenic sinusoids.

398

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0200:Thymus: Function

399

Immunology Flash Facts

Site of T-cell differentiation and maturation (T cells differentiate in the Thymus. B cells differentiate in the Bone marrow)

400

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0201:Thymus: Embryological origin

401

Immunology Flash Facts

Epithelium of 3rd branchial pouches

402

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0202:Lymphocytes: Embryological origin

403

Immunology Flash Facts

Mesenchyme

404

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0203:Thymus: What does the cortex contain and what does it look like?

405

Immunology Flash Facts

The lobules resemble lymphatic nodules except they are angular; not round;Contains;1. Densely packed (dark) immature T cells;2. Large epithelial reticular cells which appear as holes within the cortical cells.

406

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0204:Thymus: What does the medulla contain and what does it look like?

407

Immunology Flash Facts

Pale;Contains;Thymic (Hassall's) corpuscles which have a lamellated or whorled appearance due to degenerating epithelial reticular cells.

408

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0205:What percentage of T cells which enter thymus survive?

409

Immunology Flash Facts

2%

410

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0206:What is positive selection of T cells?

411

Immunology Flash Facts

Retention of T cells that have functioning T cell receptors

412

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0207:Where do positive and negative selection of T-cells occur in the thymus?

413

Immunology Flash Facts

At the corticomedullary junction

414

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0208:What is negative selection of T cells?

415

Immunology Flash Facts

Destruction of T-cells that react to self-antigen

416

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0209:Innate immunity vs adaptive immunity: How are receptors that recognize pathogens encoded?

417

Immunology Flash Facts

Innate: Germline encoded;Adaptive: Undergo VDJ recombination during development

418

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0210:Innate immunity vs adaptive immunity: How fast is response to pathogens?

419

Immunology Flash Facts

Innate: Always fast; no memory response;Adaptive: Slow on 1st exposure but memory response is faster and more robust.

420

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0211:Innate immunity or adaptive immunity: Neutrophils

421

Immunology Flash Facts

Innate immunity

422

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0212:Innate immunity or adaptive immunity: Macrophages

423

Immunology Flash Facts

Innate immunity

424

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0213:Innate immunity or adaptive immunity: Dendritic cells

425

Immunology Flash Facts

Innate immunity

426

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0214:Innate immunity or adaptive immunity: Complement

427

Immunology Flash Facts

Innate immunity

428

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0215:Innate immunity or adaptive immunity: T cells

429

Immunology Flash Facts

Adaptive immunity

430

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0216:Innate immunity or adaptive immunity: B cells

431

Immunology Flash Facts

Adaptive immunity

432

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0217:Innate immunity or adaptive immunity: Circulating antibody

433

Immunology Flash Facts

Adaptive immunity

434

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0218:T-cell differentiation: Where do T-cell precursors come from and where do they go?

435

Immunology Flash Facts

From the bone marrow to the thymus

436

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0219:T-cell differentiation: What CD?

437

Immunology Flash Facts

CD3

438

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0220:T-cell differentiation: What happens to Tcell precursors when they enter the thymus; and what are they called?

439

Immunology Flash Facts

Once T-cell precursors acquire and display CD4 and CD8; they are cortical thymocytes.

440

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0221:T-cell differentiation: Where is the T-cell in its development when it undergoes positive selection?

441

Immunology Flash Facts

Both CD4 positive and CD8 positive

442

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0222:T-cell differentiation: Where in the thymus are cells which are positive for both CD4 and CD8 located?

443

Immunology Flash Facts

Thymic cortex

444

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0223:T-cell differentiation: Where is the T-cell in its development when it undergoes negative selection?

445

Immunology Flash Facts

Either CD4 positive or CD8 positive; not both

446

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0224:T-cell differentiation: Where in the thymus are cells which are positive for either CD4 or CD8 located?

447

Immunology Flash Facts

Thymic medulla

448

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0225:T-cell differentiation: What are the two types of helper T cells and where do they differentiate?

449

Immunology Flash Facts

In the lymph node; helper T cells differentiate into Th1 cells; and Th2 cells.

450

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0226:Differences between Th1 and Th2 cells: Stimulant for differentiation from archetypical helper T cell.

451

Immunology Flash Facts

Th1: IL-12 from both other Th1 cells and antigenpresenting dendritic cells;Th2: IL-4 from other Th2 cells and presumably an unknown factor from dendritic cells

452

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0227:Differences between Th1 and Th2 cells: Cytokines produced by both types

453

Immunology Flash Facts

Both: IL-2;Th1: IFN-gamma; TNF-alpha;Th2: IL-4; IL-5; IL-6; IL-10; IL-13

454

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0228:Cytokine effects: Interleukin 2

455

Immunology Flash Facts

Stimulates T-cell growth and proliferation;Mnemonic for first 5 interleukins: Hot T-bone stEAk

456

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0229:Cytokine effects: Interferon gamma

457

Immunology Flash Facts

1. Inhibits Th2 cytokines;2. Induces class I and II MHC;3. Stimulates differentiation of monocytes into macrophages;4. Activates macrophages.

458

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0230:Cytokine effects: Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha

459

Immunology Flash Facts

1. Activates macrophages; neutrophils (also attracts them); and CD8 cells;2. Induces neutrophil-endothelial cell adhesion;3. Constitutional: sepsis; cachexia ("wasting away"); fever; acute phase proteins;4. Tumor cell lysis;5. Increased proliferation of B-cells;6. Increased synthesis of IL-2 receptors by Th cells;7. Stimulates dendritic cell migration to lymph nodes.
460

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0231:Cytokine effects: Interleukin 4

461

Immunology Flash Facts

1. Growth of B-cells;2. Growth and proliferation of T-cells;3. Synthesis of IgE;4. Class switching of IgG to IgE;5. Inhibits IL-8; IL-1; and TNFalpha;Mnemonic for first 5 interleukins: Hot Tbone stEAk. E as in stimulates IgE production.

462

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0232:Cytokine effects: Interleukin 5

463

Immunology Flash Facts

1. Differentiation of B cells 2. Class switching of IgA;3. Production and activation of eosinophils;Mnemonic for first 5 interleukins: Hot T-bone stEAk. A as in stimulates IgA production.

464

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0233:What cytokines stimulate the acute phase response?

465

Immunology Flash Facts

1. IL-1;2. IL-6;3. TNF-alpha

466

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0234:What are acute phase response proteins used for?

467

Immunology Flash Facts

1. Augment immune response (complement; Ig);2. Regulate the extent of response (protease inhibitors like alpha-1-antitrypsin);3. Stimulate additional responses (alpha-2-macroglobulin)

468

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0235:Cytokine effects: Interleukin 10

469

Immunology Flash Facts

Big picture: Stimulates Th2 while inhibiting Th1;Specifically inhibits;1. IL-8;2. IL-1;3. TNFalpha;4. IFN-gamma

470

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0236:What releases: Interleukin 10

471

Immunology Flash Facts

1. Th2 cells;2. Macrophages

472

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0237:Differences between Th1 and Th2 cells: Major effects

473

Immunology Flash Facts

Both: Downregulate each other;Th1: Activates all lymphocytes and APCs; especially CD8 cells and macrophages;Th2 cells;1. B cells: Increased differentiation; proliferation; antibody; and class switching;2: Activation of eosinophils

474

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0238:What releases: Interleukin 2

475

Immunology Flash Facts

Th cells

476

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0239:What releases: Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha

477

Immunology Flash Facts

Macrophages (emphasized) and Th1 cells

478

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0240:What releases: Interferon gamma

479

Immunology Flash Facts

Th1 cells (emphasized) and NK cells

480

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0241:What releases: Interleukin 5

481

Immunology Flash Facts

T cells (especially Th2) and mast cells

482

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0242:What releases: Interleukin 6

483

Immunology Flash Facts

T cells (especially Th); macrophages; and endothelial cells

484

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0243:What is MHC and what codes for it?

485

Immunology Flash Facts

Major Histocompatability Complex encoded by Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)

486

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0244:What genes code for MHC I?

487

Immunology Flash Facts

1. HLA-A;2. HLA-B;3. HLA-C

488

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0245:What genes code for MHC II?

489

Immunology Flash Facts

1. HLA-DP;2. HLA-DQ;3. HLA-DR

490

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0246:MHC I and II: What cells are they expressed on?

491

Immunology Flash Facts

I: All nucleated cells except sperm;II: Antigen Presenting Cells

492

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0247:MHC I and II: Where in the cell is antigen loaded onto the MHC?

493

Immunology Flash Facts

I: RER (mostly intracellular peptides);II: Acidified endosome

494

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0248:B cells and T cells: Effect on Ig

495

Immunology Flash Facts

B cells: Make it;T cells: (CD4) Help B cells make it and release IFN-gamma to activate macrophages

496

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0249:B cells and T cells: Method of killing

497

Immunology Flash Facts

B cells: IgG opsonizes bacteria and viruses;T cells: (CD8) Directly kills virus-infected cells

498

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0250:B cells and T cells: Allergy mechanism

499

Immunology Flash Facts

B: Type I hypersensitivity; through IgE;T: Type IV hypersensitivity

500

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0251:B cells and T cells: Organ rejection speed

501

Immunology Flash Facts

B: Fast; through antibodies;T: Slow

502

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0252:CD/MHC: What binds MHC II?

503

Immunology Flash Facts

CD4 T-cell receptors

504

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0253:What does MHC I pair with (allosteric interaction)

505

Immunology Flash Facts

beta2-microglobulin

506

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0254:CD/MHC: What binds MHC I?

507

Immunology Flash Facts

CD8 T-cell receptors

508

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0255:CD/MHC: What binds CD4 T-cell receptors?

509

Immunology Flash Facts

MHC II on antigen presenting cells

510

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0256:CD/MHC: What binds CD8 T-cell receptors?

511

Immunology Flash Facts

MHC I on virus-infected cells

512

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0257:Cytokine effects: Interleukin 1

513

Immunology Flash Facts

Big picture: Stimulates growth differentiation or product synthesis by T cells; B cells; neutrophils; fibroblasts; and epithelial cells;1. Endogenous pyrogen;2. Activates T cells;3. Upregulates adhesion molecules;4. Induces acute phase reactants;5. Synergizes with TNFalpha;Mnemonic for first 5 interleukins: Hot Tbone stEAk. Hot as in fever.
514

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0258:What releases: Interleukin 1

515

Immunology Flash Facts

1. Professional antigen-presenting cells (macrophages; monocytes; dendritic cells; and B cells);2. Some non-professional antigen presenting cells (fibroblasts; endothelial cells; others)

516

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0259:How does Interleukin 1 cause fever?

517

Immunology Flash Facts

Steps;1. Migrates to the circumventricular organs;2. Binds with endothelial receptors;3. Receptors activate Phospholipase A2-COX2-PGE2 pathway;4. Prostaglandin E2's presence in the hypothalamus elevates the thermoregulatory set point and activates neuroendocrine determinants of fever.
518

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0260:What are the professional antigen presenting cells?

519

Immunology Flash Facts

1. Macrophages;2. B cells;3. Dendritic cells

520

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0261:What is the CD3 complex?

521

Immunology Flash Facts

Cluster of polypeptides associated with a T-cell receptor. It is important in signal transduction.

522

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0262:How are Th cells activated?

523

Immunology Flash Facts

1. APC phagocytoses foreign body;2. APC presents antigen on MHC II;3. Signal 1: Th cell's TCR recognizes antigen;4. Signal 2 (costimulatory): APC's B7 molecule stimulates Th cell's CD28 molecule;5. Autocrine IL-2 stimulates Th cell to produces cytokines

524

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0263:How are Tc cells activated?

525

Immunology Flash Facts

1. Virus-infected cell presents endogenously synthesized proteins on MHC I;2. Signal 1: Tc cell's TCR recognizes antigen;3. Signal 2: IL-2 released from Th cell activates T c cell to kill virus infected cell.

526

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0264:Antibody structure/function: What are the components of the heavy chain?

527

Immunology Flash Facts

Variable: VH;Constant: CH1; CH2; CH3

528

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0265:Antibody structure/function: What are the components of the light chain?

529

Immunology Flash Facts

Variable: VL;Constant: CL

530

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0266:What part of an antibody recognizes antigen?

531

Immunology Flash Facts

Variable portion of Fab fragment

532

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0267:What part of an antibody fixes complement?

533

Immunology Flash Facts

Constant part of H chain of IgM and IgG

534

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0268:Antibody structure/function; True or False: Light chain contributes to Fab

535

Immunology Flash Facts

True

536

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0269:Antibody structure/function; True or False: Heavy chain contributes to Fab

537

Immunology Flash Facts

True

538

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0270:Antibody structure/function; True or False: Light chain contributes to Fc

539

Immunology Flash Facts

False

540

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0271:Antibody structure/function; True or False: Heavy chain contributes to Fc

541

Immunology Flash Facts

True

542

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0272:What is the middle of the variable component of an antibody component chain called?

543

Immunology Flash Facts

Hypervariable region

544

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0273:Antibody structure/function: Where on an antibody is the hypervariable region?

545

Immunology Flash Facts

The majority of the variable segments excluding the edges

546

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0274:How are the four chains of an antibody connected?

547

Immunology Flash Facts

Interchain disulfide bonds at;1. between the two heavy chains on the Fc side of the hinge region;2. between corresponding light and heavy chains on the Fab side of the hinge region

548

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0275:What disulfide bonds does an antibody have?

549

Immunology Flash Facts

Interchain: Bonds between both heavy chains and between corresponding light and heavy chains;Intrachain: On each segment

550

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0276:Where on an antibody is the Amino terminal?

551

Immunology Flash Facts

At the variable edges of the chains

552

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0277:Where on an antibody is the carboxyl terminal?

553

Immunology Flash Facts

At the constant edges of the heavy chains

554

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0278:Antibody structure/function: What are the five Cs of Fc?

555

Immunology Flash Facts

1. Constant;2. Carboxy terminal;3. Complement binding (IgG and IgM only);4. Carbohydrate side chains;5. Complement binding fragment

556

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0279:3 main functions of the antibody

557

Immunology Flash Facts

1. Opsonization;2. Neutralization (prevents bacterial adherence);3. Complement activation

558

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0280:How is antibody diversity generated?

559

Immunology Flash Facts

1. Random "recombination" of VJ (light chain) or VDJ (heavy chain) genes;2. Random combination of heavy chains with light chains;3. Somatic hypermutation;4. Addition of nucleotides to DNA during "genetic recombination" by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase.

560

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0281:What does terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase do?

561

Immunology Flash Facts

Addition of nucleotides to DNA during "genetic recombination" in B cells

562

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0282:What does Tdt stand for?

563

Immunology Flash Facts

Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase

564

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0283:Which immunoglobulins are expressed on the surface of mature B cells?

565

Immunology Flash Facts

IgM and IgD

566

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0284:What is isotype switching?

567

Immunology Flash Facts

Differentiation of B cells into plasma cells that secrete IgG; IgA; or IgE

568

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0285:What stimulates isotype switching?

569

Immunology Flash Facts

Cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5) and CD40-Ligand on Tcells

570

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0286:Main antibody isotype in secondary immune response

571

Immunology Flash Facts

IgG

572

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0287:Most abundant antibody isotype

573

Immunology Flash Facts

IgG

574

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0288:Antibody isotypes which cross placenta

575

Immunology Flash Facts

IgG

576

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0289:Antibody isotypes which fix complement

577

Immunology Flash Facts

IgG and IgM in the classic complement pathway;Mnemonic: GM makes classic cars

578

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0290:Antibody isotypes which opsonize bacteria

579

Immunology Flash Facts

IgG (and IgA weakly)

580

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0291:Main antibody isotype in primary immune response

581

Immunology Flash Facts

IgM

582

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0292:Antibody isotypes associated with the J chain

583

Immunology Flash Facts

IgM and IgA

584

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0293:Antibody isotypes associated with the SP

585

Immunology Flash Facts

IgA;SP = Secretory Protein

586

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0294:Antibody isotype with longest half life

587

Immunology Flash Facts

IgG (26 days compared with 5 for IgM; the next longest)

588

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0295:Antibody isotype which prevents bacterial/viral attachment to mucous membranes

589

Immunology Flash Facts

IgA

590

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0296:Antibody isotype found in secretions

591

Immunology Flash Facts

IgA

592

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0297:Antibody isotype which mediates type I hypersensitivity

593

Immunology Flash Facts

IgE

594

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0298:How does IgE cause an allergic response?

595

Immunology Flash Facts

Type I hypersensitivity;1. IgE binds to basophils or mast cells;2. IgE binds antigen;3. These cells release histamine and leukotrienes.

596

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0299:Which cells have receptors for IgE?

597

Immunology Flash Facts

1. mast cells;2. basophils;3. eosinophils;4. monocytes/macrophages;5. platelets

598

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0300:Antibody isotype which mediates immunity to worms

599

Immunology Flash Facts

IgE

600

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0301:Least abundant antibody isotype

601

Immunology Flash Facts

IgE

602

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0302:Define allotype

603

Immunology Flash Facts

An individual's allele coding for the constant portions of the antibody's heavy chains.

604

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0303:Define isotype

605

Immunology Flash Facts

Type of chain in an antibody;Heavy isotypes: alpha; gamma; delta; epsilon; mu;Light isotypes: kappa; lambda

606

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0304:Define idiotype

607

Immunology Flash Facts

antibodies of one idiotype share structure of their variable region and thus; antigen binding specificity.

608

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0305:Cytokine effects: Interleukin 3

609

Immunology Flash Facts

Supports the growth and differentiation of bone marrow stem cells (similar to GM-CSF). Most important during early growth;Mnemonic for first 5 interleukins: Hot T-bone stEAk. bone; as in bone development

610

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0306:What releases: Interleukin 3

611

Immunology Flash Facts

T cells (emphasis on activated T cells) and thymic epithelial cells

612

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0307:Cytokine effects: Interleukin 6

613

Immunology Flash Facts

1. Differentiation and growth of B cells and T cells ;2. Systemic effects (Acute Phase Response and Fever);3. Stimulates Ig production

614

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0308:What releases: Interleukin 4

615

Immunology Flash Facts

Th2 cells

616

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0309:Cytokine effects: Interleukin 8

617

Immunology Flash Facts

1. Major neutrophil chemotactic and adhesion factor;2. Angiogenesis;3. High levels associated with schizophrenia

618

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0310:What releases: Interleukin 8

619

Immunology Flash Facts

1. Monocytes;2. Endothelial cells;3. Fibroblasts

620

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0311:Cytokine effects: Interleukin 12

621

Immunology Flash Facts

1. Promotes differentiation of Th cells into Th1;2. Activates NK cells

622

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0312:What releases: Interleukin 12

623

Immunology Flash Facts

Professional Antigen Presenting Cells;1. Dendritic cells;2. Macrophages;3. B cells

624

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0313:Important cell surface proteins and their functions: Helper T cells

625

Immunology Flash Facts

1. CD4;2. TCR;3. CD3 (Signal transduction);4. CD28 and CD40L (Receive costimulatory activation signal respectively from B7 and CD40 which are both on B cells and professional APCs. These two signaling pathways each upregulate the other.)

626

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0314:Important cell surface proteins and their functions: Cytotoxic T cells

627

Immunology Flash Facts

1. CD8;2. TCR;3. CD3 (Signal transduction)

628

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0315:Important cell surface proteins and their functions: B cells

629

Immunology Flash Facts

1. IgM;2. MHC II (Presents foreign antigens to Th cells);2. B7 and CD40 (Costimulatory activation signal respectively to CD28 and CD40L which are both on T cells. These two signaling pathways each upregulate the other.);2. CD19; CD21 (Subunits of co-receptor for BCR complex) ;4. CD20 (Target in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of monoclonal antibodies like rituximab)
630

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0316:Important cell surface proteins and their functions: Macrophages

631

Immunology Flash Facts

1. MHC II (Presents foreign antigens to Th cells);2. CD14 (Works with toll-like receptor 4 to bind lipopolysaccharide. Also a marker for monocytes);3. Receptors for Fc and C3b (ie opsonins)

632

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0317:Important cell surface proteins and their functions: NK cells

633

Immunology Flash Facts

1. Receptors for MHC I;2. CD16 (subunit of lowaffinity Fc receptor [ie. opsonins]);3. CD56 (adhesion molecule)

634

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0318:Important cell surface proteins and their functions: Hematopoietic stem cells

635

Immunology Flash Facts

CD34 (marker for this type of cell; and a receptor for CD62L; a selectin)

636

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0319:Complement: Viral neutralization

637

Immunology Flash Facts

C1; C2; C3; C4

638

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0320:Complement: Opsonization

639

Immunology Flash Facts

C3b

640

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0321:Complement: Anaphylatoxins

641

Immunology Flash Facts

C3a; C5a

642

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0322:Complement: Neutrophil Chemotaxis

643

Immunology Flash Facts

C5a

644

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0323:Complement: Membrane attack complex

645

Immunology Flash Facts

C5b to C9

646

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0324:Deficiency of C1 esterase inhibitor leads to:

647

Immunology Flash Facts

Hereditary angioedema (overactive complement)

648

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0325:Deficiency of C3 leads to:

649

Immunology Flash Facts

Severe recurrent pyogenic sinus and respiratory tract infections

650

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0326:Deficiency of C6 through C8 leads to:

651

Immunology Flash Facts

Neisseria bacteremia

652

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0327:What is Decay Accelerating Factor?

653

Immunology Flash Facts

Prevents attachment of the alternative complement complex (C3 convertase) to the membrane

654

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0328:When is Decay Accelerating Factor missing?

655

Immunology Flash Facts

In paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

656

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0329:What kind of bacteria does complement defend against?

657

Immunology Flash Facts

Gram negative bacteria

658

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0330:What activates the classic complement pathway?

659

Immunology Flash Facts

IgG and IgM;Mnemonic: GM makes classic cars.

660

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0331:What activates the alternative complement pathway?

661

Immunology Flash Facts

Microbe surface molecules (especially endotoxin)

662

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0332:PGI2

663

Immunology Flash Facts

Prostacyclin. Vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. Aspirin does not inhibit its synthesis by endothelial cells. Synthesized from PGH2 by prostacyclin synthase in intact endothelial cells.

664

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0333:PGH2

665

Immunology Flash Facts

Synthesizes PGI2 with prostacyclin synthase in intact endothelial cells. Precursor of thromboxanes. Synthesized from PGG2.

666

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0334:PGE2

667

Immunology Flash Facts

Vasodilation; pain and fever. Synthesized from PGH2

668

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0335:TxA2

669

Immunology Flash Facts

Vasoconstriction; platelet aggregation and bronchoconstriction. Coverted from PGH2 by thromboxane synthase.

670

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0336:LTB4

671

Immunology Flash Facts

chemotaxis and activation of neutrophil adhesion molecules

672

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0337:LTC4

673

Immunology Flash Facts

Vasoconstriction; increased vessel permeability; bronchoconstriction

674

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0338:LTD4

675

Immunology Flash Facts

Vasoconstriction; increased vessel permeability; bronchoconstriction

676

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0339:LTE4

677

Immunology Flash Facts

Vasoconstriction; increased vessel permeability; bronchoconstriction

678

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0340:HLA DR5

679

Immunology Flash Facts

pernicious anemia & juvenile RA

680

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0341:HLA DR2

681

Immunology Flash Facts

Goodpasture syndrome; allergy; multiple sclerosis; & narcolepsy

682

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0342:HLA DR3

683

Immunology Flash Facts

celiac sprue; type I diabetes mellitus; & SLE

684

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0343:HLA DR4

685

Immunology Flash Facts

pemphigus vulgaris; RA; type I diabetes

686

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0344:HLA DR7

687

Immunology Flash Facts

steroid-responsive nephrotic syndrome

688

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0345:HLA B27

689

Immunology Flash Facts

psoriasis; ankylosing spnondylitis; inflammatory bowel disease; Reiter's syndrome (PAIR)

690

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0346:HLA B8

691

Immunology Flash Facts

Graves' disease; celiac sprue

692

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0347:HLA DR5

693

Immunology Flash Facts

pernicious anemia (B12 deficiency); Hashimoto's thyroiditis

694

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0348:antinuclear antibodies (ANA)

695

Immunology Flash Facts

SLE

696

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0349:anti-dsDNA; anti-Smith

697

Immunology Flash Facts

specific for SLE

698

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0350:antihistone

699

Immunology Flash Facts

drug-induced SLE

700

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0351:anti-IgG (rheumatoid factor)

701

Immunology Flash Facts

rheumatoid arthritis

702

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0352:antineutrophil (C-ANCA; P-ANCA)

703

Immunology Flash Facts

vasculitis

704

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0353:anticentromere

705

Immunology Flash Facts

scleroderma (CREST)

706

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0354:anti-Scl-70

707

Immunology Flash Facts

scleroderma (diffuse)

708

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0355:antimitochondrial

709

Immunology Flash Facts

primary biliary cirrhosis

710

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0356:antigliadin

711

Immunology Flash Facts

celiac disease

712

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0357:anti-basment membrane

713

Immunology Flash Facts

Goodpasture's

714

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0358:anti-epithelial cell

715

Immunology Flash Facts

pemphigus vulgaris

716

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0359:antimicrosomal

717

Immunology Flash Facts

Hashimoto's thyroiditis

718

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0360:anti-Jo-1

719

Immunology Flash Facts

polymyositis; dermatomyositis

720

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0361:IL-1

721

Immunology Flash Facts

secreted by macrophages; stimulates T cells; B cells; neutrophils; fibroblasts; and epithelial cells to grow; differentiate or synthesize specific products

722

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0362:this cytokine is an endogenous pyogen

723

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-1

724

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0363:IL-2

725

Immunology Flash Facts

secreted by Th cells; stimulates growth of helper and cytotoxic T cells

726

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0364:IL-3

727

Immunology Flash Facts

secreted by activated T cells; supports the growth and differentiation of bone marrow stem cells

728

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0365:this cytokine has a function similar to GMCSF

729

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-3

730

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0366:IL-4

731

Immunology Flash Facts

secreted y Th cells; promotes growth of B cells; enhances cass switching of IgE and IgG

732

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0367:IL-5

733

Immunology Flash Facts

secreted by Th cells; promotes differentiation of B cells; enhances class switching of IgA & stimulates production and activation of eosinophils

734

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0368:IL-6

735

Immunology Flash Facts

secreted by Th cells and macrophages; stimiulates production of actute-phase reactants and immunoglobulins

736

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0369:IL-8

737

Immunology Flash Facts

major chemotactic factor for neutrophils

738

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0370:IL-10

739

Immunology Flash Facts

secreted by Th2 cells; stimulates Th2 while inihibiting Th1

740

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0371:IL-12

741

Immunology Flash Facts

secreted by B cells and macrophages; activates NK and Th2 cells

742

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0372:gamma-interferon

743

Immunology Flash Facts

secreted by Th cells; stimulates macrophages

744

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0373:TNF-alpha

745

Immunology Flash Facts

secreted by macrophages; increases IL-2 receptor synthesis by Th cells; increases B cell proliferation; attracts and activates neutrophils; stimulates dendritic cell migration to lymph nodes

746

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0374:what are the cell surface proteins on helper T cells?

747

Immunology Flash Facts

CD4; TCR; CD3; CD28; CD40L

748

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0375:cell surface proteins on cytotoxic T cells

749

Immunology Flash Facts

CD8; TCR; CD3

750

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0376:cell surface proteins on B cells

751

Immunology Flash Facts

IgM; B7; CD19; CD20; CD40; MHC II

752

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0377:cell surface proteins on macrophages

753

Immunology Flash Facts

MHC II; CD14; receptors for Fc and C3b

754

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0378:cell surface proteins on NK cells

755

Immunology Flash Facts

receptors for MHC I; CD 16

756

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0379:cell surface protein on all cells except mature RBCs

757

Immunology Flash Facts

MHC I

758

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0380:complement proteins involved in viral neutralization (4)

759

Immunology Flash Facts

C1; C2; C3; C4

760

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0381:complement protein responsible for opsonization

761

Immunology Flash Facts

C3b

762

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0382:complement proteins involved in anaphylaxis

763

Immunology Flash Facts

C3a; C5a

764

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0383:complement protein responsbile for neutrophil chemotaxis

765

Immunology Flash Facts

C5a

766

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0384:complement proteins involved in cytolysis by MAC

767

Immunology Flash Facts

C5b-9

768

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0385:rheumatoid factor and anti-SS-A

769

Immunology Flash Facts

Sjogren syndrome

770

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0386:HLA A3

771

Immunology Flash Facts

primary hemochromatosis

772

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0387:high antibody titers to ribonucleoprotein (RNP); low titer RF and anti-ssDNA

773

Immunology Flash Facts

mixed connective tissue disease

774

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0388:c-ANCA

775

Immunology Flash Facts

Wegener's granulomatosis

776

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0389:anti-Ro/anti-SS-A

777

Immunology Flash Facts

Sjogren's syndrome

778

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0390:anti-SS-B

779

Immunology Flash Facts

Sjogren's syndrome

780

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0391:what instructs macrophages to become epitheliod and multinucleated giant cells?

781

Immunology Flash Facts

interferon-gamma

782

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0392:what is the most specific marker for NK cells?

783

Immunology Flash Facts

CD56; also CD16

784

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0393:cytokine that mediates the isotype switch to IgE in B lymphocytes

785

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-4; produced by Th2 cells

786

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0394:what are the functions of lymph nodes?

787

Immunology Flash Facts

filtration by macrophages; storage/proliferation of B and T cells; antibody production

788

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0395:what is the site of B cell localization and proliferation?

789

Immunology Flash Facts

follicle

790

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0396:which follicles are dense and dormant?

791

Immunology Flash Facts

primary

792

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0397:which follicles have pale central germinal centers and are active?

793

Immunology Flash Facts

secondary

794

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0398:these communicate with efferent lymphatics and contain reticular cells and macrophages

795

Immunology Flash Facts

medulla

796

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0399:what region of the lymph node houses T cells?

797

Immunology Flash Facts

paracortex

798

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0400:in an extreme cellullar immune response; what part of the lymph node becomes greatly enlarged?

799

Immunology Flash Facts

paracortex

800

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0401:this portion of the lymph node is not well developed in patients with DiGeorge syndrome

801

Immunology Flash Facts

paracortex

802

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0402:what drains the right arm and the right half of the head?

803

Immunology Flash Facts

right lymphatic duct

804

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0403:what drains everything but the right arm and right half of head?

805

Immunology Flash Facts

thoracic duct

806

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0404:where are T cells found in the spleen?

807

Immunology Flash Facts

periarterial lymphatic sheath adn red pulp (T rex)

808

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0405:where are B cells found within the spleen?

809

Immunology Flash Facts

white pulp

810

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0406:these are long; vascular channels in red pulp with fenestrated "barrel hoop" basement membrane

811

Immunology Flash Facts

sinusoids of spleen

812

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0407:what is found in the marginal zone of the spleen?

813

Immunology Flash Facts

APCs

814

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0408:where do T cells mature? what is this derived from embryologically?

815

Immunology Flash Facts

thymus; epithelium of 3rd branchial pouches

816

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0409:what part of the thymus is dense with immature T cells?

817

Immunology Flash Facts

cortex

818

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0410:what part of the thymus is pale with mature T cells and epithelial reticular cells?

819

Immunology Flash Facts

medulla (M-mature/medulla)

820

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0411:what part of the thymus contains Hassall's corpuscles?

821

Immunology Flash Facts

medulla

822

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0412:MHC restriction occurs in what type of selection?

823

Immunology Flash Facts

positive

824

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0413:nonreactive to self is associated with what type of selection?

825

Immunology Flash Facts

negative

826

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0414:where do positive and negative selection occur in the thymus?

827

Immunology Flash Facts

corticomedullary junction

828

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0415:these cells producse IL-2 and gammainterferon

829

Immunology Flash Facts

Th1 cells

830

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0416:these cells activate macrophages and Tc cells

831

Immunology Flash Facts

Th1 cells

832

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0417:what do macrophages produces to influence naive helper T cells to differentiate into Th1 cells?

833

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-12

834

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0418:what cells produce IL-4 and IL-5? what does this do?

835

Immunology Flash Facts

Th2 cells - causes B cells to differentiate into plasma cells

836

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0419:what type of cells are responsible for host defense against infection with TB; virus-infected cells; and fungi?

837

Immunology Flash Facts

T cells

838

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0420:what type of cells opsonize bacteria and neutralize toxins and viruses?

839

Immunology Flash Facts

B cells

840

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0421:what type of cells are responsible for hay fever and Type I hypersensitivity reactions?

841

Immunology Flash Facts

B cells

842

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0422:what type of cells are responsible for poison oak allergy and type IV hypersensitivity?

843

Immunology Flash Facts

T cells

844

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0423:what type of cells are responsible for autoimmunity?

845

Immunology Flash Facts

B cells

846

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0424:what type of cells are responsible for graft and tumor rejection and regulation of antibody response?

847

Immunology Flash Facts

T cells

848

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0425:what MHC class consists of 1 polypeptide with beta2-microglobulin?

849

Immunology Flash Facts

MHC class I

850

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0426:what MHC class consists of 2 polypeptides; and alpha and beta chain?

851

Immunology Flash Facts

MHC class II

852

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0427:what cells have MHC I proteins?

853

Immunology Flash Facts

all nucleated cells

854

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0428:what cells have MHC I and MHC II proteins?

855

Immunology Flash Facts

APCs

856

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0429:what MHC class are the main determinants of organ rejection?

857

Immunology Flash Facts

MHC class II

858

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0430:where does MHC I antigen loading occur?

859

Immunology Flash Facts

in RER (viral antigens)

860

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0431:where does MHC II antigen loading occur?

861

Immunology Flash Facts

in acidified endosome

862

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0432:helper T cells have ____; which binds to ____ on antigen-presenting cells

863

Immunology Flash Facts

CD4; MHC II

864

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0433:cytotoxic T cells have ____; which binds to ____ on virus-infected cells

865

Immunology Flash Facts

CD8; MHC I

866

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0434:this is a cluster of polypeptides associated with a T-cell receptor; it is important in signal transduction

867

Immunology Flash Facts

CD3 complex

868

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0435:what does Th cell secrete that activates Tc cell to kill virus-infected cell?

869

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-2

870

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0436:what do APCs express that bind to CD28 on Th cells to create the costimulatory signal?

871

Immunology Flash Facts

B7

872

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0437:what part of an antibody recognizes antigens?

873

Immunology Flash Facts

variable part of L and H chains

874

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0438:what part of antibody fixes complement?

875

Immunology Flash Facts

constant part of H chain of IgM and IgG

876

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0439:what chain contributes to both Fc and Fab fractions?

877

Immunology Flash Facts

heavy chain

878

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0440:what chain contributes only to Fab fraction?

879

Immunology Flash Facts

light chain

880

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0441:how is antibody diversity generated?

881

Immunology Flash Facts

1. random recombination of VJ (light chain) or VDJ (heavy chain) genes 2. random combination of heavy chains with light chains 3. somatic hypermutation 4. addition of nucleotides to DNA during genetic recombination by tdt

882

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0442:what mediates isotype switching?

883

Immunology Flash Facts

cytokines and CD40 ligand

884

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0443:what is the main antibody in the secondary response?

885

Immunology Flash Facts

IgG

886

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0444:what is the most abundant antibody?

887

Immunology Flash Facts

IgG

888

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0445:this Ig type fixes complement; crosses the placenta; opsonizes bacteria; and neutralizes bacterial toxins and viruses

889

Immunology Flash Facts

IgG (Goes across placenta)

890

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0446:this Ig type prevents attachment of bacteria and viruses to mucous membranes; does not fix complement

891

Immunology Flash Facts

IgA

892

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0447:this Ig type is a monomer or dimer that is found in secretions and picks up secretory cmoponent from epithelial cells before secretion

893

Immunology Flash Facts

IgA

894

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0448:this Ig type is produced in the primary response to an antigen

895

Immunology Flash Facts

IgM (priMary)

896

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0449:this momomer or pentamer fixes complement but does not cross the placenta; antigen receptor found on the surface of B cells

897

Immunology Flash Facts

IgM

898

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0450:this Ig type does not have a clear function; it is found on the surface of many B cells in serum

899

Immunology Flash Facts

IgD

900

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0451:this Ig mediates immediate (type I) hypersensitivity by inducing the release of mediators from mast cells and basophils when exposed to allergen

901

Immunology Flash Facts

IgE

902

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0452:this Ig has the lowest concentration in serum

903

Immunology Flash Facts

IgE

904

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0453:this Ig mediates immunity to worms

905

Immunology Flash Facts

IgE

906

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0454:this type of Ig epitope differs among members among members of same species; can be on light chain or heavy chain

907

Immunology Flash Facts

allotype (polymorphism)

908

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0455:this is an Ig epitope common to a single class of Ig (5 classes; determined by heavy chainn)

909

Immunology Flash Facts

isotpe (IgG; IgA; etc.)

910

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0456:this Ig epitope is determined by antigenbinding site; specific for a given antigen

911

Immunology Flash Facts

idiotype

912

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0457:patients are given preformed antibodies after exposure to what four diseases?

913

Immunology Flash Facts

tetanus; botulinum; HBV; rabies (to be healed rapidly)

914

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0458:this type of immunity is based on receiving preformed antibodies from another host

915

Immunology Flash Facts

passive

916

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0459:this type of immunity is induced after exposure to foreign antigen - slow onset but long-lasting production

917

Immunology Flash Facts

active

918

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0460:how does salmonella show antigen variation?

919

Immunology Flash Facts

two flagellar variants

920

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0461:how does nenisseria gonorrhoeae show antigen variation?

921

Immunology Flash Facts

pilus protein

922

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0462:what is anergy?

923

Immunology Flash Facts

self=reactive T cells become nonreactive without costimulatory molecule

924

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0463:what types of hypersensitivity are antibody-mediated?

925

Immunology Flash Facts

I; II; III

926

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0464:in this type of hypersensitivity; antigen cross=links IgE on presensitized mast cells and basophils; triggering release of vasoactive amines (e.g. histamine)

927

Immunology Flash Facts

type I (anaphylactic and atopic)

928

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0465:anaphylaxis; asthma; hives; local wheal and flare are examples of what type of hypersensitivity?

929

Immunology Flash Facts

type I

930

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0466:in this type of hypersensitivity; IgM; IgG bind to antigen on "enemy" cell; leading to lysis (by complement) or phagocytosis

931

Immunology Flash Facts

type II (cyotoxic)

932

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0467:autoimmune hemolytic anemia; Rh disease; Goodpasture's; rheumatic fever; Grave's disease; bullous pemphigoid; MG; and ITP are all examples of what type of hypersensitivity?

933

Immunology Flash Facts

type II

934

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0468:in this type of hypersensitivity; antigenantibody complexes activate complement; which attracts neutrophils; neutrophils release lysosomal enzymes

935

Immunology Flash Facts

type III

936

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0469:polyarteritis nodosa; immune complex glomerulonephritis; SLE; RA; serum sickness; and Arthus reaction are examples of what type of hypersensitivity?

937

Immunology Flash Facts

type III

938

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0470:this is an imuune complex disease in which antibodies to foreign proteins are produced (takes 5 days); immune complexes are formed and deposit in membranes where they fix complement

939

Immunology Flash Facts

serum sickness (type III)

940

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0471:this is a local subacute antibody-mediated hypersensitivity (type III) reaction in which intradermal injection of antigen induces antibodies which form Ag-Ab complexes in skin

941

Immunology Flash Facts

Arthus reaction

942

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0472:this type III hypersensitivity reaction is characterized by edema; necrosis; and activation of complement

943

Immunology Flash Facts

Arthus reaction

944

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0473:hypersensitivity pneumonitis (farmer's lung) and thermophilic actinomycetes are examples of what?

945

Immunology Flash Facts

Arthus reaction

946

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0474:in this type of hypersensitivity; sensitized T lymphocytes encounter antigen and then release lymphokines; which leads to macrophage activation

947

Immunology Flash Facts

type IV (delayed/T-cell mediated)

948

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0475:transplant rejections; TB skin tests; and contact dermatitis are examples of what type of hypersensitivity?

949

Immunology Flash Facts

type IV

950

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0476:fever; urticaria; arthralgias; proteinuria; lymphadenopathy 5-10 days after drug exposure

951

Immunology Flash Facts

serum sickness

952

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0477:what defends agains gram-negative bacteria?

953

Immunology Flash Facts

complement

954

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0478:the classic pathway is activated by what?

955

Immunology Flash Facts

IgG or IgM (GM makes classic cars)

956

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0479:what activates the alternate pathway?

957

Immunology Flash Facts

molecules on the surface of microbes (especially endotoxin)

958

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0480:interferons induce the production of a 2nd protein that inhibits viral protein synthesis by doing what?

959

Immunology Flash Facts

degrading viral mRNA

960

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0481:these are proteins that place uninfected cells in an antiviral state

961

Immunology Flash Facts

interferons (alpha; beta; gamma)

962

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0482:which interferons inhibit viral protein synthesis?

963

Immunology Flash Facts

alpha and beta interferons

964

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0483:what does gamma-interferon do?

965

Immunology Flash Facts

increases MHC I and II expression and antigen presentation in all cells

966

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0484:this type of rejection is due to the presence of preformed antidonor antibodies in the transplant recipient

967

Immunology Flash Facts

hyperacute rejection

968

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0485:this type of transplant rejection is cellmediated due to cytotoxic T lymphocytes reacting against foreign MHCs

969

Immunology Flash Facts

acute rejection

970

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0486:what type of transplant rejection is reverisble with immunosuppressants such as cyclosporin and OKT3?

971

Immunology Flash Facts

acute rejection

972

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0487:this type of transplant rejection is characterized by antibody-mediated vascular damage (fibrinoid necrosis) and is irreversible

973

Immunology Flash Facts

chronic rejection

974

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0488:what are major symptoms of graft-versushost disease?

975

Immunology Flash Facts

maculopapular rash; jaundice; hepatosplenomegaly; and diarrhea

976

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0489:what is the defect in Bruton's agammaglobulinemia?

977

Immunology Flash Facts

X-linked recessive defect in a tyrosine kinase gene associated with low levels of all classes of Igs

978

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0490:this disorder occurs in boys and is associated with recurrent bacterial infections after 6 months of age; when levels of maternal IgG antibody decline

979

Immunology Flash Facts

Brutons agammaglobulinemia (B cells)

980

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0491:this immune deficiency presents with tetany owing to hypocalcemia and recurrent viral and fungal infections

981

Immunology Flash Facts

DiGeorge syndrome/thymic aplasia (T cells)

982

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0492:this immune deficiency is associated with congenital defects of heart and great vessels

983

Immunology Flash Facts

DiGeorge syndrome

984

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0493:what ist eh chromosomal abnormality associated with DiGeorge syndrome?

985

Immunology Flash Facts

22q11 deletion

986

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0494:this is a defect in early stem cell differentiation and presents with recurrent viral; bacterial; fungal; and protozoal infections

987

Immunology Flash Facts

SCID - B and T cell deficiency

988

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0495:failure to synthesize MHC II antigens; defective IL-2 receptors; and adenosine deaminase deficiency can all lead to what immune deficiency?

989

Immunology Flash Facts

SCID

990

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0496:what does IL-12 receptor deficiency (decreased activation of T cells) present with?

991

Immunology Flash Facts

disseminated mycobacterial infections

992

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0497:defect in CD40 ligand on CD4 T helper cells leads to inability to class switch; presents early in life with severe pyogenic infections

993

Immunology Flash Facts

hyper-IgM syndrome (decreased activation of B cells)

994

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0498:this disorder is characterized by high levels of IgM and very low levels of IgG; IgA; and IgE

995

Immunology Flash Facts

hyper-IgM syndrome

996

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0499:this syndrome is characterized by an Xlinked defect in the ability to mount an IgM response to capsular polysaccharides of bacteria

997

Immunology Flash Facts

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (decreased activation of B cells)

998

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0500:what is the triad of symptoms associated with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome?

999

Immunology Flash Facts

infections; thrombocytopenic purpura; eczema (WIPE)

1000

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0501:this syndrome is associated with elevated IgA levels; normal IgE levels; and low IgM levels

1001

Immunology Flash Facts

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome

1002

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0502:this syndrome presents with recurrent 'cold' (noninflamed) staphylococcal abscesses; eczema; coarse facies; retained primary teeth; and high IgE levels

1003

Immunology Flash Facts

Job's syndrome (decreased activation of macrophages)

1004

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0503:this syndrome is characterized by failure of gamma-interferon production by helper T cells; neutrophils fail to respond to chemotactic stimuli

1005

Immunology Flash Facts

JOb's syndrome

1006

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0504:what is the defect in leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome?

1007

Immunology Flash Facts

defect in LFA-1 adhesion proteins on phagocytes

1008

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0505:this syndrome presents early with severe pyogenic and fungal infections and delayed separation of umbilicus

1009

Immunology Flash Facts

leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome

1010

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0506:how is Chediak-Higashi inherited?

1011

Immunology Flash Facts

autosomal recessive

1012

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0507:this disease is marked by a defect in microtubular function and lysosomal emptying of phagocytic cells

1013

Immunology Flash Facts

Chediak-Higashi disease

1014

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0508:this disease presents with recurrent pyogenic infections by staph and strep; partial albinism; and peripheral neuropathy

1015

Immunology Flash Facts

Chediak-Higashi disease

1016

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0509:defect in phagocytosis of neutrophils owing to lack of NADPH oxidase activity or similar enzymes

1017

Immunology Flash Facts

chronic granulomatous disease

1018

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0510:how is the diagnosis of chronic granulomatous disease confirmed?

1019

Immunology Flash Facts

negative nitroblue tetrazolium dye reduction test

1020

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0511:this disease presents with marked susceptibility to opportunistic infections with bacteria; especially S. aureus; E. coli; and Aspergillus

1021

Immunology Flash Facts

chronic granulomatous disease

1022

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0512:what is the defect in chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis present?

1023

Immunology Flash Facts

idiopathic dysfunction of T cells specifically against candida albicans

1024

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0513:what is the most comon selective immunoglobulin deficiency? how does it present?

1025

Immunology Flash Facts

selective IgA deficiency - presents with sinus and lung infections; milk allergies and diarrhea are common

1026

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0514:ataxia-telangiectasia is an idiopathic dysfunction of what type of cells?

1027

Immunology Flash Facts

B cells

1028

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0515:defect in DNA repair enzymes with associated IgA deficiency; presents with cerebellar problems and spider angiomas

1029

Immunology Flash Facts

ataxia-telangiectasia

1030

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0516:deficiency of what leads to hereditary angioedema?

1031

Immunology Flash Facts

C1 esterase inhibitor

1032

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0517:deficiency of which complement protein leads to severe; recurrent; pyogenic sinus and RT infections?

1033

Immunology Flash Facts

C3

1034

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0518:deficiency of what complement proteins leads to Neisseria bacteremia?

1035

Immunology Flash Facts

C6-C8

1036

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0519:deficiency of what leads to paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria?

1037

Immunology Flash Facts

decay-accelerating factor

1038

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0520:patients with what deficiency have an increased susceptibility to recurrent bacterial infections; especially with encapsulated bacteria

1039

Immunology Flash Facts

C3 deficiency; not detected until later in life

1040

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0521:what is the most important immunological protective mechanism against blood-borne encapsulated organisms?

1041

Immunology Flash Facts

IgG-mediated opsonization in the spleen

1042

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0522:Warthin-Finkeldy giant cell is pathognomonic for what?

1043

Immunology Flash Facts

measles or the live attenuated measles vaccine

1044

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0523:Lyme arthritis is associated with what HLA?

1045

Immunology Flash Facts

HLA-DR4

1046

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0524:patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome have a 12% chance of developing what?

1047

Immunology Flash Facts

non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

1048

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0525:test of choice to determine presence of circulating anti-Rh antibody?

1049

Immunology Flash Facts

indirect Coombs test to measure IgG anti-Rh antibody

1050

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0526:low levels of all antibody classes

1051

Immunology Flash Facts

common variable immunodeficiency

1052

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0527:spleen is important for removing what type of organisms? list 3

1053

Immunology Flash Facts

strep pneumo; H. flu; Neisseria

1054

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0528:what is defective in leukocyte adhesion deficiency?

1055

Immunology Flash Facts

integrins - function both in adhesion of leukocytes to other cells and in the phagocytosis of complement-coated material

1056

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0529:HLA types associated with SLE?

1057

Immunology Flash Facts

HLA-DR2 and HLA-DR3

1058

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0530:most likely sequelae of rheumatic fever?

1059

Immunology Flash Facts

mitral valve disease

1060

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0531:antitopoisomerase antibodies?

1061

Immunology Flash Facts

scleroderma/systemic fibrosis - likely to develop diffuse systemic fibrosis & death from consequences of systemic disease such as pulmonary fibrosis or malignant hypertension

1062

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0532:what is responsible for strong binding between monocytes; T lymphocytes; macrophages; neutrophils; and dendritic cells; and injured epithelium?

1063

Immunology Flash Facts

LFA-1; interacts with ICAM-1

1064

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0533:an increased level of what cytokine would decrease the likelihood of a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction?

1065

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-10

1066

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0534:what 2 molecules exert the most powerful chemotactic effect on neutrophils?

1067

Immunology Flash Facts

C5a and C8

1068

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0535:what are the best markers for identification of B cells?

1069

Immunology Flash Facts

CD19; CD20; CD21

1070

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0536:IgG subclass deficiency is associated with a deficiency with what other substrate?

1071

Immunology Flash Facts

IgA

1072

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0537:what is C-reactive protein a marker of?

1073

Immunology Flash Facts

non-specific inflammation - one of the most commonly measured acute-phase reactants

1074

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0538:what test is done to diagnose CGD

1075

Immunology Flash Facts

nitroblue tetrazolium reduction test (NBT);-neg in patients with CGD because they don't make oxygen radicals

1076

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0539:what is the valence of an Ig molecule equal to

1077

Immunology Flash Facts

number of Ags the Ab can bind to

1078

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0540:what is the name of the process that ensures that each B cell produces only one heavy chain variable domain and one light chain

1079

Immunology Flash Facts

allelic exclusion

1080

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0541:what is the major ab of the primary immune response

1081

Immunology Flash Facts

IgM

1082

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0542:what form of immunity is responsible for removal of intracellular infection

1083

Immunology Flash Facts

CMI

1084

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0543:t or f;direct fluuorescent Ab test is used to detect Abs in a patient

1085

Immunology Flash Facts

false;direct test is for Ags;indirect test is for Abs

1086

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0544:what is the triad of Wiskott-Aldrich?;mode of inheritance

1087

Immunology Flash Facts

thrombocytopenia;eczema;immunodeficiency;-XLR

1088

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0545:what complement factor deficiency leads to ;1. inc pyogenic infection;2. recurrent gonoccal infection;3. leukocyte adhesion deficiency w/ poor opsonization;4. hereditary angioedema

1089

Immunology Flash Facts

1. C3 def;2. C5-C8 def;3. C1; C2; or C4 def;4. C1 inhibitor

1090

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0546:which IgG can't activate complement

1091

Immunology Flash Facts

IgG4

1092

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0547:name the T-cell CD marker;1. essential for Ab isotype switching (for B cell binding;2. interacts w/ MHC class I ;2. exprssed on all T cells and is needed as a signal transducer for the T cell receptor;4. interacts w/ MHC II;5. is a costimulatory molecule in T cell activation

1093

Immunology Flash Facts

1. CD40;2. CD8;3. CD3;4. CD4;5. CD28

1094

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0548:what three cells are essential for t cell differentiation in the thymus

1095

Immunology Flash Facts

dendritic cells;macrophages;thymic epithelial cells

1096

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0549:what is the only specific ag presenting cell

1097

Immunology Flash Facts

b cell

1098

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0550:what is the tetrad of jarisch-herscheimer reax

1099

Immunology Flash Facts

rigors;leukopenia;dec BP;(after tx for syphilis)

1100

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0551:what is the name of the B cell that secretes Ig

1101

Immunology Flash Facts

plasma cell

1102

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0552:what would be the result if an Ab were cleaved with papain

1103

Immunology Flash Facts

there would be two Fab and Fc regions

1104

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0553:what is the bone marrow maturation time for a phagocytic cell

1105

Immunology Flash Facts

14 days

1106

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0554:which leukotrienes are assoc with the late phase inflammatory response

1107

Immunology Flash Facts

LTC4;LTD4

1108

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0555:what is the term for the strength of the assoc between Ag and an Ab

1109

Immunology Flash Facts

affinity (one of each)

1110

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0556:t or f;more ag is needed to produce a secondary immune response than a first immune response

1111

Immunology Flash Facts

f;fewere Ags are needed

1112

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0557:what is the term for the strength of association between multiple Ab binding sites and multiple antigenic determinants

1113

Immunology Flash Facts

avidity;(more than one binding site)

1114

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0558:what Ig mediates ADCC via k cells; opsonizes; and is the Ig of the secondary immune response

1115

Immunology Flash Facts

IgG

1116

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0559:what test is used to detect ant-RBC Abs seen in hemolytic anemia

1117

Immunology Flash Facts

coombs test

1118

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0560:what subset of T cells recognizes the MHC I

1119

Immunology Flash Facts

CD8 cytotoxic T cells

1120

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0561:what cell surface marker is found on activated helper T cells

1121

Immunology Flash Facts

CD40

1122

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0562:what re the five Ig isotypes

1123

Immunology Flash Facts

IgG;IgA;IgM;IgE;IgD

1124

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0563:which integrin mediates the adhesion to endothelial cells for migration to and out of the blood during an immune response

1125

Immunology Flash Facts

beta-2 integrins

1126

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0564:what type of hypersensitivity is an ab0mediated response against our own cells; receptors or membranes via IgG or IgM

1127

Immunology Flash Facts

type II

1128

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0565:what is the term to describe the limited portion of an Ag that is recognized by an Ab

1129

Immunology Flash Facts

antigenic determinant (epitope)

1130

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0566:what cytokine do Th1 cells secrete to inhibit Th2 function

1131

Immunology Flash Facts

INF-gamma

1132

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0567:what three cells are essential for T cell maturation

1133

Immunology Flash Facts

thymic epi cells;dendritic cells;macrophages

1134

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0568:what is the term for a single isolated antigenic determinant

1135

Immunology Flash Facts

hapten

1136

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0569:what are the two opsonizing factors

1137

Immunology Flash Facts

Fc region of IgG;C3b

1138

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0570:what is the most common Ig deficiency

1139

Immunology Flash Facts

IgA

1140

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0571:what is the name of the B cell rich area of the spleen

1141

Immunology Flash Facts

primary follicle in white pulp

1142

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0572:what IL; produced by macrophages is chemotactic for neutrophils

1143

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-8

1144

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0573:what Ig prevents bacterial adherence to mucosal surfaces

1145

Immunology Flash Facts

IgA

1146

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0574:what are the three rules of clonal selection

1147

Immunology Flash Facts

one cell type;one Ab type;random selection of hypervariable regions; and only cells with bound Ag undergo clonal expansion

1148

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0575:what is a plasma cell's life expectancy

1149

Immunology Flash Facts

7 to 14 days

1150

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0576:what are defined by Ag binding specificity

1151

Immunology Flash Facts

idiotypes

1152

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0577:what type of binding occurs with one Fab or one idiotype of IgG

1153

Immunology Flash Facts

affinity

1154

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0578:what molecule that is needed to trigger T cell activation is noncovalently linked to TCR

1155

Immunology Flash Facts

CD3

1156

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0579:what is the term for Ags that activate B cells without T cell signaling

1157

Immunology Flash Facts

thymus-independent Ags

1158

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0580:what are the three rules governing a secondary immune response

1159

Immunology Flash Facts

1. covalent binding between the hapten and carrier;2. b cell esposure to hapten twice;3. t cell exposure to carrier twice

1160

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0581:what type of hypersensitivity is a T cell mediated response to Ags that are not activated by Ab or complement

1161

Immunology Flash Facts

type IV

1162

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0582:name the macrophage;1. liver;2. lungs;3. CNS;4. kidney

1163

Immunology Flash Facts

1. kupffer;2. alveolar;3. microglial;4. mesangial

1164

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0583:what is the first human disease successfully tx with gene therapy

1165

Immunology Flash Facts

adenosine deaminase (ADA) def

1166

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0584:what receptors are the best markers for NK cells

1167

Immunology Flash Facts

CD 16;CD 56

1168

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0585:t or f;ag-ab binding is irreversible

1169

Immunology Flash Facts

1170

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0586:what three major cell lines participate in the acquired immune system

1171

Immunology Flash Facts

t cells;b cells;macrophages

1172

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0587:what test is used to screen for HIV

1173

Immunology Flash Facts

ELISA for anti-p24 IgG

1174

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0588:during what stage of b cell development is IgM first seen on the surface

1175

Immunology Flash Facts

immature b cells

1176

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0589:what Ig is responsible for ADCC of parasites; has a high affinity Fc receptor on mast cells; and basophils and is responsible for the allergic response

1177

Immunology Flash Facts

IgE

1178

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0590:t or f;b cell ag receptors can be secreted

1179

Immunology Flash Facts

true

1180

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0591:are more abs produced in a primary or secondary immune response

1181

Immunology Flash Facts

secondary

1182

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0592:by which process do abs make microorganisms more easily ingested via phagocytosis

1183

Immunology Flash Facts

opsonization

1184

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0593:what MHC class acts to remove foreign Ags from the body

1185

Immunology Flash Facts

MHC II

1186

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0594:what disorder is characterized by autoantibodies to IF

1187

Immunology Flash Facts

pernicious anemia

1188

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0595:what cytokines do Th2 cells secrete to inhibit Th1 cell function

1189

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-4;IL-10;IL-13

1190

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0596:what is the term for the number of Agbinding sites on an Ig

1191

Immunology Flash Facts

valence

1192

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0597:which major cell type is found in the red pulp of the spleen

1193

Immunology Flash Facts

RBC

1194

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0598:what is the name of the pathway that produces leukotrienes

1195

Immunology Flash Facts

Lipoxygenase

1196

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0599:what is the term to describe basophils; that have left the bloodstream and entered a tissue

1197

Immunology Flash Facts

mast cells

1198

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0600:what are the three major functions of secretory IgA

1199

Immunology Flash Facts

IgA receptor;transport of IgA across epi ;protection of IgA from degradation proteases

1200

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0601:what IL is important in myeloid cell development

1201

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-3 (3 face down is an M)

1202

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0602:what is the term for different classes and subclasses of the same gene products

1203

Immunology Flash Facts

isotypes

1204

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0603:what is the first Ab a baby makes

1205

Immunology Flash Facts

IgM

1206

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0604:what test by using specific Abs to different receptors allows for rapid analysis of cell types in a blood test

1207

Immunology Flash Facts

flow cytometry analysis

1208

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0605:what is the name of the T cell rich area of the spleen

1209

Immunology Flash Facts

PALS

1210

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0606:what three complement fragments are also anaphylatoxins

1211

Immunology Flash Facts

C3a;C4a;C5a

1212

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0607:name the B cell CD marker;1. req for class switching signlas from T cells;2. receptor for EBV;3. used clinically to count B cells in blood

1213

Immunology Flash Facts

1. CD40;2. CD21- a complement receptor for cleaved C3;3. CD19

1214

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0608:what immunologic test checks for a reax between Abs and a paricular Ag (hint: ABO testing)

1215

Immunology Flash Facts

agglutination test

1216

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0609:which leukotriene is chemotactic for neutrophils

1217

Immunology Flash Facts

LTB4

1218

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0610:what Ig is assoc w/ mucosal surfaces and external secretions

1219

Immunology Flash Facts

IgA

1220

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0611:what are the genetic variants of a molecule within members of the same species

1221

Immunology Flash Facts

allotypes

1222

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0612:what cytokine do CD4 t cells secrete to activate B cells when the specific peptide in the groove of the MHC II molecule interacts with the TCR

1223

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-4 is secreted to activate B cells;-> begins ACTIVATION;CD4 t cells also secrete INF-alpha to activate macrophages

1224

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0613:which protein prevents internal binding of self proteins within an MHC II cell

1225

Immunology Flash Facts

invariant chain

1226

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0614:what would be the result if an Ab were cleaved with pepsin

1227

Immunology Flash Facts

Fab' fragment- it could still participate in precipitation and agglutination

1228

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0615:why are patients with CGD not prone to develop infection from catalase neg bacteria

1229

Immunology Flash Facts

catalase neg bacteria secrete H2O2 allowing the neutrophils to use it as the substrate for other toxic metabolites;patients with CGD are prone to catalase pos infections;(NADPH defect)

1230

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0616:what are the two chains of the TCR that are mainly found on the skin and mucosal surfaces

1231

Immunology Flash Facts

gamma and delta chains

1232

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0617:which IL is assoc with increases of IgG and igE

1233

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-4

1234

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0618:Antinuclear antibodies (ANA)

1235

Immunology Flash Facts

SLE

1236

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0619:Anti-dsDNA

1237

Immunology Flash Facts

specific for SLE

1238

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0620:Anti-Smith

1239

Immunology Flash Facts

specific for SLE

1240

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0621:Anti-histone

1241

Immunology Flash Facts

specific for drug-induced lupus;(caused by;Hydralazine; INH; Phenytoin; Procainamide)

1242

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0622:Anti-IgG

1243

Immunology Flash Facts

Rheumatoid arthritis (autoantibody also known as rheumatoid factor)

1244

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0623:Antineutrophil

1245

Immunology Flash Facts

Vasculitis

1246

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0624:p-ANCA

1247

Immunology Flash Facts

Polyarteritis Nodosa ;1. necrotizing degeneration of media --> aneurysms;2. small and med arteries;3. ass'd w/ Hep B

1248

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0625:c-ANCA

1249

Immunology Flash Facts

Wegener's Granulomatosis;1. necrotizing; granulomatous lesions in kidney and lung;2. small arteries and veins;3. cough; ulcers of nasal septum; RBC casts

1250

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0626:Anticentromere

1251

Immunology Flash Facts

Scleroderma (CREsT);Calcinosis;Raynaud's;ESophageal dysfn;Telangiectasia

1252

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0627:Anti-Scl-70

1253

Immunology Flash Facts

Scleroderma (diffuse)

1254

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0628:Antimitochondrial

1255

Immunology Flash Facts

Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC)

1256

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0629:Antigliadin

1257

Immunology Flash Facts

Celiac sprue

1258

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0630:Anti-basement membrane

1259

Immunology Flash Facts

Goodpasture's Syndrome

1260

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0631:Anti-epithelial cell

1261

Immunology Flash Facts

Pemphigus vulgaris

1262

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0632:Antimicrosomal

1263

Immunology Flash Facts

Hashimoto's thyroiditis;(anti-thyroglobulin and anti-thyroid peroxidase)

1264

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0633:Autoantibody;ANA

1265

Immunology Flash Facts

Associated Disorder;SLE

1266

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0634:Autoantibody;Anti-dsDNA;Anti-Smith

1267

Immunology Flash Facts

Associated Disorder;specific for SLE

1268

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0635:Autoantibody;antihistone

1269

Immunology Flash Facts

Associated Disorder;drug-induced lupus

1270

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0636:Autoantibody;Anti-IgG;(rheumatoid factor)

1271

Immunology Flash Facts

Associated Disorder;Rheumatoid arthritis

1272

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0637:Autoantibody;Antineutrophil;(P-ANCA; CANCA)

1273

Immunology Flash Facts

Associated Disorder;Vaculitis

1274

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0638:Autoantibody;Anticentromere

1275

Immunology Flash Facts

Associated Disorder;Scleroderma (CREST)

1276

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0639:Autoantibody;Anti-Scl-70

1277

Immunology Flash Facts

Associated Disorder;Scleroderma (diffuse)

1278

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0640:Autoantibody;antimitochondrial

1279

Immunology Flash Facts

Associated Disorder;Primary biliary cirrhosis

1280

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0641:Autoantibody;antigliadin

1281

Immunology Flash Facts

Associated Disorder;Celiac Disease

1282

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0642:Autoantibody;Anti-basement membrane

1283

Immunology Flash Facts

Associated Disorder;Goodpasture's syndrome

1284

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0643:Autoantibody;anti-Epithelial cell

1285

Immunology Flash Facts

Associated Disorder;Pemphigus vulgaris

1286

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0644:Autoantibody;Antimicrosomal

1287

Immunology Flash Facts

Associated Disorder;Hashimoto's thyroiditis

1288

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0645:Autoantibody;Anti-Jo-1

1289

Immunology Flash Facts

Associated Disorder;Polymysitis;Dermatomyositis

1290

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0646:what is the defect in Bruton's agammaglobulinemia?

1291

Immunology Flash Facts

X-linked recessive defect in a tyrosine kinase gene associated with low levels of all classes of Igs

1292

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0647:this disorder occurs in boys and is associated with recurrent bacterial infections after 6 months of age; when levels of maternal IgG antibody decline

1293

Immunology Flash Facts

Brutons agammaglobulinemia (B cells)

1294

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0648:this immune deficiency presents with tetany owing to hypocalcemia and recurrent viral and fungal infections

1295

Immunology Flash Facts

DiGeorge syndrome/thymic aplasia (T cells)

1296

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0649:this immune deficiency is associated with congenital defects of heart and great vessels

1297

Immunology Flash Facts

DiGeorge syndrome

1298

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0650:what ist eh chromosomal abnormality associated with DiGeorge syndrome?

1299

Immunology Flash Facts

22q11 deletion

1300

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0651:this is a defect in early stem cell differentiation and presents with recurrent viral; bacterial; fungal; and protozoal infections

1301

Immunology Flash Facts

SCID - B and T cell deficiency

1302

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0652:failure to synthesize MHC II antigens; defective IL-2 receptors; and adenosine deaminase deficiency can all lead to what immune deficiency?

1303

Immunology Flash Facts

SCID

1304

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0653:what does IL-12 receptor deficiency (decreased activation of T cells) present with?

1305

Immunology Flash Facts

disseminated mycobacterial infections

1306

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0654:defect in CD40 ligand on CD4 T helper cells leads to inability to class switch; presents early in life with severe pyogenic infections

1307

Immunology Flash Facts

hyper-IgM syndrome (decreased activation of B cells)

1308

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0655:this disorder is characterized by high levels of IgM and very low levels of IgG; IgA; and IgE

1309

Immunology Flash Facts

hyper-IgM syndrome

1310

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0656:this syndrome is characterized by an Xlinked defect in the ability to mount an IgM response to capsular polysaccharides of bacteria

1311

Immunology Flash Facts

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (decreased activation of B cells)

1312

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0657:what is the triad of symptoms associated with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome?

1313

Immunology Flash Facts

infections; thrombocytopenic purpura; eczema (WIPE)

1314

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0658:this syndrome is associated with elevated IgA levels; normal IgE levels; and low IgM levels

1315

Immunology Flash Facts

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome

1316

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0659:this syndrome presents with recurrent 'cold' (noninflamed) staphylococcal abscesses; eczema; coarse facies; retained primary teeth; and high IgE levels

1317

Immunology Flash Facts

Job's syndrome (decreased activation of macrophages)

1318

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0660:this syndrome is characterized by failure of gamma-interferon production by helper T cells; neutrophils fail to respond to chemotactic stimuli

1319

Immunology Flash Facts

JOb's syndrome

1320

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0661:what is the defect in leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome?

1321

Immunology Flash Facts

defect in LFA-1 adhesion proteins on phagocytes

1322

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0662:this syndrome presents early with severe pyogenic and fungal infections and delayed separation of umbilicus

1323

Immunology Flash Facts

leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome

1324

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0663:how is Chediak-Higashi inherited?

1325

Immunology Flash Facts

autosomal recessive

1326

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0664:this disease is marked by a defect in microtubular function and lysosomal emptying of phagocytic cells

1327

Immunology Flash Facts

Chediak-Higashi disease

1328

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0665:this disease presents with recurrent pyogenic infections by staph and strep; partial albinism; and peripheral neuropathy

1329

Immunology Flash Facts

Chediak-Higashi disease

1330

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0666:defect in phagocytosis of neutrophils owing to lack of NADPH oxidase activity or similar enzymes

1331

Immunology Flash Facts

chronic granulomatous disease

1332

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0667:how is the diagnosis of chronic granulomatous disease confirmed?

1333

Immunology Flash Facts

negative nitroblue tetrazolium dye reduction test

1334

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0668:this disease presents with marked susceptibility to opportunistic infections with bacteria; especially S. aureus; E. coli; and Aspergillus

1335

Immunology Flash Facts

chronic granulomatous disease

1336

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0669:what is the defect in chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis present?

1337

Immunology Flash Facts

idiopathic dysfunction of T cells specifically against candida albicans

1338

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0670:what is the most comon selective immunoglobulin deficiency? how does it present?

1339

Immunology Flash Facts

selective IgA deficiency - presents with sinus and lung infections; milk allergies and diarrhea are common

1340

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0671:ataxia-telangiectasia is an idiopathic dysfunction of what type of cells?

1341

Immunology Flash Facts

B cells

1342

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0672:defect in DNA repair enzymes with associated IgA deficiency; presents with cerebellar problems and spider angiomas

1343

Immunology Flash Facts

ataxia-telangiectasia

1344

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0673:deficiency of what leads to hereditary angioedema?

1345

Immunology Flash Facts

C1 esterase inhibitor

1346

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0674:deficiency of which complement protein leads to severe; recurrent; pyogenic sinus and RT infections?

1347

Immunology Flash Facts

C3

1348

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0675:deficiency of what complement proteins leads to Neisseria bacteremia?

1349

Immunology Flash Facts

C6-C8

1350

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0676:deficiency of what leads to paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria?

1351

Immunology Flash Facts

decay-accelerating factor

1352

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0677:patients with what deficiency have an increased susceptibility to recurrent bacterial infections; especially with encapsulated bacteria

1353

Immunology Flash Facts

C3 deficiency; not detected until later in life

1354

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0678:what is the most important immunological protective mechanism against blood-borne encapsulated organisms?

1355

Immunology Flash Facts

IgG-mediated opsonization in the spleen

1356

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0679:Warthin-Finkeldy giant cell is pathognomonic for what?

1357

Immunology Flash Facts

measles or the live attenuated measles vaccine

1358

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0680:Lyme arthritis is associated with what HLA?

1359

Immunology Flash Facts

HLA-DR4

1360

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0681:patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome have a 12% chance of developing what?

1361

Immunology Flash Facts

non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

1362

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0682:test of choice to determine presence of circulating anti-Rh antibody?

1363

Immunology Flash Facts

indirect Coombs test to measure IgG anti-Rh antibody

1364

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0683:low levels of all antibody classes

1365

Immunology Flash Facts

common variable immunodeficiency

1366

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0684:spleen is important for removing what type of organisms? list 3

1367

Immunology Flash Facts

strep pneumo; H. flu; Neisseria

1368

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0685:what is defective in leukocyte adhesion deficiency?

1369

Immunology Flash Facts

integrins - function both in adhesion of leukocytes to other cells and in the phagocytosis of complement-coated material

1370

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0686:HLA types associated with SLE?

1371

Immunology Flash Facts

HLA-DR2 and HLA-DR3

1372

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0687:most likely sequelae of rheumatic fever?

1373

Immunology Flash Facts

mitral valve disease

1374

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0688:antitopoisomerase antibodies?

1375

Immunology Flash Facts

scleroderma/systemic fibrosis - likely to develop diffuse systemic fibrosis & death from consequences of systemic disease such as pulmonary fibrosis or malignant hypertension

1376

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0689:what is responsible for strong binding between monocytes; T lymphocytes; macrophages; neutrophils; and dendritic cells; and injured epithelium?

1377

Immunology Flash Facts

LFA-1; interacts with ICAM-1

1378

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0690:an increased level of what cytokine would decrease the likelihood of a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction?

1379

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-10

1380

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0691:what 2 molecules exert the most powerful chemotactic effect on neutrophils?

1381

Immunology Flash Facts

C5a and C8

1382

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0692:what are the best markers for identification of B cells?

1383

Immunology Flash Facts

CD19; CD20; CD21

1384

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0693:IgG subclass deficiency is associated with a deficiency with what other substrate?

1385

Immunology Flash Facts

IgA

1386

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0694:what is C-reactive protein a marker of?

1387

Immunology Flash Facts

non-specific inflammation - one of the most commonly measured acute-phase reactants

1388

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0695:Name the cytokine:secreted by macrophages; stimulates just about everything; endogenous pyrogen

1389

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-1

1390

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0696:which cytokine stimulates growth of helper and cytotoxic T cells

1391

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-2

1392

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0697:which cytokine supports growth and differentiation of BM stem cells

1393

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-3 (secreted by activated T cells)

1394

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0698:which cytokine promotes growth of B cells and enhances class switching of IgE; IgG?

1395

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-4

1396

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0699:which cytokine enhances class switching of IgA?

1397

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-5 (also promotes differentiation of B cells; stimulates production and activation of eosinophils)

1398

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0700:which cytokine stimulates activation and production of eosinophils?

1399

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-5

1400

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0701:which cytokine stimulates production of acute phase reactants and immunoglobulins?

1401

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-6

1402

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0702:which interleukin is one of the MAJOR chemotactic factors for PMNs?

1403

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-8 (also; C5a)

1404

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0703:which cytokine stimulates Th2 and inhibits Th1?

1405

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-10 (secreted by Th2 cells)

1406

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0704:IL-10

1407

Immunology Flash Facts

secreted by Th2 cells; stimulates Th2; inhibits Th1

1408

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0705:which cytokine activates NK cells and Th1 cells?

1409

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-12 (secreted by macrophages; B cells)

1410

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0706:who is the "anticytokine" that inhibits growth and activity of T cells; counteracts effects of inflammatory cytokines; and stimulates wound healing?

1411

Immunology Flash Facts

TGF-beta

1412

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0707:which cytokine increases IL-2 receptor synthesis by Th cells; and increased B cell proliferation?

1413

Immunology Flash Facts

TNF-alpha (also attracts and activates PMNs; stimulates dendritic cell migration to lymph nodes)

1414

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0708:which cytokine is NOT produced in Job's syndrome--> "cold" staph abscesses

1415

Immunology Flash Facts

gamma-IFN (secreted by Th1 cells; stimulates macrophages)

1416

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0709:what are the 2 signals required for activation of helper T cells?

1417

Immunology Flash Facts

1) foreign Ag on MHC II recognized by TCR on Th cell; 2) costim by B7-CD28

1418

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0710:what are the 2 signals required for activation of cytotoxic T cells

1419

Immunology Flash Facts

1) endogenously synthesized proteins on MHC I recognized by TCR; 2) IL-2 from Th cell activates cytotoxic cell

1420

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0711:what kind of hypersensitivity reaction-allergic rhinitis

1421

Immunology Flash Facts

type I hypersensitivity

1422

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0712:what kind of hypersensitivity reaction-hemolytic anemia

1423

Immunology Flash Facts

type II hypersensitivity

1424

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0713:idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

1425

Immunology Flash Facts

type II hypersensitivity

1426

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0714:erythroblastosis fetalis

1427

Immunology Flash Facts

type II hypersensitivity

1428

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0715:rheumatic fever

1429

Immunology Flash Facts

type II hypersensitivity

1430

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0716:Goodpasture's syndrome

1431

Immunology Flash Facts

type II hypersensitivity

1432

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0717:bullous pemphigoid

1433

Immunology Flash Facts

type II hypersensitivity

1434

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0718:Graves' dz

1435

Immunology Flash Facts

type II hypersensitivity

1436

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0719:myasthenia gravis

1437

Immunology Flash Facts

type II hypersensitivity

1438

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0720:SLE

1439

Immunology Flash Facts

type III hypersensitivity

1440

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0721:rheumatoid arthritis

1441

Immunology Flash Facts

type III hypersensitivity

1442

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0722:polyarteritis nodosum

1443

Immunology Flash Facts

type III hypersensitivity

1444

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0723:post-strep glomerulonephritis

1445

Immunology Flash Facts

type III hypersensitivity

1446

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0724:serium sickness

1447

Immunology Flash Facts

type III hypersensitivity

1448

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0725:arthus reaction

1449

Immunology Flash Facts

type III hypersensitivity

1450

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0726:hypersensitivity pneumonitis

1451

Immunology Flash Facts

type III hypersensitivity

1452

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0727:type I diabetes mellitus

1453

Immunology Flash Facts

type IV hypersensitivity

1454

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0728:multiple sclerosis

1455

Immunology Flash Facts

type IV hypersensitivity

1456

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0729:Guillain-Barre syndrome

1457

Immunology Flash Facts

type IV hypersensitivity

1458

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0730:Hashimoto thyroiditis

1459

Immunology Flash Facts

type IV hypersensitivity

1460

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0731:GVHdz

1461

Immunology Flash Facts

type IV hypersensitivity

1462

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0732:PPD (TB test)

1463

Immunology Flash Facts

type IV hypersensitivity

1464

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0733:contact dermatitis

1465

Immunology Flash Facts

type IV hypersensitivity

1466

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0734:IgM; IgG bind to Ag on "enemy" cell--> lysis or phagocytosis

1467

Immunology Flash Facts

type II (Ab-mediated) hypersensitivity

1468

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0735:Ag-Ab complexes activate complement which attracts PMNs who release dangerous substances

1469

Immunology Flash Facts

type III (immune complex) hypersensitivity

1470

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0736:sensitized T cells encounter Ag and release lymphokines to activate macrophages

1471

Immunology Flash Facts

type IV (delayed) hypersensitivity

1472

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0737:fever; urticaria; arthralgias; proteinuria; lymphadenopathy 5-10 days after Ag exposure

1473

Immunology Flash Facts

(serum sickness) type III hypersensitivity

1474

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0738:Psoriasis

1475

Immunology Flash Facts

B27 HLA association

1476

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0739:Ankylosing Spondylitis

1477

Immunology Flash Facts

B27 HLA association

1478

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0740:IBD

1479

Immunology Flash Facts

B27 HLA association

1480

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0741:Reiter's syndrome

1481

Immunology Flash Facts

B27 HLA association

1482

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0742:Grave's

1483

Immunology Flash Facts

B8 HLA association

1484

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0743:Celiac sprue

1485

Immunology Flash Facts

B8 HLA association

1486

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0744:MS

1487

Immunology Flash Facts

DR2 HLA association

1488

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0745:hay fever

1489

Immunology Flash Facts

DR2 HLA association

1490

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0746:SLE

1491

Immunology Flash Facts

DR2 HLA association

1492

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0747:Goodpasture's

1493

Immunology Flash Facts

DR2 HLA association

1494

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0748:DM 1

1495

Immunology Flash Facts

DR3; DR4 HLA association

1496

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0749:Rheumatoid arthritis

1497

Immunology Flash Facts

DR4 HLA association

1498

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0750:Pernicious anemia

1499

Immunology Flash Facts

DR5 HLA association

1500

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0751:Hashimoto's

1501

Immunology Flash Facts

DR5 HLA association

1502

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0752:Steroid responsive nephrotic syndrome

1503

Immunology Flash Facts

DR7 HLA association

1504

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0753:x-linked recessive defect un tyrosine kinase gene assoc with low levels of all Ig classes. > after 6 months in bacterial infections (maternal IgG declines); mostly in BOYS

1505

Immunology Flash Facts

Bruton's agammaglobulinemia - Decreased PRODUCTION B cells

1506

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0754:Presents with tetany from HYPOCALCEMIA. Viral and fungal infs from T CELL DEFICIT;Thymus and parathyroid failure to dev - failure of 3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouches to form;Congenital defects of heart and great vessels. 22q11 del.

1507

Immunology Flash Facts

DiGeorge Syndrome - decreased PRODUCTION of T cells - Thymic aplasia

1508

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0755:Prob in early stem cell differemtiation. recurrent bact; viral; fungal; protozoan infections. may have multiple causes (failure to synth MHC II antigens; defective IL2 receptors; adenosine deaminase deficiency)

1509

Immunology Flash Facts

SCID - B and T cells decreased PRODUCTION

1510

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0756:disseminated mycobacterial infections

1511

Immunology Flash Facts

Decreased ACTIVATION of T cells - IL-12 receptor deficiency

1512

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0757:Early severe pyogenic infections;High IgM - Low everything else;Defective CD40L on CD4 Thelpers so cannot class switch.

1513

Immunology Flash Facts

Hyper IgM syndrome - decreased ACTIVATION of B cells

1514

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0758:Triad of symps;1. recurrent pyogenic Infecs;2. Thrombocytopenic purpura;3. Eczema;xlinked. Not able to mount IgM response to capsular polysaccs of bacteria;High IgA;NORMAL IgE;Low IgM.

1515

Immunology Flash Facts

Wiskott-Aldrich - decreased ACTIVATION of B cells

1516

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0759:Recurrent "cold"/non-inflamed staph abcesses; eczema; course facies; retained primary teeth;HIGH IgE;Failure of gamma interferon production by T helpers.

1517

Immunology Flash Facts

Job's syndrome - decreased ACTIVATION of macrophages.

1518

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0760:Early severe pyogenic and fungal infections and DELAYED SEPARATION OF UMBILICUS;Defect in LFA-1 adhesion proteins on phagocytes.

1519

Immunology Flash Facts

PHAGOCYTIC CELL DEFICIENCY -;Leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome

1520

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0761:Presents recurrent pyogenic staph and strep; PARTIAL ALBINISM; peripheral neuropathy;Autosomal Recessive;Defect in MICROTUBULAR FUNCTION AND LYSOSOMAL EMPTYING OF PHAGOCYTES.

1521

Immunology Flash Facts

PHAGOCYTIC CELL DEFICIENCY -;Chediak-Higashi dz

1522

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0762:Marked suscepitibility to opport. infecs with bacteria - esp S. aureusm E. coli; and Aspergillus. Dx with NEGATIVE nitroblue tetrazolium dye reduction test - lack of NADPH oxidase activity in PMNs.

1523

Immunology Flash Facts

PHAGOCYTIC CELL DEFICIENCY - ;Chronic granulomatous disease

1524

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0763:Candida - skin and mucous membranes. T cell dysfunc against Candida specifically.

1525

Immunology Flash Facts

IDIOPATHIC DYSFUNCTION OF;T Cells;Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis

1526

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0764:Sinus and lung infections; milk allergies and diarrhea common. Deficiency in one specific Ig class - IgA def is most common. Could be due to defect in isotype switching.

1527

Immunology Flash Facts

IDIOPATHIC DYSFUNCTION OF;B Cells;Selective Immunoglobulin Deficiency

1528

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0765:Presents as cerebellar problems (ataxia) and spider angiomas (telangiectasia). Defect in DNA repair enzymes with associated IgA deficit.

1529

Immunology Flash Facts

IDIOPATHIC DYSFUNCTION OF;B cells;Ataxiatelangiectasia

1530

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0766:Acquired in 20-30's;NORMAL B cell numbers circulating;LOW PLASMA CELLS ;LOW Ig

1531

Immunology Flash Facts

IDIOPATHIC DYSFUNCTION OF;B cells;Common variable immunodeficiency

1532

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0767:Rheumatoid factor

1533

Immunology Flash Facts

It is an antibody against the Fc portion of IgG = RF & IgG form immune complexes;* which is itself an antibody; IgM or IgA type.

1534

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0768:RF or RhF positive in;is often determined in patients suspected in any form of arthritis

1535

Immunology Flash Facts

* High levels RF: generally > 20 IU/mL;* rheumatoid arthritis: present in 80%;* Sj?gren's syndrome: present in 60%

1536

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0769:false (+) RF or RhF;Blood test performed in patients with suspected rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

1537

Immunology Flash Facts

* Chronic hepatitis;* Any chronic viral infection;* Leukemia;* Dermatomyositis;* Infectious mononucleosis;* Scleroderma;* Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

1538

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0770:Sj?gren's syndrome;* antibodies to Ro(SSA) or La(SSB) antigens; or both;* > 40 years old at the time of diagnosis & Woman >> Man

1539

Immunology Flash Facts

* an autoimmune disorder in which immune cells attack and destroy the exocrine glands that produce tears and saliva with Schirmer test(+);* A lip biopsy can reveal lymphocytes clustered around salivary gland

1540

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0771:Spondyloarthropathies

1541

Immunology Flash Facts

Group of related INFLAMMATORY JOINT Ds associated with the MHC class I molecule HLA-B27

1542

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0772:Seronegative spondylarthropathy

1543

Immunology Flash Facts

Spondylarthropathy & (-)rheumatoid factor (RhF)

1544

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0773:Non-specific spondylarthropathy

1545

Immunology Flash Facts

Indicator of other rheumatological disease (in particular rheumatoid arthritis)

1546

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0774:Subgroups (with increased HLA-B27 frequency)

1547

Immunology Flash Facts

* ankylosing spondylitis Caucasians (AS; 92%);* ankylosing spondylitis African-Americans (AS; 50%);* reactive arthritis (Reiter's syndrome) (RS; 60-80%);* enteropathic arthritis associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; 60%);* Psoriatic arthritis (60%);* isolated acute anterior uveitis (AAU; iritis or iridocyclitis; 50%); and;* undifferentiated SpA (USpA; 20-25%).
1548

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0775:Dx;boys afound 6 mo w/ absence of plasma cells in tissue; recurrent bacterial infections w/ strep; staph; h. influenzae and pneumococci; absent or poorly defined germinal centers in LN; no immunoglobulins;genetic problem?

1549

Immunology Flash Facts

Bruton's Agammaglobinemia;(Brutons = Boys = Bacteria infect);(X-recessive)

1550

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0776:MCC of B-cell defect

1551

Immunology Flash Facts

Isolated IgA deficiency

1552

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0777:Dx;sinus and lung infections; milk allergies; diarrhea

1553

Immunology Flash Facts

Isolated IgA deficiency;(infections of mucosal surfaces)

1554

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0778:Dx;recurrent viral and fungal infections; tetany; lymphopenia; cardiac defects; cleft palate

1555

Immunology Flash Facts

Di George syndrome;;(CATCH-22; 22q11 deletion)

1556

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0779:Dx;severe bacterial; viral; fungal and protozoal infections; failure-to-thrive; high incidence of malignancy; thymic and LN hypoplasia

1557

Immunology Flash Facts

Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Dz;(SCID);(no/low B or T cells)

1558

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0780:(3) possible causes of SCIDs

1559

Immunology Flash Facts

Failure to make MHC-2;;defective IL-2 receptors;Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency (ADA)

1560

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0781:Dx;Eczema; thrombocytopenic Purpura; recurrent Infections; elevated IgA; low IgM;genetic problem?

1561

Immunology Flash Facts

Wiscott-Aldrich syndrome;(WIPE = Wiscott; Infect; Purpura; Eczema);(X-linked disorder)

1562

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0782:what is the dysfunction if patient gets chronic Candida albicans infections?

1563

Immunology Flash Facts

T-cell dysfunction

1564

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0783:Dx;cerebellar problems; spider angiomas; IgA deficiency;where is the defect?

1565

Immunology Flash Facts

Ataxia-Telangiectasia;defect;DNA reapir enzyme

1566

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0784:what lymphocyte surface protein deficiency would cause an increase in mycobacterial infections?

1567

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-12 receptor deficiency

1568

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0785:Dx;baby presents w/ severe pyogenic infections; high IgM; very low IgG; IgA and IgE;where is the defect?

1569

Immunology Flash Facts

Hyper-IgM syndrome;defect;CD40L on Th1 helper cells;(leads to inability to class-switch)

1570

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0786:Dx;recurrent "cold" staph abscesses; eczema; coarse facies; Retained Primary Teeth; increased IgE;where is the defect?

1571

Immunology Flash Facts

Job's syndrome;;defect;Failure of INF-gamma by Tcells (low Macros)

1572

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0787:What cell surface protein on HIV binds to CD4 T-cells?;what does it inser into host genome?

1573

Immunology Flash Facts

gp120;;Proviral DNA;(via reverse transcriptase)

1574

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0788:what is the test for HIV?;follow-up test?

1575

Immunology Flash Facts

ELISA;;follow: Western Blot

1576

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0789:what type of genome does HIV have?

1577

Immunology Flash Facts

Diploid;(2 molecules of RNA)

1578

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0790:what is the rectangular nucleocapsid protein (holds the 2 molecules of RNA) in HIV?

1579

Immunology Flash Facts

p24 capsid

1580

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0791:what is the product of HIV reverse transcriptase?

1581

Immunology Flash Facts

dsDNA

1582

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0792:(2) AIDS criteria

1583

Immunology Flash Facts

CD4 < 200;or;CD4/CD8 ratio < 1.5

1584

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0793:what homozygous mutation gives immunity to HIV?

1585

Immunology Flash Facts

CCR5 mutation

1586

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0794:Dx;lymphadenopathy; weight loss; arthritis; photosensitivity; raynauds; pulmonary fibrosis; endocarditis; immune-complex vasculitis; glomerular changes;COD?

1587

Immunology Flash Facts

SLE;;COD;Renal failure (and infections)

1588

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0795:what may be the earliest lab abnormality in some SLE patients?

1589

Immunology Flash Facts

False Positive test for Syphilis

1590

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0796:Dx;tightening of facial skin; sclerodactyly (claw-hand); raynauds; dysphagia; pulmonary fibrosis; HTN

1591

Immunology Flash Facts

Scleroderma;(CREST-syndrome also has calcinosis and telangiectasia)

1592

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0797:Dx;xerostomia (dry mouth); keratoconjunctivitis (dry eyes); RA or other CT problem; hypergammaglobinemia; parotid enlargement

1593

Immunology Flash Facts

Sjogren syndrome;[when you're JOGin' you sweat and get dry]

1594

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0798:Dx;chronic inflammation of proximal extremity muscles due to CD8 injury; possible reddish-purple rash on face and neck; increased CK and Adolase

1595

Immunology Flash Facts

Polymyositis;(w/ skin rash: Dermatomyositis)

1596

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0799:Dx;arthralgias; raynauds; myositis; esophageal hypomotility; no renal involvement;antibody?

1597

Immunology Flash Facts

Mixed Connective Tissue Dz;(MCTD);Ab: anti-nRNP

1598

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0800:Amyloid associated with;heart; muscle and tongue; plasma cell disorders

1599

Immunology Flash Facts

AL (Amyloid Light chain)

1600

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0801:Amyloid associated with;kidney; liver; adrenals; pancreas; LN and spleen

1601

Immunology Flash Facts

AA protein

1602

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0802:Amyloid associated with;chronic inflammatory diseases;RA; TB; osteomyelitis; syphilis

1603

Immunology Flash Facts

AA protein

1604

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0803:Amyloid associated with;Alzheimers;(2)

1605

Immunology Flash Facts

amyloid Beta-protein;;A4 amyloid

1606

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0804:Amyloid associated with;Insulin or glucagon (in DM-2);(2 names)

1607

Immunology Flash Facts

Amylin;Islet Amyloid Polypeptide;(IAPP)

1608

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0805:Amyloid associated with;Elderly (called senile Amyloidosis)

1609

Immunology Flash Facts

Transthyretin

1610

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0806:Young child presents with tetany ;and candidiasis. Hypocalcemia ;and immunosuppression are ;ound.

1611

Immunology Flash Facts

T cell deficient;(DiGeorge).

1612

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0807:Young child has recurrent lung ;infections and granulomatous ;lesions. What is the defect in ;neutrophils?

1613

Immunology Flash Facts

NADPH oxidase (chronic ;granulomatous disease).

1614

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0808:A 2 lymphoid organ that has many afferents; 1 or more efferents. Encapsulated; with trabeculae.

1615

Immunology Flash Facts

Lymph node

1616

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0809:Lymph node definition

1617

Immunology Flash Facts

A 2 lymphoid organ that has many afferents; 1 or more efferents. Encapsulated; with trabeculae.

1618

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0810:Lymph node;function

1619

Immunology Flash Facts

Functions are nonspeci?c ?ltration by macrophages; storage/proliferation ;of B and T cells; antibody production.

1620

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0811:Lymph node;Follicle ;what and location

1621

Immunology Flash Facts

Site of B-cell localization and ;proliferation. In outer cortex.

1622

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0812:Lymph node;Follicle ;1 vs 2

1623

Immunology Flash Facts

1 follicles are dense and ;dormant. 2 follicles have ;pale central germinal ;centers and are active.

1624

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0813:Lymph node;Medulla description

1625

Immunology Flash Facts

Consists of medullary cords ;(closely packed lymphocytes ;and plasma cells) and ;medullary sinuses.

1626

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0814:Lymph node;Medullary sinuses

1627

Immunology Flash Facts

communicate with efferent ;lymphatics and contain ;reticular cells and macrophages.

1628

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0815:Lymph node;Paracortex description (cells; location; vessels)

1629

Immunology Flash Facts

Houses T cells. Region of cortex between follicles and medulla. Contains high endothelial venules through which T and B cells enter from blood.

1630

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0816:Lymph node;Paracortex wrt extreme

1631

Immunology Flash Facts

In an extreme cellular immune response;paracortex becomes greatly enlarged.

1632

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0817:Lymph node;which part is not well developed in patients with DiGeorge syndrome.

1633

Immunology Flash Facts

Paracortex

1634

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0818:Lymph drainage;ducts

1635

Immunology Flash Facts

Right lymphatic duct Drains right arm and right half of head;Thoracic duct Drains everything else.

1636

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0819:Sinusoids of spleen description

1637

Immunology Flash Facts

Long; vascular channels in red pulp with fenestrated barrel hoop basement membrane. Macrophages found nearby.

1638

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0820:Long; vascular channels in red pulp with fenestrated barrel hoop basement membrane. Macrophages found nearby.

1639

Immunology Flash Facts

Sinusoids of spleen

1640

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0821:spleen;where are T cells

1641

Immunology Flash Facts

in the periarterial lymphatic sheath (PALS) and in the red pulp ;of the spleen.

1642

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0822:spleen;where are B cells

1643

Immunology Flash Facts

B cells are found in follicles within the white pulp of the spleen.

1644

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0823:Site of T-cell differentiation and maturation.

1645

Immunology Flash Facts

Thymus

1646

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0824:Thymus derivation

1647

Immunology Flash Facts

From epithelium of 3rd branchial ;pouches. Lymphocytes of mesenchymal origin.

1648

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0825:Thymus WRT capsule

1649

Immunology Flash Facts

Encapsulated.

1650

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0826:Thymus;different areas and what happens there

1651

Immunology Flash Facts

Cortex is dense with immature T cells;medulla is pale with mature T cells and epithelial reticular cells and contains Hassalls corpuscles;Positive (MHC restriction) and negative selection ;selection (nonreactive to self) occur at the ;corticomedullary junction.

1652

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0827:where are Hassalls corpuscles.

1653

Immunology Flash Facts

Thymus medulla is pale with mature T cells and epithelial ;reticular cells and contains Hassall s corpuscles.

1654

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0828:what are Hassalls corpuscles.

1655

Immunology Flash Facts

formed from type VI epithelial reticular cells with unclear function

1656

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0829:1 Lymph node draining;Upper limb and lateral breast

1657

Immunology Flash Facts

Axillary

1658

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0830:1 Lymph node draining;Stomach

1659

Immunology Flash Facts

Celiac

1660

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0831:1 Lymph node draining;Duodenum and jejunum

1661

Immunology Flash Facts

Superior mesenteric

1662

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0832:1 Lymph node draining;Sigmoid colon

1663

Immunology Flash Facts

colic to the inferior mesenteric

1664

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0833:1 Lymph node draining;lower rectum and anal canal above pectinate line

1665

Immunology Flash Facts

internal iliac

1666

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0834:1 Lymph node draining;anal canal below pectinate line

1667

Immunology Flash Facts

superficial inguinal

1668

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0835:1 Lymph node draining;testies

1669

Immunology Flash Facts

superficial and deep plexuses to the para-aortic

1670

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0836:1 Lymph node draining;scrotum

1671

Immunology Flash Facts

superficial inguinal

1672

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0837:1 Lymph node draining;superficial thigh

1673

Immunology Flash Facts

superficial inguinal

1674

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0838:1 Lymph node draining;lateral side of the dorsum of the foot

1675

Immunology Flash Facts

popliteal

1676

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0839:Innate vs. adaptive immunity;Innate cells

1677

Immunology Flash Facts

Consists of neutrophils; macrophages; dendritic cells; and complement.

1678

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0840:Innate vs. adaptive immunity;adaptive cells

1679

Immunology Flash Facts

Consists of T cells; B cells;and circulating antibody.

1680

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0841:Innate vs. adaptive immunity;innate receptor

1681

Immunology Flash Facts

receptors that recognize pathogens are germline encoded

1682

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0842:Innate vs. adaptive immunity;adaptive receptor

1683

Immunology Flash Facts

receptors that recognize pathogens undergo VDJ recombination during lymphocyte development

1684

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0843:Th1 cells produce/activate

1685

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-2 and IFN-gamma; activate macrophages and cytotoxic (CD8+) T cells.

1686

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0844:Th2 cells produce/activate

1687

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-4; and IL-5; provide help for B cells to make antibody.

1688

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0845:produce IL-2 and IFN-gamma; activate macrophages and cytotoxic (CD8+) T cells.

1689

Immunology Flash Facts

Th1 cells

1690

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0846:produce IL-4; and IL-5; provide help for B cells to make antibody.

1691

Immunology Flash Facts

Th2 cells

1692

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0847:MHC what is it and what encodes it

1693

Immunology Flash Facts

major histocompatability complex; encoded by Human Leukocyte ;Antigen (HLA) genes.

1694

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0848:MHC I ;what HLA's

1695

Immunology Flash Facts

HLA-A; HLA-B; HLA-C.

1696

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0849:MHC I ;what cells

1697

Immunology Flash Facts

Expressed on almost all nucleated cells.

1698

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0850:MHC I ;what is antigen loaded in

1699

Immunology Flash Facts

RER of mostly intracellular peptides.

1700

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0851:MHC I ;mediation

1701

Immunology Flash Facts

Mediates viral immunity.

1702

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0852:MHC I ;pairing

1703

Immunology Flash Facts

Pairs with beta2-microglobulin.

1704

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0853:Pairs with beta -microglobulin.

1705

Immunology Flash Facts

MHC I

1706

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0854:MHC II ;what HLA's

1707

Immunology Flash Facts

HLA-DR; HLA-DP; HLA-DQ.

1708

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0855:MHC II;what cells

1709

Immunology Flash Facts

Expressed only on antigen presenting cells (APCs).

1710

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0856:MHC II ;what is antigen loaded in

1711

Immunology Flash Facts

Antigen is loaded in an acidi?ed endosome.

1712

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0857:Which MHC type;HLA-A; HLA-B; HLA-C.

1713

Immunology Flash Facts

MHC I

1714

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0858:Which MHC type;Expressed on almost all nucleated cells.

1715

Immunology Flash Facts

MHC I

1716

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0859:Which MHC type;Antigen is loaded in RER of mostly intracellular peptides.

1717

Immunology Flash Facts

MHC I

1718

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0860:Which MHC type;Mediates viral immunity.

1719

Immunology Flash Facts

MHC I

1720

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0861:Which MHC type;HLA-DR; HLA-DP; HLA-DQ.

1721

Immunology Flash Facts

MHC II

1722

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0862:Which MHC type;Expressed only on antigen presenting cells (APCs).

1723

Immunology Flash Facts

MHC II

1724

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0863:Which MHC type;Antigen is loaded in an acidi?ed endosome.

1725

Immunology Flash Facts

MHC II

1726

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0864:Which MHC type;Main determinants of organ rejection.

1727

Immunology Flash Facts

MHC II

1728

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0865:Which lymphocyte B or T;Allergy (type I hypersensitivity)

1729

Immunology Flash Facts

B : IgE

1730

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0866:Which lymphocyte B or T;Allergy (type IV hypersensitivity)

1731

Immunology Flash Facts

T cells

1732

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0867:Major function of;CD4+ T cells

1733

Immunology Flash Facts

help B cells make antibody and produce gammainterferon that activates macrophages.

1734

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0868:Major function of ;CD8+ T cells

1735

Immunology Flash Facts

Kill virus-infected cells directly

1736

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0869:B vs T cell role in organ rejection

1737

Immunology Flash Facts

B cells--hyperacute (IgG);T cells---Organ rejection (slow)

1738

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0870:T-cell glycoproteins;functions on just helper T

1739

Immunology Flash Facts

Helper T cells have CD4; which binds to MHC II on antigen-presenting cells.

1740

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0871:T-cell glycoproteins;functions on just Cytotoxic T

1741

Immunology Flash Facts

Cytotoxic T cells ;have CD8; which binds to MHC I on virus- infected cells.

1742

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0872:T-cell glycoproteins;functions on both

1743

Immunology Flash Facts

CD3 complexcluster of ;polypeptides associated with ;a T-cell receptor. Important ;in signal transduction.

1744

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0873:name the Antigen-presenting cells:

1745

Immunology Flash Facts

1. Macrophage;2. B cell;3. Dendritic cell/langerhan's in skin

1746

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0874:# of signals are required for T cell activation

1747

Immunology Flash Facts

1748

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0875:Th activation steps

1749

Immunology Flash Facts

1. Foreign body is phagocytosed by APC;2. Foreign antigen is presented on MHC II and;recognized by TCR on Th cell (Signal 1);3. Costimulatory signal is given by interaction;of B7 and CD28 (Signal 2);4. Th cell activated to produce cytokines.

1750

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0876:Tc activation

1751

Immunology Flash Facts

1. Endogenously synthesized (viral or self) proteins are presented on MHC I and ;recognized by TCR on Tc cell (Signal 1);2. IL-2 from Th cell activates Tc cell to kill virus-infected cell (Signal 2).

1752

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0877:Antibodies;function of Variable part of L and H chains

1753

Immunology Flash Facts

recognizes antigens

1754

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0878:Antibodies;what ?xes complement

1755

Immunology Flash Facts

Constant part of H chain of IgM and IgG ?xes complement.

1756

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0879:Fc and Fab fractions. what contributes

1757

Immunology Flash Facts

Heavy chain contributes to Fc and Fab fractions. Light chain contributes only to Fab fraction.

1758

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0880:Fc and Fab;mnemonic

1759

Immunology Flash Facts

Fab: antigen binding fragment;Fc;Constant;Carboxy terminal;Complement-binding;(IgG + IgM only);Carbohydrate;side chains;Complement binding;fragment

1760

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0881:Antibody diversity is generated by: (4 things)

1761

Immunology Flash Facts

1. Random recombination of VJ (light-chain) or VDJ (heavy-chain) genes;2. Random combination of heavy chains with light chains;3. Somatic hypermutation;4. Addition of nucleotides to DNA during genetic recombination by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase

1762

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0882:describe in general ;Opsonization

1763

Immunology Flash Facts

Antibody promotes;phagocytosis

1764

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0883:describe in general ;Neutralization

1765

Immunology Flash Facts

Antibody prevents bacterial adherence

1766

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0884:describe in general ;Complement activation

1767

Immunology Flash Facts

Antibody activates complement; enhancing opsonization and lysis

1768

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0885:Antibody activates complement; enhancing opsonization and lysis

1769

Immunology Flash Facts

Complement activation

1770

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0886:Antibody prevents bacterial adherence

1771

Immunology Flash Facts

Neutralization

1772

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0887:Antibody promotes;phagocytosis

1773

Immunology Flash Facts

Opsonization

1774

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0888:Immunoglobulin isotypes;Mature B lymphocytes express on their surfaces

1775

Immunology Flash Facts

IgM and IgD

1776

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0889:Immunoglobulin isotypes;isotype switching mediated by

1777

Immunology Flash Facts

by cytokines and CD40 ligand

1778

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0890:Immunoglobulin isotypes;plasma cells secrete

1779

Immunology Flash Facts

IgA; IgE; or IgG.

1780

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0891:Immunoglobulin isotypes;IgG (what response; how common; where it goes; what it does)

1781

Immunology Flash Facts

Main antibody in 2 response. Most abundant. Fixes complement; crosses the placenta;opsonizes bacteria; neutralizes bacterial toxins and viruses.

1782

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0892:Immunoglobulin isotypes;Main antibody in 2 response.

1783

Immunology Flash Facts

IgG

1784

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0893:Immunoglobulin isotypes;Most abundant.

1785

Immunology Flash Facts

IgG

1786

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0894:Immunoglobulin isotypes;crosses the placenta

1787

Immunology Flash Facts

IgG

1788

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0895:Immunoglobulin isotypes;Fixes complement; crosses the placenta; opsonizes bacteria; neutralizes bacterial toxins and viruses

1789

Immunology Flash Facts

Fixes complement

1790

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0896:Immunoglobulin isotypes;IgA (what response; where it goes; structure elements; what it does)

1791

Immunology Flash Facts

Prevents attachment of bacteria and viruses to mucous membranes; does not ?x ;complement. Monomer or dimer. Found in secretions. Picks up secretory component from epithelial cells before secretion.

1792

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0897:Immunoglobulin isotypes;IgA wrt complement

1793

Immunology Flash Facts

does not ?x ;complement

1794

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0898:Immunoglobulin isotypes;Prevents attachment of bacteria and viruses to mucous membranes

1795

Immunology Flash Facts

IgA

1796

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0899:Immunoglobulin isotypes;Monomer or dimer. Found in secretions

1797

Immunology Flash Facts

IgA

1798

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0900:Immunoglobulin isotypes;Picks up secretory component ;from epithelial cells before secretion.

1799

Immunology Flash Facts

IgA

1800

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0901:Immunoglobulin isotypes;what are they

1801

Immunology Flash Facts

IgG ;IgA ;IgM ;IgD ;IgE

1802

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0902:Immunoglobulin isotypes;IgM (when; what it does; where it goes; srtucture)

1803

Immunology Flash Facts

Produced in the 1 response to an antigen. Fixes complement but does not cross the placenta. Antigen receptor on the surface of B cells. Monomer or pentamer.

1804

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0903:Immunoglobulin isotypes;Monomer or pentamer.

1805

Immunology Flash Facts

IgM

1806

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0904:Immunoglobulin isotypes;Antigen receptor on the surface of B cells.

1807

Immunology Flash Facts

IgM

1808

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0905:Immunoglobulin isotypes;Fixes complement but does not cross the placenta.

1809

Immunology Flash Facts

IgM

1810

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0906:Immunoglobulin isotypes;IgD (what it does; where is it)

1811

Immunology Flash Facts

Unclear function. Found on the surface of many B cells and in serum.

1812

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0907:Immunoglobulin isotypes;Unclear function. Found on the surface of many B cells and in serum.

1813

Immunology Flash Facts

IgD

1814

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0908:Immunoglobulin isotypes;IgE (role; where; how common)

1815

Immunology Flash Facts

Mediates immediate (type I) hypersensitivity Mediates immunity to worms;Lowest concentration in serum.

1816

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0909:Immunoglobulin isotypes;Mediates immediate (type I) hypersensitivity by inducing the release of mediators from ;mast cells and basophils when exposed to allergen.

1817

Immunology Flash Facts

IgE

1818

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0910:Immunoglobulin isotypes;Mediates immunity to worms.

1819

Immunology Flash Facts

IgE

1820

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0911:Immunoglobulin isotypes;Lowest concentration in serum.

1821

Immunology Flash Facts

IgE

1822

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0912:Immunoglobulin isotypes;IgE (role in hypersensitivity mech)

1823

Immunology Flash Facts

by inducing the release of mediators from mast cells and basophils when exposed to allergen.

1824

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0913:Ig epitopes;Allotype

1825

Immunology Flash Facts

Allotype (polymorphism)Ig epitope that differs among members of same species. Can be on light chain or heavy chain.

1826

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0914:Ig epitopes;Isotype

1827

Immunology Flash Facts

iso (same). Common to same class;Isotype (IgG; IgA; etc.)Ig epitope common to a ;single class of Ig (5 classes; determined by heavy ;chain).

1828

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0915:Ig epitopes;Idiotype

1829

Immunology Flash Facts

idio (unique). Hypervariable region is unique;Idiotype (speci?c for a given antigen) Ig epitope ;determined by antigen-binding site.

1830

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0916:Ig epitope that differs;among members of same species. Can be on ;light chain or heavy chain.

1831

Immunology Flash Facts

Allotype (polymorphism)

1832

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0917:Ig epitope common to a ;single class of Ig (5 classes; determined by heavy ;chain).

1833

Immunology Flash Facts

Isotype (IgG; IgA; etc.)

1834

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0918:(speci?c for a given antigen)Ig epitope ;determined by antigen-binding site.

1835

Immunology Flash Facts

Idiotype

1836

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0919:Important cytokines;mnemonic

1837

Immunology Flash Facts

Hot T-bone stEAk;IL-1: fever (hot);IL-2: stimulates T cells;IL-3: stimulates bone marrow;IL-4: stimulates IgE;production;IL-5: stimulates IgA;production

1838

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0920:what secretes and what is the role of;IL-1

1839

Immunology Flash Facts

Secreted by macrophages. Stimulates T cells; B cells;neutrophils; ?broblasts; and epithelial cells to ;grow; differentiate; or synthesize speci?c products;An endogenous pyrogen.

1840

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0921:what secretes and what is the role of;IL-2

1841

Immunology Flash Facts

Secreted by Th cells. Stimulates growth of helper;and cytotoxic T cells.

1842

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0922:what secretes and what is the role of;IL-3

1843

Immunology Flash Facts

Secreted by activated T cells. Supports the growth and differentiation of bone marrow stem cells. Has a function similar to GM-CSF.

1844

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0923:what secretes and what is the role of;IL-4

1845

Immunology Flash Facts

Secreted by Th2 cells. Promotes growth of B cells. Enhances class switching of IgE and IgG.

1846

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0924:what secretes and what is the role of;IL-5

1847

Immunology Flash Facts

Secreted by Th2 cells. Promotes differentiation of B ;cells. Enhances class switching of IgA. Stimulates ;production and activation of eosinophils.

1848

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0925:what secretes and what is the role of;IL-6

1849

Immunology Flash Facts

Secreted by Th cells and macrophages. Stimulates;production of acute-phase reactants and immunoglobulins.

1850

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0926:what secretes and what is the role of;IL-8

1851

Immunology Flash Facts

Major chemotactic factor for neutrophils.

1852

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0927:what secretes and what is the role of;IL-10

1853

Immunology Flash Facts

Secreted by Th2 cells. Stimulates Th2 while;inhibiting Th1.

1854

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0928:what secretes and what is the role of;IL-12

1855

Immunology Flash Facts

Secreted by B cells and macrophages. Activates NK ;and Th1 cells.

1856

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0929:what secretes and what is the role of;gamma-interferon

1857

Immunology Flash Facts

Secreted by Th1 cells. Stimulates macrophages.

1858

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0930:what secretes and what is the role of;TNFalpha

1859

Immunology Flash Facts

Secreted by macrophages. IL-2 receptor synthesis by Th cells. increased B-cell proliferation. Attracts and activates neutrophils. Stimulates dendritic cell migration to lymph nodes.

1860

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0931:Name the cytokine;An endogenous pyrogen.

1861

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-1

1862

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0932:Name the cytokine;Secreted by macrophages. Stimulates T cells; B cells;neutrophils; ?broblasts; and epithelial cells to ;grow; differentiate; or synthesize speci?c products.

1863

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-1

1864

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0933:Name the cytokine;Secreted by Th cells. Stimulates growth of helper ;and cytotoxic T cells.

1865

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-2

1866

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0934:Name the cytokine;Secreted by activated T cells. Supports the growth and differentiation of bone marrow stem cells.

1867

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-3

1868

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0935:Name the cytokine;Has a function similar to GM-CSF.

1869

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-3

1870

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0936:Name the cytokine;Secreted by Th2 cells. Promotes growth of B cells;Enhances class switching of IgE and IgG.

1871

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-4

1872

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0937:Name the cytokine;Secreted by Th2 cells. Promotes differentiation of B ;cells. Enhances class switching of IgA.

1873

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-5

1874

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0938:Name the cytokine;Stimulates production and activation of eosinophils.

1875

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-5

1876

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0939:Name the cytokine;Secreted by Th cells and macrophages. Stimulates;production of acute-phase reactants and immunoglobulins.

1877

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-6

1878

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0940:Name the cytokine;Major chemotactic factor for neutrophils.

1879

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-8

1880

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0941:Name the cytokine;Secreted by Th2 cells. Stimulates Th2 while inhibiting Th1.

1881

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-10

1882

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0942:Name the cytokine;Secreted by B cells and macrophages. Activates NK and Th1 cells.

1883

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-12

1884

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0943:Name the cytokine;Secreted by Th1 cells. Stimulates macrophages.

1885

Immunology Flash Facts

gamma-interferon

1886

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0944:Name the cytokine;Secreted by macrophages. increased IL-2 receptor synthesis ;by Th cells. increased B-cell proliferation.

1887

Immunology Flash Facts

TNF-alpha

1888

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0945:Name the cytokine;Attracts and activates neutrophils. Stimulates dendritic cell migration to lymph nodes.

1889

Immunology Flash Facts

TNF-alpha

1890

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0946:Cell surface proteins;Helper T cells

1891

Immunology Flash Facts

CD4; TCR; CD3; CD28; CD40L.

1892

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0947:Cell surface proteins;Cytotoxic T cells

1893

Immunology Flash Facts

CD8; TCR; CD3.

1894

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0948:Cell surface proteins;B cells

1895

Immunology Flash Facts

IgM; B7; CD19; CD20; CD40; MHC II.

1896

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0949:Cell surface proteins;Macrophages

1897

Immunology Flash Facts

MHC II; CD14. Receptors for Fc and C3b.

1898

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0950:Cell surface proteins;NK cells

1899

Immunology Flash Facts

Receptors for MHC I; CD16; CD56.

1900

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0951:Cell surface proteins;All cells except mature red cells

1901

Immunology Flash Facts

MHC I.

1902

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0952:what cell has ;CD4

1903

Immunology Flash Facts

Helper T cells

1904

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0953:what cell has ;TCR

1905

Immunology Flash Facts

Helper T cells;and;Cytotoxic T cells

1906

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0954:what cell has ;CD3

1907

Immunology Flash Facts

Helper T cells ;and;Cytotoxic T cells

1908

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0955:what cell has ;CD28

1909

Immunology Flash Facts

Helper T cells

1910

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0956:what cell has ;CD40L

1911

Immunology Flash Facts

Helper T cells

1912

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0957:what cell has ;CD8

1913

Immunology Flash Facts

Cytotoxic T cells

1914

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0958:what cell has ;IgM

1915

Immunology Flash Facts

B cells

1916

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0959:what cell has ;B7

1917

Immunology Flash Facts

B cells

1918

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0960:what cell has ;CD19

1919

Immunology Flash Facts

B cells

1920

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0961:what cell has ;CD20

1921

Immunology Flash Facts

B cells

1922

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0962:what cell has ;CD40

1923

Immunology Flash Facts

B cells

1924

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0963:what cell has ;MHC II

1925

Immunology Flash Facts

APC's

1926

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0964:what cell has ;Fc receptor (FcR)

1927

Immunology Flash Facts

Dendritic cells;Macrophages

1928

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0965:what cell has ;MHC I.

1929

Immunology Flash Facts

All cells except mature red cells

1930

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0966:what cell has ;CD14. Receptors for C3b

1931

Immunology Flash Facts

Macrophages

1932

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0967:what cell has ;Receptors for C3b

1933

Immunology Flash Facts

Macrophages

1934

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0968:what cell has ;Receptors for MHC I

1935

Immunology Flash Facts

NK cells

1936

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0969:what cell has ;CD16

1937

Immunology Flash Facts

NK cells

1938

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0970:what cell has ;CD56.

1939

Immunology Flash Facts

NK cells

1940

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0971:Membrane attack complex of complement defends ;against

1941

Immunology Flash Facts

gram-negative bacteria. Activated by IgG

1942

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0972:Membrane attache complex ;activation in general

1943

Immunology Flash Facts

Activated by IgG or IgM in the classic pathway; (GM makes classic cars.);Activated by molecules on the surface of microbes especially ;endotoxin) in the alternate pathway.

1944

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0973:the two primary opsonins in ;bacterial defense.

1945

Immunology Flash Facts

C3b and IgG

1946

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0974:C3b and IgG are the

1947

Immunology Flash Facts

two primary opsonins in ;bacterial defense.

1948

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0975:Roles of different complement molecules;C1

1949

Immunology Flash Facts

C1; C2; C3; C4viral ;neutralization.

1950

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0976:Roles of different complement molecules;C2

1951

Immunology Flash Facts

C1; C2; C3; C4viral ;neutralization.

1952

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0977:Roles of different complement molecules;C3

1953

Immunology Flash Facts

C1; C2; C3; C4viral ;neutralization.

1954

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0978:Roles of different complement molecules;C4

1955

Immunology Flash Facts

C1; C2; C3; C4viral ;neutralization.

1956

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0979:Roles of different complement molecules;C3b

1957

Immunology Flash Facts

C3b - opsonization.

1958

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0980:Roles of different complement molecules;C3a

1959

Immunology Flash Facts

C3a; C5aanaphylaxis.

1960

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0981:Roles of different complement molecules;C5a

1961

Immunology Flash Facts

C3a; and C5aanaphylaxis;C5aneutrophil chemotaxis.

1962

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0982:Roles of different complement molecules;C5b-9

1963

Immunology Flash Facts

C5b-9cytolysis by membrane;attack complex (MAC).

1964

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0983:Roles of different complement molecules;De?ciency of C1 esterase ;inhibitor

1965

Immunology Flash Facts

hereditary angioedema (overactive complement).

1966

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0984:Roles of different complement molecules;De?ciency of C3

1967

Immunology Flash Facts

severe; recurrent pyogenic ;sinus and respiratory tract ;infections.

1968

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0985:Roles of different complement molecules;De?ciency of C6C8

1969

Immunology Flash Facts

Neisseria bacteremia.

1970

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0986:Roles of different complement molecules;De?ciency of decay;accelerating factor (DAF)

1971

Immunology Flash Facts

leads to paroxysmal nocturnal;hemoglobinuria (PNH).

1972

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0987:Name the complement molecules involved in/function;viral neutralization.

1973

Immunology Flash Facts

C1; C2; C3; C4

1974

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0988:Name the complement molecules involved in/function;opsonization.

1975

Immunology Flash Facts

C3b

1976

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0989:Name the complement molecules involved in/function;anaphylaxis.

1977

Immunology Flash Facts

C3a; C5a

1978

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0990:Name the complement molecules involved in/function;neutrophil chemotaxis.

1979

Immunology Flash Facts

C5a

1980

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0991:Name the complement molecules involved in/function;cytolysis by membrane attack complex (MAC).

1981

Immunology Flash Facts

C5b-9

1982

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0992:WRT complement ;What leads to hereditary;angioedema

1983

Immunology Flash Facts

De?ciency of C1 esterase ;inhibitor

1984

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0993:WRT complement ;What leads to severe; recurrent pyogenic sinus and respiratory tract infections.

1985

Immunology Flash Facts

De?ciency of C3

1986

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0994:WRT complement ;What leads to;Neisseria bacteremia.

1987

Immunology Flash Facts

De?ciency of C6C8

1988

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0995:WRT complement ;What leads to paroxysmal nocturnal;hemoglobinuria (PNH).

1989

Immunology Flash Facts

De?ciency of decay-;accelerating factor (DAF)

1990

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0996:hereditary angioedema aka

1991

Immunology Flash Facts

overactive complement

1992

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0997:overactive complement aka

1993

Immunology Flash Facts

hereditary angioedema

1994

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0998:proteins that place uninfected cells in an antiviral state.

1995

Immunology Flash Facts

Interferons (alpha; beta; gamma) are

1996

Immunology Flash Facts

Q0999:Interferon mechanism ;in general

1997

Immunology Flash Facts

Interferons induce the production of a 2nd protein that inhibits viral protein synthesis by degrading viral mRNA (but not host mRNA).

1998

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1000:role of the interferons and what different ones do

1999

Immunology Flash Facts

1. alpha- and beta-interferons inhibit viral protein synthesis;2. gamma-interferons increased MHC I;and II expression and ;antigen presentation ;in all cells;3. Activates NK cells to ;kill virus-infected cells

2000

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1001:when are some of the times patients given preformed antibodies

2001

Immunology Flash Facts

(passive)To Be Healed ;Rapidly;After exposure to Tetanus toxin; Botulinum toxin; HBV; or Rabies;

2002

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1002:Antigen variation examples;wrt Bacteria

2003

Immunology Flash Facts

Salmonella (two ?agellar variants); Borrelia (relapsing fever); Neisseria gonorrhoeae;(pilus protein).

2004

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1003:Antigen variation examples;wrt Virus

2005

Immunology Flash Facts

in?uenza (major = shift; minor = drift).

2006

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1004:Antigen variation examples;wrt Parasites

2007

Immunology Flash Facts

trypanosomes (programmed ;rearrangement).

2008

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1005:Antigen variation;wrt in?uenza major shift

2009

Immunology Flash Facts

and RNA segment rearrangement

2010

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1006:Anergy describe in different cells

2011

Immunology Flash Facts

Self-reactive T cells become nonreactive without costimulatory molecule;B cells also become anergic; but tolerance is less complete than in T cells.

2012

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1007:Self-reactive T cells become nonreactive without costimulatory molecule.

2013

Immunology Flash Facts

Anergy

2014

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1008:Hypersensitivity Mechs;Type I

2015

Immunology Flash Facts

Anaphylactic and atopic: antigen cross-links IgE on presensitized mast cells and basophils; triggering ;release of vasoactive amines (i.e; histamine).

2016

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1009:Hypersensitivity Mechs;Type II

2017

Immunology Flash Facts

Antibody mediated IgM; IgG bind to antigen on enemycell; leading to lysis (by complement) ;or phagocytosis.

2018

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1010:Hypersensitivity Mechs;Type III

2019

Immunology Flash Facts

Immune complex: antigen-antibody complexes activate complement; which attracts neutrophils;neutrophils release lysosomal enzymes.

2020

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1011:Hypersensitivity Mechs;Type IV

2021

Immunology Flash Facts

Delayed (T-cell-mediated): sensitized T cells encounter antigen and then release;lymphokines (leads to macrophage activation).

2022

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1012:Serum sickness;mech

2023

Immunology Flash Facts

antibodies to the foreign proteins are produced (takes 5 days). Immune complexes form and are deposited in membranes;where they ?x complement (leads to tissue damage).

2024

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1013:Arthus reaction;mech

2025

Immunology Flash Facts

Intradermal injection of antigen induces antibodies; which form antigen-antibody complexes in the skin;Characterized by edema; necrosis; and activation ;of complement.

2026

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1014:Intradermal injection of antigen induces antibodies; which form antigen-antibody complexes in the skin;Characterized by edema; necrosis; and activation ;of complement.

2027

Immunology Flash Facts

Arthus reaction

2028

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1015:antibodies to the foreign proteins are produced (takes 5 days). Immune complexes form and are deposited in membranes;where they ?x complement (leads to tissue damage).

2029

Immunology Flash Facts

Serum sickness

2030

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1016:which is more common;serum sickness or Arthus reaction

2031

Immunology Flash Facts

Serum sickness

2032

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1017:which Hypersensitivity reactions are antibody mediated

2033

Immunology Flash Facts

Types I; II; and III are all ;antibody mediated.

2034

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1018:Hypersensitivity ;why is Type 1 so fast

2035

Immunology Flash Facts

Reaction develops rapidly after antigen exposure due to preformed antibody.

2036

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1019:Hypersensitivity ;how does type II do its damage

2037

Immunology Flash Facts

Cy-2-toxic;Antibody and complement lead;to membrane attack complex;(MAC).

2038

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1020:serum sickness ;cause and findings

2039

Immunology Flash Facts

Most serum sickness is now ;caused by drugs (not serum);Fever; urticaria; arthralgias; proteinuria; lymphadenopathy 510 days after antigen exposure.

2040

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1021:Fever; urticaria; arthralgias; proteinuria; lymphadenopathy 510 days after antigen exposure.

2041

Immunology Flash Facts

serum sickness

2042

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1022:Mnemonic for type III Hypersensitivity

2043

Immunology Flash Facts

Imagine an immune complex as ;3 things stuck together;antigen-antibody-complement.

2044

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1023:is Type IV Hypersensitivity transferable by serum

2045

Immunology Flash Facts

Cell mediated; therefore; it is ;not transferable by serum.

2046

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1024:Type IV Hypersensitivity ;mnemonic

2047

Immunology Flash Facts

4 Ts = T lymphocytes;Transplant rejections;TB skin tests; Touching ;(contact dermatitis).

2048

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1025:Hypersensitivity mnemonic

2049

Immunology Flash Facts

ACID;-Anaphylactic and Atopic ;(type I);Cytotoxic (antibody mediated);(type II);-Immune complex (type III);-Delayed (cell mediated) ;(type IV)

2050

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1026:Diseases caused by hypersensitivity;Type I

2051

Immunology Flash Facts

Anaphylaxis;Allergic rhinitis (hay fever)

2052

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1027:Diseases caused by hypersensitivity;Anaphylaxis

2053

Immunology Flash Facts

Type I

2054

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1028:Diseases caused by hypersensitivity;Allergic rhinitis (hay fever)

2055

Immunology Flash Facts

Type I

2056

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1029:Diseases caused by hypersensitivity;Type II

2057

Immunology Flash Facts

Hemolytic anemia;Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura;Erythroblastosis fetalis;Rheumatic fever;Goodpastures syndrome;Bullous pemphigoid;Graves disease;Myasthenia gravis

2058

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1030:Diseases caused by hypersensitivity;Hemolytic anemia

2059

Immunology Flash Facts

Type II

2060

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1031:Diseases caused by hypersensitivity;Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

2061

Immunology Flash Facts

Type II

2062

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1032:Diseases caused by hypersensitivity;Erythroblastosis fetalis

2063

Immunology Flash Facts

Type II

2064

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1033:Diseases caused by hypersensitivity;Rheumatic fever

2065

Immunology Flash Facts

Type II

2066

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1034:Diseases caused by hypersensitivity;Goodpastures syndrome

2067

Immunology Flash Facts

Type II

2068

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1035:Diseases caused by hypersensitivity;Bullous pemphigoid

2069

Immunology Flash Facts

Type II

2070

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1036:Diseases caused by hypersensitivity;Graves disease

2071

Immunology Flash Facts

Type II

2072

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1037:Diseases caused by hypersensitivity;Myasthenia gravis

2073

Immunology Flash Facts

Type II

2074

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1038:Diseases caused by hypersensitivity;Type III

2075

Immunology Flash Facts

Lupus;Rheumatoid arthritis;Polyarteritis nodosum;Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis;Serum sickness;Arthus reaction;Hypersensitivity pneumonitis

2076

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1039:Diseases caused by hypersensitivity;Lupus

2077

Immunology Flash Facts

Type III

2078

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1040:Diseases caused by hypersensitivity;Rheumatoid arthritis

2079

Immunology Flash Facts

Type III

2080

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1041:Diseases caused by hypersensitivity;Polyarteritis nodosum

2081

Immunology Flash Facts

Type III

2082

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1042:Diseases caused by hypersensitivity;Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis

2083

Immunology Flash Facts

Type III

2084

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1043:Diseases caused by hypersensitivity;Serum sickness

2085

Immunology Flash Facts

Type III

2086

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1044:Diseases caused by hypersensitivity;Arthus reaction

2087

Immunology Flash Facts

Type III

2088

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1045:Diseases caused by hypersensitivity;Hypersensitivity pneumonitis

2089

Immunology Flash Facts

Type III

2090

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1046:Diseases caused by hypersensitivity;Type IV

2091

Immunology Flash Facts

Type 1 diabetes mellitus;Multiple sclerosis;Guillain-Barr syndrome;Hashimotos thyroiditis;Graft-versus-host disease;PPD (test for M. tuberculosis);Contact dermatitis

2092

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1047:Diseases caused by hypersensitivity;Type 1 diabetes mellitus

2093

Immunology Flash Facts

Type IV

2094

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1048:Diseases caused by hypersensitivity;Multiple sclerosis

2095

Immunology Flash Facts

Type IV

2096

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1049:Diseases caused by hypersensitivity;Guillain-Barr syndrome

2097

Immunology Flash Facts

Type IV

2098

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1050:Diseases caused by hypersensitivity;Hashimotos thyroiditis

2099

Immunology Flash Facts

Type IV

2100

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1051:Diseases caused by hypersensitivity;Graftversus-host disease

2101

Immunology Flash Facts

Type IV

2102

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1052:Diseases caused by hypersensitivity;PPD

2103

Immunology Flash Facts

Type IV

2104

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1053:Diseases caused by hypersensitivity;Contact dermatitis

2105

Immunology Flash Facts

Type IV

2106

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1054:decreased production of: B cells

2107

Immunology Flash Facts

Brutons agammaglobulinemia

2108

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1055:decreased production of: T Cells

2109

Immunology Flash Facts

Thymic aplasia (DiGeorge ;syndrome)

2110

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1056:decreased production of: B and T cells

2111

Immunology Flash Facts

severe combined immunode?ciency ;(SCID)

2112

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1057:Brutons agammaglobulinemia;mech

2113

Immunology Flash Facts

decreased production of: B cells ;X-linked recessive defect in a tyrosine kinase gene associated with low levels of all classes of immunoglobulins.

2114

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1058:Brutons agammaglobulinemia;inheritance

2115

Immunology Flash Facts

X-linked recessive

2116

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1059:Brutons agammaglobulinemia;clinical findings

2117

Immunology Flash Facts

recurrent Bacterial infections after 6 months of age; when levels of maternal IgG antibody decline. Occurs in Boys

2118

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1060:recurrent Bacterial infections after 6 months of age; when levels of maternal IgG antibody decline. Occurs in Boys (X-linked).

2119

Immunology Flash Facts

Brutons agammaglobulinemia

2120

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1061:DiGeorge syndrome aka

2121

Immunology Flash Facts

Thymic aplasia

2122

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1062:Thymic aplasia aka

2123

Immunology Flash Facts

DiGeorge syndrome

2124

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1063:DiGeorge syndrome;mnemonic

2125

Immunology Flash Facts

CATCH-22 ;C = cardiac defects;A = abnormal facies;T = thymic hypoplasia;C = cleft palate;H = hypocalcemia (tetany)from parathyroid aplasia;22 = microdeletions in chromosome 22- 22q11 deletion

2126

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1064:DiGeorge syndrome;mech

2127

Immunology Flash Facts

decreased production of: T Cells;Thymus and parathyroids fail to develop owing to failure of development of the 3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouches.

2128

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1065:severe combined immunode?ciency ;(SCID);mech/causes

2129

Immunology Flash Facts

Defect in early stem-cell differentiation;decreased production of: B and T Cells;May have multiple causes (e.g; failure to synthesize MHC II antigens; defective IL-2 receptors; or adenosine deaminase de?ciency).

2130

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1066:severe combined immunode?ciency ;(SCID);clinical findings

2131

Immunology Flash Facts

recurrent viral; bacterial; fungal; and protozoal infections.

2132

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1067:recurrent viral; bacterial; fungal; and protozoal infections.

2133

Immunology Flash Facts

severe combined immunode?ciency ;(SCID)

2134

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1068:IL-12 receptor de?ciency ;mech and findings

2135

Immunology Flash Facts

decreased activation of: T-cells;;Presents with disseminated mycobacterial infections.

2136

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1069:decreased activation of: T-cells;Presents with disseminated mycobacterial infections.

2137

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-12 receptor de?ciency

2138

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1070:hyper-IgM syndrome ;mech

2139

Immunology Flash Facts

decreased activation of: B-cells;Defect in CD40 ligand on CD4 T helper cells leads to inability to class switch.

2140

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1071:decreased activation of: B-cells

2141

Immunology Flash Facts

hyper- IgM syndrome ;Wiskott-Aldrich ;syndrome

2142

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1072:decreased activation of: Macrophages

2143

Immunology Flash Facts

Jobs syndrome

2144

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1073:hyper-IgM syndrome;clinical findings

2145

Immunology Flash Facts

Presents early in life with severe pyogenic infections.

2146

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1074:hyper-IgM syndrome;lab findings

2147

Immunology Flash Facts

High levels of IgM; very low levels of IgG; IgA; and IgE.

2148

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1075:Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome ;mech

2149

Immunology Flash Facts

decreased activation of: B-cells;X-linked recessive defect in the ability to mount an IgM response to capsular polysaccharides of;bacteria.

2150

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1076:Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome ;inheritance

2151

Immunology Flash Facts

X-linked recessive

2152

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1077:Defect in CD40 ligand on CD4 T helper cells leads to inability to class switch.

2153

Immunology Flash Facts

hyper-IgM syndrome

2154

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1078:defect in the ability to mount an IgM response to capsular polysaccharides of;bacteria.

2155

Immunology Flash Facts

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome

2156

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1079:Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome ;clinical findings

2157

Immunology Flash Facts

Triad of symptoms includes recurrent pyogenic Infections; thrombocytopenic ;Purpura; Eczema (WIPE).

2158

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1080:Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome ;lab findings

2159

Immunology Flash Facts

elevated IgA levels; normal IgE levels; and low IgM levels.

2160

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1081:Jobs syndrome ;mech

2161

Immunology Flash Facts

decreased activation of: Macrophages;Failure of gamma-interferon production by helper T cells. Neutrophils fail to respond to ;chemotactic stimuli.

2162

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1082:Jobs syndrome ;clinical findings

2163

Immunology Flash Facts

recurrent cold (nonin?amed) staphylococcal abscesses; eczema; coarse facies; retained primary teeth;

2164

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1083:Jobs syndrome ;lab findings

2165

Immunology Flash Facts

and high levels of IgE.

2166

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1084:recurrent cold (nonin?amed) staphylococcal abscesses; eczema; coarse facies; retained primary teeth;

2167

Immunology Flash Facts

Jobs syndrome

2168

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1085:Phagocytic cell de?ciency;name them

2169

Immunology Flash Facts

Leukocyte adhesion de?ciency syndrome;ChdiakHigashi ;disease ;Chronic granulomatous disease

2170

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1086:Leukocyte adhesion de?ciency syndrome;mech

2171

Immunology Flash Facts

Phagocytic cell de?ciency;Defect in LFA-1 adhesion proteins on phagocyte

2172

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1087:Leukocyte adhesion de?ciency syndrome;clinical findings

2173

Immunology Flash Facts

early with severe pyogenic;and fungal infections and delayed separation of umbilicus.

2174

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1088:early with severe pyogenic;and fungal infections and delayed separation of umbilicus

2175

Immunology Flash Facts

Leukocyte adhesion de?ciency syndrome

2176

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1089:Chdiak-Higashi disease ;mech

2177

Immunology Flash Facts

Phagocytic cell de?ciency;Defect in microtubular function and lysosomal emptying of ;phagocytic cells.

2178

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1090:Chdiak-Higashi disease ;inheritance

2179

Immunology Flash Facts

AR

2180

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1091:Chdiak-Higashi disease ;clinical presentation

2181

Immunology Flash Facts

Presents with recurrent pyogenic infections by staphylococci and ;streptococci; partial albinism; and peripheral neuropathy.

2182

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1092:Presents with recurrent pyogenic infections by staphylococci and ;streptococci; partial albinism; and peripheral neuropathy

2183

Immunology Flash Facts

Chdiak-Higashi disease

2184

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1093:Chronic granulomatous disease;mech

2185

Immunology Flash Facts

Defect in phagocytosis of neutrophils owing to lack of NADPH oxidase activity or ;similar enzymes.

2186

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1094:Defect in phagocytosis of neutrophils owing to lack of NADPH oxidase activity or ;similar enzymes.

2187

Immunology Flash Facts

Chronic granulomatous disease

2188

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1095:Chronic granulomatous disease;Clinical findings

2189

Immunology Flash Facts

Presents with marked susceptibility to opportunistic infections ;with bacteria; especially S. aureus; E. coli; and Aspergillus.

2190

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1096:Chronic granulomatous disease;Dx

2191

Immunology Flash Facts

Diagnosis con?rmed ;with negative nitroblue tetrazolium dye reduction test.

2192

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1097:Presents with marked susceptibility to opportunistic infections ;with bacteria; especially S. aureus; E. coli; and Aspergillus.

2193

Immunology Flash Facts

Chronic granulomatous disease

2194

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1098:Diagnosis con?rmed ;with negative nitroblue tetrazolium dye reduction test.

2195

Immunology Flash Facts

Chronic granulomatous disease

2196

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1099:Idiopathic dysfunction of: T cells

2197

Immunology Flash Facts

chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis

2198

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1100:chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis;Mech

2199

Immunology Flash Facts

Idiopathic dysfunction of: T cells;T-cell dysfunction speci?cally against Candida albicans

2200

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1101:T-cell dysfunction speci?cally against Candida albicans

2201

Immunology Flash Facts

chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis

2202

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1102:chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis;clinical findings

2203

Immunology Flash Facts

skin and mucous membrane Candida infections.

2204

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1103:Idiopathic dysfunction of: B cells;name them

2205

Immunology Flash Facts

-selective immunoglobulin ;de?ciency ;-ataxia telangiectasia ;-common variable immunode?ciency

2206

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1104:selective immunoglobulin ;de?ciency;mech

2207

Immunology Flash Facts

Idiopathic dysfunction of: B cells;De?ciency in a speci?c class of immunoglobulinspossibly due to a defect in isotype ;switching.

2208

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1105:selective immunoglobulin ;de?ciency;most common

2209

Immunology Flash Facts

Selective IgA de?ciency is the most common

2210

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1106:selective immunoglobulin ;de?ciency;clinical findings

2211

Immunology Flash Facts

sinus and lung infections; milk allergies and diarrhea are;common.

2212

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1107:ataxia-telangiectasia ;mech

2213

Immunology Flash Facts

Idiopathic dysfunction of: B cells;Defect in DNA repair enzymes with associated IgA de?ciency.

2214

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1108:ataxia-telangiectasia ;clinical findings

2215

Immunology Flash Facts

Presents with cerebellar ;problems (ataxia) and spider angiomas (telangiectasia).

2216

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1109:common variable immunode?ciency;mech and who

2217

Immunology Flash Facts

Idiopathic dysfunction of: B cells;Normal numbers of circulating B cells; decreased plasma cells; decreased Ig; can be acquired in 20's-30's

2218

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1110:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;Antinuclear antibodies (ANA)

2219

Immunology Flash Facts

SLE

2220

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1111:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;Anti-dsDNA

2221

Immunology Flash Facts

Speci?c for SLE

2222

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1112:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;anti-Smith

2223

Immunology Flash Facts

Speci?c for SLE

2224

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1113:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;Antihistone

2225

Immunology Flash Facts

Drug-induced lupus

2226

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1114:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;Drug-induced lupus

2227

Immunology Flash Facts

Antihistone

2228

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1115:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;SLE (general)

2229

Immunology Flash Facts

Antinuclear antibodies (ANA)

2230

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1116:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;Speci?c for SLE

2231

Immunology Flash Facts

Anti-dsDNA ;anti-Smith

2232

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1117:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;Anti-IgG

2233

Immunology Flash Facts

Rheumatoid arthritis

2234

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1118:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;Rheumatoid arthritis

2235

Immunology Flash Facts

Anti-IgG (rheumatoid factor)

2236

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1119:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;Antineutrophil

2237

Immunology Flash Facts

Vasculitis

2238

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1120:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;Vasculitis

2239

Immunology Flash Facts

Antineutrophil (C-ANCA; P-ANCA)

2240

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1121:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;Anti-Scl-70

2241

Immunology Flash Facts

Scleroderma (diffuse)

2242

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1122:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;Anticentromere

2243

Immunology Flash Facts

Scleroderma (CREST)

2244

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1123:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;Scleroderma (CREST)

2245

Immunology Flash Facts

Anticentromere

2246

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1124:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;Scleroderma (diffuse)

2247

Immunology Flash Facts

Anti-Scl-70

2248

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1125:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;Antimitochondrial

2249

Immunology Flash Facts

1 biliary cirrhosis

2250

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1126:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;1 biliary cirrhosis

2251

Immunology Flash Facts

Antimitochondrial

2252

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1127:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;Antigliadin

2253

Immunology Flash Facts

Celiac disease

2254

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1128:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;Celiac disease

2255

Immunology Flash Facts

Antigliadin

2256

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1129:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;Antibasement membrane

2257

Immunology Flash Facts

Goodpastures syndrome

2258

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1130:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;Goodpastures syndrome

2259

Immunology Flash Facts

Antibasement membrane

2260

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1131:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;Antiepithelial cell (desmoglein)

2261

Immunology Flash Facts

Pemphigus vulgaris

2262

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1132:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;Pemphigus vulgaris

2263

Immunology Flash Facts

Antiepithelial cell (desmoglein)

2264

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1133:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;Anti-hemidesmosomes

2265

Immunology Flash Facts

Bullous pemphigoid

2266

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1134:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;Bullous pemphigoid

2267

Immunology Flash Facts

Anti-hemidesmosomes

2268

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1135:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;Antimicrosomal

2269

Immunology Flash Facts

Hashimotos thyroiditis

2270

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1136:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;Hashimotos thyroiditis

2271

Immunology Flash Facts

Antimicrosomal ;Antithyroglobulin

2272

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1137:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;Antithyroglobulin

2273

Immunology Flash Facts

Hashimotos thyroiditis

2274

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1138:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;Anti-Jo-1

2275

Immunology Flash Facts

Polymyositis; dermatomyositis

2276

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1139:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;Polymyositis; dermatomyositis

2277

Immunology Flash Facts

Anti-Jo-1

2278

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1140:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;Anti-SS-A

2279

Immunology Flash Facts

aka anti Ro ;Sjogren's syndrome

2280

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1141:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;Anti-SS-B

2281

Immunology Flash Facts

aka anti La ;Sjogren's syndrome

2282

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1142:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;Sjogren's syndrome

2283

Immunology Flash Facts

Anti - SSA/Ro ;Anti -SSB/La;and often ANA positive

2284

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1143:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;Anti-U1 RNP

2285

Immunology Flash Facts

Mixed connective tissue disease

2286

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1144:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;Mixed connective tissue disease

2287

Immunology Flash Facts

Anti-U1 RNP (Ribonucleoprotein)

2288

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1145:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;Anti-smooth muscle

2289

Immunology Flash Facts

Autoimmune Hepatitis

2290

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1146:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;Autoimmune Hepatitis

2291

Immunology Flash Facts

Anti-smooth muscle

2292

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1147:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;Anti-glutamate decarboxylase

2293

Immunology Flash Facts

DM type I

2294

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1148:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;DM type I

2295

Immunology Flash Facts

Anti-glutamate decarboxylase

2296

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1149:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;CANCA

2297

Immunology Flash Facts

Wegener's granulomatosis

2298

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1150:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;PANCA

2299

Immunology Flash Facts

microscopic polyangiitis ;and focal necrotising and crescentic glomerulonephritis;sometimes Churg-Strauss

2300

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1151:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;sometimes Churg-Strauss

2301

Immunology Flash Facts

P-ANCA (anti myeloperoxidase)

2302

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1152:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;Wegener's granulomatosis

2303

Immunology Flash Facts

C-ANCA (anti Protinase 3)

2304

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1153:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;focal necrotising and crescentic glomerulonephritis.

2305

Immunology Flash Facts

P-ANCA (anti myeloperoxidase)

2306

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1154:Autoantibodies and associated disorders;microscopic polyangiitis

2307

Immunology Flash Facts

P-ANCA (anti myeloperoxidase)

2308

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1155:Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies aka

2309

Immunology Flash Facts

ANCA

2310

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1156:ANCA aka

2311

Immunology Flash Facts

Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies

2312

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1157:perinuclear-staining antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies aka

2313

Immunology Flash Facts

P-ANCA

2314

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1158:P-ANCA what letters stand for

2315

Immunology Flash Facts

perinuclear-staining antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies

2316

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1159:cytoplasmic-staining antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies aka

2317

Immunology Flash Facts

C-ANCA

2318

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1160:C-ANCA what letters stand for

2319

Immunology Flash Facts

cytoplasmic-staining antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies

2320

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1161:HLA subtype associations;B27

2321

Immunology Flash Facts

PAIR;Psoriasis;Ankylosing spondylitis; In?ammatory bowel disease; Reiters syndrome.

2322

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1162:HLA subtype associations;Psoriasis

2323

Immunology Flash Facts

B27

2324

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1163:HLA subtype associations;Ankylosing spondylitis

2325

Immunology Flash Facts

B27

2326

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1164:HLA subtype associations;In?ammatory ;bowel disease

2327

Immunology Flash Facts

B27

2328

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1165:HLA subtype associations;Reiters syndrome.

2329

Immunology Flash Facts

B27

2330

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1166:HLA subtype associations;B8

2331

Immunology Flash Facts

Graves disease; celiac sprue.

2332

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1167:HLA subtype associations;celiac sprue.

2333

Immunology Flash Facts

B8

2334

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1168:HLA subtype associations;Graves disease

2335

Immunology Flash Facts

B8

2336

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1169:HLA subtype associations;DR2

2337

Immunology Flash Facts

Multiple sclerosis; hay fever; SLE; Goodpasture s.

2338

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1170:HLA subtype associations;Multiple sclerosis

2339

Immunology Flash Facts

DR2

2340

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1171:HLA subtype associations;hay fever

2341

Immunology Flash Facts

DR2

2342

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1172:HLA subtype associations;SLE

2343

Immunology Flash Facts

DR2

2344

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1173:HLA subtype associations;Goodpastures.

2345

Immunology Flash Facts

DR2

2346

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1174:HLA subtype associations;DR3

2347

Immunology Flash Facts

Diabetes mellitus type 1.

2348

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1175:HLA subtype associations;Diabetes mellitus type 1.

2349

Immunology Flash Facts

DR3 and DR4

2350

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1176:HLA subtype associations;DR4

2351

Immunology Flash Facts

Rheumatoid arthritis; diabetes mellitus type 1.

2352

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1177:HLA subtype associations;Rheumatoid arthritis

2353

Immunology Flash Facts

DR4

2354

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1178:HLA subtype associations;diabetes mellitus type 1.

2355

Immunology Flash Facts

DR3 and DR4

2356

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1179:HLA subtype associations;Pernicious anemia

2357

Immunology Flash Facts

DR5

2358

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1180:HLA subtype associations;Hashimotos thyroiditis.

2359

Immunology Flash Facts

DR5

2360

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1181:HLA subtype associations;Steroid-responsive nephrotic syndrome.

2361

Immunology Flash Facts

DR7

2362

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1182:HLA subtype associations;DR7

2363

Immunology Flash Facts

Steroid-responsive nephrotic syndrome.

2364

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1183:Hyperacute rejection ;description; time; and mechanism

2365

Immunology Flash Facts

Antibody mediated due to the presence of preformed antidonor antibodies in the ;transplant recipient. Occurs within minutes after transplantation.

2366

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1184:Acute rejection ;description; time; and mechanism

2367

Immunology Flash Facts

Cell mediated due to cytotoxic T lymphocytes reacting against foreign MHCs. Occurs ;weeks after transplantation.

2368

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1185:Acute rejection ;Tx

2369

Immunology Flash Facts

Reversible with immunosuppressants such as cyclosporin and OKT3.

2370

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1186:Chronic rejection ;description; time; and mechanism

2371

Immunology Flash Facts

Antibody-mediated vascular damage (?brinoid necrosis); occurs months to years after ;transplantation. Irreversible.

2372

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1187:Graft-versus-host disease ;description; time; and mechanism

2373

Immunology Flash Facts

Grafted immunocompetent T cells proliferate in the irradiated immunocompromised ;host and reject cells with foreign proteins; resulting in severe organ dysfunction.

2374

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1188:Graft-versus-host disease ;findings

2375

Immunology Flash Facts

Major symptoms include a maculopapular rash; jaundice; hepatosplenomegaly; and;diarrhea.

2376

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1189:The World Health Organization identifies an alarming increase in hospital admissions worldwide attributable to a new and unexpected serotype of influenza A virus. The biological attribute of influenza A virus; which allows the sudden appearance of dramatically new genetic variants; is also present in a limited number of other viral families. What viruse also possesses this biological attribute?
2377

Immunology Flash Facts

Rotavirus

2378

Q1190:A 37-year-old newly married man presents with multiple blister-like lesions on the glans of his penis; appearing over the past 2 days. On questioning; he recalls similar episodes over the past 2 years. Examination is remarkable for tender; 3-4 mm vesicular lesions on the shaft of his penis with no apparent crusting; drainage; or bleeding. There is also slight bilateral inguinal adenopathy. During the asymptomatic period between outbreaks; where would the causative agent likely have been found? 2379

Immunology Flash Facts

Immunology Flash Facts

Neurons of the sacral ganglia

2380

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1191:A veterinary student at a state university is referred to the student health clinic with complaints of fatigue; malaise; and lymphadenopathy. She has a fever of 38.2 C (100.8F); pronounced cervical lymphadenopathy; and a moderate lymphocytosis. She is three months pregnant with her first child. She is concerned with the potential for having become infected with Toxoplasma gondii. What stage of the parasite is capable of crossing the placenta?
2381

Immunology Flash Facts

Tachyzoite

2382

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1192:A 54-year-old woman suffering from influenza deteriorates and develops shaking chills and a high fever. Physical examination is remarkable for dullness to percussion at the left base and decreased breath sounds on the left. Chest x-ray confirms the diagnosis of lobar pneumonia; presumed to be caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. The patient has no known drug allergies. What antibiotic would be most appropriate to treat the patient's condition?
2383

Immunology Flash Facts

Penicillin

2384

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1193:A patient with rheumatoid arthritis presents to her physician and mentions that after many years without teeth problems; she has recently developed seven caries. This is a clue to her clinician that she should be evaluated for what disease?

2385

Immunology Flash Facts

Sjogren's syndrome

2386

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1194:A 46-year-old woman complains to her physician at the time of her annual examination of fatigue and painful lymph nodes in her neck; which she says have been present for at least 6 months. A lymph node biopsy reveals hypercellularity in the cortical areas; and serum electrophoresis shows a spike of protein in the gamma region. The abnormal immunoglobulin is determined to be of the IgG2 isotype. An IgG2 molecule is composed of?
2387

Immunology Flash Facts

Two gamma2 chains and two kappa chains

2388

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1195:A 67-year-old black man with a history of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency presents with fever; irritative voiding symptoms; and perineal pain. Rectal examination is remarkable for a boggy; exquisitely tender prostate. A urine Gram's stain is positive for gram-negative rods. The risk for development of hemolytic anemia is highest if he receives high-dose; 21-day therapy with ?
2389

Immunology Flash Facts

Sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim

2390

Q1196:A previously healthy 27-year-old man presents with one week of increasingly severe sore throat; fever; fatigue; and headache. His temperature is 39 C (102.2F) orally. He has palpable anterior cervical adenopathy and petechiae over his trunk and oral mucosae but lacks a pharyngeal exudate. His liver is palpable 3 cm below the right costal margin and his spleen tip is also palpable. His sclerae are anicteric. A blood smear appears as shown above. What is the identity of the predominating white blood cell? 2391

Immunology Flash Facts

Immunology Flash Facts

CD8+ lymphocyte

2392

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1197:A 24-year-old man presents with complaints of itching on his arms and face. Physical examination reveals well-circumscribed wheals with raised; erythematous borders and blanched centers. What form of hypersensitivity is this patient probably exhibiting?

2393

Immunology Flash Facts

Immediate type hypersensitivity

2394

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1198:A 6-year-old child is brought to the pediatrician's office complaining of a severe sore throat. ON examination; the child is febrile; and the throat is extremely erythematous with obvious abscesses on the tonsillar pillars. A rapid antigen test is positive for Streptococcus pyogenes. At what stage of the above growth curve would a beta-lactam antibiotic have greatest efficacy?
2395

Immunology Flash Facts

log phase

2396

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1199:In a random quality-control test of 73 batches of Hemophilus influenzae vaccines administered nationwide; the FDA discovered two lots in which the capsular polysaccharide of Hemophilus was not covalently coupled to the Diptheria toxoid. What immunologic response would be predicted in children receiving one of these unusual vaccine lots?
2397

Immunology Flash Facts

They should produce a normal IgM response to Hemophilus

2398

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1200:A 48-year-old waitress presents to a physician with malaise; loss of appetite; nausea; moderate fever; and jaundice. Laboratory tests indicate a marked increase in serum transaminases. Serology for hepatitis viruses is performed and indicates positive results for the presnce of HBsAg; HBc IgM antibody; and HCV antibody. Antibody tests for HBsAb and HAV are negative. The results indicate:
2399

Immunology Flash Facts

The presence of an acute HBV infection

2400

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1201:A febrile 23-year-old college coed presents with fatigue and difficulty swallowing. Physical exam reveals exudative tonsilitis; palatal petechiae; cervical lymphadenopathy; and tender hepatosplemonegaly. A complete blood count reveals mild anemia; lymphocytosis with about 30% of the lymphocytes exhibiting atypical features; and a mild thrombocytopenia. Coombs' test is positive. What is the most likely complication of this syndrome?
2401

Immunology Flash Facts

splenic rupture

2402

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1202:A 25-year-old pregnant woman in her third trimester is diagnosed with an upper respiratory infection. What would be the most appropriate pharmacotherapy?

2403

Immunology Flash Facts

Azithromycin

2404

Q1203:A six-year-old child is brought to the pediatrician by Immunology Flash Facts his mother. While playing with friends after school; he received a puncture wound on his hand. Although his mother washed and disinfected it to the best of her ability; she is now concerned about the possibility of tetanus; and is seeking medical advice. After checking the child's vaccination status; the physician advised the mother that a new tetanus booster is not necessary at this time. If bacteria have been introduced into this child's puncture wound; what pair of complementary molecules will be most 2405 important in causing phagocytic cells to enter the area of infection?

Immunology Flash Facts

LFA-1 and ICAM-1

2406

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1204:A 33-year-old single mother of two young children visits her physician because of an oral ulcer. A review of systems is significant for fatigue; myalgia; and joint pain. Laboratory results demonstrate leukopenia; and a hightitered antinuclear antibody. A speckled staining pattern due to anti-Sm is seen with immunofluorescence; urinary protein is elevated. What is the most likely diagnosis?
2407

Immunology Flash Facts

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

2408

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1205:(SYSTEM: IMMUNOLOGY; GENERAL PRINCIPLES); An experimental study on acne is performed using biopsy samples from acne pustules. The electron micrograph above illustrates one of the types of cells present in the wall of the pustules. What characteristic would most strongly suggest that the cell depicted above is a phagocytically active macrophage?
2409

Immunology Flash Facts

Presence of receptors for IgG and complement

2410

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1206:(SYSTEM: MICROBIOLOGY GENERAL PRINCIPLES); A 16-year-old high school cheerleader presents with low grade fever; pleuritic pain; and a nonproductive cough. Her serum agglutinates Streptococcus salivarius strain MG. Therapy should include ?

2411

Immunology Flash Facts

Erythromycin

2412

Q1207:(SYSTEM: IMMUNOLOGY; GENERAL PRINCIPLES); A 52-year-old woman reports to her family practitioner for an annual physical examination. She has been experiencing periods of heat intolerance; which she has attributed to the menopause. On examination; her physician notices that her eyeballs seem to be unusually protuberant and she has sinus tachycardia. Blood tests confirm that her T3/T4 levels are elevated. What is the mechanism of pathogenesis of her condition? 2413

Immunology Flash Facts

Immunology Flash Facts

Type II non-cytotoxic hypersensitivity

2414

Q1208:(SYSTEM: MICROBIOLOGY GENERAL PRINCIPLES); Immunology a hisjtroy of prostate A 70-year-old man with Flash Facts cancer presents with a chief complaint of pain on the right side of his chest for the past several days. He has been receiving external beam radiation to spinal metastases of his prostate cancer forj the past several weeks. On examination; there is marked tenderness along the right side of the chest wall in a 4-6 cm stripe from the midline to the flank. Multiple small vesicular lesions are visible in this area on an erythematous base. Some of the lesions are fluid2415 filled; and some are crusted. How do members of the virus family responsible for his condition

Immunology Flash Facts

By transcribing the genomic DNA

2416

Q1209:(SYSTEM: IMMUNOLOGY; GENERAL PRINCIPLES); A Immunology Flash Facts patient with Epstein-Barr virus lymphoma enrolls in an experimental protocol to stimulate production of CD8+ cells specific for his EBVtransformed cells. His peripheral blood cells are tested with a battery of anti-HLA; A; B; and C antibodies; followed by addition of complement; and trypan blue dye. The wells of the microtiter plate in which dye was taken up by the cells is shown below: (*picture*). What molecule implanted into the membrane of a culture of tissue fibroblasts enriched for expression of 2417 costimulatory molecules would serve to stimulate the most effective cytotoxic killing?

Immunology Flash Facts

EBNA plus HLA-A1

2418

Immunology Flash Facts Q1210:(SYSTEM: MICROBIOLOGY GENERAL PRINCIPLES); A 6-month-old infant is rushed to the emergency department because he seems to be having touble breathing. His mother was breast-feeding the child when she noticed that he seemed to be unable to suckle strongly; his eyelids were drooping; and his breaths were shallow and irregular. The child is placed on respiratory support immediately. The mother acknowledges adding honey to the infant's first solid foods. Where is the genetic coding for this toxin 2419 located?

Immunology Flash Facts

lysogenic phage genome

2420

Immunology Flash Facts Q1211:(SYSTEM: MICROBIOLOGY GENERAL PRINCIPLES); A colony of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is isolated on Thayer-Martin medium. Over the course of ten generations in culture; this strain produces a homogeneous antigenic type of pili. Lysates froma culture of N. gonorrhoeae with a different pilus type are added to the stable colonies. After overnight incubation; the bacteria are cloned; and their pilus expression is analyzed. In 50% of the new colonies; a new antigenic form of pili is now expressed. What has happened in these 2421 cultures?

Immunology Flash Facts

natural transformation

2422

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1212:(SYSTEM: IMMUNOLOGY; GENERAL PRINCIPLES); A couple brings their son into a specialty clinic for evaluation of recurrent bacterial infections involving the respiratory tract. Causative agents have included Streptococcus pneumoniae; and Hemophilus influenzae; in spite of current immunization status. Other family members have a similar disorder; as noted in the pedigree above. What is the most likely diagnosis?
2423

Immunology Flash Facts

Bruton agmmablobulinemia

2424

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1213:(SYSTEM: MICROBIOLOGY; RESPIRATORY); A 9month-old infant is brought to the pediatrician by her mother during a winter month. The child has a febrile illness; which has now become associated with labored breathing and wheezing. Auscultation of the chest reveals expiratory wheezes over both lung fields and there is clear tachypnea and tachycardia. What is the first thing that this causative agent virus does upon entering a cell?
2425

Immunology Flash Facts

It transcribes its genome into messenger RNA using a virion-associated RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

2426

Q1214:(SYSTEM: MICROBIOLOGY GENERAL PRINCIPLES); Immunology Flash Facts A 34-year-old HIV-positive man without previous opportunistic infections presents complaining of dyspnea with daily activity. He states that he has had a mild cough and fever but denies having had chills; sputum production; or chest discomfort. Physical examination is remarkable for oral thrush and a few small; nontender cervical lymph nodes. A chest x-ray film reveals bilateral interstitial infiltrates; and bronchoalveolar lavage reveals small silverstaining cysts. IN what other patient population 2427 in the U.S; is this organism a frequent cause of a life-threatening pneumonia?

Immunology Flash Facts

premature infants

2428

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1215:(SYSTEM: MICROBIOLOGY; RESPIRATORY); A newborn infant develops respiratory distress shortly after delivery and is taken to the neonatal intensive care unit for observation. The next day; she become febrile with persistent dyspnea and coughing. Sputum recovered by the respiratory therapist reveals numerous neutrophils and gram-negative rods that grow as pink colonies on MacConkey's agar. The infective organism most likely belong to what genera?
2429

Immunology Flash Facts

Escherichia

2430

Q1216:(SYSTEM: MICROBIOLOGY; NERVOUS); A 38-yearImmunology Flash Facts old AIDS patient presents to his physician's office in Kansas City; Missouri; complaining of fever for the past week and an increasing headache. He also states that sunlight hurts his eyes and that he has been feeling nauseated and weak. His past medical history is significant for Pneumocytis pneumonia and a total CD4 count of 89/mm3. Current medications are trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and indinavir. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reveals 4 WBC/mm3; and budding encapsulated yeast forms grown on 2431 Sabouraud's agar. What is an accurate description of the morphology of the infectious form of the

Immunology Flash Facts

Broad-based budding yeasts

2432

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1217:(SYSTEM: MICROBIOLOGY; NERVOUS); A 42-yearold heart transplant patient complains to her primary care physician about headache and nausea 14 months after transplant. A CT scan of the head shows ring-enhancing lesions. Bacterial; fungal; and viral cultures of the lesions are negative. A biopsy is performed; and a hematoxylin-eosin stain of the biopsied tissue reveals multiple cyst-like structures. How did the infection most likely arise?
2433

Immunology Flash Facts

Reactivation of latent infection

2434

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1218:(SYSTEM: IMMUNOLOGY; GENERAL PRINCIPLES). A 32-year-old medical technician had a history of acute eczematous dermatitis on her hands and wrist in the distribution of the latex gloves she wore. The skin of her hands was dry; crusted; and thickened. The eczematous reaction cleared after a 2-week vacation. After 72 hours back on the job; the eczematous dermatitis returned and continued to grow worse. What characterizes the technician's reaction to the latex gloves?
2435

Immunology Flash Facts

Type IV reaction

2436

Q1219:(SYSTEM: IMMUNOLOGY; GENERAL PRINCIPLES); A 15-year-old boy Immunology Flash Facts a pediatrician is evaluated by because of a history of multiple bacterial pneumonias. The boy had been apparently normal up until about age 12. In the last three years; he had had five episodes of bacterial pneumonia that were severe enough to require hospitalization. Chest x-ray films taken during the present evaluation demonstrates moderately severe bronchiectasis. A pilocarpine-induced sweat test is negative. T and B cell counts from peripheral blood are normal. Delayed hypersensitivity skin 2437 testing shows reactivity to Candida. Immunoglobulin studies demonstrate the following:

Immunology Flash Facts

Common variable immunodeficiency

2438

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1220:(SYSTEM: IMMUNOLOGY; GENERAL PRINCIPLES); A trauma victim in the emergency department requires a transfusion immediately. Type and cross-match tests reveal the following: (NO AGGLUTINATION WITH "PATIENT'S RBC PLUS SERUM FROM AB PERSON" and "Patient's serum plus [type A; B; AB; O; and RhD] RBC). What type of blood should the physician order for him?
2439

Immunology Flash Facts

AB; RhD+

2440

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1221:(SYSTEM: MICROBIOLOGY; RESPIRATORY); A 54year-old farmer in rural Pennsylvania presents to his physician with chronic cough. Chest x-ray demonstrates a mass lesion with hilar lymphadenopathy. Biopsy of the mass demonstrates multiple; tiny yeast forms within macrophages. What is the most likely diagnosis?
2441

Immunology Flash Facts

Histoplasmosis

2442

Immunology Flash Facts Q1222:(SYSTEM: IMMUNOLOGY; GENERAL PRINCIPLES); A 3-year-old male who is small for his age presents with a history of pyogenic infections. Physical examination is remarkable for a high fever; hepatosplenomegaly; and inguinal and cervical lymphadenopathy. A culture of a purulent discharge from an abscess grows out Staphylococcus aureus. Immunoglobulin and complement levels are normal. The boy received all of the standard immunizations without any adverse effects. The boy's immune deficiency most 2443 likely involves ?

Immunology Flash Facts

phagocytic cells

2444

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1223:A 2-day-old baby girl suddenly develops abdominal distention; progressive pallid cyanosis; and irregular respirations. The newborn also has "refused" to breast-feed for the past 18 hours. If the mother was treated for a serious infection with antibiotics for 14 days up to and including the day of delivery; what medication did the mother most likely receive?
2445

Immunology Flash Facts

Chloramphenicol

2446

Q1224:A previously healthy 18-month-old girl is brought to Immunology Flash with 2 days of the office Facts irritability; poor appetite; and pulling at her left ear. She has no known allergies; and her vaccinations are up-to-date. On examination; the child's temperature is 102.8 F. She is easily consoled by the mother and moves her neck spontaneously without discomfort. There is a clear discharge from the nares. The left tympanic membrane is erythematous; dull; and bulging. What virulence factor is generally ABSENT in the strains of the causative organisms that produce obits media; compared2447 with those that produce epiglotittis or meningitis?

Immunology Flash Facts

polyribitol phosphate

2448

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1225:A 35-year-old Cajun man living in the bayous of the Mississippi River basin near New Orleans develops a tuberculosis-like illness with formation of masses within the lungs. PPD is negative; but the histoplasmin skin test is positive. CT-guided biopsy of one of the lung masses would be most likely to demonstrate ?
2449

Immunology Flash Facts

2-5 micrometer yeast with a thin cell wall but no true capsule

2450

Q1226:A Washington; D.C; letter carrier is Immunology Flash Facts brought to the emergency department of a local hospital by his wife; who fears that he is having a heart attack. The man is suffering severe substernal pain accompanied by a fever of 40 C (104 F) and cough. ON radiographic examination; there is pronounced mediastinal widening. A sample of blood is cultured on blood agar; and nonhemolytic; rough gray colonies are produced. During what stage of the bacterial growth curve shown above would the maxiumum number of the infectious forms inhaled by this patient 2451 produced?

Immunology Flash Facts

stationary phase

2452

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1227:A 54-year-old man presents with complaints of shortness of breath; a sore tongue; and a "pins-and-needles" sensation in his feet. Laboratory examination revelas macrocytosis; anemia; and hypersegmented neutrophils. Antibodies to intrinsic factor are detected in the patient's serum. What class II antigen would be most likely to play a contributing role in the etiology of this patient's disease?
2453

Immunology Flash Facts

DR5

2454

Q1228:A sexually active 18-year-old woman presents with a fever of 38.9 C (102 F) for the past 24 hours and lower abdominal pain and anorexia for the past 5 days. ON physical examination; there is generalized tenderness of the abdomen; and the cervix is erythematous with motion tenderness. There is no rash nor any lesions on the external genitalia. A smear of the odorless cervical discharge contains sloughed epithelial cells and scant neutrophils. What would likely be found in the exudate? 2455

Immunology Flash Facts

Immunology Flash Facts

Iodine-staining intraepithelial inclusion bodies

2456

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1229:Approximately 1 week after starting therapy for a complicated urinary tract infection caused by Proteus mirabilis; a 13-year-old girl develops leg cramps; myalgia; and arthralgias. What medication was this patient most likely prescribed?

2457

Immunology Flash Facts

lomefloxacin

2458

Q1230:A 35-year old man develops hemiparesis; ataxia; homonymous hemianopa; and cognitive deterioration. An MRI of the brain demonstrates widespread areas of abnormal T2 signal in the white matter. An electroencephalogram is remarkable for diffuse slowing over both cerebral hemispheres. Brain biopsy revelas demyelination with abnormal oligodendrocytes; some of which contain eosinophilic inclusions. This patient's condition is most closely related to what diseases? 2459

Immunology Flash Facts

Immunology Flash Facts

AIDS

2460

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1231:A bacterium cultured from the bloodstream of an HIV-positive patient is determined by electron microscopy to possess an envelope. The basic structure of the envelop is diagrammed above. The culture isolate is subjected to Gram's staining. Provided that the laboratory technologist conducts this test properly what reagent will give this organism its primary color in the staining procedure?
2461

Immunology Flash Facts

Safranin

2462

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1232:A 3-year-old male presents with a skin rash and epistaxis. He has had several; severe sinopulmonary infections. A careful history reveals that his maternal uncle died of bleeding complications following an emergency cholecystectomy. What additional findings are likely in this case?
2463

Immunology Flash Facts

low platelet count and low serum IgM levels

2464

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1233:A 24-year-old woman presents with a 3-day history of fever; chills; chest pain; and cough productive of reddish-brown sputum. Past medical history includes a splenectomy 1 year ago. A chest x-ray film indicates consolidation of the right lower lobe. Blood cultures are positive for alpha-hemolytic gram-posotive diplococci. Immunity to the causative organism is based on ?
2465

Immunology Flash Facts

IgG antibodies to a surface acidic polysaccharide

2466

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1234:A British dairy farmer develops fever with chills; myalgia;s headache; skin rash; and vomiting. He is quite ill and is hospitalized. Blood cultures demonstrate tightly coiled; thin; flexible spirochetes shaped like a Shepherd's crook. The spirochetes are easily cultrued in serum-enriched nutrient agar. What organism should be suspected?
2467

Immunology Flash Facts

Leptospira interrogans

2468

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1235:A high school student badly burned in an automobile accident develops a skin lesions on the burn area during his hospitalization. What is the causative agent?

2469

Immunology Flash Facts

An oxidase-postive; aerobic; gram-negative bacillus

2470

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1236:A newborn infant has multiple; hemorrhagic; cutaneous lesions and does not respond to sound. Head CT scan shows periventricular calcifications. What infectious agent is the most likely cause of this child's presentation?

2471

Immunology Flash Facts

cytomegalovirus

2472

Immunology Flash is Q1237:A 9-month-old infantFacts brought to the Health Department to receive the second dose of OPV (ORAL POLIO VACCINE); 2 weeks after the first vaccination. The child has mild diarrhea; so the decision is made to defer further immunizations. Bacteriologic examination of a stool culture is unremarkable; however; a small; single-stranded positive RNA virus is isolated from the specimen. This same agent was isolated from sewage effluent the preceding week. The viral isolate was not inactiviated by ether. What viruse was most likely 2473 isolated?

Immunology Flash Facts

poliovirus

2474

Q1238:A 55-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes Immunology primary seeks treatment from herFlash Facts care physician for painful; burning urination. She is given a course of ampicillin; but returns to her physician a week later with complaints of fever and flank pain. At the time of her second visit; her temperature is 40 C (104 F); and she is tachycardic; with a blood pressure of 90/50 mm Hg. She has a petechial rash on her trunk and mucous membranes; and her fingertips show signs of peripheral vascular coagulopathy. A blood culture is positive for growth of gram-negative 2475 lactose-fermenting bacilli. What substance is the most likely cause of these symptoms?

Immunology Flash Facts

lipid A

2476

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1239:A neonate is born at term with multiple problems. He is small for gestational age and has cataracts; hepatosplenomegaly; and thrombocytopenia with purpura. Further studies demonstrate patent ductus arteriosus; bone lucency; pneumonia; and meningoencephalitis. The mother is a 15-year-old girl who had no prenatal care and had a mild maculopapular rash in midpregnancy. What is the most likely diagnosis?
2477

Immunology Flash Facts

congenital rubella

2478

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1240:A young military recruit scheduled for overseas assignment begins a course of immunization. The corpsman administering the inoculations warns the private that one of these immunizations is likely to cause swelling and inflammation 24-48 hours after injection and therefore should be administered in his nondominant arm. To what vaccine is the corpsman referring?
2479

Immunology Flash Facts

tetanus

2480

Q1241:A 3-year-old child with cystic fibrosis presents with weight loss; irritability; and a chronic productive cough. On physical exam; he is febrile and lung exam reveals intercostal retractions; wheezing; rhonchi; and rales. Chest x-ray demonstrates pathy infiltrates and atelectasis and Gram's stain of the sputum reveals slighly curved; motile gram-negative rods that grow aerobically. The microorganism responsible for this child's pneumonia is also the most common cause of what disease? 2481

Immunology Flash Facts

Immunology Flash Facts

otitis externa

2482

Q1242:A 14-year-old patient is brough in by his parents because of a sore throat. ON physical examination; he is febirle; and has pharyngeal erythemia with a tonsillar absscess. A throat culture on sheep blood agar yields colonies of gram-positive cocci that are surrounded by a zone of complete hemolysis. The organism was also plated on mannitol salt agar; it grew well and cuased the medium to turn yellow. What microorganism is the most likely cause of the patient's illness? 2483

Immunology Flash Facts

Immunology Flash Facts

Staphylococcus aureus

2484

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1243:An 18-year-old man is evaulated for possible immunodeficiency disease because of a life-long history of chronic lung infections; recurrent otitis media; and multiple episodes of bacterial meningitis. While total IgG is normal; the patient is found to have a selective deficiency of IgG2. IgG2 deficiency is most likely to be associated with a deficiency of what substance?
2485

Immunology Flash Facts

IgA

2486

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1244:An 8-year-old child is brought in by her mother with complaints of crampy abdominal pain; nausea; and mild diarrhea for approximately 2 weeks. The day before this visit; she vomited up a cylindrical white worm 30 cm in length; which the mother preserved in a jar. What is the most likely means by which this organism was acquired?
2487

Immunology Flash Facts

ingestion of eggs from human feces

2488

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1245:A 38-year-old primigravid woman in her second trimester of pregnancy complains to her obstetrician of urinary frequency and burning. A clean catch specimen of urine is obtained and submitted to the laboratory for culture; Gram's stain; and biochemical analysis. Urease-positive gram-negative bacilli with smarming motility are detected. Where is the proton-motive force that generates energy for flagella located in this organism?
2489

Immunology Flash Facts

Cytoplasmic membrane

2490

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1246:An autopsy is performed on a man who suddenly began vomiting voluminous quantitis of blood and exanguinated. The man's stomach is presnted in the accompanying photograph. What organism is most likely implicated in the pathogenesis of this disease?

2491

Immunology Flash Facts

Helicobacter pylori

2492

Immunology Flash Facts Q1247:A new vaccine developed by the military protects recruits against respiratory infections causes by adenovirus serotypes 4 and 7. The virus; which is living and non-attenuated; is delivered in an enteric coated capsule. It establishes an asymptomatic intestinal infection; which stimulations production of memory cells that disseminate throughout the body to protect all the mucosal surfaces from subseuqnt respiratory attack. What cytokine produced as a result of this vaccination is most likely to 2493 induce a protective response?

Immunology Flash Facts

Interleukin-5

2494

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1248:A 73-year-old woman with a history of diabetes presents with left ear pain and drainage of pus from the ear canal. She has swelling and tenderness over the left mastoid bone. What microorganism is the most likely causative agent?

2495

Immunology Flash Facts

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

2496

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1249:A 7-year-old girl develops behavioral changes; and her performance in school begins to deteriorate. Several months later; she develops a seizure disorder; ataxia; and focal neurologic symptoms. She is eventually quadriparetic; spastic; and unresponsive. Death occurs within a year. This patient may have had what viral disease at 1 year of age?
2497

Immunology Flash Facts

Measles

2498

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1250:A 36-year-old farmer has been exposed to poison ivy on several different occasions and usually develops severe skin lesions. He enrolls in an immunological study at an urban medical center. A flow cytometric measurement of T cells rev3eals values within the normal range. An increased serum concentration of what cytokines would decrease the likelihood of a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in this individual?
2499

Immunology Flash Facts

IL-10

2500

Q1251:An 8-year-old boy is brought to the Immunology Flash history of fever of emergency room with a 3-day Facts 102 degrees F and abdominal pain. He also complains of pain in hbis right knee and right elbow. He was seen four weeks ago because of a sore throat and a rash. A throat culture performed at that time grew gram-positive cocci in chains. Amoxicillin was prescribed; but the boy's mother did not fill the prescription. ON physical examination; his temp is 38.7 C (101.7 F); HR is 96; and BP is 100/60. Cardiac examination reveals a pansystolic blowing murmur heard best at the apex.2501 right elbow is tender His on extension and flexion with mild swelling.

Immunology Flash Facts

sensitivity to bacitracin

2502

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1252:A traveler to a foreign country develops acute lymphatic filariasis four months after his return to the United States. His symptoms include scrotal inflammation; itching; and localized scrotal swelling and tenderness of the inguinal lymph nodes. What immune mechanism does the body employ against the live filarial worms?
2503

Immunology Flash Facts

Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytoxocitiy

2504

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1253:A Malaysian famiy is referred to a specialist in Memphis; Tennessee for evaluation of a possible genetic immunologic defect. 4 of 6 of the members of this family have displayed increased susceptibility to extracellular bacteria and elevated serum levels of IgM and IgG. Analysis of serum complement protein levels reveals near absence of component C4. This deficiency would inhibit whihc of the following complement activities?
2505

Immunology Flash Facts

Completion of the classic pathway to the splitting of C3

2506

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1254:A 15-year-old boy presents to his physician with several weeks of slowly worsening pruritis of both of his feet. He is otherwise well and taking no medications. On examination; he has bilateral; erythematous; dry scaling lesions that are most obvious in the interdigital web spaces and on the soles. There is no bleeding or exudate. What would most likely be found in a potassium hydroxide (KOH) mount of a scraping of the affected skin?
2507

Immunology Flash Facts

Branching; septate hyphae with arthroconidia

2508

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1255:A 12-year-old girl presents with a skin abscess. The causative organism is found to be Staphylococcus aureus. Over the past year; she has had several similar abscesses; as well as two bouts of aspergillosis. What is the most likely explanation for her repeated infections?

2509

Immunology Flash Facts

Defective NAPDH oxidase

2510

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1256:A 38-year-old woman with SLE is seen by her family physician. On her last visit; he sent blood to the laboratory for an antinuclear antibody panel. Based on the results; he recommends that the patient by seen by a nephrologist. A high titer of autoantibodies directed against what antigen most likely prompted his decision?
2511

Immunology Flash Facts

Double-stranded DNA (dsDNA)

2512

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1257:A small 9-month-old male with a history of recurrent pyogenic infections is seen in a clinic. Immunoglobulin levels and a CBC are performed. The CBC is normal except for slight neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Determination of immunoglobulin levels indicates elevated IgM; but deficiencies of IgG and IgA. The underlying defect involves whihc of the following molecules?
2513

Immunology Flash Facts

CD40 ligand (CD40L) on the T cell

2514

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1258:A 21-year-old college student from Connecticut with a past history of Lyme disease presents with chronic pain and swelling in his right knee. He states that he has had problems with the knee for the past two years. What HLA allele would you expect to be present in this individual?
2515

Immunology Flash Facts

HLA-DR4

2516

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1259:A 33-year-old woman presents with fever; vomiting; severe irritative voiding symptoms; and pronounced costovertebral angle tenderness. Laboratory evaulation reveals leukocytosis with a left shift; blood cultures indicate bacteremia. Urinalysis shows pyuria; mild hematuria; and gram-negative bacteria. What drug would best treat this patient's infection?
2517

Immunology Flash Facts

Ampicillin and gentamicin

2518

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1260:A 44-year-old white female presents with severe Raynaud's phenomenon; dysphagia; and sclerodactyly; and facial and palmar telangiectasis. What autoantibody is most likely to be present in this patient?

2519

Immunology Flash Facts

Anti-centromere antibody

2520

Q1261:A 6-year-old boy presents with a rash that started as a superficial accumulation of several small vesicles on his legs below the knees. He is afebrile and appears normal; other than these lesions. The child lives in the suburbs and often plays outside in the local woods in short pants. The lesions are honey-brown and crusted; with an erythematous base; and are in various stages of crusting and openness. What is the most important laboratory test to distinguish between the genera of potential causative agents for this condition? 2521

Immunology Flash Facts

Immunology Flash Facts

Catalase test

2522

Q1262:A research laboratory is studying mechanisms of immunity to Babesia microti in mice. Cells from immune mice are separated by flow cytometry; using fluorescently labeled anibodies directed against a variety of cell surface markers. Infected red blood cells are then added to the separated populations of immune cells and observed for lysis in the absence of complement. What cell surface marker would be most useful in identifying a cell capable of lysing infected cells in this system? 2523

Immunology Flash Facts

Immunology Flash Facts

CD56

2524

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1263:What is more frequently associated with Klebsiella pneumoniae than with Pseudomonas aeruginosa?

2525

Immunology Flash Facts

upper lobe cavitation

2526

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1264:A 46-year-old woman presents with complaints of feeling as if she has "sand in her eyes" and reports difficulty swallowing such foods as crackers or toast. A biopsy of an enlarged salivary gland reveals lymphocytic infiltration. There is hperplasia of the ductal linings and signs of fibrosis and hyalinization of the acini. What pair of tests would likely yield positive results in this patient?
2527

Immunology Flash Facts

Rheumatoid factor and anti-SS-A antibody

2528

Q1265:A 26-year-old obstetric patient becomes Immunology Flash Facts acutely ill during her first trimester with infectious mononucleosis-like symptms; but her heterophil antibody test was negative. A careful history reveals that the family has two cats in the house. The approprate laboratory tests indicate the expectant mother is infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Months later; the woman delivers a full-term baby with no obvious signs of infection with the protozoan parasite. The best test to diagnose acute infection in the neonate would be a parasite-specific ELISA for 2529 which isotype of immunoglobulin?

Immunology Flash Facts

IgM

2530

Immunology Flash Facts Q1266:An infectious disease specialist in New York City is conducting a study of the effect of cytokine administration on the progression of multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis in HIVpositive patients. A variety of cytokines produced by recombinant DNA are aerosolized and administered twice daily to a group of 20 individuals. Treatment progress is monitored by chest x-ray and sputum culture. What cytokine is likely to have the most beneficial effect on macrophage intracellular killing of the 2531 mycobacteria?

Immunology Flash Facts

Interferon-gamma

2532

Q1267:A 39-year-old black man presents with Immunology malaise; complaints of anorexia; Flash Facts fatigue; dark urine; and upper abdominal discomfort. He admits to homosexuality; but denies blood transfusions; alcohol intake; or intravenous drug abuse. On physical examination; the patient has a temperature of 100.2 degrees F; scleral icterus; and jaundice. His liver is palpable below the right costal margin; and there is moderate right upper quadrant tenderness. Liver function test results are as follows: total bilirubin 12.4% SGOT 980 units; SGPT 1200 units. Serologic 2533 findings are as follows: anti-hepatitis A IgM negative; HBsAg positive; anti-HBc IgM positive;

Immunology Flash Facts

He will become HBsAg negative

2534

Q1268:An autopsy Immunology Flash Facts homeless middleperformed on a aged man demonstrates scattered small nodules within the apex of the right lung. On histologic examination; these nodules are composed of collections of large epithelioid macrophages and multinucleated giant cells; surrounded by lymphocytes and fibroblasts. Caseating necrosis is seen in some of these lesions; and acid-fast bacilli are demonstrated with appropriate staining. What mediators is responsible for the devleopment of epithelioid macrophages and multinucleated giant2535 cells in this context?

Immunology Flash Facts

Interferon-gamma

2536

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1269:A 30-year-old woman presents to a physician with a prominent rash over her nose and cheeks. She also has complaints of fever; malaise; and muscle soreness of several months duration. Serologic studies demonstrate positive ANA with autoantibodies to double-stranded DNA. This patient's probable condition is associated with what HLA type?
2537

Immunology Flash Facts

HLA-DR2 and HLA-DR3

2538

Immunology Flash presents to her Q1270:A 16-year-old girlFacts physician complaining of redness and a yellowish discharge from her left eye for the past 2 days. She reports minimal crusting upon awakening and denies eye pain or previous trauma. Upon examination; there is diffuse conjunctival hyperemia associated with a mucoid discharge. The pupils dilate normally; although there is mild photophobia in the affected eye. Gram's stain of the exudate shows pleomorphic; gram-negative bacilli. To culture this organism with whole 2539 blood agar; what must be used?

Immunology Flash Facts

Staphylococcus aureus

2540

Immunology Flash Facts Q1271:A 22-year-old woman presents with a 1-week history of mild lower abdominal pain and a yellowish vaginal discharge. She describes the pain as dull in nature; relieved slightly by acetaminophen and worsened by intercourse. Pelvixc examination reveals a red; swollen cervix without motion tenderness. The mucosas is friable. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) mount is negative; and wet mount does not reveal clue cells. Gram's stain of the exudate reveals gramnegative cocci. What procedure would most likely 2541 lead to the correct diagnosis?

Immunology Flash Facts

Order DNA probe assays of endocervical exudates

2542

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1272:A new laboratory technologist receives an orientation on her first day of hospital employment. She is instructed on accepted procedures for biohazardous waste disposal. All reusable glassware is subjected to 20 minutes at 121 C at 15 pounds pressure. What would retain pathogenicity following this treatment?
2543

Immunology Flash Facts

Endotoxin

2544

Immunology Flash boy Q1273:An 8-month-old babyFacts is evaluated because of repeated episodes of pneumococcal pneumonia. Serum studies demonstrate very low levels of IgM; IgG; and IgA. Flow cytometry of peripheral blood cells demonstrates a near absence of CD19+ cells; although levels of CD4+ and CD56+ cells are within normal limits. Studies of the bone marrow reveal abnormally high numbers of cells with cytoplasmic mu chains; but none bearing surface IgM molecules. This patient's condition is thought to be related to a 2545 deficiency of what protein?

Immunology Flash Facts

tyrosine kinase

2546

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1274:A patient with colorectal cancer develops septicemia complicated by endocarditis. You would expect the blood cultures to grow:

2547

Immunology Flash Facts

Streptococcus bovis

2548

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1275:A 24-year-old male Asian immigrant presents with an ulcerative genital lesion. The lesion first appeared 1 month ago as a papule with an erythematous base; which eventually became ulcerated and painful. On physical examination; the man is afebrile. A tender ulcerative lesion is present on his prepuce; and inguinal adenopathy is evident. What would be the most likely microscopic finding in a scraping from the rash.
2549

Immunology Flash Facts

Pleomorphic gram-negative rods in parallel short chains

2550

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1276:What is the role of class II MHC proteins on donor cells in the process of graft rejection?

2551

Immunology Flash Facts

They are recognized by helper T cells; which then activate cytotoxic T cells to kill the donor donor cells.

2552

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1277:A psychotic; indigent man with a history of multisubstance abuse has been involuntarily hospitalized for 1 week. Because of persistent diarrhea; stools are sent for ova and parasites; revealing numerous granular; spherical; thinwalled cysts measuring 10-20 micrometeres in diameter. Trichrome stains show up to four nuclei in most of the cysts. These findings are consistent with an infection by what organism?
2553

Immunology Flash Facts

Entamoeba histolytica

2554

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1278:A 35-year-old woman presents to her gynecologist with complains of burning on urination for the past 2 days. Dipstick test of her urine demonstrates marked positivity for leukocyte esterase; but no reactivity for nitrite. Urine culture later grows out large numbers of organisms. What bacteria are most likely to be responsible for this patient's infection?
2555

Immunology Flash Facts

Enterococcus faecalis

2556

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1279:A ten-year-old immigrant child from Haiti is brought to a free clinic complaining of shortness of breath; wheezing; exertional dyspnea; and occasional urticaria. A fecal examination for ova and parasites is positive for numerous golden-brown; oval; rough-shelleed nematode eggs. Sputum samples are positive for nematode larvae and eosinophilic infiltrates. What is the mechanism of this child's lung symptoms?
2557

Immunology Flash Facts

Type I hypersensitivity

2558

Q1280:A 7-month-old child is hospitalized for a yeast infection that does not respond to therapy. The patient has a history of multiple; acute pyogenic infections. Physical examination reveals that the spleen and lymph nodes are not palpable. A differential WBC count shows 95%$ neutrophils; 1 % lymphocytes; and 4% monocytes. A bone marrow biopsy contains no plasma cells or lymphocytes. A chest x-ray reveals the absence of a thymic shadow. Tonsils are absent. These findings are most consistent with: 2559

Immunology Flash Facts

Immunology Flash Facts

severe combined immunodeficiency

2560

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1281:A 23-year-old woman presents to the emergency room with pelvic pain. A Gram's stain of her cervical discharge reveals multiple polymorphonuclear leukocytes; but none contain gram-negaitve diplococci. What statement best describes the two organisms that most commonly cause this disorder?
2561

Immunology Flash Facts

Both induce endocytosis by epithelial cells

2562

Q1282:A 54-year-old HIV-positive homosexual is brought to theImmunology Flash department by his emergency Facts partner because of a sudeen detioration of mental acuity. He complains of headache; and at the time of examination; has nuchal rigidity; time-place disorientation; and marked confusion. Lumbar puncture reveals 100 white blood cells; 80% lymphocytes; protein = 85 mg/dL; and glucose = 45 mg/dL. A simultaneous blood glucose is 90 mg/dL. After the attending physician treats a drop of cerebrospinal fluid with a particulate dye; microscopic examination reveals the structures 2563 shown above. What would most likely confirm the diagnosis?

Immunology Flash Facts

urease positivity

2564

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1283:A perimenopausal woman elects to have her intrauterine device (IUD) removed. She has been experiencing unusual vaginal discharge for the past six months. When removed; the IUD is covered with yellowish flecks. What is most likely to be cultured from the IUD?

2565

Immunology Flash Facts

Actinomyces israelii

2566

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1284:A 54-year-old diabetic patient reports to his physician's office complaining of an unresolved skin lesion on his foot. The lesion began several weeks ago as a blister and has since become a painful; erosive; expanding sore. On examination; the affected site is now 5 cm in diameter; with a black necrotic center and raised red edges. What toxin has a mechanism of action most similar to the toxin responsible for tissue damage in this patient?
2567

Immunology Flash Facts

diptheria toxin

2568

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1285:A 32-year-old woman consults her gynecologist because of fever and progressively severe pain in her left lower abdominal quadrant. The pain began several days ago; shortly after the onset of her menses. Pelvic examination demonstrates bilateral adnexal tenderness; much more marked on the left than the right. What is the most likely pathogen?
2569

Immunology Flash Facts

Neisseria

2570

Q1286:A 33-year-old G1P0 female at 6 months gestation returns from a visit to her parent's house in Arizona. Approximately 7 days following her return; she develops axillary lymphadenopathy and a low-grade fever. Her physician notices a small papule and healing scratch on her arm on the affected side. The patient states that she has pet birds at home; and there was a new kitten at her mother's house. She does not remember receiving the scratch. What organism is most likely responsible for this illness? 2571

Immunology Flash Facts

Immunology Flash Facts

Bartonella henselae

2572

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1287:The mother of a 5-year-old girl claims that her stepfather may have had inappropriate sexual contact with the girl. Physical examination reveals an intact hymnen and no evidence of trauma. A vaginal swab is negative for acid phosphatase and reveals only normal flora. What organism was most likely isolated?
2573

Immunology Flash Facts

Staphylococcus aureus

2574

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1288:During the course of a pre-employment physical; a registered nurse receives an intradermal inoculation of tuberculin. During her employment in Pakistan; she was vaccinated with BCG (Bacille Calmet-Gueirn). At 48 hours; there is an 8 cm zone of erythema and induration over the injection site. What is the most important costimulatory signal involved in the elicitation of this response?
2575

Immunology Flash Facts

B7 molecules interacting with CD 28

2576

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1289:A 4-year-old child presnts to a physician with purpura. Questioning of the mother revleas that the child has a history of eczema and recureent pneumococcal pneumonia. Blood studies demonstrate thrombocytopenia and a selective decrease in IgM. Patients with this disorder have a 12% change of developing what potentially fatal malignancies?
2577

Immunology Flash Facts

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

2578

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1290:A 35-year-old woman consults an ophthalmologist because of double vision and droopy eyelids. She also has complaints of generalized muscle weakness. IV injection of edrophonium dramatically; but only briefly; reverses her symptoms. This patient's most probably disease has a pathophysiologic basis that is closest to that of what condition?
2579

Immunology Flash Facts

Insulin resistance

2580

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1291:A 23-year-old man develops explosive watery diarrhea with blood; fecal leukocytes; and mucus approximately 3 days after eating chicken that was improperly cooked. Curved rods were found in the fecal smear along with red blood cells and leukocytes. What pathogen is the most likely cause of these symptoms?
2581

Immunology Flash Facts

Campylobacter jejuni

2582

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1292:A 16-year-old girl presents with a painfully enlarged lymph node in her right axilla. Peripheral blood counts are within normal limits. The lymph node is biopsied; and numerous granulomas filled with neutrophils and necrotic debris are observed. What organism could produce this disease?
2583

Immunology Flash Facts

Bartonella henselae

2584

Immunology Flash is Q1293:A 4-year-old child Facts referred to a specialist for the diagnosis of a potential immunologic defect. Since the age of 14 months; he has been plagued with repeated infections with Candida; Staphylococcus; and Klebsiella. At the present time; the child is suffering from a large; painful boil on one knee. Peripheral blood leukocytes have a negative neutrophil oxidative index. Culture of the pus of the boil grows Staphylococcus aureus. Which intracellular killing mechanism is still operation in 2585 phagocytic cells in this abscess?

Immunology Flash Facts

defensins

2586

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1294:A composite virus is created in a laboratory. The capsid of coxsackie virus A is used to deliver the naked genomic material of five viruses to appropate target cells. After 24 hours in culture; the total virus per culture is determined. Use of which of the folloiwng viruses' naked genomic material in this fashion would result in the absence of progeny viruses?
2587

Immunology Flash Facts

Reovirus

2588

Q1295:A family is referred to a genetic counseling clinic because one of the parents is discovered to have a reciprocal translocation involving chromosomes 14 and 22. One of the children of the family received an unbalanced chromosome complements; resulting in a partial monosomy of one chromosome. The chromosome for whichere there is a monosomy is shown to be one encoding immunoglobulin genes. Such an event could result in the loss of what pair of genes involved in the synthesis of immunoglobulins? 2589

Immunology Flash Facts

Immunology Flash Facts

C gene for gamma chain and C gene for alpha chain

2590

Q1296:A 6-year-old child is taken to a Immunology severe pediatrician because of aFlash Facts sore throat that is accompanied by a rash. Examination of the head and neck reveals pharyngeal injection; swollen; bright red tonsils with discrete white spots on the surface; and enlarged anterior cervical lymph nodes. Examination of the skin reveals a diffuse; erythematous; symmetrical rash that blanches on pressure; has a slightly rough sand-paper like texture; and is most prominent on the neck; chest; and folds of the axilla; elbow; and groin. The strain of the organism that produces the child's disease would 2591 most likely to differ be from a less pathogenic strain of the same

Immunology Flash Facts

By containing a phage

2592

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1297:A patient with chronic active hepatitis B develops a low-grade fever and a generalized petechial rash. Routine urinalysis detects proteinuria. Needle biopsy of the kidney demonstrates the presence of irregular deposits of antigen-antibody complexes with underlying areas of neutrophilic infiltration and tubular damage. What is most important in the removal of these immune complexes from the blood stream?
2593

Immunology Flash Facts

C3b

2594

Q1298:A 27-year-old woman presents to the emergency department complaining of 10-12 episodes of nonbloody diarrhea per day for the past 2 days; along with severe abdominal cramsp; nausea; vomiting; and a low-grade fever. She states that she just returned from a vacation to Mexico. While in Mexico; she did not drink any of the local water and ate only cooked foods and a few fresh salads. If fecal leukocytes are present; the patient should most likely be empericially treated with: 2595

Immunology Flash Facts

Immunology Flash Facts

Ciprofloxacin

2596

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1299:Two weeks after birth; a neonate develops sepsis; skin vesicles; and conjunctivitis. Over the next several days; the baby's condition deteriorates with development of seizures; cranial nerve palsies; and lethargy. The baby dies approximately one week after onset of symptoms. What infectious agent would most likely cause this clinical presentation?
2597

Immunology Flash Facts

Herpes simplex

2598

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1300:A 33-year-old woman begins seeing a new boyfriend. Several weeks later; a week after her menstrual period; the woman develops a painful; swollen right knee. The most likely causative organism has what characteristic?

2599

Immunology Flash Facts

Can live within neutrophils

2600

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1301:A 27-year-old woman has a pruritic linear; vesicular rash on her leg. The rash developed 16 hours after she returned from a hiking trip. It began as a swollen; erythematous streak that developed into extremely itchy bliasters. She goes on hiking and camping trips twice a year and has experienced similar episodes in the past. The rash is most likely a result of what mechanism?
2601

Immunology Flash Facts

Release of lymphokines from sensitized lymphocytes

2602

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1302:A 32-year-old female who is 6 months pregnant presents for prenatal care. A routine evaluation is performed; including testing for HIV antibody. The patient is reported to be negative for RPR; but positive for HIV antibody by the enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA). The HIV Western blot is positive for antibody to the p24 antigen. The patient should be counseled:
2603

Immunology Flash Facts

to have an HIV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test performed

2604

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1303:A 57-year-old man presents with an episode of shaking chills the previous night. He has now developed right-sided pleuritic chest pain; fever; sweats; malaise; purulent sputum; and mild hemoptysis. On examination; the patient is diaphoretic but alert; with right basilar rales. Chest X-ray films show a right lower lobe infiltrate with blunting of the right costophrenic angle. Why is this patient's sputum filled with pus?
2605

Immunology Flash Facts

Teichoic acids and peptidoglycan are chemotactic for neutrophils

2606

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1304:A medical virology laboratory coinfects cells in a tissue culture flask with Influenza A (H3N2) and Influenza A (H1N1). The flask is incubated for 48 hours; and the progeny viruses are analyzed. Four distinct variants of Influenza A are isolated: H3N2; H1N1; H3N1; and H1N2. What viral attribute made the production of H3N1 and H1N2 variants possible?
2607

Immunology Flash Facts

segmented genome

2608

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1305:A newborn is infected in utero with an enveloped virus containing double-stranded DNA. The child develops petechiae; hepatosplenomegaly; and jaundice. Brain calcifications are detected on CT. With what viruse is the newborn most likely infected?

2609

Immunology Flash Facts

Cytomegalovirus

2610

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1306:A 4-year-old child is brought into your clinic by his mother. A week ago; the child received an MMR vaccine; and now the child has an unusual rash; as show here. What is the most likely explanation for this occurrence?

2611

Immunology Flash Facts

A latent infection in the child has been reactivated

2612

Q1307:A research laboratory studying virus life cycles has created a continuous culture of bovine kidney fibroblasts that are suitable hosts for a large variety of viral agents. In one experiment; the nuclei of these cells are removed by cytosurgery; and various viral agents are added to the cultures. Following culture of the viruses with the enucleated cells; the yield of cytopathic units of virus is quantified. What viruse would be capable of replication in enucleated cells? 2613

Immunology Flash Facts

Immunology Flash Facts

Poliovirus

2614

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1308:Six days after receiving several flea bites in a rat-infested shed in Southeastern New Mexico; a homeless 24-year-old man develops fever; chills; and a rash that spreads from his abdomen to cover his extremities. He is seen at the local hospital emergency department; where blood is drawn for analysis. Eight days later; the public health department reports the presence of antibody to one of the rickettsial group antigens. What is the most likely diagnosis?
2615

Immunology Flash Facts

ENdemic typhus

2616

Q1309:A 68-year-old man presents to his physician Immunology Flash Facts with complaints of fatigue and night sweats. Physical examination is remarkable for generalized lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly. A complete blood count shows anemia; thrombocytopenia; and neutropenia. A peripheral blood smear shows numerous small lymphocytes; some of which appear to have been disrupted during the process of making the smear. Which marker or markers is most likely present on the abnormal cells and could be used to specifically identify such cells in a flow 2617 cytometric analyzer?

Immunology Flash Facts

CD 19 and CD 20

2618

Immunology Flash Facts Q1310:A 28-year-old male intravenous drug user presents with a febrile illness that has lasted 2 weeks. He also complains of chills; weakness; dyspnea; cough; arthralgia; diarrhea; and abdominal pain. On examination; a heart murmur is present; and small; tender nodules are found on the finger and toe pads; along with small hemorrhages on the palms and soles. Three sets of blood cultures are obtained from different veins. While awaiting laboratory confirmation; an emperic antibiotic regimen should primarily be directed at 2619 organism? what

Immunology Flash Facts

Staphylococcus aureus

2620

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1311:A 22-year-old male military recruit complains of a headache and stiff neck. He is examined; blood is drawn; and a lumbar puncture performed. The glucose in the CSF is 100 mg/dL; and the serum glucose is 120 mg/dL. The CSF shows 3 lymphocytes and 0 neutrophils/microliter. What conclusion concerning the interpretation of these findings is most accurate?
2621

Immunology Flash Facts

There is no evidence for meningitis

2622

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1312:A 67-year-o0ld woman in a skilled nursing facility complains of flu-like symptoms. After several days; she develops high fever; dyspnea; and a productive cough. The nurses also notice mental status changes; and she is transported to the nearby community hospital. A chest x-ray shows a cavitary lesion in her left lung. What organism would most likely be identified from examination of her sputum?
2623

Immunology Flash Facts

Staphylococcus aureus

2624

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1313:A sexually active 25-year-old man develops epididymitis and orchitis. Needle biopsy demonstrates a prominent leukocytic infiltrate with numerous neutrophils. What organism is the most likely cause of this man's infection?

2625

Immunology Flash Facts

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

2626

Immunology Flash Facts Q1314:A 67-year-old man with moderate renal dysfunction presents with influenza-like symptoms. The patient also has a red macular rash that first appeared on the ankles; then spread centrally. He reports nausea; vomiting; and profound restlessness. He states that he was recently hiking with some friends in the mountains; about a week ago. Rickettsia rickettsiae is demonstrated by immunohistochemistry on skin biopsy. What agent would be most appropriate to treat this patient's 2627 infection?

Immunology Flash Facts

Doxycycline

2628

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1315:A 57-year-old fisherman with a history of alcoholism is hospitalized in Gulfport; Mississippi with a 1-day history of severe; watery diarrhea after eating several raw oysters. He is badly dehydrated on admission; and has numerous fluid-filled vesicular lesions on his legs. Within 12 hours; he becomes severely hypotensive and dies. What pathogen is the most likely cause of this man's death?
2629

Immunology Flash Facts

Vibrio vulnificus

2630

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1316:A man presents to a dermatologist because of a severe mucocutaneous rash that involves most of his body; including his palms and soles. Questioning revleas that he is a merchant marine who; several months previously; had an encounter with a prostitute in Southeast Asia. What is the most likely causative agent of this rash?
2631

Immunology Flash Facts

Treponemia palldium

2632

Immunology Flash Facts

Q1317:A number of encapsulated organisms are capable of entering the body across the respiratory mucosa. If these organisms enter the bloodstream; delivery to the meninges is a risk. Streptococcus pneumoniae; Hemophilus influenzae; Neisseria meningitidis; and Cryptococcus neoformans are all capable of making this transition. What is the most important immunological protective mechanisn against such blood-borne encapsulated organisms?
2633

Immunology Flash Facts

IgG-mediated osponization in the spleen

2634

Q1318:A 24-year-old man presents with fever; rash; a mild headache; and a sore throat. He denies HIV risk factors; although he is sexually active. On examination; his temperature is 100.8 degrees Fahrenheit; and his pulse is 90/minute. There is a diffuse; erythematous; maculopapular rash over most of his body. Generalized adenopathy is appreciated; and photophobia is noted when fundoscopic examination is attempted. If this man is not treated; what change in his serologic status will most likely occur? 2635

Immunology Flash Facts

Immunology Flash Facts

The VDRL titer would fall

2636

Immunology Flash Facts Q1319:A 25-year-old man presents with a high fever and generalized malaise. His condition deteriorates so rapidly that his friends decide to take him to the emergency department 24 hours after the onset of symptoms. He has a history of intravenous drug abuse. A test for anti-HIV antibodies is negative. Phbysical examination reveals a systolic murmur; and echocardiography shows bulky vegetations attached to the tricuspid valve leaflets. What microorganism will be most likely isolated from this patient's blood 2637 cultures?

Immunology Flash Facts

Staphylococcus aureus

2638

Immunology Flash Facts Q1320:A 10-year-old boy is attending summer camp in Texas. After 2 weeks of camp; he complains of a sore throat; headache; cough; and malaise. On physical examination; he also has a low-grade fever; and keratoconjunctivitis. Within hours; several other campers and counselors visit the infirmary with similar symptoms. All of the patients had been swimming in the camp swimming pool. Eventually; more than 50% of the camp complain of symptoms similar to the initial case that last 5 to 7 days. What is the most likely 2639 causative organism?

Immunology Flash Facts

Adenovirus

2640