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1 BY ORDER OF THE COMMANDER 25th Virtual Fighter Squadron

25 VFS OI 07-A-10, 25 Jul 2011 25 VFS OPERATING INSTRUCTION 07-A-10 25 Jul 2011 Combat Operations A-10C Ground Weapon Employment

COMPLIANCE WITH THIS PUBLICATION IS MANDATORY ______________________________________________________________________________ OPR: 25 VFS, Snoopy Certified by: Raven6 Pages: 58 Distribution: 25 VFS ______________________________________________________________________________ This operating instruction (OI) provides Guidance on Ground Weapon Employment in the A-10 Thunderbolt II. SUMMARY OF CHANGES None, Document based on AFTTP 3-3, Combat Aircraft Fundamentals, A-10. 1. PURPOSE: The purpose of this document is to provide guidance and training for ground weapon employment in the A-10C and will be used within the 25th VFS. 2. INTRODUCTION: The A-10‟s primary mission is close air support (CAS). This OI provides the fundamental tools to build precise weapons delivery skills essential to CAS: fundamentals of bomb theory, conventional range patterns and development of tactical delivery references, computed bomb deliveries, manual bomb deliveries, and forward firing deliveries. 3. Weapons Delivery Terminology. In order to understand the discussion on free-fall weapons delivery, be familiar with the following terms and definitions: (See Figure 7.1, Bomb Triangle.) • Aim-off distance (AOD)—A distance beyond the target that is predictable for any weapons delivery. That distance is the no-wind projected flight path of an aircraft (where the aircraft would hit the ground if the pilot did not recover) in a dive delivery. • Aim-off point (AOP)—The point on the ground, long of the target, at which the aircraft must fly to during the weapon‟s delivery pass. The AOP provides a ground reference to fly the aircraft to until a track reference can be set. • Angle of attack (AOA)—The angle between the zero sight line (ZSL) and the relative wind. • Ballistic trajectory—The path of a munition from release to impact. This trajectory is a result of release velocity, release angle, release height above the target, gravity, and weapon drag characteristics. • Bomb range (BR)—The horizontal distance the bomb will travel over the ground from release to impact. • Bomb trail (BT)—The horizontal distance between the aircraft and the bomb impact. • Combat offset—Adjusting the RAP by a certain distance to correct for a previous miss. • DB— dive bomb. • Dive angle—The angle of dive for weapons delivery.


25 VFS OI 07-A-10, 25 Jul 2011

• Gun bore line (GBL)—Represents the initial bullet muzzle velocity vector extended to infinity. This is the depression from the ZSL where the bullets initially come out of the gun. The A-10 GBL is at 33.7 mils depression. The GBL is sometimes used to approximate the aircraft vector on roll-out because the total velocity vector (TVV) lags the actual aircraft flight path. • HADB— high altitude dive bomb. • HARB— high altitude release bomb. • HAS— high angle strafe. • HATR—high angle tactical rocket • Initial Pipper Placement (IPP)—Angle between the target to the total solution in mils at track altitude. • Initial HUD Placement (IHP)—IHP is the angle at track altitude between the ZSL and the target, in mils. IHP can be derived from the total mil setting and the value for IPP. Total Mils = IHP + IPP. • Initial Aim-off Angle (IAA)—IAA is the angle between the AOP and the target at track altitude. • Initial Target Placement (ITP)—ITP is the position of the target relative to a pitch ladder at track altitude. • LALD—low-angle low drag. • Mil—A term commonly used by A-10 pilots as an abbreviation for milliradian (1/1,000th of a radian). Mils are used to measure sight depression or relative positions and sizes of objects as seen through the HUD. One mil is equal to 1 foot at a range of 1,000 feet, and 1 degree equals 17.45 mils. • Relative wind—The speed and direction of the air mass relative to the aircraft. It is opposite in direction to the aircraft‟s velocity vector through the air mass. • Release aimpoint (RAP)—The wind-corrected point on the ground where the pipper must be placed at release for the munition to strike the target. • Release aimpoint extended (RAPE)—The point on the ground on which the aircraft track reference is set. This point is corrected upwind from the RAP. • Release altitude—The altitude above the ground at which weapons delivery is accomplished. • Roll-in Target Placement (RTP)—A cockpit reference used to establish an aim-off angle for the aircraft. • Total sight setting (TSS)—The depression from the ZSL to the target at release altitude for the planned release conditions. Deviations from planned release parameters such as airspeed, dive angle, altitude, or G-loading will have an effect on the planned total sight setting. • Track reference—A position or point in the HUD that is used to maintain or correct the aircraft to the planned wire. Some common track references used in weapons delivery are IHP, IAA, IPP, and the desired release cue (DRC). • Tracking—A portion of any dive weapons delivery that is devoted to the final alignment of aircraft sighting systems with the target. The amount of time associated is referred to as wingslevel or tracking time. • Zero sight line (ZSL)—A basic reference line extending through the fuselage of the A-10 parallel to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft. All sight depressions are referenced from the ZSL.


25 VFS OI 07-A-10, 25 Jul 2011

Figure 7.1 Bomb Triangle. 4 Preparation. 4.1. General. Weapons delivery training in the A-10 requires a thorough understanding of training rules, weapons delivery theory, head-up display (HUD) symbology, aircraft systems knowledge and basic range layout and administration. (See Figure 7.2, A-10 Air-to-Surface Weapons Employment Cockpit Interface.)


25 VFS OI 07-A-10, 25 Jul 2011

Figure 7.2 A-10 Air-to-Surface Weapons Employment Cockpit Interface. 5. Range Administration. 5.1. Range Entry and Exit. Written procedures and guidance can be found in command directives, applicable supplements, and local directives. Normally, entry to the controlled range as accomplished from a basic or tactical formation, depending on weather and/or spacing desired. 5.2. In-Flight Checks. Weapons delivery “in-flight checks” encompass nearly all systems on the A-10. They include fuel checks, weapons system checks, wind checks, estimated vertical error (EVE) checks, and a needle/ball check. 5.2.1. Fuel Checks. These are normally initiated and executed on the primary range frequency. At an absolute minimum, fuel checks are required prior to range entry, once while on the range, and once upon exiting the range. NOTE: Be extremely careful not to become distracted and drop them out of the cross-check. 5.2.2. En Route Checklists. There are certain checks that need to be accomplished before reaching the target area; these are collectively known as a “firepower, emitters, navigation, communications, and electronic countermeasures” (FENCE) checks. A FENCE check simply groups the items that need to be covered and is generic to any aircraft. Perform a FENCE check prior to weapons employment, including weapons switches set for the first pass. For training missions, do not place the Master Arm to ARM until entering the range and cleared by lead. A common A-10 acronym is listed in Figure 7.3, FENCE Checks, along with the items covered in


25 VFS OI 07-A-10, 25 Jul 2011

a generic FENCE check. The FENCE check is an ongoing process. Start with a pre-takeoff FENCE check and accomplish another one for each phase of flight. Before arriving at the IP, the aircraft must be ready for combat. Once in the target area, your focus must be on finding and attacking the proper target. 5.2.3. Weapons System Checks. The Weapons portion of the FENCE check requires amplification to correctly set up weapons for employment. Disciplined weapons system checks are critical to mission success. When directed by the flight lead (FL) perform a Weapons System Check. Reference Figure 7.4, Common Weapons System Checks, for two common Weapons System Check acronyms. 5.2.4. Wind Checks. Analyzing winds is critical for accurate and consistent weapons delivery. Analyze winds by using your EGI readings (i.e., select STR INFO page on EGI) and visual indications provided by dust or smoke. Winds affect every aspect of the weapons delivery pattern and should be accounted for in flight. F-E-N-C-E Fire control systems set. Weapon system checks.. Gun armed. EO power on. Target identification set. Electronic warfare systems. CMS set. Navigation. EGI, map, and TACAN ready. Wind checked. Communications. Frequencies set, Emitters (reduce or select). TACAN set. External lights OFF. C-W-L-I-T-T-E-R Chaff/flare. CMS set to appropriate settings.





Weapons. Conduct weapons system checks Lights. OFF. N/A for DCS A-10C TACAN. Set to receive only or off.



Tape. DVADR running. T ECM as appropriate. E RWR as briefed. R Figure 7.3 FENCE Checks. S-P-A-D-E-S A-P-E-S Switches Set. Arm. A Profile Selected. Profile, DSMS. P Altitude Source. Elevation source. E DSMS quick-look (for stations and SOI, SPI. S profile settings). Elevation set as briefed. SOI and SPI set as briefed. Figure 7.4 Common Weapons System Checks.


when Number One is rolling in on final.5.4. Number Two is turning crosswind to downwind.1. Figure 7. 25 Jul 2011 the standard spacing is one aircraft on each of the four corners.5 Conventional Pattern and Methodology. for both a two-ship and a four-ship.2. however. (See Figure 7.” For example. Spacing will be established by the Flight Lead. or “180 out.6 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. . Radio Transmissions. Corrections to pattern spacing. the basics remain the same.2. for example radio calls. Standard and expected radio transmissions while operating on the conventional range may vary. Spacing. should be made on the turn from crosswind to downwind by varying the point at which the turn is made. Typical two-ship spacing in the container pattern is on opposite corners.3. 5.) For a four-ship. All radio transmissions while in the range pattern will be made on the respective range frequency. Establishing a contract for when flight members turn crosswind will aid in maintaining spacing. (See Figure 7. Conventional Pattern and Methodology. Conventional Pattern and Methodology.) 5.

Contingencies. and is known as the “coffin corner. then follow local range procedures.2. All pattern corrections to flight spacing should be made on the turn from crosswind to downwind.2. Additionally. SAY POSITION. If blind on the preceding aircraft.5. If positive separation cannot be immediately ensured.” Ensure positive visual contact with previous flight member to ensure deconfliction. An example in a four-ship formation. 25 Jul 2011 5.1. the turn from crosswind is the most dangerous portion of the pattern. Crosswind. climb away from the ground while analyzing the problem.5. Lost Comm. on final (DRY) rock wings to indicate to the RCO and fellow flight members of the NORDO condition. expect the range control officer (RCO. 5. particularly within a four-ship. or ranger) to report the last event score while on crosswind. it is critical that each aircraft fly their turn from final to crosswind as briefed by FL. After accomplishing the safe escape maneuver. “CONTINUE” or “KIO.2. 5. Inform lead of any suspected weapon malfunctions.5. familiarity with the mechanics of flying the patterns are discussed next.” 5. Acknowledge this transmission IAW local guidance and the flight brief. A typical technique for high release altitude deliveries is to turn crosswind at track altitude. The displacement from the target (downwind spacing) is not exact and is typically flown 2 to 3 NM from the target. Contingencies. Plan to be at base altitude no later than when making the .2.5. Lost Sight. It is important to remember that if a “SAY POSITION” call is made.5. follow the procedures outlined in paragraph 5.2. or making the turn to downwind. Downwind.” Number Two should respond immediately with two‟s position in the conventional pattern.1.6. The most common contingency is losing sight of one or more flight members. Contingencies that could be encountered on the range must be briefed. 5.2. then clearing the downwind to base corner. then rock wings on final then turn opposite direction to normal range traffic. Expect a rejoin followed by RTB. Downwind displacement should be wide enough to allow for adequate wings-level time while on the base leg.6. The basic rules apply: maintain aircraft control. all aircraft must remain silent until the aircraft being addressed responds with its position and the requesting aircraft confirms the response with “CONTINUE” or “KIO. as a technique) to ensure safety of flight.3.7 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. visually reacquire the preceding flight member by first clearing the crosswind to downwind corner. Weapon Malfunction. This will minimize variations and adjustments to the base leg turn. If ever in doubt of the position of the previous flight member. and call a “KNOCK IT OFF” if required on the range frequency. immediately request the aircraft position. However.6. if Warthog Three loses sight of Two: “DRAGGIN TWO. Expect a rejoin and be prepared to communicate problems with HEFOE visual signals. Number Three then has two responses.2. Since much of basic weapons delivery training will be performed on a conventional range. For collision avoidance purposes. If NORDO with emergency. If NORDO on range.” The continue call is made when Number Three picks up a visual on Number Two or determines that there are no deconfliction problems in the pattern.2. Due to aircraft potentially turning crosswind at different points. then continue to fly the briefed range pattern. When turning crosswind. then Number Three should “KIO” (with altitude. 5.2. 5.2. be careful not to turn inside the preceding aircraft. Conventional Pattern.

.8 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.4. 5.000 feet. start with the target about 20 to 30 degrees in front of the wing line (i. Pull.2.2.2. and fly the aircraft to the AOP. Final Leg.e. 5. take the time available to assess the last pass and prepare for the next one. wind-corrected GEOREFs to start the base turn.6. Establishing and using RTP can place the jet on a correct . 10 or 2 o‟clock position. The base leg must be consistent to get the aircraft on the correct wire relative to the target.2.6. 30 degrees or less). delay the roll-in until the target is approximately three fists aft of the canopy bow. While on downwind.2.6.6. execute a roll-in by advancing the throttles to MAX. start an unloaded roll to 80 degrees plus the dive angle. Roll-In Target Placement (RTP).e. Fly a precise base leg to put the aircraft in the best position to roll in and achieve the planned parameters (e.3. Use known.. A-10 pilots should use canopy references based on the initial target placement (ITP) for the delivery as the primary method to establish a tactical base position. and dive angle).3. and clearly “where the rubber meets the road. Base. On a conventional range and attempting to validate tactical delivery references. 5. Do not adjust the position of the turn from downwind to base leg as it can adversely affect the weapons delivery parameters on the upcoming pass.” This phrase leads an attack pilot through each step of the final leg.” A technique to dissect this complicated maneuver is “Pull. have a known aim off point for the delivery. The actual cross-check and procedures used to put the release aimpoint on the target will vary depending on the delivery and delivery mode.6.3. Set. For lower angle deliveries (e. 5.2. Known Ground Track. note the relationship of the target to the canopy rail in order to develop/validate tactical canopy references. A geographic reference (GEOREF) is a good starting point for finding the correct base position.2. Don‟t forget to adjust for winds. Center. 5. 5.4. it is an accurate sight picture for target placement at base position. Mechanically.g. if encountering a headwind while on base.6.1. For deliveries greater than 30 degrees. the base turn radius will be approximately 3.3. After developing and validating base canopy rail references. 25 Jul 2011 turn for the base leg..6. altitude. 5.to 3-G turn (normally the steady tone).4. Consider the winds at pattern altitude and adjust the final roll-in point as necessary (i. Although ITP is measured at track altitude. Approaching the roll-in point.2. delay the roll-in.1 Roll-In Timing. A technique is to start roll-in when the target is just aft of the canopy bow. since most of the turn for these deliveries are made in the vertical. The goal is to develop and validate a canopy rail reference on the conventional range that can be applied to a tactical situation without known ground references.2.g. airspeed. As a ROT.4. Anticipate the turn to base and lead it using as little G as possible. similar to perch corrections in the traffic pattern). Canopy Rail Reference. pilots should develop a roll-in target placement to aid in establishing a proper aim-off distance for the base position flown. depending on direction of roll-in). and begin a 2. The final is the weapon delivery portion of the pattern.

The best track reference that may be used for CCIP WD is the DRC. and continue with a normal track until release. set the throttle to achieve the planned airspeed at release. This allows pilots to correct for small base position errors in a tactical situation and minimize large track corrections on final.2.2. Regardless of the type of delivery flown (manual or computed) a track reference must be set. cross check the target abeam the depressible pipper at track altitude.2. relax back pressure.6. the DRC will track down slightly as the pipper tracks up during the pass. These track references are presented below.1 DRC. Since the aircraft will accelerate on final. and adjust the AOP longer than planned. 5. For computed deliveries. After roll-out. place the PBIL through the target and set a track reference. So if unable to set the DRC at Track. a pilot should still set the DRC as soon as possible. the steeper the aircraft will be after setting the AOP at track. One technique used is setting IHP mils in the depressible pipper. Keep the minimum release staple (MRS) in your cross-check as your abort cue.2 IHP/IPP. 25 Jul 2011 wire using a cockpit reference during roll-in. use the HUD pitch ladders to estimate if the target will be located at the appropriate angle when the aircraft rolls out. increase bank angle and G to adjust the AOP shorter than planned. Since the DRC is continuously computed. a technique for using the DRC is to set the DRC on the target at track altitude. an opportunity to refine the dive angle exists by cross-checking the pitch ladders.4. Set it and forget it. Therefore.5. If the target is within approximately 30 mils of the CCIP pipper (just outside of the reticle). In any case. decrease bank.2.2. begin an unloaded roll-out. Hold the AOP and do not make a Banana pass by trying to hold the DRC on the target.9 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.7. The DRC continuously computes and corrects for changes in airspeed. If using ITP as a roll-in (not track) reference. it is wind corrected and valid at all altitudes during the pass.6. Begin to relax G during the roll-in as the top of the HUD approaches the target.7. Note that the depressible pipper does not provide crosswind correction on final. 5. 5. it is imperative to center the target between the pitch ladders. If the expected target placement in the HUD is less than planned.” Because weapons employment mils are based on a specific track altitude and airspeed. After using one of the valid roll-in techniques. Setting the DRC corrects the aircraft flight path toward the expected time of fall driving it toward the “correct wire. the pilot needs accurate wind information and then must add/subtract the applicable head/tail wind component. Setting the DRC in this manner establishes and refines the AOP for a correct wire. without the aid of aim off distance markers in a tactical environment. Track References (SET). AOA. Initial Target Placement.7. Likewise. IHP is an angular representation (in mils) of the target relative to the ZSL. The longer the nose is kept up during the turn (sometimes referred to as “floating” the turn). aggressively make an appropriate 3/9 correction to center the target. The depressible pipper is available in CCIP mode before designation. if the angle in the HUD is greater than expected during the roll-in. as the HUD pitch ladders approach the edge of the target. During the roll-in. set the DRC at track altitude. 5. as the nose of the aircraft is halfway around the final turn. and G-loading. Roll-Out (Center). Any HUD reference with a mil depression . just like setting an IPP does for manual deliveries. If the target is not centered within the pitch ladders. 5. The pitch ladders should bracket the target when the roll-out is complete.

(See Figure 7. this will establish the correct wire. with a 10 knot headwind. Fly smooth. coordinated control inputs on final.45 mils per degree.10 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.7 mil per knot correction factor for headwind/tailwind and add 1 degree to IAA (17 mils). For computed deliveries. utilize the projected bomb impact line (PBIL) to fly the CCIP pipper to the target or combat offset point. set the TVV 5 degrees long of the target. To set the correct wire.2. divide attention between the movement rate of the pipper and the aircraft‟s parameters.7. IPP is the recommended track reference to use during manual weapon‟s delivery.) Figure 7. Continue to cross check parameters while flying to the release point. The CCIP pipper will track quickly to the target. Avoid attempting to slow the pipper down by . Regardless of where the aircraft is in relation to the planned wire. Bombing Triangle—Initial Target Placement/Initial Aim-Off Angle. therefore.3. For example. 5. IAA.2.6 Bombing Triangle – IHP and IPP Triangle.8.9. add or subtract a degree.6. Bombing Triangle—Initial Head-Up Display Placement and Initial Pipper Placement Triangle. however. (See Figure 7. These references must be used for manual weapon‟s delivery if IHP is used as the track reference.) Let us look at an example delivery with an IAA of 5 degrees. When employing manually.2. there are 17. After setting the track reference at track altitude. 5. 5. use a 1. for a depiction of the reference. During the dive. Confirm the Aircraft Parameters. Concentrate on letting the sight track to the release aim point (RAP). Pipper Track. To correct IAA for winds. 25 Jul 2011 corresponding to the IHP may also be set abeam the target. IAA must be corrected for head wind or tailwind. for each 17 mils of wind correction.7. confirm aircraft parameters are within abort criteria. IAA is the planned angle between the AOP and the target at track altitude. for a visual depiction of this track reference.

Figure 7. As an example. 5. Execution. As a general rule. Maintaining the minimum aircraft G for the duration of the maneuver is critical in achieving safe escape or safe separation as appropriate. reaching the abort cue. Release the weapon with the aiming reference on the intended release aim point. One technique to help a smooth pipper track is to trim forward one „click‟ for each 10 degrees of planned dive. on the second pass. the primary concerns during recovery are hitting the ground (or descending below a desired altitude). The planned recovery maneuvers for free-fall munitions are the climbing maneuver (CLM) and turning level turn (TLT) safe escape maneuvers (SEM). 5. . perform a “combat offset. It is important to understand that when executing the SEM. 5. or after setting track. Computed deliveries use real time safe escape to display an abort cue. Start a recovery after ordnance release. If a previous delivery was completed with the aiming reference on the target.7 Bombing Triangle—Initial Target Placement/Initial Aim-Off Angle. 20 degrees or below.” As a ROT.10. but will cause a heavy stick. 25 Jul 2011 bunting the aircraft as this can induce release errors. execute a CLM SEM. and the weapon did not hit the target. for low-altitude deliveries. For free-fall munitions. Trim through the roll-in. Recovery.11. delivering a weapon with a time of fall below the minimum fuze time (a DUD weapon). Safe escape maneuvers include the climbing SEM. Pickle.12. execute a TLT SEM.2.2. or being hit by fragmentation from the ordnance employed. and the back-up SEM. and for deliveries above 20 degrees. it must be executed immediately after weapons release. or if you lose SA. TLT SEM. Combat offset can be used to improve subsequent pass accuracy. if the first weapon impacted 50 meters at 2 o‟clock. offset the aimpoint one half the miss distance in the opposite direction of the previous miss. This can be accomplished on base.11 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. and manual deliveries use an abort altitude.2. release the weapon 25 meters at 8 o‟clock.

3. gun. 5. Pop-Up Pattern Analysis: • Run-in altitude—The altitude above or below target elevation. excessive nose high or nose low during the turn. turning room to reposition for the pull-down. When employed tactically. A 45-degree offset offers a balance of target acquisition.2. and most importantly. CLM SEM errors include: insufficient G during the recovery. • Pull-down target placement (PTP)—Sight picture used to initiate pull-down. the goal should be to strive for 3 seconds wings-level time. • Approach course—The ground track the aircraft flies until reaching the pop-up point (pull-up point [PUP]). • Apex—Highest altitude the aircraft reaches during the pop-up profile. • Minimum attack perimeter (MAP)—Is a circle centered on the target. • PUP angle off nose (AON)—The angular difference between the approach course and a line directly to the target from the PUP.8. the approach course is generally 45 degrees offset from the final attack heading when employed from a conventional pattern. with the following exceptions and the pop-up maneuver itself. The pop-up is an “unmask” maneuver used at low-altitude to visually acquire the target. 25 Jul 2011 5. Common Errors. the distance from the target to this point is the radius of the circle.12. • Pull-down point (PDP)—The start point for a maneuver to transition from the climbing to the diving portion of the pop-up delivery. not maintaining G on the aircraft until the TLT SEM is complete. It can be used for free-fall. Fly to the target from the PUP. The pop-up point will vary depending on the ordnance to be employed. The approach (approach course) to the target can be either straight ahead or offset depending on the desired attack axis to the target. TLT SEM errors include: an unloaded roll as the nose approaches the horizon.1. • Dive angle—The planned dive angle for weapons delivery. rocket. exceeding 30 degrees of bank prior to 30 degrees nose high. and exposure to threats. • Attack heading—Final attack heading. • Pull-up point (PUP)—The point along the approach course at which the pull-up to the climb angle is initiated. Review the following pop-up specific terms while referencing Figure 7.12 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. • Aim-off distance (AOD)—A distance beyond the target that is predictable for any weapons delivery. . The tasks associated with each leg of the pop-up pattern are generally the same as the conventional pattern. and Maverick attacks. rolling out prior to completing 60 degrees of turn. and Figure 7. • PDP angle off nose (AON)—The angular difference between the approach course and a line directly to the target from the PDP. • Release altitude—The altitude above the ground at which weapons delivery is accomplished. • Climb angle—The angle-of-climb that is to be achieved following the initiation of the pop-up. and not completing the maneuver to 30 degrees nose high. Pop-Up Pattern. • Tracking—A portion of any dive weapons delivery that is devoted to the final alignment of aircraft-sighting system with the target. However.9. • Angle-off (AO)—The angular difference between the approach course and attack heading. Using track altitude as a point on the ground. which depicts the point at which target tracking is initiated. That distance is the no-wind projected flight path of an aircraft (where the aircraft would hit the ground if not recovered) in a dive delivery. Pop-Up Pattern.

Figure 7. 25 Jul 2011 • Bomb range—The distance the bomb will travel over the ground from release to impact.8 Pop-Up Pattern. .13 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.

14 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. The G and turn location will depend on the type of Pop-Up pattern to fly (offset or parallel downwind). The considerations for actions on downwind are similar to those in the conventional pattern.9 Pop-Up Pattern Analysis. . for preceding aircraft. 5. Remember to check the crosswind to downwind corner. establish a climbing vector and complete the turn to crosswind. The SEM employed is generally a TLT. 5.500 to 2.3. weather.1. except the aircraft will typically be 1. The turn from downwind to base is where the pop-up pattern diverges from the standard conventional pattern. Be very careful while descending to pilot low-altitude minimums because it is very easy to overshoot your altitude and fixate on the target or PUP. and pilot low altitude category.3. As a ROT. For pop-ups. Use 10 to 15 degrees nose low maximum. One technique is to level off 200 to 300 feet high and ease the aircraft down to pilot low-altitude minimums during the approach to the PUP. The downwind leg can either be parallel to the run-in leg (45 degrees offset away from the target) or parallel to the final leg.3. Upon completion of the SEM.000 feet AGL. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7. 5. and then downwind to base corner. During the turn to base the aircraft needs to descend and turn to arrive on the planned range approach course (see local and squadron guidance). SEM and Crosswind.3. gain as much energy as practical prior to the pull-up point. Altitude may vary based on terrain. Downwind.2. plan on depleting approximately 15 knots to 30 knots of airspeed while executing the pop-up attack. Base.

Do not confuse angle off (AO) with angle off the nose (AON). Correct PUP. and specific range restrictions. desired dive angle. the dive angle will be 5 to 10 degrees nose low. Target Acquisition. select MAX power and begin a 3-G wings-level pull (G-suit inflates at 2. The correct PUP for a strafe delivery is based upon desired delivery slant range. This is the point at which the pull-down is initiated.3. Pull-Up Point. Pull up to 5 degrees higher than the planned delivery dive angle.4. An important visual reference is the angle off the nose (AON) to the target at the pull-up point and pull-down point.5 Gs) to the desired climb angle. increase the pull up point by 0. pop-up for a low strafe or rocket delivery approximately 1 mile prior to the intended release slant range. A baseline sight picture for the pull-down point relates the target placement to a known cockpit reference for bombing deliveries. a baseline sight picture can be developed for use in a tactical environment.3. The actual pop-up is performed referencing the target and varies dependent upon the ordnance employed. When on a controlled range. the target will move down and aft in the quarter panel.15 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. focus on acquiring the target. For example. hills. The pop picture must be developed by flying a mechanical approach course. The pilot can also reference the distance from the target in the HUD as a back-up if the coordinates are known for the target and entered in the active steerpoint. These are the areas that should be scanned during the climb to find the target.2.4. Flying a mechanical pop-up using planned parameters will aid in developing a sight picture to increase the chance for target acquisition and finding the wire. . During the climb. Increase the PUP distance by 0. it is possible to plan an attack heading to fly and identify GEOREFs such as roads. With permission study. In this case. there are specific range references that aid in identifying the pop-up point. assuming a 500-foot AGL run-in altitude. Knowing the pull-up/pull-down AONs helps focus the pilots eyes for target acquisition. The typical time to acquire the target from pull-up to pull-down is approximately 5 to 10 seconds depending on run-in altitude. At the planned PUP. For most conventional range strafe deliveries.1. First learn the basics then apply the sight picture discussion in the following paragraphs to sharpen pop delivery skills. a 500-foot AGL run in could be only 300 feet above target elevation.3.to 4-G pull down to intercept the planned attack wire. 25 Jul 2011 5. 5. pull to approximately 5 to 10 degrees nose high and begin a roll and pull to the target. The Pop. This point is referred to as PTP (pull-down target placement). Normally.1 NM).3. PUP distances assume the ground elevation is equal to the target elevation. After setting the planned climb angle. GEOREFs or EGI ranges are the best method for determining the correct pull-up point on a conventional range. These points should be memorized in order to reduce task load on the range. As a ROT. 5.4. Execute the pull-down as the aircraft approaches the correct pull-down visual reference. a 45-degree angle-off results in the target starting at the 22 degrees AON at pull-up and moving to 32 degrees of AON at pull-down. When the desired PUP is reached.4.1 NM for every 200 feet below planned altitude (For example. pull-up and pull down. and rivers. Pull-Down Point. 5. If the conditions are correct. Calculate the AON using the following ROT: the pull-up AON is approximately one-half the planned angle-off and the pull-down point AON is approximately three-quarters of the planned angle off.4. it will be done with an unloaded roll followed by a 2.4. 5.3.3.

Bump-Up Pattern. the pilot should be cautious when descending to pilot low-altitude minimums.3. Use 10 to 15 degrees nose low as a maximum descent rate. the delivery considerations are those of a normal weapons delivery pass. 5. Like the Pop-Up pattern.1.5. A shallow climb farther out may be preferred to a steeper climb close in. The IAA can be used as an approximation of this angle. On final. it is an unmask maneuver designed to achieve LOS with the target. Instead of using large bank angles and positive G to get the aircraft from a nose-high attitude to an attack position. Adjust the pull-down sight pictures for different IAAs as they change and add the IAA to the horizon reference for the given climb angle. This is the angle from the horizon to the target at the planned pull-down point. 6. necessitating a descent for the base leg. To calculate the PTP. The roll-in and track references discussed in the diving delivery section above still apply. 5.4. Because the target may be in sight while on a controlled range. 5. Techniques. Pilots must determine their specific sight picture from this starting point. The Bump-Up maneuver is primarily used to unmask for forward-firing diving deliveries or level free-fall munitions employment. crosswind. Normally. Bombing with IFFCC simplifies weapons delivery significantly. Integrated Flight and Fire Control Computer. and base leg are identical to the rectangular pattern.4. A common error is to level off higher than planned release altitude which may result in a CCIP consent delivery with a short time on final. PTP.4. Use RTP cockpit references to aid in establishing a proper aim-off distance for the base position flown. The final portion is the same as with any diving delivery. downwind.6. this can be simulated by pulling up approximately 5 degrees nose high. The distance between the center of two grommets (dust covers) is 5 degrees. As the pull-down is completed. As in the Pop-Up pattern. 6. This is a baseline starting point and is dependent on factors such as sitting height and seat adjustment. altitude. the bump-up attack will be executed within ±15 degrees of the final runin heading. In a fluid tactical environment with moving targets and inaccurate coordinates. 5. AOA.1. Roll-In and Track References. IFFCC provides a CCIP based on the weapon selected in the current DSMS profile that considers wind. Remember. aircraft velocity. Using the grommets (dust covers) for this sight picture affords the pilot both right and left hand roll-in sight pictures. 25 Jul 2011 5. Final.16 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.6. Computed Free-Fall Munitions Employment. add the IAA to the known horizon reference and equate that distance to a canopy reference. a visual reference for canopy bow sight picture measurements. When employing a bump-up attack on the conventional range. IFFCC provides . and attitude. in the tactical environment the key is to acquire LOS with the target. Since PTP is measured from the horizon it cannot be translated to a sight picture without a known horizon reference.6.3.3. the bump-up uses a slight climb to acquire the target followed by a negative G pushover to intercept planned release altitude. the downwind will be flown at 1.500 to 2. using PTP references will aid target acquisition while maneuvering to the correct wire.3. feet AGL. Final. The pull down point visual reference is determined using PTP. followed by a pushover to reacquire and track the target.

11 IFFCC HUD Symbology—CCIP). UFC and IFFCC all integrate and function prior to weapons employment. Additionally. Free-fall bomb deliveries and rockets primarily use CCIP mode while LGBs and IAMs use continuously computed release point (CCRP). See Figure 7. (See Figure 7. Ripple Single).10.17 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. 6. however. DSMS Profile Page. DSMS. Digital Stores Management System. . It is imperative to know how the CICU. CCRP).2. weapons effects may be less than desired.1.2. Delivery Modes. Figure 7. minimum altitude and desired safe escape maneuver. flying the aircraft through the planned delivery requires using solid weapons delivery techniques and procedures to include wind analysis. 6. Fuzing (type and time). release mode (Single. delivery mode (CCIP. IFFCC Air-to-Surface Cockpit Interface. 25 Jul 2011 accurate weapons delivery even though the aircraft may be significantly off planned parameters.2. DTOF. This includes weapon type. All delivery specific information that IFFCC needs to calculate the correct solution is contained in the profiles created during mission planning and loaded to the DSMS via the DTC.

Altitude Sources.2. The altitude source is selected on the armament HUD control panel (AHCP).3.10 DSMS Profile Page. 6.000 feet AGL and below. There are three altitude sources for IFFCC WD computations: Radar. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7. Baro Mode.3. Radar Mode. Baro. and Delta. Baro mode computes a true MSL altitude by starting with the central air data computer (CADC) barometric altitude adjusted by the Kohlsman altimeter setting (shown on the cockpit altimeter) and adjusting it for lag. the IFFCC system records the CADC barometric altitude from the cockpit altimeter. installation error.18 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.” At approximately 50 to 60 KIAS. Radar mode uses the radar altitude directly below the aircraft as the height above target for WD computations. 6. 6. The aircraft will take an automatic barometric reference point during takeoff. and nonstandard air temperatures. This is the starting point for all subsequent .1. This mode is valid only over flat terrain and is limited to altitudes 5.3. This function is referred to as a “Baro update.

6. NOTE: Ensure this is accurate by dialing the cockpit altimeter until the HUD altitude reads touchdown zone elevation prior to takeoff. Like Baro. Delta mode. From this point on. unlike the Baro mode. Delta Mode.11 IFFCC HUD Symbology—CCIP. uses the CADC pressure altitude as a starting point for computing true MSL altitude and calculates its own nonstandard pressure correction (Delta) rather than relying on the altimeter setting. Delta mode needs a reference altitude. The rest of the process for correcting the .19 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. an initial delta update is accomplished during the takeoff roll and assumes that the cockpit altitude (altitude set in HUD) is an accurate reading of true MSL altitude at that point. To calculate the nonstandard pressure correction. the Baro update consists of barometric data plus the bias correction based on EGI GPS altitude.3.3. Figure 7. provided the EVE is less than 50 feet. 25 Jul 2011 calculations.

. look-aside ranging. passive ranging. Baro provides the most accurate method of WD when EVE is less than 50 feet. Elevation Sources. NOTE: If possible. Selecting a Mode. 6.3.4. Figure 7. then Delta provides the most accurate method of WD. This is due to the constant Baro update which consists of barometric data plus the bias correction based on EGI GPS altitude. IFFCC provides the ability to select from several different elevation sources through its digital terrain system application software (DTSAS). Remember that the CADC pressure altitude is not effected by the altimeter setting. so changing the altimeter setting in flight does not affect Delta mode altitudes.12 Delta CAL Submenu. an inflight Delta should be accomplished at the planned delivery altitude near the target area. IFFCC provides hot elevation. IFFCC incorporates Level 1 digital terrain elevation data (DTED) which is loaded into the data transfer cartridge (DTC). 25 Jul 2011 pressure/altitude scale is similar to the Baro mode. Radar mode may be the preferred mode over flat terrain when the pilot is sure the terrain elevation below the aircraft at release is the same as the target elevation and release occurs below 5. and coordinate ranging. NOTE: Delta mode is completely independent of the cockpit altimeter setting except for the initial update on takeoff roll.000 feet AGL. 6. If EVE is greater than 50 feet.4. The main benefit of the Delta mode is that the reference altitude may be changed via a delta update taken closer to the target area so that the corrections are more accurate for the target air mass.20 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. Delta updates received from other A-10s or forecast values from mission planning can be entered via IFFCC menus.

Passive Ranging (Data Transfer System [DTS]). If autoelevation mode is inactive (numeric elevation visible in the HUD).4. This mode is only active in auto-elevation mode (“DTS” visible in HUD). the elevation returned by CR will automatically transfer to the HUD.2. the correct DSMS weapon profile must be selected. or by selecting auto-elevation mode (referred to as “DTS” by many pilots) as a preference when loading the DTC.3. and the Waypoint under modification is the active steerpoint in the HUD. In this mode the pilot manually enters a known target elevation into either the HUD via the UFC or the CDU. use HOT. When targeting pod (TGP) is initially selected. NOTE: If in CCRP mode and using the TGP as an elevation source. On conventional (known target set) ranges.1. 6. as opposed to the SPI elevation. which will then transfer the elevation to the HUD. the HUD will display „T DTS‟ indicating TGP is selected. Coordinate Ranging (CR). Targeting Pod Elevation.1.4. 6.5.5. IFFCC will use this as the only elevation for solution computations. then the SPI elevation will be used. delivery parameter data must have been input correctly . To bomb on CR. then use TGP laser elevation. the elevation in the HUD is replaced with “DTS.6. In order for the IFFCC system to compute accurate release displays.5. If no elevation is known (pop up target) and DTS is not functioning. but DTS will be used until the laser is actually fired. the HUD will display „T XXXX‟ with X representing the elevation provided by the targeting pod.4.4. the IFFCC elevation will continuously update as long as the laser is firing.4. After firing the laser.4. The IFFCC only accepts the last laser ranging information received from the pod. 6. then IFFCC will use the potentially incorrect elevation from the last time the laser was fired. CR automatically returns an elevation when the pilot enters coordinates into a Waypoint on the CDU. Profile.4. If the TGP laser is set to latched mode. Every time the laser has stopped firing. If the IFFCC elevation source is set to DTS or HOT elevation. IFFCC calculates the elevation for the point on the ground overlaid by the Maverick reticle or the depressible pipper. the “T XXXX” will flash in the HUD to indicate the new elevation has been accepted. Look-Aside Ranging. This only occurs if DTSAS is on and the pilot selects auto-elevation mode by using the UFC Data and Select switches. When enabled in the CDU. IFFCC then uses the calculated elevation for solution computation. When active.” 6. Hot Elevation. 6. 25 Jul 2011 6. Selecting the Best Elevation Source. IFFCC calculates the elevation for the point on the ground overlaid by the gun and bomb or rocket sights simultaneously. Computed Free-Fall Sight Application. For example. the TGP elevation will be used by IFFCC. use HOT elevation and ensure the current steerpoint while delivering weapons is the target. 6. Use auto-elevation mode (DTS) in most cases. 6.21 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. if the TGP LOS has moved to an area with a significantly different elevation and the laser has not been fired.

The CCIP Consent Release function provides a CCIP weapons release capability when the CCIP solution is outside the HUD FOV but above 550mils (in level flight). Likewise. not a track reference. Once track is set.1.5. Therefore. with no crosswind capability at that depression. HD munitions are very susceptible to this problem.2. when the pilot depresses the weapons release button. This creates a problem with high crosswind and deliveries with high mil depressions. Since the center of the pitch ladders show the aircraft‟s path over the ground in computed HUD modes. not square. weapons will release IAW the profile. The reticle will flash when enough time has elapsed for all of the weapons to release. This option allows the solution to be displayed only if the solution is within the HUD field of view (FOV).1.1. Roll out (Center). 6.1.2. Remember at track that ITP is only an indication of aircraft position. centering the pitch ladders over the target result in a smooth PBIL track through the target.) This figure is based on a 4. The HUD can only display a pipper within a 170-mil radius of the 140-mil HUD center. The HUD projection is round. As the pipper reaches the aimpoint.5. 25 Jul 2011 on the ground. fix any PBIL errors with aggressive corrections while setting track. Keep the PBIL on the release aim point and allow the pipper to track to it. Final.5. In this case. When the computed solution is outside the HUD field of view.2. and IAW Pop-Up Pattern. Track (Set). and the pilot cannot accurately deliver weapons. 6. A delivery requiring 285 mils can display a solid PBIL out to 20 knots of crosswind (assuming the 4. 6. Solution Options. 6. These depend on which mode is selected in the weapons submenu (or on IFFCC preferences in A/W/E). After roll out. Begin roll-out as the pitch ladders approach the target.2. Base to Roll-In (Pull). 6. Head-Up Display Field of View Limits/MK 82 AIR. Since the pitch ladders are wind corrected this will aid in leading a roll out that positions the aircraft upwind of the release aim point. per knot crosswind correction (found in the delivery parameters in the Battle Book). check the parameters and decide if they are within those required for the delivery.5. There are limitations to when a solution can be displayed in the HUD. . the center of the HUD. (See Figure 7. defined at 140 mils of depression. Several techniques exist to ensure that all necessary data have been input accurately. perform the appropriate SEM. “Set” the DRC. and appropriately selected on downwind.1. depress the weapon release button and hold it long enough for the aircraft to release the number of weapons selected. After pickling. The DRC and MRS are displayed on the PBIL to show how the desired time of fall and abort cue relate to the current aircraft position. is the area capable of displaying the maximum amount of crosswind solution (170 mils).5.5 mil/kt correction).4. IFFCC provides two options for WD solutions: Manual Release and Consent to Release.13. The PBIL guides to the desired release point by predicting the future position of the bomb along the ground. 6. Manual Release. 6. the PBIL is dashed. Perform the roll-in and Conventional Pattern.22 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. the greatest depression available is 310 mils. CCIP Consent Release (5 mil & 3/9).3.

1 to 9.2. the analog range bar is removed.1.9 seconds. then 10 to 20 seconds. Predesignate CCIP Consent Release Symbology. and a predesignate timeto-release numeric (TTRN) is displayed inside the dashed reticle if the time to weapons release is less than 20 seconds.5.14. (See Figure 7.13 Head-Up Display Field of View Limits/MK 82 AIR. . The PBIL and CCIP reticle are dashed.2. When the CCIP solution is outside the HUD FOV the reticle is clamped to the outer edge of the HUD (with the clamped pipper 153 mils from HUD center regardless of bank angle). 6.23 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.) The predesignate TTRN is displayed in increments from 0. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7.

The symbology consists of a steering line.24 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7. the clamped CCIP pipper is used as the aiming reference to designate the intended target. 6. This causes the PBIL and CCIP bomb reticle to become solid. The pilot rolls in and places the CCIP pipper over the target. To employ the CCIP consent release function. in whole seconds.15.2. and the TTRN. and the CCIP consent symbology to be displayed (Figure 7. Postdesignate CCIP Consent Release Symbology).14 Predesignate CCIP Consent Release Symbology. a 10-mil diameter solution cue.2. . and then depresses and holds the Weapons Release button to enter the CCIP Consent Release function.5.2. NOTE: When the solution is within the HUD FOV the solution and symbology will behave according to „Manual Release‟ regardless of IFFCC consent setting.

2. • If “5 MIL” was selected from the MAIN MENU. CCIP Consent Release Symbology at Release).5. parallel to HUD Horizontal Plane (Figure 7.16. After designation. IFFCC commands release when the CCIP pipper is within 5 mils and passes the 3/9 line of the solution cue.1.2. 6. (Figure 7.15 Postdesignate CCIP Consent Release Symbology. Azimuth Error Consent Release Inhibit. then the release will not be commanded. the aircraft is flown to align the CCIP pipper with the solution cue.25 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.18.2. If the CCIP pipper passes outside of 5 mils. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7.) .

26 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. NOTE: LGBs/CBU-97 are always 3/9 regardless of IFFCC Consent setting. NOTE: Rockets are always manual release regardless of IFFCC Consent setting. or if there is a fault in the consent system. • If 3/9 was selected from the “MAIN MENU”. IFFCC commands release when the CCIP pipper crosses the 3/9 line of the solution cue. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7. CCIP Postdesignate 3/9 Delivery. regardless of horizontal range to the solution.17. . (See Figure 7.16 CCIP Consent Release Symbology at Release. parallel to HUD Horizontal Plane).) • The solution will become invalid prior to IFFCC commanded release (and hence aborted) if the Weapons Release button is released prior to actual weapon release.

5.3. Selecting NONE.2. IFFCC will remove fragmentation as a consideration for the MRS on GP bombs.17 CCIP Postdesignate 3/9 Delivery.1. 6. If this SEM is selected in the weapon profile. 6. IFFCC calculates and displays an abort cue based on pilot and aircraft data. frag or Min Alt and displays the MRS and MRC based on the higher of the three.3. as explained below: • MK 82/MK 84: MRS and MRC does not consider frag and is only based on the values the pilot enters for Min Alt and Fuze.5. 6. Real-Time Safe Escape.5.27 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. For free-fall weapons. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7. Selecting NONE in the CBU87/CBU-89/CBU-97 submenus has a slightly different effect on the MRS and MRC than in the MK 82/MK 84 submenus. . IFFCC can calculate a minimum TOF for safe escape based on actual aircraft parameters and planned escape maneuver. IFFCC calculates safe escape for fuze. Abort Cues. No consideration is given to safe escape/safe separation.3.

28 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. 25 Jul 2011 • CBU-87/CBU-89/CBU-97: MRS and MRC represent submunition arming while not considering frag for an intact canister. If actual flight parameters are outside the boundaries of these tables. The . IFFCC extrapolates from the tables to calculate a RTSE value.3. Real-Time Safe Escape Cues. not safe escape/safe separation. To alert the pilot that IFFCC is extrapolating outside the bounds of RTSE tables.3. the MRS and MRC will flash. 6. Figure 7. Only fuzing and function will be considered.5.18 Azimuth Error Consent Release Inhibit.

the MRS is based upon the true CCIP solution. Conventional Rocket. frag. generally a half reticle short. Weapon Employment 7. and loft rockets. (See Figure 7. With a rocket profile selected. This will occur at the same time that the MRS meets the pipper. 7.3. 6.4.5. CCIP Rockets. and winds) a solution will not be available within the HUD FOV prior to passing the respective TOF. If the range bar has not met the caret or the staple is above the pipper when the bomb is released.5. IFFCC CCIP significantly reduces the difficulty in shooting accurate rockets.29 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.4.1. IFFCC displays this cue as the MRS and MRC.) . this accuracy is achieved at the expense of threat standoff. If the VSI is present. In this case. IFFCC uses the inputs minimum altitude.1. the critical element in shooting rockets. which is outside the HUD FOV. place the pipper short of the target. However.1. the VSI may appear at roll-out but go away as the aircraft accelerates on final. dive angle. Valid Solution Indications. the analog range bar will be locked at the 12 o‟clock position. This occurs only when no consent option is selected or available. tactical. Avoid the tendency to hold the pipper on the target as this will induce tip off. Because of the shorter slant range.5. and MRC are removed from the normal CCIP display. The rocket reticle is not displayed in the HUD unless a solution is available. MRS/MRC with MAN REL. is constantly computed out to the kinematic range of the rocket. then the aircraft is outside the minimum slant range computed by IFFCC. the PBIL. MRS/MRC with CCIP Consent. For high sight depression parameters.000 feet. 7. or ground. 6. This delivery is characterized by short slant ranges and generally steeper dive angles (30 degrees or more). IFFCC displays an “X” over the pipper if this situation exists and the pilot should abort the pass. The MRC is displayed as a caret on the inside of the reticle. namely airspeed. the valid solution indicator (VSI) appears as a small “x” over either the MRS or the DRC when the IFFCC computer determines (with the present aircraft parameters. On roll-in. and below the reticle in NM when the slant range exceeds 12.5. MRS. 6. When in Manual Release mode. make a decision based on wind information and accuracy of parameters to determine whether to continue the pass or abort.1. 25 Jul 2011 flashing cues are somewhat subtle and are not always obvious on a cluttered HUD. The minimum release point is reached when the analog range bar meets the caret. Trim the aircraft to maintain correct G-loading and allow the pipper to track to the target. Rocket Employment. The MRC position inside the reticle corresponds to the minimum release slant range for the highest of fuze. Flashing MRS/MRC should have no affect on the delivery. 7.19. and safe escape maneuver to calculate a real time abort cue. The MRS is displayed along the PBIL. fuze time.3.1. DRC. CCIP Rocket Reticle.3. This information is displayed by the analog ranging bar inside the reticle. Slant range. conventional rockets are more accurate than standoff. When employing in CCIP Consent Release modes.

for additional information. Tactical Sight Setting. The RAN replaces the TTRN . or Guns. This sight setting can also be used with the standby pipper. it can be used if wind velocity is not known and/or if there is no time to calculate wind corrections to achieve specific delivery parameters. Use a depressible pipper with either STBY Pipper.1. however. (See Figure 7. Manual Rockets. CCRP is a system delivery that will usually be employed at low-altitude to „loft‟ rockets or medium-altitude for level or shallow deliveries. headwind and tailwind corrections are negligible at closer slant ranges (less than 12. HARS. realize that standby pipper is 50 mils in diameter vice 25 mils for the depressible pipper. Linear offset or mil crank may be used to adjust RAP/RAPE for winds. Additionally. The tactical sight setting is a manual delivery technique using a set mil reference to employ manual rockets at several slant ranges.2.19 CCIP Rocket Reticle. Wind corrections are not as large as for bombs.1.3. Manual rocket deliveries are similar to manual bomb deliveries. Crosswind correction must still be applied for accurate delivery (approximately 0. 25 Jul 2011 7. the pipper for 12K S/R and the bottom of the reticle for 15K S/R shots (it can also be set to 90 mils for a 6/9/12K reference).000 feet) and only the crosswind need be considered if a “close” mark is required).1. 7.) Figure 7.5 mils per knot). CCRP Rockets.2. 7. the top of the reticle should be used as the aiming reference for 9K S/R. With the depressible pipper set to 102 mils and dive angles between 5 to 15 degrees.20. As a rule.30 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.1 Tactical Sight Setting.

4. The delivery of M257/278 rockets is restricted to CCRP mode. Figure 7. Illum rocket solutions target a point over the SPI. push the nose of the aircraft down to position the analog range bar over the MRC. The “USE CCRP” message will be displayed in the HUD.4. 25 Jul 2011 and displays a “45” numeric seven seconds prior to the target being in range. the pickle button is “hot” and the pilot must attempt to release the rockets as close to the center of the Solution Cue as possible. 20-. Remember. the pilot may perform a 10-.31 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.1. the pilot uses the same CCRP references discussed previously by applying sufficient G to place the PBRL on the ASL. vertically maneuver the aircraft to place the analog range bar on the MRC. this solution is always calculated based on the SPI. therefore. for a 20-degree loft. If the MRC is outside the analog range bar.20 Tactical Sight Setting. Delivery parameters can vary from lofting nose high to 30 degrees nose low.4. pull the nose of the aircraft up to . Rocket Continuously Computed Release Point Analog Range Bar).1. Illumination Rockets. These rockets provide approximately 2 to 3 minutes of illumination. MAN REL is the only release mode for rocket deliveries. The MRC and analog range bar are utilized in a unique way with M257/278 rocket flares. the pilot starts a pull-up to 20 degrees when the RAN equals 30. 7. Start the pull-up when the RAN equals 10 degrees plus the planned loft angle. 7.21. During the loft profile. For the rocket flare to attain the menuentered desired flare height at mid-burn. The Mk-257/278 rockets are illumination rockets. If the MRC is inside the analog range bar (Figure 7. During a low altitude run-in. 7.2.1. or 30-degree loft. The analog range bar represents the predicted flare ignition height while the MRC represents the desired flare ignition height to mid-burn. For example.1.

fly the MRC to the analog range bar.21 Rocket Continuously Computed Release Point Analog Range Bar.3. 7. Take care to ensure the proper symbology is being used for the two respective weapons as dangerous miss distances can occur when using opposing symbology. analog range bar and MRC will be removed from the HUD and a dashed “X” will be displayed over the pipper.1. TTRN. In other words. Solution Cue. maintain that flight path angle until release.32 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. RKT is displayed below the rocket reticle to help distinguish the two. If launching the selected rocket flare would cause it to hit the ground before parachute deployment. Once the analog range bar and MRC are coincident. ASL. CAUTION: The HUD symbology for the rocket CCIP is very similar to the gun CCIP.4. 7.1.4. Figure 7.4. the PBRL. . 25 Jul 2011 position the analog range bar over the MRC.

2. and the weather. does increase as the gun heats up. however. the threat.2. a gun unsafe indication will result.5 seconds.1.2.2. Parameters. gun dispersion can increase to 30 mils for 100 percent and 18 to 20 mils for 80 percent of rounds fired. when designing the gun. Gun Characteristics. . 7. In general.1. 25 Jul 2011 7. a gun unsafe indication will result. 7. and HAS is usually 30 degrees and above.1. and 150 seconds after firing. The cockpit gun unsafe light will illuminate if the clearing cycle is not completed in 2. If two broken firing pins are detected. The GAU-8/A is installed such that bullets pass through the 41-mil depression at 4.2. Rounds Counter. Dispersion. Each specific delivery has its advantages and disadvantages.5 seconds after every firing. Two target strafe (TTS) can be accomplished from either LRS or HAS deliveries. If the clearing cycle is interrupted by safing the gun.2 Cooling Cycle.2. 7. strafe parameters are dictated by the target. 7.000 feet slant range when in 30 degrees of dive with a 36. Barrel cooling also stops when the master arm or rotate switch is set to the safe position. The cycle can be interrupted at any point by squeezing the trigger.5. The goal. Strafe deliveries for the A-10 are divided into two broad categories: highangle and low-angle.2. With over 1. The cooling cycle was designed to eliminate increased bullet dispersion due to barrel heating and rotates the barrels under a schedule following trigger release. 60. the GAU-8/A will automatically cycle at 24. 7.4.2. analyze. and in the HUD when in GUNS mode. combined with a sustained rate of fire of 62 rounds per second.2 Gun Employment. only the bullet footprint. and correct for common pilot errors are critical for employment. After six to eight passes of 150 rounds each with only 1. the A-10 pilot is provided unsurpassed staying power and flexibility.5 minutes between bursts. high accuracy. The GAU-8/A goes through a barrel clearing cycle within 0. Harmonization. 100. To cool the barrel. The GAU-8/A characteristics of increased standoff. Rounds remaining are displayed in increments of 10 on the DSMS page. was to have no unfired or “wasted” rounds in the barrel. Pilot knowledge of proper strafe techniques and the ability to recognize. Low-angle strafe (LAS) and long range strafe (LRS) are generally considered any delivery 15 degrees and below.1.000-pound aircraft.1 Clearing Cycle. 7. The GAU-8/A is the primary weapon of the A-10. and sustained firepower make strafe the most reliable and effective method for the A-10 to deliver firepower against a ground target.1. The GAU-8/A was built with the specifications that 80 percent of the bullets must fall within a 5-mil diameter of the desired aimpoint and 100 percent must fall within 13 mils. 7. Dive angle does not affect dispersion. It is set in IFFCC by the weapons load crew when the gun is loaded.3.150 rounds of 30mm high explosive incendiary (HEI) and armor piercing incendiary (API) rounds.33 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. Dispersion. the gun can detect a broken firing pin (resulting in a live round). Additionally.1.

However.2. the aircraft will likely sustain frag/ricochet damage. .500 feet slant range. (See Figure 7. (See Figure 7. Figure 7. for gun cross elevation with the target at 5. cease fire no later than 3. Long-Range Strafe. or soft skinned vehicles (e.000-foot slant range to avoid breaking the 3/9 plane of any target shot at. the aiming reference is 39 to 40 mils. Cease fire on a LAS delivery on soft targets at 2. Refer to the weapons shop and AFTTP 3-1. 7.2.000 feet.000 feet and 3. Low-Angle Strafe.A10 for specific Pd against targets.000 feet slant range. If an aircraft breaks the 3/9 plane of a hard target after employing on it.2. a mobility kill (M-Kill) may still be likely.23.) If employing manually. For low-altitude shots. Manual Long Range Strafe Aiming Reference.000 feet on hard targets.2. LRS slant range. Realize that if attacking a heavily armored target. The objective of a LAS delivery is to press into effective kill range for a hard target (tank). trucks and jeeps).) For LAS passes against hard targets.000 to 6.1. when employing on a controlled range.2.g. The objective of a LRS delivery is to standoff using the excellent range of the GAU-8/A to kill or immobilize a target..22 Manual Low-Angle Strafe Aiming Reference.g.000 to 2.000 to 6.34 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. 25 Jul 2011 7. the probability of damage (Pd) goes down significantly as the range increases. lightly armored targets (e. If attacking personnel.. slant range will very nearly equal ground range. When employing manually and assuming firing at 2. is typically 5. this can be an effective delivery.22 Manual Low-Angle Strafe Aiming Reference. APCs). elevate the gun cross to compensate for gravity drop based on slant range.

High-Angle Strafe.2. Just as in LRS. “think” of it as a combination of LRS and LAS— incorporating the techniques of both. more vulnerable parts of the target are exposed.23 Manual Long Range Strafe Aiming Reference. (See Figure 7. 7. the slant range is dependent upon desired weapons effects and target attacked. HAS deliveries are less sensitive to elevation and slant range errors than low angle deliveries. As a ROT. while on the planned dive angle. TTS is shooting two targets with two separate bursts on the same pass. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7. 3. Shoot long then short if the targets are aligned with the run in axis to avoid breaking 3/9 with a target. Slant Range Estimation Prior to Roll-In.24.4 Two-Target Strafe. HAS deliveries are used from medium-altitude with dive angles greater than 20 degrees. The correct slant range is acquired when employing on a conventional range and firing at the desired altitude.35 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. and the overall effective target area is increased.2. altitude.2. targets should be close enough that they are in the confines of the HUD simultaneously when opening fire on the first target. strafe in the direction of egress (left to right off right.to 30-degree dive region for hard targets due to limited weapons effects (obliquity angles may result in ricochet at impact versus penetration). . Reference squadron Battle Books for specific deliveries and their mil elevations. and airspeed parameters must be met to hit the target. specific dive angle. Because of the increased dive angle. Tactically. When employed in a low-angle delivery. Similarly. Avoid the 15. the gun cross will have to be elevated to compensate for gravity drop at various slant ranges. to see how to compute slant range by referencing the target on the canopy rail.) 7. for example). If employing manually.2. there is increased bullet density. then move away from the tower to strafe the second target. When employing on a controlled range. strafe the nearest target to the range tower first.

) . Strafe Symbology. The CCIP is corrected for all factors influencing the bullets after the gun has reached full speed (approximately 0.2. 7. Continuously Computed Impact Point Gun Reticle and Gun Cross. (See Figure 7. No gun cross is available in STANDBY PIPPER. The power-on default sight for the gun is the CCIP gun reticle. gun barrel rotation. Air-to-surface guns can be accomplished in GUNS and CCIP modes. 3.2. then in CCIP the 4K wind corrected gun cross will be displayed (when the gun is armed). CCIP guns cross. 7. and wind corrected 4.2. 7.5 second). If a fixed sight (wind corrected fixed gun cross or 4/8/12 reticle) is selected in guns.36 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.2. The gun reticle consists of a 1 mil pipper at the center of a 50-mil circular reticle with range marks at the 12. 6. and winds.3. a fixed. GUNS mode offers CCIP reticle. gravity drop. non-wind corrected 4K GUN CROSS is displayed. Guns Attack Modes.3.3.1. In HARS with the GUN ARMed.25.24 Slant Range Estimation Prior to Roll-In. CCIP Gun Reticle. and 9 o‟clock positions. Some of these factors include deceleration. 4/8/12 reticle.000 foot gun cross. aircraft angle of attack. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7.

An analog range bar with a 5-mil tab indicates the slant range to the CCIP gun solution in thousands of feet. Analog Range Bar and Range Numeric.2. a “K” will follow the range numeric. Analog Range Bar. with the hash mark at the 6 o‟clock position.26. The numeric then changes to an integer beginning at 10 and increasing to 99.000 feet. current slant range is 6. and an X is placed over the pipper. Slant ranges can be displayed from 0 to 12.25 Continuously Computed Impact Point Gun Reticle and Gun Cross. The 2-digit numeric displays the range in nautical miles beginning at 0.2. A pilot option is to display the range numeric in kilometers. If there is no solution. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7. A hash mark at the end of the analog range bar indicates current slant range in thousands of feet as read from the reticle clock position. the range numeric is removed. Outside of 12. the analog range bar is thin. If the pipper is pointed at a target that exceeds the maximum range that IFFCC can calculate.37 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. (See Figure 7.1 increments to 9. In this case. Maximum ranges in excess of 6 NM were observed during flight tests of IFFCC. and the maximum range that will be displayed is 99K.) The analog range bar is located just inside the reticle and moves counter clockwise from the 12 o‟clock position as slant range to the target decreases. This aids the pilot in keeping the pipper near the target for when a solution becomes possible.9.1 and increasing in 0.3. For example. the range bar remains fixed at the 12 o‟clock position and an accurate range numeric is presented as long as a valid solution exists. .1.000 feet. the pipper will clamp at the maximum range solution (with an “X” over it) and will still be roll stabilized and wind-corrected. 7.000 feet.

CCIP Gun Reticle MTI. no range numeric will be shown.2. 5-mil lines to the left and right of the pipper can be used to estimate the lead required for a moving target. the target and bullets should arrive at the same point at the same time. The MRC functions identically to the reticle MRC.3. The gun cross consists of a 2-mil pipper and a 4-mil gap. and the cross will have an X through it if a solution is not available due to lack of altitude source or a solution outside of the HUD FOV. using more compact symbology. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7.26 Analog Range Bar and Range Numeric.2.2. (See Figure 7. 7. Use the MTI to estimate movement and deliver a burst of sufficient length and dispersion to increase the probability of a hit. and each line segment of the cross is 5 mils long making the cross a total of 20 mils across.38 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.) The two vertical. The horizontal line at the top of the cross helps to distinguish it from a non-computed gun sight.27 Continuously Computed Impact Point Gun Reticle Moving Target Indicator. By placing the target under the MTI with the gun pipper in front of the direction of motion.2. 7. The MTI assumes the target is moving perpendicular to the aircraft at a rate of 20 knots.3. The horizontal bar will not be present. These lines expand or contract as the slant range and bullet TOF is changed. . CCIP Gun Cross. (See Figure 7.) The IFFCC CCIP gun cross displays the same computed impact point as the CCIP gun reticle.3. The CCIP gun reticle includes two moving target indicators (MTI). similar to the CCIP gun reticle.25 Continuously Computed Impact Point Gun Reticle and Gun Cross.

26. • When the aircraft is less than 5 seconds past (or below) the minimum recovery altitude (at current rate and angle of descent).2. A minimum range caret (MRC) is available in Guns and CCIP modes for the CCIP reticle and gun cross. This gun MRC defines a minimum recovery altitude that is calculated using the minimum altitude entered in the IFFCC 30 MM submenu.39 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. . (See Figure 7. • The caret will be clamped at the 6 o‟clock tick when the aircraft is 5 seconds or more below the minimum recovery altitude. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7. Minimum Range Symbology for Guns. the caret will be displayed below the top of the 12 o‟clock tick and above the 3 o‟clock tick. the caret will be next to the 3 o‟clock tick. • The caret is clamped vertically next to the top of the 12 o‟clock tick when there are 5 seconds or more until recovery must begin. Minimum Range Cue.25 Continuously Computed Impact Point Gun Reticle and Gun Cross.4. the caret will be displayed below the 3 o‟clock tick and above the bottom of the 6 o‟clock tick. This caret also provides a time-to-go indication before aircraft recovery from guns pass must begin (four Gs in 2 seconds WINGS LEVEL is the assumed recovery).3. then the recover MUST be a 4G WINGS LEVEL pull to the horizon to recover at or above the min alt.) If the min alt is set to what is in the Battle Book. • When the aircraft is less than 5 seconds above the minimum recovery altitude (at current rate and angle of descent). 7. • When the aircraft is at the minimum recovery altitude. Reference the squadron battle book for „pads‟ to add to the min alt setting to allow for a typical „climbing safe escape‟-like maneuver that allows up to 30 degrees of bank during the 4G pull to the horizon. The caret begins descending vertically when the time-to-go to the minimum recovery altitude (at current rate and angle of descent) decreases below 5 seconds.

000 feet slant range solutions. Figure 7.27.2. The wind-corrected gun sight (WCGS) is similar in appearance to the CCIP gun cross.3.6.) 7. (See Figure 7.3.2. The 4/8/12 gun reticle displays three wind-corrected fixedrange pippers representing 4. the analog range bar is not present. 8. 4/8/12 Gun Reticle. except it has no horizontal bar at the top and no range numeric.000. The WCGS is a cross set at 41 mils. Elevation of the gun sight for targets inside or .000 Foot Wind-Corrected Gun Cross. 7. and 12. for more information. Wind Corrected Gun Cross. 25 Jul 2011 • Setting the minimum altitude in the 30 MM submenu to 0 feet deselects the gun CCIP minimum range cue display.40 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.26 Minimum Range Cue. 4/8/12 Gun Reticle and 4.000. Toggling the SEL rocker on the UFC or cycling DMS L/R with HUD-SOI will display the 4/8/12 gun reticle.5. IFFCC corrects for crosswinds and the pilot elevates the sights for slant range.

elevate the sight for slant range and correct upwind for crosswind.4.1. .41 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. this sight is useful when target elevation information is unavailable. Like the 4/8/12 gun reticle. Sight Settings. HARS fixed gun cross.27 4/8/12 Gun Reticle and 4. 25 Jul 2011 beyond 4. and the 4/8/12 Reticle. 7.2.2. There are several sight settings for GAU-8/A manual strafe deliveries: Standby Pipper.000 Foot Wind-Corrected Gun Cross 7. Manual Strafe Deliveries.4. When employing the GAU-8/A manually.000 feet slant range have to be estimated by the pilot. Wind Corrected 4k Gun Cross. When using the standby pipper. Figure 7. set the appropriate mils for the estimated slant range while offsetting for estimated winds.

4.000 feet slant range.000 feet). (See Figure 7. As a ROT.000 foot slant range).2. only elevate for slant range.1. Figure 7. illustrates a technique using a gun cross to TVV ratio against crosswinds to determine the aimpoint when employing with the OPT-C gun cross.4. the wind will “drift” the aircraft into its firing position.000 feet of slant range.3.000 foot slant range requires the pilot to place the target one sixth the distance from the gun cross towards the TVV. Elevate the sight for the estimated slant range while offsetting for estimated winds.) 7. When using the 4/8/12 reticle. Strafe wind correction presents a similar problem to that encountered in the delivery of any other type of conventional ordnance. Wind Corrections. use 1:6 ratio against armor (up to 4. Once rolled out on final. and use 1:2 ratio for very long-range strafe (slant range greater than 10. for a 15-knot crosswind at 4. When using the wind corrected 4K gun cross.000 feet). The drift method involves using an upwind roll-in point and AOP.2.2. For crosswinds. the standard correction factors are: 0. For example.42 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. use 1:4 ratio for long-range strafe (4. Elevate for Slant Range.3. The same effect can be achieved utilizing the crab method into the wind. Neither drift nor crab has an advantage over the bank method other than firing with wingslevel. there are two basic methods to correct for wind once on final: drift/crab or bank. See the Battle Book for elevation techniques based on delivery (4/6/9K strafe) and sight settings for HAS.4. Elevate the gun cross for a headwind and depress for a tailwind. Realize that the release aimpoint in both cases will be the same. Manual Strafe Techniques.29.3. For direct crosswinds. place the gun cross 7.000 to 10. For example.5 mils or 30 feet upwind of the target and fire. The top pipper of the 3 is the 4K pipper and is fixed at 41 mils.28. Mil dispersion will compensate for these ROTs.2.2. 7. . there are three pippers inside one reticle to aid estimating elevation. a 4.5.2. for more information.4.mil per knot of crosswind for most slant ranges or 1-foot per knot of crosswind for every 2. 7. 25 Jul 2011 7. Velocity Vector and Crab and Drift Aimpoints.

for more information. .28 Manual Strafe Techniques.43 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7.

for further information.3.5 mil for every knot of direct headwind or tailwind. a drifting or crabbing attack will require a considerable offset aimpoint. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7. Since the wind drift has been canceled by bank.2. High-angle strafe corrections.4.) .29 Velocity Vector and Crab and Drift Aimpoints. It is similar to flying a wing low approach to the runway. the aircraft is flying straight at the target and is pointed at the target. In a strong crosswind. 7. Banked strafe is only valid for crosswinds up to 15 knots and/or slant ranges up to 8. Keep the no crosswind aiming reference for the slant range to be used on the target with bank.) Due to bullet velocity and low trajectory angles. A ROT for 30 degrees or greater is to use 0.4 For LAS/LRS using the bank strafe method. the aircraft drift is countered by banking into the wind.28. are the same as for low-angle deliveries.30.2. 7.44 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. headwinds and tailwinds are much more of a factor both for the ground track and the AOP. uncoordinated flight will cause a lateral trajectory shift error. and shoot at the appropriate slant range.3. Manual Strafe Techniques. However. using the drift or crab method. during high-angle strafe. (See Figure 7. (See Figure 7. Trajectory Shift Error. Avoid using the rudder.4.000 feet. headwind and tailwind corrections are minimal in low-angle and long-range strafe (unless they are very strong).3.

4. Slant Range/Milliradian Relationship. it would be 5 mils on the beam and 2.3.e.2.g. for the standard Soviet tank and 4. A standard conventional range strafe rag is 16 feet.000 feet slant range... and must be determined for both head/tail and beam aspects. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7. Mil Sizing a Target. The aspect must be determined prior to release. APC.5. Because a mil in the HUD is a fixed size. it is possible to estimate the range to a target if the size of the target is known. tank.5 mils head/tail).31. or selfpropelled gun) is approximately 20 feet in length. The mil size of a target is simple. The standard chassis of most former Soviet Union equipment (e.30 Trajectory Shift Error.45 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. 10 feet in width. and 10 feet in height. 7. This leads to the slant range per mil relationship presented in Figure 7. See the formula below. and mil relationship used to determine slant range and appropriate aimpoint (i. .

slant range estimation error. and uncoordinated flight error. Common Strafe Errors.2.4. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7. These include aimpoint and tracking error.46 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.4. . 7.31 Slant Range/Milliradian Relationship.

1.4. . The most common pilot-delivery error in strafe is the failure to place and maintain the aiming reference on the target and not obeying the cardinal rule of track-shoot-track.4.5 Shooting Combat Mix (CM). but in the A-10 it is approximately onesixth of the way from the gun cross to the velocity vector. The reverse of this is equally true—using the wrong mil setting at a known slant range. Consequently.4. needle/ball not centered). the nose (and aiming reference) will swing left. Slant Range Estimation Error. The bullets will hit between the aiming reference and the flight path.000 feet S/R for 45 degrees of dive and almost negligible in 60-degree HAS.3. This could be caused by a rudder input or by the rudder being incorrectly trimmed (e.2.32. Since the CM setting for bullet type optimizes the CCIP sight for API. greater than 15. notice that HEI impacts short at long ranges. HEI has a lighter. Aimpoint and Tracking Error. 7.47 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. does not carry speed as long as API. 7. Uncoordinated Flight.4. at long ranges HEI will land shorter than API.000 feet in dives of 30 degrees or less. This error is applicable for both fixed gun sight and computed gunnery.4. Figure 7. See Figure 7. The exact impact point depends on airspeed and bullet velocity..4.32 CCIP Gun Reticle with Combat Mix Selected. Pilots must know the mil depressions necessary to hit a target at various slant ranges.2.2.2.g. This divergence becomes prevalent at slant ranges greater than 12. 25 Jul 2011 7. CCIP Gun Reticle with Combat Mix Selected. 7. faster muzzle velocity initially but due to higher drag. The second most prevalent error with non-computed gunnery is firing at the incorrect slant range for the given mil setting. When stepping on the left rudder.4. but the flight path of the aircraft will not change immediately.2. The API will be on target and slightly later than the HEI impacts.

When the gun is fired. and relative ease of employment can optimize both target destruction and aircraft survivability. 7. During roll-in. and track the target. Whatever the error from the first attack. PAC is available in both Guns and CCIP/CCRP. not at the gun cross. Approaching the desired slant range (determined by IFFCC cues. it probably was on during firing. Combat Offset. pull the pipper up to the target. Both Maverick models may also be used in conjunction with other weapons to enhance delivery capabilities of those weapons. stabilize it.4.3. effective warhead. and pull to first detent (“track”).2.3. they are more than enough to cause increased bullet dispersion and a complete miss. the Master Arm switch is in ARM or Train.48 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. • Look at the target when tracking and firing. two Mavericks will be the standard loadout. 7.4. While these errors are small. Precision Attitude Control (PAC). Maverick. at the end of the first bullet‟s TOF expiration when Master Arm is not safe. The B/H/K-model Mavericks are the electro-optical (EO) version which uses dark and light contrast to lock onto targets.33. With the current LAU-117. The bullets at target altitude (BATA) is a small flashing circle that appears in the HUD at the point on the ground where the IFFCC computer predicts the bullets will impact.4. IFFCC compensates for these errors through the PAC system. aircraft vibration. This estimation is based on aircraft altitude above the target and bullet TOF for the calculated slant range. continuing to track the target.) Its accuracy. a standard loadout of up to six .7. A cardinal rule for strafe is to “track-shoot-track. The PAC system is available whenever the EAC is armed.2. and other factors can cause errors in pipper placement that are beyond the pilot‟s ability to see or control through stick inputs.2.2. Squeeze the trigger to PAC-2 to shoot. IFFCC also incorporates a valuable training tool for feedback on dry strafe passes. The AGM-65 Maverick missile is a precise. ground references. wind variations. 7. Strafe Delivery Techniques.8.6. The AGM-65D and G models are also extremely useful for night target search when a targeting pod is not available. set the gun sight to the appropriate aiming reference.1. AGM-65D Maverick Missile. The BATA appears. standoff missile. PAC-1 is engaged when the gun trigger is pulled to the first detent and PAC-2 is engaged at the second detent. Rolling in. 7. 7.2.1. • Shoot a 2-second burst for tactical situations.4.6. learn from that and make a correction (combat offset). 7.2. Bullets at Target Altitude.2. and the air refueling door is closed. 25 Jul 2011 7. then recover.8. set the sight just short of the target and evaluate the slant range.4. 7. Smoothly squeeze the trigger to PAC-1. smoothly pull the trigger to the second detent (“shoot”).” If the pipper was on the target before and after firing. standoff parameters. continue the track momentarily (track). after the gun trigger is depressed.8.2. the Gun switch is set to PAC ARM. or apparent target size).8. The D/G models are infrared (IR) and use heat signatures for target acquisition.4. (See Figure 7. If LAU-88s are used. PAC Arming. guided.4.

1. For EO Mavericks. .1.1. Know if the targets are parked or running to aid in polarity decisions for IR Mavericks.3. based on size and shape. 7. ask intel if the enemy is known to use Camouflage and Deception to minimize target ID mistakes.1. Be ready to identify them (tank versus truck) in the MAV MFCD. 7. Successful Maverick employment requires thorough mission planning.1. Target Area Restrictions.2.33 AGM-65D Maverick Missile. For a more detailed discussion on specific Mavericks.49 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. Type Target. The size and relative shape will also effect the maximum planned launch envelope based on lock logic for each type of Maverick.3. There are many factors that may be known and planned for such as target.3.1. the AGM-65 G/G2 Maverick Operations supplement. see the AGM-65A TV Maverick Operations supplement. Know what types of targets are expected for Maverick employment. 7. factor terrain. the AGM-65B TV Maverick Operations supplement.3. Be familiar with planned fire coordination measures. and threats that might drive specific attack axes. Mission Planning. 25 Jul 2011 Mavericks is possible.3. 7. Figure 7.1. the AGM-65D Maverick Operations supplement. weather and threats in order to determine the appropriate polarity and first lock opportunity slant range. ask intel in what direction movement is likely to plan attacks along the movement axis (versus perpendicular).3.1. Important target information includes the following: 7.1. Target Expectations.1. and the AGM-65 H/K Maverick Operations Supplement. If the enemy is on the move.

Each degree of bank will result in 1 percent loss of range. Target Acquisition and Lock Logic.4. The following Maverick numbers are important to know: • Time limits: 3-minute EO warm-up. Important weather information includes the following: 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.3. 30 degrees per second roll rate at launch.34. 60degree maximum dive angle.2. the missile seeker must be within the launch window. 60 minutes total for EO power ON. the pointing cross will become steady. but the pointing cross and scene magnifiers will .3. Target area cloud cover. 15 minutes maximum on ground. as the Mav will lose track if it enters the clouds.1. G-Bias. B-Model Lock Logic. Cloud cover can also reduce shadows and target area heating. 7. The H/K models have a 10 degree radius keyhole which is not pictured in Figure The “Keyhole. If the target is inside these limits. 30 minutes video total for each missile per mission. Sun angle will determine how large the shadows are in relation to the targets and in what direction the shadows are located.3. D/G Maverick “Keyhole. 7.1.2. To achieve maximum range launches at lower altitudes.” This launch window is one of several considerations to satisfy good lock logic.1. 7. • Launch Envelopes: minimum altitudes are 300 feet AGL for EO and 150 feet AGL for IR. Lock-on to a target that is too low in contrast or too small to survive missile launch transients (less than 1/2 the tracking window) is sometimes possible. Firing inside of 12.000 feet slant range minimizes the G-bias. For IR employment.3.” 7.34. These limits are 10 degrees (radius) around the longitudinal axis of the missile and 15 degrees down from the center.50 7. The amount of this climb is based on distance from target when launch occurs.1.2.2. If not. G-limits equal +0. • 30 x 30 x 30 Rule: 30 degrees maximum bank angle at lock-on. sun direction (and time of day) has an effect on which side of the target will likely be identifiable in the MAV page. and 30 degrees maximum bank angle change lock-on to launch.1. 7. Cloud cover could drive lower altitude employment.” The B model of the Maverick does not have a “keyhole. 7.2.000 feet per second (3 NM launch equals approximately 18 seconds).” In order to achieve the “good lock logic” in a D/G/G2/H/K-model Maverick. Knowing how high the clouds are will be a consideration when firing missiles with G-bias.2. Sun Azimuth/Elevation. the point cross will flash. and 45 seconds between passes for missile realignment (B-model only—missile should not be called up during this time). minimum range equals 10 x KTAS (25 x KTAS for G/G2-model). 3-minute video on per pass for B-models. and TOF equals 1.3.2.”) The launch window is sometimes referred to as “The Keyhole. 25 Jul 2011 to +3. the missile will initially climb to extend its range. (See Figure 7.3. When launched.3. This climb is referred to as G-Bias.1. A good lock-on for the B-model is indicated when the four white dots depicting the background gates bound the target and the pointing cross is steady. D/G Maverick “Keyhole. For EO employment shadows can cause lock logic difficulties. bank angle at lock should be less than 10 degrees.

2. friction. For targets which are lighter than the background. 7. select AFT on the boat switch (polarity switch). select forward. Figure 7. or the angle of the missile seeker head from the boresight exceeds missile limits.3. EO Mavericks. then the boat switch should be aft. slow heat build-up) will depend on the solar heating cycle and the target‟s specific background temperature.3.3. Besides humidity and precipitation.34 D/G Maverick ―Keyhole.‖ 7. If tracking the target with an ATP. note the polarity (in charge-coupled devise [CCD] or forward looking infrared [FLIR]) to determine the polarity for the Maverick to minimize one more switch change on final. the switch should be forward.. If it is colder than the background. or chemical) or from basic IR properties of materials. other factors which can reduce the apparent temperature difference between a target and its background include: . solar. Look at the target and try to determine which of the following contrast modes the Maverick will need for a successful lock-on (this should reduce switchology on final). There are many obscurants that will affect IR heat signatures.3. Detection of non-operating targets or of heavy armored targets that have been operating for only a short time (i. vegetation heats up faster than these same objects.1. Contrast Modes.e.51 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. Is the target hotter or colder than the background? If it is hotter.2.. and conversely. Target aspect may either reveal or mask the heat source. vegetation cools faster than metal objects. IR heat signatures result from heating (i. IR Mavericks. in early morning. For targets which are darker than the background. 7. at night.3. Generally.3. 7.3. Detectable.e.1. 25 Jul 2011 flash if the target is too small.3.

If the missile stays locked on. With a G/K/H/K-model Maverick in Force Correlate mode (i. array. or CHINA HAT-FWD/LONG to SLAVE TO SPI.4. If these criteria are met. • Scattered or broken cloud cover which can vary thermal heating. • Calm water surfaces.g. or using an ATP to aid in acquisition.4. boat switch in the center position prior to commanding lock). 7. continue to slew Maverick to target trying for good lock until the pass must be aborted. Do not use on moving or point targets.3. . runways) will help funnel the pilot to the target area. 7. Stabilize the Mav scene: press and hold DMS-FWD/LONG to space stabilize. If the target does not lockup. 7. The biggest difference is in the WFOV versus NFOV. release the Slew switch and Space Stabilize switch. 25 Jul 2011 • High winds.3. Employment. To get video. In WFOV. Roll-In. WFOV will allow more of the target area to be seen and to help assess target array. 7.2. A good technique is to roll-in in wide field of view (WFOV) (if available) so that the target area is discernible.4. the scene in the MAV should correlate to the features in the MAV SYMBOL on the HUD. 7. target description. creating solid crosshairs in both the horizontal and vertical axis on the aimpoint in the center of the screen. the missile will lock onto specified area.3..4. the missile is ready for launch. Pull the Maverick symbol to the target. ensure the MFCD is bounded by the green square (MAV is SOI) to prevent switch errors and/or a dry pass prior to exposure to threats. and mission planning. Another technique is to roll-in and acquire the target in NFOV. Point the crosshairs to the target and release the slew switch.2. Once the target area is located and in the center of the MAV page select NFOV.2. Once acquired. NOTE: Either way.2. With a A/B-model Maverick.2. confirm proper mil sizing. Ensure a Maverick profile is selected so the missile will fire (Mav will not fire in sensor mode). Ensure that the Maverick symbol has a chance to stabilize over the target. ATP use. Compare the scene to expectations from visual indications. This improves contrast and allows target locks faster and at greater ranges than WFOV when familiar with the target area. either select the MAV page. TMS-AFT/SHORT to ground stabilize. and the pointing cross will indicate when good lock logic criteria has been met. 7. The crosshairs will close.e. One technique is to roll-in and acquire the target in WFOV. a steady pointing cross and confirm positive target identification. the switchology is almost the same. The scene must have some contrast to establish a lock. at typical employment ranges. • Bare spots on a blanket of snow. lock target. roads.52 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. space stabilize (holding the DMS-FWD/LONG while changing the FOV prevents the missile from returning to the boresight position) and go to NFOV by pushing CHINA HATFWD/SHORT.1.3. Once in NFOV. Locking On.. or use CHINA HATFWD/SHORT with the MAV profile called up and HUD SOI to automatically switch the MFCD to Maverick video and make it SOI. With a D/G/G2/H/K missile.1. • Dry ground. Tactical reference points (e.

if medium altitude. 7. or remask when low altitude.7. Some key points to consider . Employing the Maverick from medium-altitude has many advantages. • Target size is too small. make a right-hand descent. Target acquisition is easier from higher altitudes. It is critical that the correct type of Maverick is loaded in DSMS for an accurate DLZ display.3. and unnecessary exposure. Consider time on final to avoid threats. 7. • For AGM-65G/K. For example. Losing IFFCC causes two major changes. The Maverick is one weapon where the loss of IFFCC does not dramatically affect the delivery process. Time on Final Considerations.4.7.” 7. 25 Jul 2011 7.G2/H/K model Mavericks when NOT in sensor mode. • If there is not a steady cross but the target is locked up.4.and high-altitude employment. if the cross is flashing in the bottom right of the MAV page.3.3. Non-IFFCC Considerations.4. As with the EO Maverick.3. Medium Altitude Employment. Many use 10 seconds for medium. use the depressible pipper.3. to put the cross within the “keyhole. Desired Launch Zone (DLZ).4. 7.3. Dial in the proper mil reference for where the missile was boresighted.3. The only SEM for Mavericks is to stop the rate of descent and climb back out of the threats. Ensure the pointing cross is steady for at least 1 second before firing.4. The DLZ is not available for B model Mavericks. ground impact.4. • Seeker head exceeds launch angle criteria.3.4. so fly the Maverick towards the flashing cross.1. 7. Do not shoot the Maverick within the minimum safe launch distance: • For AGM-65B/D/H.7. Set the altitude alert to give a pull off cue on a Maverick pass. Safe Escape Maneuver. slant range information will also be lost.5. The flight lead will establish the time of final criteria. With the loss of the reticle. The Maverick reticle will not come up on the HUD. 10 x TAS = Abort slant range (typically 300 knots. These higher altitudes may also allow the pilot to avoid flying into certain threat envelopes. It will also be displayed in the MAV page when NOT in the sensor mode. The pointing cross will flash with a D/G/G2/H/K-model if: • The temperature difference (delta T) between target and background is insufficient (scene bounding for H/K Mavericks).000 feet). A flashing pointing cross indicates that the missile may lose lock at or after launch.500 feet). Firing. A Maverick desired launch zone is displayed in the HUD for AGM-65D/G. 7.5. 7. the missile may be out of gimbal limits.4.53 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. This technique will help expedite target lock-ons.2 For a boresight reference. Getting consumed with trying to lockup the target is a very common problem. a picture should be drawn on the canopy to represent the target-to-pipper relationship.6. so 3.3. use 25 x TAS = Abort slant range (7.

Establish base distance and altitude based on the planned slant range for release. Budget time spent inside the cockpit and give priority to flying the aircraft. The bottom line is do not get so consumed in shooting the missile that you hit the ground.4. Take all factors into consideration to establish this unmask point. or pilot-acquired visual contact with small point targets. Do not unmask until the boresight is on a confirmed target/target area.3.1. Target identification range is the range where the boresight can be put on the desired target or target area.6. it is also feasible to deliver LGBs from a diving CCIP delivery. Base Distance.3. Altitude alert should be used to provide minimum altitude abort cues. helicopters and AC-130 gunships as well as ground forces using hand-held laser designators. Laser Codes are normally briefed by the flight lead or are written in the squadron standards.5. Employing the Maverick from low-altitude is very similar to medium-altitude with a few significant differences. its Pk is very large. A good ROT to use for low-altitude Maverick employment is two slews maximum.3.1. The obvious difference when employing laser-guided bombs is that they require laser energy to guide to the target. . Consider the minimum altitude for recovery.3. 25 Jul 2011 when employing from medium-altitude include establishing base distance and altitude.2. Laser Guided Bombs such as GBU-12s and GBU-10s are normally delivered from level/toss CCRP deliveries much like general purpose bombs. Notify maintenance personnel if there are discrepancies. 7.2. This range varies with the means of target identification used such as targeting pod. In-flight visibility and other environmental factors play a part in this range. but may change in flight due to actual TDA. Unmask ranges should be established in the brief by the flight lead. One threat is the ground. 7.3.6. During the weapons preflight.6. The key to success is knowing when. Low-Altitude Employment.1. 7.3. and target acquisition. 7. Laser spots can also be provided by other airborne platforms such as UAVs.4. 7. Some basic ROTs for unmasking are: 7. Target Identification Range. and from where. FAC mark.1.4. In certain tactical situations. The general steps for employing an LGB are listed below. Laser Guided Bomb Employment. This laser spot is normally provided by either the employing aircraft‟s targeting pod (known as „Self Lase‟) or by a pod from another aircraft such as the flight lead or wingman (referred to as „Buddy Lase‟). 7.6.6. See the Battle Book for base parameters and slant ranges. GBU Laser Codes. Another common ROT is no more than 10 seconds on final. ensure all LGBs are set to the correct code.3. 7. to unmask from the low-altitude regime in order to acquire and shoot the target.3. Employment. 7.54 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. then come off the pass.

Buddy Lase. 7.4. 7. High surface winds may require a laser aimpoint that is completely off the target.2. 7.2. After weapons release.7.3. CCRP Consent Option is always „3/9‟ Mode for LGBs.2 Laser Guided Bombs require an absolute minimum of 8 seconds of guide time. the HUD Mode will automatically change to CCRP when the profile is selected..4. Weapon time-of-fall is displayed on the left side of the HUD and in the lower-right corner of the TGP display.2. check away approximately 45 to 60 degrees in order to maintain visual and standoff from the target.2.2. maneuver the aircraft in accordance with the briefed geometry. Adjust the laser aimpoint one foot upwind per knot of wind in this regime. 7. specifically the winds between the surface and 4.7.1 CCRP always targets the SPI.4.4.2. refine the TGP aimpoint and fire the laser until weapon impact.4. 7.2. hold the pickle button down until the weapon is released. Turn the aircraft towards the target using steering symbols in the HUD (SPI Locator Line.4.4. Align the PBRL with the ASL and when the TTRN reads 5 seconds. Normally check left if the targeting pod is loaded on station 10 to minimize TGP masking.2. An additional technique is to roll in a slight dive to confirm the location of the target symbol in the HUD FOV and then pull to wings level.4. A technique for all CCRP deliveries once the target steerpoint is in the HUD is to TMSAFT/LONG to ensure the SPI is set the current steerpoint.6. Additionally.1. 7.8 Common Errors.55 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. a caution advisory will be provided.5. Guide times less than this may result in the bomb not hitting the desired point. The DSMS Status Page also displays the SPI coordinates and elevation and these can be compared to the appropriate target waypoint page on the CDU. as these have the most effect on the bomb. captains bars). 7. Confirm that the targeting pod has the correct laser code set. Self Lase.2.000 feet AGL. After weapons release.4.7. 7. Ensure the TGP is at the correct target location by either AREA or POINT tracking the desired DMPI or SLAVING to the target steerpoint. Once rolled out. the SPI type is displayed in the lower-left corner of the HUD steer point (STPT) and well as the DSMS Status Page. If the TGP laser code is different from the code set on the weapon in the DSMS Inventory.2. 25 Jul 2011 7. It is critical that the laser aimpoint be corrected for winds.2. weapon release will not be inhibited. Select the appropriate LGB weapons profile using the DMS switch and ensure the correct stations are armed using the DSMS Quicklook (COOLIE-DOWN/LONG). If the LGB profile is set to CCRP. The following lists common errors encountered when employing LGBs: .4. however. In the target area.4. 7. enter the target coordinates in a steerpoint and ensure this steerpoint is the current steerpoint in the HUD and also the SPI.

it compares what it thinks its location is. causing endgame TGP adjustments with a weapon in the air resulting in a moving laser spot.3. it will guide to the target using only its IMU. Inertially Aided Munitions include Joint Direct Attack Munitions such as GBU-38s and GBU-31s as well as Wind Corrected Munitions Dispensers such as CBU-103. • Other aircraft firing a laser with the same code into the target area during someone else‟s self lase attack.2.1.1. much like an INS as well as a GPS. When the weapon acquires GPS. derived by its own IMU (which was derived from the aircraft EGI) to the “true location” that the GPS receiver tells it. delayed or proximity fuzing with a FMU-152 Joint Programmable Fuze. 7. If the weapon does not receive a GPS signal. its own position is known based on its internal IMU. • Not having the TGP on the correct DMPI at release. It then begins guidance to the target coordinates. 7. The 500-pound GBU-38 and 2000-pound GBU-31 JDAMs are extremely versatile and accurate weapons that can be used against a variety of targets. The weapon does not acquire GPS until after release.1. CCRP symbology for these weapons is different than laser-guided and GP bombs.5. the following steps occur: 7. which will cause the bomb to deplete energy. especially with the flexibility of cockpit selectable impact.5. 25 Jul 2011 • Inadvertent HOTAS error that causes TGP laser type to change from laser to IR Marker. 7. These weapons guide to specific coordinates that can be generated using aircraft sensors or provided in mission planning.5. 7. .56 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. Inertially Aided Munitions Employment. This can cause the LGB to guide on the wrong laser. The weapon will attempt to achieve the desired impact angle and azimuth for hitting the target (see below). for a guide time below the minimum of 8 seconds. The JDAM has two modes of operation: bomb on coordinate (BOC) and relative targeting (RT). However. The JDAM is a coordinate-seeking weapon and the coordinates it guides to is the aircraft SPI.1. A JDAM contains both an inertial measurement unit (IMU).1.5. In BOC mode.2 Relative Targeting. If there is a . When the pickle button is depressed in a JDAM attack. LGBs will not guide on the Sniper‟s training laser.1. When the weapon is released from the aircraft.5. The advantages of these weapons include relatively large release windows known as Launch Acceptability Regions (LARs) that provide significant standoff and they can be delivered through the weather. the JDAM attempts to correct for any errors in its actual location caused by errors present in the navigation solution of the aircraft.1. The weapon searches for GPS satellites and acquires a 3D GPS solution.5.1. • Not correcting the laser spot for winds. but the weapon IMU is aligned to the aircraft EGI.1. 7.5. In RT mode. JDAM Release Sequence. These weapons are employed using level/toss deliveries in CCRP Mode. When the pickle button is depressed and the aircraft SPI coordinates are passed to the weapon. The weapon will sacrifice these parameters in order to hit the target.1. the weapon attempts to guide to the exact coordinates that were passed to it. 7.1. Joint Direct Attack Munitions. the current SPI coordinates are sent to the JDAM and the JDAM guides to those coordinates after release. Additionally.

hence the most important element for successful employment is generating as accurate coordinates as possible. There are two instances where BOC mode will be used: if the SPI is a steerpoint with preplanned or hand-entered coordinates loaded into or if a hooked datalink symbol on the TAD is the SPI. JDAMs are coordinate-seeking weapons. ensuring the aircraft SPI reflects the desired target is absolutely critical. another aircraft may broadcast a SADL J12.6 SADL Message. the weapon will offset its aimpoint from the passed target coordinates the same amount.3. 7. As with other CCRP deliveries. The difference between coordinates generated by an aircraft sensor such as the targeting pod and the actual target location is known as target location error (TLE).35 JDAM STAIR Check . the target coordinates should be input in a steerpoint and then that steerpoint should be the current steerpoint in the HUD. 7. However. JDAMs always target the SPI.3. JDAM STAIR Check.1. which of these modes to use is automatically determined by the CICU. • If the employing aircraft does not have an operable TGP. such as a TGP mark or a target designation cue (TDC) designation. In neither case is the EGI in the employing aircraft the “source” of the coordinates and the JDAM will use BOC Mode and guide to those coordinates without correcting for any location error.35.5.1. • If SADL is inoperable. The pilot then hooks the Donor SPI. the generating aircraft can pass coordinates via voice and then be handentered into a steerpoint. copies to a empty steerpoint and renames the point. 7. but the end result should be the same coordinates in a steerpoint that is the SPI: • Lase the target with the TGP.3.2. In the A-10C. RT mode will be enabled and „RT‟ will be displayed in the HUD.1. If the target coordinates were generated by the aircraft.3.5. take a mark via TMS-RIGHT/SHORT and then copy this mark to next available steerpoint and label in accordance with the briefed contract.3. As with LGBs. S T A I R Steerpoint TMS-AFT/LONG SLAVE ALL IAM Profile Readback Ensure target steerpoint is current/in the HUD Resets SPI to current Steerpoint Slave all sensors to SPI Correct JDAM Profile selected Confirm/Readback SPI coordinates on DSMS Status Page Figure 7.1.1. 7. In the former.6 target sorting message that contain the appropriate coordinates. the target coordinates may be mensurated coordinates received during mission planning or received over the radio from a joint terminal attack controller (JTAC). Weapon Employment. A JDAM-specific FENCE check is the STAIR check. This is because the same platform that told the JDAM where it was in space (the aircraft EGI) also generated the target coordinates. ensuring the SPI reflects those coordinates and maneuvering the aircraft to the weapon LAR for release. a flight member can generate coordinates with a TGP and pass via a J12. there are some significant factors to consider. There are numerous ways to acquire target coordinates. 25 Jul 2011 difference.5. JDAM employment consists of acquiring target coordinates.57 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. as described in Figure 7. In the latter.5.

7. Unlike JDAMs. Then select the desired conventional profile and deliver the weapon in either CCRP mode. the timer will indicate time until max range for the LAR is reached.58 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. . unguided or by using a CCIP pipper. from pickle to weapon release.5.1.2. such as 50 percent. NOTE: JDAMs cannot be released ballistically.5.3 NM. CAUTION: The JDAM release sequence can take up to 1. • A less accurate technique for release in order to achieve desired impact angle is to release at briefed percentage of the LAR. using the same CCRP HUD symbology as GP and laser-guided bombs.2. 7. a release range for a specific set of parameters should be calculated and then corrected for winds. In order to drop WCMD in a conventional mode navigate to the specific 1760 station carrying the CBU on the STAT page and turn it off. If the pickle button is released during this sequence. 25 Jul 2011 7. 7.5. the HUD will display MAN REL and the timer will change to a predicted time-of-fall. WCMD contains an INS only and does not use GPS.2. These percentage ROTs may not be valid at all altitudes. WCMD weapons such as CBU-103 and CBU104 are delivered using the same HUD symbology and techniques as JDAMs. the JDAM repeats those coordinates back and when the CICU verifies that they are the same. Once in the LAR.3. it can result in a hung weapon that cannot be released. sends the release signal to the JDAM station. maneuver the aircraft to place the aircraft in the LAR. due to the fact that at pickle the CICU sends the SPI coordinates to the bomb. Different tactical scenarios will dictate where in the LAR to actually release the weapon. When the caret reaches halfway down the staple. release the weapon. Conventional DSMS profiles can be loaded in additional to the normal guided profiles. release the weapon.4.1. • For normal releases. Once the target steerpoint has been defined and confirmed.2.5 seconds to complete. There are two significant differences between JDAMs and WCMD. The left side of the HUD will show the DLZ and if outside the LAR. WCMD can be delivered unguided and they act just like their conventional counterparts (CBU-87 and CBU-89). Once the Range Numeric next to the caret reads 2.5. Wind Corrected Munitions Dispensers. This is easily accomplished by turning towards the target steerpoint and centering the captains bars. or by using a CCIP pipper. • The JDAM can be released at max range in order to maintain standoff from a collocated threat or if dropping a JDAM in proximity mode where minimizing elevation error with a 90-degree impact angle is not desired or required. Hold the pickle button down until the HUD and/or DSMS indicate that weapon release sequence is complete.