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.2

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.4

14

4.1

16

4.2

23

4.3

28

.5

29

.6

30

.1:

.


.
:



:
% 1
.

.2
2.1

.

.



( )diminishing return

.

2.2 :



:
( ...)
:





.


.

( ) 1



.

( ...)

() 1

2.2:

2.2 (:)Sampling Frame






...

(.)incidence level
2.2 (:)Sampling Unit
.

( ) .


2.2 :



.

.2 (:)Sample size calculation




:
-1 :

-2 :

-3 ( ).




.
-4 (level

)Confidence


09
099 09
09
.



%5 = .% 05
( ) 499
0999
%5 = % 05 %09

( %55 )%05
%05
05
( %55 .)%05

-0

-0

-3

-4


10000 %5 %95
:

3502093094390955
3502093094390955
3502093094390955
3502049904059900

370




( )370
:
http://www.surveysystem.com/sscalc.htm


.

( )
(
( )

( )X ( )n .
1 1
( ) .
370

= 520

370

.% 95

( )Google
[1/ square root 370 multiplied by 100] :


( )370
.

.4 :


.

:
2.1 (:)Probability Sampling

:
4.1.1 ()Simple Random Sampling
4.1.2 ()Systematic Sampling
4.1.3 ( )Stratified Random Sampling
4.1.4 ()Cluster Sampling
4.1.5 ()Square block 1 Sampling

()Random route , Random Location, GRID

2.2 (:)Non- Probability Sampling




:
4.2.1 ()Quota Sampling
4.2.2 ()Snowball Sampling
4.2.3 ()Judgment or Purposive Sampling
4.2.4 ()Convenience 1 Sampling
.

()Haphazard Sampling , Accidental Sampling

4.1 ()Probability Sampling


4.1.1 ()Simple Random Sampling

.


( ).
:

.
: ()

500
100
( )
500 ... 1


.

4.1.2 ()Systematic Sampling


(
)
.

.
: 2000
13 20
13 ()20+13
()20+33

33

53

.


.

.

4.1.3 ( )Stratified Random Sampling


( )Stratification

( )stratum

) (simple random
( )systematic
(.)Sampling Error


353


| stratum




1430
550
550
270
2800


51%
20%
20%
10%
%100


179
69
69
34
351


171
1433

.

:
-1 ()Proportionate



.
-2 ( )Disproportionate
.

.


(
).

4.1.4 ()Cluster Sampling










.
:
( .0 )
.
.0





.

.

.

4.1.5 ( )Square block Sampling



( (1) )B2B



.
:
-1

)2

B2B : Business to Business


2
.


-2

.
-3
: 3000
300
10 .
-4
300 3000
60
20
7
()7+20

27 ()7+ 27

34 ( 41 )7+34

60 :
125

118

111

104

97

90

83

76

69

62

55

48

41

34

27

81

74

67

60

53

46

39

32

25

25

160

153

146

139

132

186

179

172

165

158

151

144

137

130

123

116

109

102

95

88

291

284

277

270

263

256

249

242

235

228

221

214

207

200

193

50 3000

.


.

.

4.2 ()Non- Probability Sampling


4.2.1 ()Quota Sampling
:
%80
%20
%30 %30 25 18 % 25 35 26
%15 45-36 55-46 %10
56 .





.



:

.1

0909 .


:
.
:

.
()Geodemographics Socio-economic descriptors



( ) 1

.



.



... .

4.2.2 ()Snowball Sampling

()1




.
:
-1 .
-2 ()
-3 .









.


( ) .




1000.
()

.

4.2.3 ()Judgment or Purposive Sampling




.
0




.

4.1.4 ()Convenience (1) Sampling



( )Exploratory Research


.

( )Piloting

.

()Haphazard, Accidental and opportunity sampling

4.3

( )4.2.1
( )Online Panel


(
...)


.

( )


Google Consumer Surveys


09
Google
consumer
Survey

( )

.

.5 :


9 9
( = ) 54

09

24 - 15
3
2
2

34 - 25
3
2
2

45 - 35
2
1
1

)



.

(.)4.2.3

.6 :

:
.1

2008
2. ESOMAR Handbook of Market and Opinion Research 4th edition.
3. Research Methodologies (Sampling) (.ppt) course by Dr.Aurangzeb Z. Khan
4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki

:
0495 0094/. . ( ) .
Synovate 0999 0900 0900
Synovate Ipsos Ipsos
.0900
00 0900 .

m.sbeai@gmail.com

http://twitter.com/msbeai

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