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1 BY ORDER OF THE COMMANDER 25th Virtual Fighter Squadron

25 VFS OI 07-A-10, 25 Jul 2011 25 VFS OPERATING INSTRUCTION 07-A-10 25 Jul 2011 Combat Operations A-10C Ground Weapon Employment

COMPLIANCE WITH THIS PUBLICATION IS MANDATORY ______________________________________________________________________________ OPR: 25 VFS, Snoopy Certified by: Raven6 Pages: 58 Distribution: 25 VFS ______________________________________________________________________________ This operating instruction (OI) provides Guidance on Ground Weapon Employment in the A-10 Thunderbolt II. SUMMARY OF CHANGES None, Document based on AFTTP 3-3, Combat Aircraft Fundamentals, A-10. 1. PURPOSE: The purpose of this document is to provide guidance and training for ground weapon employment in the A-10C and will be used within the 25th VFS. 2. INTRODUCTION: The A-10‟s primary mission is close air support (CAS). This OI provides the fundamental tools to build precise weapons delivery skills essential to CAS: fundamentals of bomb theory, conventional range patterns and development of tactical delivery references, computed bomb deliveries, manual bomb deliveries, and forward firing deliveries. 3. Weapons Delivery Terminology. In order to understand the discussion on free-fall weapons delivery, be familiar with the following terms and definitions: (See Figure 7.1, Bomb Triangle.) • Aim-off distance (AOD)—A distance beyond the target that is predictable for any weapons delivery. That distance is the no-wind projected flight path of an aircraft (where the aircraft would hit the ground if the pilot did not recover) in a dive delivery. • Aim-off point (AOP)—The point on the ground, long of the target, at which the aircraft must fly to during the weapon‟s delivery pass. The AOP provides a ground reference to fly the aircraft to until a track reference can be set. • Angle of attack (AOA)—The angle between the zero sight line (ZSL) and the relative wind. • Ballistic trajectory—The path of a munition from release to impact. This trajectory is a result of release velocity, release angle, release height above the target, gravity, and weapon drag characteristics. • Bomb range (BR)—The horizontal distance the bomb will travel over the ground from release to impact. • Bomb trail (BT)—The horizontal distance between the aircraft and the bomb impact. • Combat offset—Adjusting the RAP by a certain distance to correct for a previous miss. • DB— dive bomb. • Dive angle—The angle of dive for weapons delivery.


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• Gun bore line (GBL)—Represents the initial bullet muzzle velocity vector extended to infinity. This is the depression from the ZSL where the bullets initially come out of the gun. The A-10 GBL is at 33.7 mils depression. The GBL is sometimes used to approximate the aircraft vector on roll-out because the total velocity vector (TVV) lags the actual aircraft flight path. • HADB— high altitude dive bomb. • HARB— high altitude release bomb. • HAS— high angle strafe. • HATR—high angle tactical rocket • Initial Pipper Placement (IPP)—Angle between the target to the total solution in mils at track altitude. • Initial HUD Placement (IHP)—IHP is the angle at track altitude between the ZSL and the target, in mils. IHP can be derived from the total mil setting and the value for IPP. Total Mils = IHP + IPP. • Initial Aim-off Angle (IAA)—IAA is the angle between the AOP and the target at track altitude. • Initial Target Placement (ITP)—ITP is the position of the target relative to a pitch ladder at track altitude. • LALD—low-angle low drag. • Mil—A term commonly used by A-10 pilots as an abbreviation for milliradian (1/1,000th of a radian). Mils are used to measure sight depression or relative positions and sizes of objects as seen through the HUD. One mil is equal to 1 foot at a range of 1,000 feet, and 1 degree equals 17.45 mils. • Relative wind—The speed and direction of the air mass relative to the aircraft. It is opposite in direction to the aircraft‟s velocity vector through the air mass. • Release aimpoint (RAP)—The wind-corrected point on the ground where the pipper must be placed at release for the munition to strike the target. • Release aimpoint extended (RAPE)—The point on the ground on which the aircraft track reference is set. This point is corrected upwind from the RAP. • Release altitude—The altitude above the ground at which weapons delivery is accomplished. • Roll-in Target Placement (RTP)—A cockpit reference used to establish an aim-off angle for the aircraft. • Total sight setting (TSS)—The depression from the ZSL to the target at release altitude for the planned release conditions. Deviations from planned release parameters such as airspeed, dive angle, altitude, or G-loading will have an effect on the planned total sight setting. • Track reference—A position or point in the HUD that is used to maintain or correct the aircraft to the planned wire. Some common track references used in weapons delivery are IHP, IAA, IPP, and the desired release cue (DRC). • Tracking—A portion of any dive weapons delivery that is devoted to the final alignment of aircraft sighting systems with the target. The amount of time associated is referred to as wingslevel or tracking time. • Zero sight line (ZSL)—A basic reference line extending through the fuselage of the A-10 parallel to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft. All sight depressions are referenced from the ZSL.


25 VFS OI 07-A-10, 25 Jul 2011

Figure 7.1 Bomb Triangle. 4 Preparation. 4.1. General. Weapons delivery training in the A-10 requires a thorough understanding of training rules, weapons delivery theory, head-up display (HUD) symbology, aircraft systems knowledge and basic range layout and administration. (See Figure 7.2, A-10 Air-to-Surface Weapons Employment Cockpit Interface.)


25 VFS OI 07-A-10, 25 Jul 2011

Figure 7.2 A-10 Air-to-Surface Weapons Employment Cockpit Interface. 5. Range Administration. 5.1. Range Entry and Exit. Written procedures and guidance can be found in command directives, applicable supplements, and local directives. Normally, entry to the controlled range as accomplished from a basic or tactical formation, depending on weather and/or spacing desired. 5.2. In-Flight Checks. Weapons delivery “in-flight checks” encompass nearly all systems on the A-10. They include fuel checks, weapons system checks, wind checks, estimated vertical error (EVE) checks, and a needle/ball check. 5.2.1. Fuel Checks. These are normally initiated and executed on the primary range frequency. At an absolute minimum, fuel checks are required prior to range entry, once while on the range, and once upon exiting the range. NOTE: Be extremely careful not to become distracted and drop them out of the cross-check. 5.2.2. En Route Checklists. There are certain checks that need to be accomplished before reaching the target area; these are collectively known as a “firepower, emitters, navigation, communications, and electronic countermeasures” (FENCE) checks. A FENCE check simply groups the items that need to be covered and is generic to any aircraft. Perform a FENCE check prior to weapons employment, including weapons switches set for the first pass. For training missions, do not place the Master Arm to ARM until entering the range and cleared by lead. A common A-10 acronym is listed in Figure 7.3, FENCE Checks, along with the items covered in


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a generic FENCE check. The FENCE check is an ongoing process. Start with a pre-takeoff FENCE check and accomplish another one for each phase of flight. Before arriving at the IP, the aircraft must be ready for combat. Once in the target area, your focus must be on finding and attacking the proper target. 5.2.3. Weapons System Checks. The Weapons portion of the FENCE check requires amplification to correctly set up weapons for employment. Disciplined weapons system checks are critical to mission success. When directed by the flight lead (FL) perform a Weapons System Check. Reference Figure 7.4, Common Weapons System Checks, for two common Weapons System Check acronyms. 5.2.4. Wind Checks. Analyzing winds is critical for accurate and consistent weapons delivery. Analyze winds by using your EGI readings (i.e., select STR INFO page on EGI) and visual indications provided by dust or smoke. Winds affect every aspect of the weapons delivery pattern and should be accounted for in flight. F-E-N-C-E Fire control systems set. Weapon system checks.. Gun armed. EO power on. Target identification set. Electronic warfare systems. CMS set. Navigation. EGI, map, and TACAN ready. Wind checked. Communications. Frequencies set, Emitters (reduce or select). TACAN set. External lights OFF. C-W-L-I-T-T-E-R Chaff/flare. CMS set to appropriate settings.





Weapons. Conduct weapons system checks Lights. OFF. N/A for DCS A-10C TACAN. Set to receive only or off.



Tape. DVADR running. T ECM as appropriate. E RWR as briefed. R Figure 7.3 FENCE Checks. S-P-A-D-E-S A-P-E-S Switches Set. Arm. A Profile Selected. Profile, DSMS. P Altitude Source. Elevation source. E DSMS quick-look (for stations and SOI, SPI. S profile settings). Elevation set as briefed. SOI and SPI set as briefed. Figure 7.4 Common Weapons System Checks.


or “180 out.5 Conventional Pattern and Methodology. Conventional Pattern and Methodology. Spacing will be established by the Flight Lead. Establishing a contract for when flight members turn crosswind will aid in maintaining spacing.5. Spacing.2. . Figure 7. 5. (See Figure 7.3.5. Conventional Pattern and Methodology. for both a two-ship and a four-ship. Radio Transmissions.6 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.” For example. the standard spacing is one aircraft on each of the four corners. (See Figure 7.3. should be made on the turn from crosswind to downwind by varying the point at which the turn is made.) 5. Standard and expected radio transmissions while operating on the conventional range may vary.2. the basics remain the same. Corrections to pattern spacing.1. however. All radio transmissions while in the range pattern will be made on the respective range frequency.2. Number Two is turning crosswind to downwind.4. 25 Jul 2011 5.) For a four-ship. when Number One is rolling in on final. Typical two-ship spacing in the container pattern is on opposite corners. for example radio calls.

be careful not to turn inside the preceding aircraft.5. A typical technique for high release altitude deliveries is to turn crosswind at track altitude. Inform lead of any suspected weapon malfunctions.2. Downwind. 5. The most common contingency is losing sight of one or more flight members. If ever in doubt of the position of the previous flight member. Downwind displacement should be wide enough to allow for adequate wings-level time while on the base leg. or making the turn to downwind.2. All pattern corrections to flight spacing should be made on the turn from crosswind to downwind. If NORDO with emergency. 5. Lost Comm. follow the procedures outlined in paragraph 5. This will minimize variations and adjustments to the base leg turn. Contingencies. Plan to be at base altitude no later than when making the . familiarity with the mechanics of flying the patterns are discussed next.6. Contingencies that could be encountered on the range must be briefed. then continue to fly the briefed range pattern. Acknowledge this transmission IAW local guidance and the flight brief. if Warthog Three loses sight of Two: “DRAGGIN TWO. However. then Number Three should “KIO” (with altitude. visually reacquire the preceding flight member by first clearing the crosswind to downwind corner. 5. and is known as the “coffin corner.7 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.5.2. Crosswind.5. as a technique) to ensure safety of flight. Number Three then has two responses. If blind on the preceding aircraft.” 5. Additionally. expect the range control officer (RCO. For collision avoidance purposes.3.2. climb away from the ground while analyzing the problem. Due to aircraft potentially turning crosswind at different points. If positive separation cannot be immediately ensured.1. 25 Jul 2011 5. then rock wings on final then turn opposite direction to normal range traffic. Lost Sight. It is important to remember that if a “SAY POSITION” call is made. immediately request the aircraft position. The basic rules apply: maintain aircraft control.2.2. or ranger) to report the last event score while on crosswind.5.” Number Two should respond immediately with two‟s position in the conventional pattern.5.2.6. The displacement from the target (downwind spacing) is not exact and is typically flown 2 to 3 NM from the target. 5. Since much of basic weapons delivery training will be performed on a conventional range. After accomplishing the safe escape maneuver. If NORDO on range. then clearing the downwind to base corner. Expect a rejoin and be prepared to communicate problems with HEFOE visual signals.2. the turn from crosswind is the most dangerous portion of the pattern.6. on final (DRY) rock wings to indicate to the RCO and fellow flight members of the NORDO condition.” Ensure positive visual contact with previous flight member to ensure deconfliction.” The continue call is made when Number Three picks up a visual on Number Two or determines that there are no deconfliction problems in the pattern. Conventional Pattern. particularly within a four-ship. and call a “KNOCK IT OFF” if required on the range frequency. SAY POSITION. Contingencies. 5.1. “CONTINUE” or “KIO. Expect a rejoin followed by RTB. it is critical that each aircraft fly their turn from final to crosswind as briefed by FL. When turning crosswind. Weapon Malfunction. An example in a four-ship formation.2.2. all aircraft must remain silent until the aircraft being addressed responds with its position and the requesting aircraft confirms the response with “CONTINUE” or “KIO. then follow local range procedures.

note the relationship of the target to the canopy rail in order to develop/validate tactical canopy references. 5. Mechanically. A technique is to start roll-in when the target is just aft of the canopy bow.4..2.3.” A technique to dissect this complicated maneuver is “Pull. For deliveries greater than 30 degrees. As a ROT. similar to perch corrections in the traffic pattern).6. Do not adjust the position of the turn from downwind to base leg as it can adversely affect the weapons delivery parameters on the upcoming pass. Consider the winds at pattern altitude and adjust the final roll-in point as necessary (i.3. 10 or 2 o‟clock position. delay the roll-in. airspeed. and fly the aircraft to the AOP.g. and clearly “where the rubber meets the road. Roll-In Target Placement (RTP).8 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. 5. Center. if encountering a headwind while on base. pilots should develop a roll-in target placement to aid in establishing a proper aim-off distance for the base position flown. depending on direction of roll-in). it is an accurate sight picture for target placement at base position. wind-corrected GEOREFs to start the base turn. Set. 25 Jul 2011 turn for the base leg.6..g.4.4. A-10 pilots should use canopy references based on the initial target placement (ITP) for the delivery as the primary method to establish a tactical base position.000 feet.2.1.6. Anticipate the turn to base and lead it using as little G as possible.2. and begin a 2.” This phrase leads an attack pilot through each step of the final leg. and dive angle). For lower angle deliveries (e.6. have a known aim off point for the delivery.e. The final is the weapon delivery portion of the pattern. Pull.4.2. Use known.to 3-G turn (normally the steady tone). The base leg must be consistent to get the aircraft on the correct wire relative to the target. On a conventional range and attempting to validate tactical delivery references.3. 5. Approaching the roll-in point.6.2. since most of the turn for these deliveries are made in the vertical. While on downwind.2. Establishing and using RTP can place the jet on a correct .e. Canopy Rail Reference. start an unloaded roll to 80 degrees plus the dive angle.1 Roll-In Timing. 5. Base. altitude. Don‟t forget to adjust for winds. The actual cross-check and procedures used to put the release aimpoint on the target will vary depending on the delivery and delivery mode.6. Fly a precise base leg to put the aircraft in the best position to roll in and achieve the planned parameters (e. start with the target about 20 to 30 degrees in front of the wing line (i. The goal is to develop and validate a canopy rail reference on the conventional range that can be applied to a tactical situation without known ground references.6. delay the roll-in until the target is approximately three fists aft of the canopy bow. take the time available to assess the last pass and prepare for the next one. 30 degrees or less). Although ITP is measured at track altitude. A geographic reference (GEOREF) is a good starting point for finding the correct base position. Known Ground Track. execute a roll-in by advancing the throttles to MAX.2. the base turn radius will be approximately 3.. 5. 5. Final Leg. After developing and validating base canopy rail references.

5.” Because weapons employment mils are based on a specific track altitude and airspeed. the DRC will track down slightly as the pipper tracks up during the pass. set the DRC at track altitude. After using one of the valid roll-in techniques. increase bank angle and G to adjust the AOP shorter than planned. the steeper the aircraft will be after setting the AOP at track. a technique for using the DRC is to set the DRC on the target at track altitude. a pilot should still set the DRC as soon as possible. Setting the DRC in this manner establishes and refines the AOP for a correct wire.2. 25 Jul 2011 wire using a cockpit reference during roll-in.6.6. and G-loading.7. Regardless of the type of delivery flown (manual or computed) a track reference must be set. For computed deliveries. Hold the AOP and do not make a Banana pass by trying to hold the DRC on the target. Initial Target Placement. In any case. Therefore. Track References (SET). During the roll-in.7.2. 5. Keep the minimum release staple (MRS) in your cross-check as your abort cue. The DRC continuously computes and corrects for changes in airspeed. and continue with a normal track until release. Likewise. One technique used is setting IHP mils in the depressible pipper. Since the aircraft will accelerate on final. an opportunity to refine the dive angle exists by cross-checking the pitch ladders. Begin to relax G during the roll-in as the top of the HUD approaches the target. If the target is not centered within the pitch ladders. 5. place the PBIL through the target and set a track reference. as the nose of the aircraft is halfway around the final turn.2 IHP/IPP. Since the DRC is continuously computed.2. Setting the DRC corrects the aircraft flight path toward the expected time of fall driving it toward the “correct wire. After roll-out. begin an unloaded roll-out. as the HUD pitch ladders approach the edge of the target. If using ITP as a roll-in (not track) reference. the pilot needs accurate wind information and then must add/subtract the applicable head/tail wind component. 5. set the throttle to achieve the planned airspeed at release. if the angle in the HUD is greater than expected during the roll-in. The depressible pipper is available in CCIP mode before designation. cross check the target abeam the depressible pipper at track altitude. 5. Roll-Out (Center).1 DRC. without the aid of aim off distance markers in a tactical environment.4. The pitch ladders should bracket the target when the roll-out is complete. The best track reference that may be used for CCIP WD is the DRC. and adjust the AOP longer than planned. Any HUD reference with a mil depression . So if unable to set the DRC at Track. The longer the nose is kept up during the turn (sometimes referred to as “floating” the turn). Set it and forget it.9 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. decrease bank. use the HUD pitch ladders to estimate if the target will be located at the appropriate angle when the aircraft rolls out. If the expected target placement in the HUD is less than planned. These track references are presented below.2.2. relax back pressure. just like setting an IPP does for manual deliveries. it is wind corrected and valid at all altitudes during the pass.7. aggressively make an appropriate 3/9 correction to center the target. If the target is within approximately 30 mils of the CCIP pipper (just outside of the reticle).5. AOA. This allows pilots to correct for small base position errors in a tactical situation and minimize large track corrections on final. it is imperative to center the target between the pitch ladders. Note that the depressible pipper does not provide crosswind correction on final. IHP is an angular representation (in mils) of the target relative to the ZSL.

set the TVV 5 degrees long of the target. utilize the projected bomb impact line (PBIL) to fly the CCIP pipper to the target or combat offset point. The CCIP pipper will track quickly to the target.3. coordinated control inputs on final.6 Bombing Triangle – IHP and IPP Triangle. IAA.2. When employing manually.7.10 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. Bombing Triangle—Initial Target Placement/Initial Aim-Off Angle. add or subtract a degree. To set the correct wire. 5. for a visual depiction of this track reference. this will establish the correct wire.45 mils per degree.9. During the dive. use a 1. For example.) Figure 7.7.) Let us look at an example delivery with an IAA of 5 degrees. therefore. (See Figure 7.8. IPP is the recommended track reference to use during manual weapon‟s delivery. 25 Jul 2011 corresponding to the IHP may also be set abeam the target. for each 17 mils of wind correction. confirm aircraft parameters are within abort criteria. for a depiction of the reference. After setting the track reference at track altitude. divide attention between the movement rate of the pipper and the aircraft‟s parameters. with a 10 knot headwind. Fly smooth. however. Bombing Triangle—Initial Head-Up Display Placement and Initial Pipper Placement Triangle.2.7 mil per knot correction factor for headwind/tailwind and add 1 degree to IAA (17 mils). For computed deliveries.6. IAA is the planned angle between the AOP and the target at track altitude. These references must be used for manual weapon‟s delivery if IHP is used as the track reference. Pipper Track. (See Figure 7. Continue to cross check parameters while flying to the release point. Regardless of where the aircraft is in relation to the planned wire. Concentrate on letting the sight track to the release aim point (RAP). IAA must be corrected for head wind or tailwind. Confirm the Aircraft Parameters. 5. 5. To correct IAA for winds.2. Avoid attempting to slow the pipper down by . there are 17.

TLT SEM. execute a CLM SEM. As an example. One technique to help a smooth pipper track is to trim forward one „click‟ for each 10 degrees of planned dive. release the weapon 25 meters at 8 o‟clock. execute a TLT SEM. Recovery. or being hit by fragmentation from the ordnance employed. but will cause a heavy stick. on the second pass. Maintaining the minimum aircraft G for the duration of the maneuver is critical in achieving safe escape or safe separation as appropriate. Start a recovery after ordnance release. offset the aimpoint one half the miss distance in the opposite direction of the previous miss. or if you lose SA. As a general rule. The planned recovery maneuvers for free-fall munitions are the climbing maneuver (CLM) and turning level turn (TLT) safe escape maneuvers (SEM).” As a ROT. 25 Jul 2011 bunting the aircraft as this can induce release errors. reaching the abort cue. Combat offset can be used to improve subsequent pass accuracy. it must be executed immediately after weapons release. and for deliveries above 20 degrees. If a previous delivery was completed with the aiming reference on the target. Release the weapon with the aiming reference on the intended release aim point. It is important to understand that when executing the SEM.11 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.12. This can be accomplished on base. Execution.11. Computed deliveries use real time safe escape to display an abort cue.2. 5. Trim through the roll-in.10. and the back-up SEM. perform a “combat offset. and the weapon did not hit the target. 20 degrees or below. Figure 7. For free-fall munitions. Safe escape maneuvers include the climbing SEM. . or after setting track.2. 5. and manual deliveries use an abort altitude. 5.7 Bombing Triangle—Initial Target Placement/Initial Aim-Off Angle. Pickle. if the first weapon impacted 50 meters at 2 o‟clock. delivering a weapon with a time of fall below the minimum fuze time (a DUD weapon).2. the primary concerns during recovery are hitting the ground (or descending below a desired altitude). for low-altitude deliveries.

A 45-degree offset offers a balance of target acquisition. gun. Using track altitude as a point on the ground. and most importantly. . • Attack heading—Final attack heading. and Maverick attacks.2. • Pull-down point (PDP)—The start point for a maneuver to transition from the climbing to the diving portion of the pop-up delivery. • Minimum attack perimeter (MAP)—Is a circle centered on the target. which depicts the point at which target tracking is initiated. The pop-up point will vary depending on the ordnance to be employed. The approach (approach course) to the target can be either straight ahead or offset depending on the desired attack axis to the target.8. • Pull-up point (PUP)—The point along the approach course at which the pull-up to the climb angle is initiated. Pop-Up Pattern Analysis: • Run-in altitude—The altitude above or below target elevation. with the following exceptions and the pop-up maneuver itself. • Apex—Highest altitude the aircraft reaches during the pop-up profile. excessive nose high or nose low during the turn. Pop-Up Pattern. • Pull-down target placement (PTP)—Sight picture used to initiate pull-down. the distance from the target to this point is the radius of the circle. It can be used for free-fall. • Angle-off (AO)—The angular difference between the approach course and attack heading. • Approach course—The ground track the aircraft flies until reaching the pop-up point (pull-up point [PUP]). That distance is the no-wind projected flight path of an aircraft (where the aircraft would hit the ground if not recovered) in a dive delivery. CLM SEM errors include: insufficient G during the recovery. exceeding 30 degrees of bank prior to 30 degrees nose high. • Climb angle—The angle-of-climb that is to be achieved following the initiation of the pop-up.12 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. TLT SEM errors include: an unloaded roll as the nose approaches the horizon. and Figure 7. • Release altitude—The altitude above the ground at which weapons delivery is accomplished.3. • PUP angle off nose (AON)—The angular difference between the approach course and a line directly to the target from the PUP. • Tracking—A portion of any dive weapons delivery that is devoted to the final alignment of aircraft-sighting system with the target. However. the goal should be to strive for 3 seconds wings-level time. • Dive angle—The planned dive angle for weapons delivery. rolling out prior to completing 60 degrees of turn.1. • PDP angle off nose (AON)—The angular difference between the approach course and a line directly to the target from the PDP. 25 Jul 2011 5. turning room to reposition for the pull-down. Review the following pop-up specific terms while referencing Figure 7. The pop-up is an “unmask” maneuver used at low-altitude to visually acquire the target.12. Pop-Up Pattern. rocket. Fly to the target from the PUP. the approach course is generally 45 degrees offset from the final attack heading when employed from a conventional pattern. and not completing the maneuver to 30 degrees nose high. Common Errors. The tasks associated with each leg of the pop-up pattern are generally the same as the conventional pattern. 5. When employed tactically. and exposure to threats.9. • Aim-off distance (AOD)—A distance beyond the target that is predictable for any weapons delivery. not maintaining G on the aircraft until the TLT SEM is complete.

.8 Pop-Up Pattern. 25 Jul 2011 • Bomb range—The distance the bomb will travel over the ground from release to impact. Figure 7.13 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.

During the turn to base the aircraft needs to descend and turn to arrive on the planned range approach course (see local and squadron guidance).9 Pop-Up Pattern Analysis.3. As a ROT. Base. for preceding aircraft. The turn from downwind to base is where the pop-up pattern diverges from the standard conventional pattern. except the aircraft will typically be 1.2.1. Remember to check the crosswind to downwind corner. Altitude may vary based on terrain. The SEM employed is generally a TLT. . Use 10 to 15 degrees nose low maximum. gain as much energy as practical prior to the pull-up point. Upon completion of the SEM. The G and turn location will depend on the type of Pop-Up pattern to fly (offset or parallel downwind). and pilot low altitude category. Be very careful while descending to pilot low-altitude minimums because it is very easy to overshoot your altitude and fixate on the target or PUP. and then downwind to base corner. 5. 5. 5. SEM and Crosswind. The downwind leg can either be parallel to the run-in leg (45 degrees offset away from the target) or parallel to the final leg. For pop-ups. The considerations for actions on downwind are similar to those in the conventional pattern.3.3. establish a climbing vector and complete the turn to crosswind.500 to 2.000 feet AGL. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7. Downwind.14 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.3. weather. plan on depleting approximately 15 knots to 30 knots of airspeed while executing the pop-up attack. One technique is to level off 200 to 300 feet high and ease the aircraft down to pilot low-altitude minimums during the approach to the PUP.

Calculate the AON using the following ROT: the pull-up AON is approximately one-half the planned angle-off and the pull-down point AON is approximately three-quarters of the planned angle off. it will be done with an unloaded roll followed by a 2. This point is referred to as PTP (pull-down target placement).3. a 500-foot AGL run in could be only 300 feet above target elevation. 5. GEOREFs or EGI ranges are the best method for determining the correct pull-up point on a conventional range. increase the pull up point by 0. Correct PUP. desired dive angle. An important visual reference is the angle off the nose (AON) to the target at the pull-up point and pull-down point. select MAX power and begin a 3-G wings-level pull (G-suit inflates at 2. 5. Do not confuse angle off (AO) with angle off the nose (AON). Pull up to 5 degrees higher than the planned delivery dive angle. This is the point at which the pull-down is initiated. 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. 25 Jul 2011 5. 5. In this case. Pull-Up Point. Execute the pull-down as the aircraft approaches the correct pull-down visual reference.4. With permission study. First learn the basics then apply the sight picture discussion in the following paragraphs to sharpen pop delivery skills.1 NM). These points should be memorized in order to reduce task load on the range. the target will move down and aft in the quarter panel. the dive angle will be 5 to 10 degrees nose low. After setting the planned climb angle. For example. there are specific range references that aid in identifying the pop-up point. The pilot can also reference the distance from the target in the HUD as a back-up if the coordinates are known for the target and entered in the active steerpoint. Flying a mechanical pop-up using planned parameters will aid in developing a sight picture to increase the chance for target acquisition and finding the wire. Knowing the pull-up/pull-down AONs helps focus the pilots eyes for target acquisition. and rivers. When the desired PUP is reached. When on a controlled range.5 Gs) to the desired climb angle. These are the areas that should be scanned during the climb to find the target. pull-up and pull down.4. pull to approximately 5 to 10 degrees nose high and begin a roll and pull to the target. For most conventional range strafe deliveries.3. The pop picture must be developed by flying a mechanical approach course. If the conditions are correct.1 NM for every 200 feet below planned altitude (For example. The correct PUP for a strafe delivery is based upon desired delivery slant range. The Pop. Pull-Down Point. pop-up for a low strafe or rocket delivery approximately 1 mile prior to the intended release slant range. assuming a 500-foot AGL run-in altitude.3. A baseline sight picture for the pull-down point relates the target placement to a known cockpit reference for bombing deliveries.4. The typical time to acquire the target from pull-up to pull-down is approximately 5 to 10 seconds depending on run-in altitude. Normally. and specific range restrictions.3. a 45-degree angle-off results in the target starting at the 22 degrees AON at pull-up and moving to 32 degrees of AON at pull-down.3. a baseline sight picture can be developed for use in a tactical environment.4. As a ROT. Target Acquisition.4. Increase the PUP distance by 0. hills. The actual pop-up is performed referencing the target and varies dependent upon the ordnance employed.1. focus on acquiring the target.to 4-G pull down to intercept the planned attack wire. At the planned PUP. PUP distances assume the ground elevation is equal to the target elevation. During the climb. it is possible to plan an attack heading to fly and identify GEOREFs such as roads. .

The distance between the center of two grommets (dust covers) is 5 degrees.4. In a fluid tactical environment with moving targets and inaccurate coordinates. PTP.6. IFFCC provides a CCIP based on the weapon selected in the current DSMS profile that considers wind. and base leg are identical to the rectangular pattern. Pilots must determine their specific sight picture from this starting point. Computed Free-Fall Munitions Employment. the bump-up attack will be executed within ±15 degrees of the final runin heading.3. 25 Jul 2011 5. Like the Pop-Up pattern. The Bump-Up maneuver is primarily used to unmask for forward-firing diving deliveries or level free-fall munitions employment. 5. it is an unmask maneuver designed to achieve LOS with the target.16 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. a visual reference for canopy bow sight picture measurements.1. A shallow climb farther out may be preferred to a steeper climb close in. altitude. Bombing with IFFCC simplifies weapons delivery significantly. in the tactical environment the key is to acquire LOS with the target.3. This is the angle from the horizon to the target at the planned pull-down point. followed by a pushover to reacquire and track the target. The pull down point visual reference is determined using PTP. The IAA can be used as an approximation of this angle. this can be simulated by pulling up approximately 5 degrees nose high. When employing a bump-up attack on the conventional range. aircraft velocity. The final portion is the same as with any diving delivery.5. Using the grommets (dust covers) for this sight picture affords the pilot both right and left hand roll-in sight pictures. A common error is to level off higher than planned release altitude which may result in a CCIP consent delivery with a short time on final. The roll-in and track references discussed in the diving delivery section above still apply. downwind. AOA. Final. Because the target may be in sight while on a controlled range. As in the Pop-Up pattern.1.500 to 2. and attitude. necessitating a descent for the base leg. Final. 6. Use RTP cockpit references to aid in establishing a proper aim-off distance for the base position flown.6. To calculate the PTP.4. Use 10 to 15 degrees nose low as a maximum descent rate. Normally. the pilot should be cautious when descending to pilot low-altitude minimums. 5.000 feet AGL. crosswind. 6. Adjust the pull-down sight pictures for different IAAs as they change and add the IAA to the horizon reference for the given climb angle. the bump-up uses a slight climb to acquire the target followed by a negative G pushover to intercept planned release altitude. Since PTP is measured from the horizon it cannot be translated to a sight picture without a known horizon reference.3. This is a baseline starting point and is dependent on factors such as sitting height and seat adjustment. Bump-Up Pattern. the delivery considerations are those of a normal weapons delivery pass. 5. 5.4. the downwind will be flown at 1. Integrated Flight and Fire Control Computer. As the pull-down is completed.6.4.5. On final. Roll-In and Track References. add the IAA to the known horizon reference and equate that distance to a canopy reference.3. Techniques. using PTP references will aid target acquisition while maneuvering to the correct wire. IFFCC provides . Instead of using large bank angles and positive G to get the aircraft from a nose-high attitude to an attack position. Remember. 5.

See Figure 7. 6. minimum altitude and desired safe escape maneuver. UFC and IFFCC all integrate and function prior to weapons employment.10.2.2. Ripple Single). release mode (Single. . Fuzing (type and time). Additionally. Delivery Modes. 6. This includes weapon type. however. Free-fall bomb deliveries and rockets primarily use CCIP mode while LGBs and IAMs use continuously computed release point (CCRP). DSMS Profile Page. All delivery specific information that IFFCC needs to calculate the correct solution is contained in the profiles created during mission planning and loaded to the DSMS via the DTC. 25 Jul 2011 accurate weapons delivery even though the aircraft may be significantly off planned parameters. DSMS.11 IFFCC HUD Symbology—CCIP). delivery mode (CCIP. weapons effects may be less than desired. DTOF.17 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.2. IFFCC Air-to-Surface Cockpit Interface. flying the aircraft through the planned delivery requires using solid weapons delivery techniques and procedures to include wind analysis. (See Figure 7.1. Figure 7. CCRP). It is imperative to know how the CICU. Digital Stores Management System.

3. Baro.18 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. Radar mode uses the radar altitude directly below the aircraft as the height above target for WD computations. 6.000 feet AGL and below.3.1. 6. Altitude Sources.10 DSMS Profile Page. Baro mode computes a true MSL altitude by starting with the central air data computer (CADC) barometric altitude adjusted by the Kohlsman altimeter setting (shown on the cockpit altimeter) and adjusting it for lag. and Delta. and nonstandard air temperatures. The altitude source is selected on the armament HUD control panel (AHCP). installation error. The aircraft will take an automatic barometric reference point during takeoff. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7. Radar Mode. Baro Mode. There are three altitude sources for IFFCC WD computations: Radar. This mode is valid only over flat terrain and is limited to altitudes 5.3.” At approximately 50 to 60 KIAS. This function is referred to as a “Baro update.2. the IFFCC system records the CADC barometric altitude from the cockpit altimeter. This is the starting point for all subsequent . 6.

The rest of the process for correcting the . the Baro update consists of barometric data plus the bias correction based on EGI GPS altitude.19 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.11 IFFCC HUD Symbology—CCIP. an initial delta update is accomplished during the takeoff roll and assumes that the cockpit altitude (altitude set in HUD) is an accurate reading of true MSL altitude at that point.3.3. Like Baro. Figure 7. 6. Delta mode needs a reference altitude. Delta mode. unlike the Baro mode. To calculate the nonstandard pressure correction. NOTE: Ensure this is accurate by dialing the cockpit altimeter until the HUD altitude reads touchdown zone elevation prior to takeoff. From this point on. uses the CADC pressure altitude as a starting point for computing true MSL altitude and calculates its own nonstandard pressure correction (Delta) rather than relying on the altimeter setting. Delta Mode. provided the EVE is less than 50 feet. 25 Jul 2011 calculations.

NOTE: Delta mode is completely independent of the cockpit altimeter setting except for the initial update on takeoff roll. Selecting a Mode.000 feet AGL. IFFCC incorporates Level 1 digital terrain elevation data (DTED) which is loaded into the data transfer cartridge (DTC). then Delta provides the most accurate method of WD. Baro provides the most accurate method of WD when EVE is less than 50 feet. passive ranging. and coordinate ranging. Radar mode may be the preferred mode over flat terrain when the pilot is sure the terrain elevation below the aircraft at release is the same as the target elevation and release occurs below 5. an inflight Delta should be accomplished at the planned delivery altitude near the target area. look-aside ranging. so changing the altimeter setting in flight does not affect Delta mode altitudes.4. IFFCC provides hot elevation.12 Delta CAL Submenu. Figure 7. Remember that the CADC pressure altitude is not effected by the altimeter setting. IFFCC provides the ability to select from several different elevation sources through its digital terrain system application software (DTSAS). Delta updates received from other A-10s or forecast values from mission planning can be entered via IFFCC menus. Elevation Sources. NOTE: If possible. 25 Jul 2011 pressure/altitude scale is similar to the Baro mode. The main benefit of the Delta mode is that the reference altitude may be changed via a delta update taken closer to the target area so that the corrections are more accurate for the target air mass. 6. 6. If EVE is greater than 50 feet. This is due to the constant Baro update which consists of barometric data plus the bias correction based on EGI GPS altitude. .4.3.20 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.

In order for the IFFCC system to compute accurate release displays. If no elevation is known (pop up target) and DTS is not functioning. as opposed to the SPI elevation. In this mode the pilot manually enters a known target elevation into either the HUD via the UFC or the CDU. After firing the laser. use HOT elevation and ensure the current steerpoint while delivering weapons is the target. which will then transfer the elevation to the HUD.4. if the TGP LOS has moved to an area with a significantly different elevation and the laser has not been fired. If the IFFCC elevation source is set to DTS or HOT elevation.” 6. Coordinate Ranging (CR). Look-Aside Ranging. use HOT. IFFCC calculates the elevation for the point on the ground overlaid by the gun and bomb or rocket sights simultaneously.21 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. IFFCC then uses the calculated elevation for solution computation. the “T XXXX” will flash in the HUD to indicate the new elevation has been accepted.6. the HUD will display „T DTS‟ indicating TGP is selected. the correct DSMS weapon profile must be selected.4.4.5. 6. the IFFCC elevation will continuously update as long as the laser is firing. 25 Jul 2011 6. Every time the laser has stopped firing. When targeting pod (TGP) is initially selected. 6. the TGP elevation will be used by IFFCC. Use auto-elevation mode (DTS) in most cases. and the Waypoint under modification is the active steerpoint in the HUD. When enabled in the CDU. Selecting the Best Elevation Source.5. 6. then use TGP laser elevation. To bomb on CR. This only occurs if DTSAS is on and the pilot selects auto-elevation mode by using the UFC Data and Select switches. IFFCC calculates the elevation for the point on the ground overlaid by the Maverick reticle or the depressible pipper. but DTS will be used until the laser is actually fired.4. 6. NOTE: If in CCRP mode and using the TGP as an elevation source.1.1. If autoelevation mode is inactive (numeric elevation visible in the HUD). or by selecting auto-elevation mode (referred to as “DTS” by many pilots) as a preference when loading the DTC. Profile. 6. Computed Free-Fall Sight Application. Passive Ranging (Data Transfer System [DTS]). For example. CR automatically returns an elevation when the pilot enters coordinates into a Waypoint on the CDU. Targeting Pod Elevation.4. If the TGP laser is set to latched mode. 6.5. This mode is only active in auto-elevation mode (“DTS” visible in HUD). the elevation in the HUD is replaced with “DTS. the elevation returned by CR will automatically transfer to the HUD. On conventional (known target set) ranges.4.3. The IFFCC only accepts the last laser ranging information received from the pod. When active. then IFFCC will use the potentially incorrect elevation from the last time the laser was fired.2.4. the HUD will display „T XXXX‟ with X representing the elevation provided by the targeting pod. then the SPI elevation will be used. Hot Elevation. delivery parameter data must have been input correctly . IFFCC will use this as the only elevation for solution computations.

3. After pickling. Several techniques exist to ensure that all necessary data have been input accurately.5. Keep the PBIL on the release aim point and allow the pipper to track to it. . Perform the roll-in and Conventional Pattern. This creates a problem with high crosswind and deliveries with high mil depressions. the center of the HUD. 6.2. There are limitations to when a solution can be displayed in the HUD. Therefore. 6. In this case. The HUD projection is round.5.5. and the pilot cannot accurately deliver weapons.1.5.1. A delivery requiring 285 mils can display a solid PBIL out to 20 knots of crosswind (assuming the 4.2. not square.2. This option allows the solution to be displayed only if the solution is within the HUD field of view (FOV). 6. Begin roll-out as the pitch ladders approach the target.1. not a track reference.5. the greatest depression available is 310 mils.5. and appropriately selected on downwind. Final. defined at 140 mils of depression. Since the pitch ladders are wind corrected this will aid in leading a roll out that positions the aircraft upwind of the release aim point.22 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. check the parameters and decide if they are within those required for the delivery.2. with no crosswind capability at that depression. 6.5 mil/kt correction). (See Figure 7. The DRC and MRS are displayed on the PBIL to show how the desired time of fall and abort cue relate to the current aircraft position. Base to Roll-In (Pull). Manual Release.13.2. when the pilot depresses the weapons release button. Head-Up Display Field of View Limits/MK 82 AIR.) This figure is based on a 4. These depend on which mode is selected in the weapons submenu (or on IFFCC preferences in A/W/E). 25 Jul 2011 on the ground. Likewise. Solution Options. “Set” the DRC. and IAW Pop-Up Pattern. depress the weapon release button and hold it long enough for the aircraft to release the number of weapons selected. Track (Set). HD munitions are very susceptible to this problem. When the computed solution is outside the HUD field of view. Once track is set. the PBIL is dashed. 6. Roll out (Center). 6. The CCIP Consent Release function provides a CCIP weapons release capability when the CCIP solution is outside the HUD FOV but above 550mils (in level flight). CCIP Consent Release (5 mil & 3/9). After roll out. perform the appropriate SEM. The HUD can only display a pipper within a 170-mil radius of the 140-mil HUD center. weapons will release IAW the profile. fix any PBIL errors with aggressive corrections while setting track.5-mil per knot crosswind correction (found in the delivery parameters in the Battle Book).1. Since the center of the pitch ladders show the aircraft‟s path over the ground in computed HUD modes.1.5. is the area capable of displaying the maximum amount of crosswind solution (170 mils).4. The PBIL guides to the desired release point by predicting the future position of the bomb along the ground. centering the pitch ladders over the target result in a smooth PBIL track through the target. As the pipper reaches the aimpoint. The reticle will flash when enough time has elapsed for all of the weapons to release. IFFCC provides two options for WD solutions: Manual Release and Consent to Release. 6. Remember at track that ITP is only an indication of aircraft position.1.

The PBIL and CCIP reticle are dashed. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7.2. the analog range bar is removed.14.23 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.5. When the CCIP solution is outside the HUD FOV the reticle is clamped to the outer edge of the HUD (with the clamped pipper 153 mils from HUD center regardless of bank angle). 6.1.13 Head-Up Display Field of View Limits/MK 82 AIR.) The predesignate TTRN is displayed in increments from 0. Predesignate CCIP Consent Release Symbology. then 10 to 20 seconds. .2. and a predesignate timeto-release numeric (TTRN) is displayed inside the dashed reticle if the time to weapons release is less than 20 seconds. (See Figure 7.1 to 9.9 seconds.

24 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. and the TTRN. 6. NOTE: When the solution is within the HUD FOV the solution and symbology will behave according to „Manual Release‟ regardless of IFFCC consent setting. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7.14 Predesignate CCIP Consent Release Symbology. and then depresses and holds the Weapons Release button to enter the CCIP Consent Release function.2. the clamped CCIP pipper is used as the aiming reference to designate the intended target. Postdesignate CCIP Consent Release Symbology). in whole seconds. To employ the CCIP consent release function. .2. The pilot rolls in and places the CCIP pipper over the target. The symbology consists of a steering line. a 10-mil diameter solution cue.5.2.15. This causes the PBIL and CCIP bomb reticle to become solid. and the CCIP consent symbology to be displayed (Figure 7.

6. After designation. the aircraft is flown to align the CCIP pipper with the solution cue. Azimuth Error Consent Release Inhibit. • If “5 MIL” was selected from the MAIN MENU.5.2.25 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7. If the CCIP pipper passes outside of 5 mils. CCIP Consent Release Symbology at Release).16.18. (Figure 7.) . parallel to HUD Horizontal Plane (Figure 7. then the release will not be commanded.2.2. IFFCC commands release when the CCIP pipper is within 5 mils and passes the 3/9 line of the solution cue.1.15 Postdesignate CCIP Consent Release Symbology.

• If 3/9 was selected from the “MAIN MENU”. CCIP Postdesignate 3/9 Delivery. . NOTE: Rockets are always manual release regardless of IFFCC Consent setting. parallel to HUD Horizontal Plane). or if there is a fault in the consent system.17. IFFCC commands release when the CCIP pipper crosses the 3/9 line of the solution cue.) • The solution will become invalid prior to IFFCC commanded release (and hence aborted) if the Weapons Release button is released prior to actual weapon release. NOTE: LGBs/CBU-97 are always 3/9 regardless of IFFCC Consent setting.26 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. (See Figure 7. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7.16 CCIP Consent Release Symbology at Release. regardless of horizontal range to the solution.

1. Selecting NONE. IFFCC calculates safe escape for fuze.3.5. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7. IFFCC can calculate a minimum TOF for safe escape based on actual aircraft parameters and planned escape maneuver. If this SEM is selected in the weapon profile.27 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.2. 6.3. IFFCC calculates and displays an abort cue based on pilot and aircraft data. IFFCC will remove fragmentation as a consideration for the MRS on GP bombs. No consideration is given to safe escape/safe separation. Selecting NONE in the CBU87/CBU-89/CBU-97 submenus has a slightly different effect on the MRS and MRC than in the MK 82/MK 84 submenus.17 CCIP Postdesignate 3/9 Delivery. For free-fall weapons. frag or Min Alt and displays the MRS and MRC based on the higher of the three. . 6. 6. Abort Cues.3. as explained below: • MK 82/MK 84: MRS and MRC does not consider frag and is only based on the values the pilot enters for Min Alt and Fuze.5.5. Real-Time Safe Escape.

Real-Time Safe Escape Cues. not safe escape/safe separation.3. the MRS and MRC will flash. 25 Jul 2011 • CBU-87/CBU-89/CBU-97: MRS and MRC represent submunition arming while not considering frag for an intact canister. To alert the pilot that IFFCC is extrapolating outside the bounds of RTSE tables.28 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.18 Azimuth Error Consent Release Inhibit. The . 6.5.3. Figure 7. If actual flight parameters are outside the boundaries of these tables. Only fuzing and function will be considered. IFFCC extrapolates from the tables to calculate a RTSE value.

1. which is outside the HUD FOV. is constantly computed out to the kinematic range of the rocket.29 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.4. With a rocket profile selected. This delivery is characterized by short slant ranges and generally steeper dive angles (30 degrees or more). However.3.1. This will occur at the same time that the MRS meets the pipper. 7. or ground. namely airspeed. the VSI may appear at roll-out but go away as the aircraft accelerates on final. CCIP Rocket Reticle. IFFCC displays this cue as the MRS and MRC. MRS/MRC with CCIP Consent. This information is displayed by the analog ranging bar inside the reticle. and loft rockets. tactical. the valid solution indicator (VSI) appears as a small “x” over either the MRS or the DRC when the IFFCC computer determines (with the present aircraft parameters. MRS/MRC with MAN REL. conventional rockets are more accurate than standoff. If the range bar has not met the caret or the staple is above the pipper when the bomb is released.5. Avoid the tendency to hold the pipper on the target as this will induce tip off. The rocket reticle is not displayed in the HUD unless a solution is available.1. and winds) a solution will not be available within the HUD FOV prior to passing the respective TOF. 25 Jul 2011 flashing cues are somewhat subtle and are not always obvious on a cluttered HUD. 6. generally a half reticle short. DRC. fuze time. 7. If the VSI is present. Flashing MRS/MRC should have no affect on the delivery. the critical element in shooting rockets.4. Trim the aircraft to maintain correct G-loading and allow the pipper to track to the target. IFFCC displays an “X” over the pipper if this situation exists and the pilot should abort the pass. make a decision based on wind information and accuracy of parameters to determine whether to continue the pass or abort. On roll-in. Rocket Employment. The MRC position inside the reticle corresponds to the minimum release slant range for the highest of fuze. the MRS is based upon the true CCIP solution. dive angle.) . Weapon Employment 7. Conventional Rocket.3.3. The minimum release point is reached when the analog range bar meets the caret.19. frag.5. the analog range bar will be locked at the 12 o‟clock position. The MRS is displayed along the PBIL. IFFCC uses the inputs minimum altitude.1. (See Figure 7.5. 7. and below the reticle in NM when the slant range exceeds 12. the PBIL. Slant range. and MRC are removed from the normal CCIP display. 6. For high sight depression parameters. then the aircraft is outside the minimum slant range computed by IFFCC.000 feet. The MRC is displayed as a caret on the inside of the reticle. 6. When employing in CCIP Consent Release modes. IFFCC CCIP significantly reduces the difficulty in shooting accurate rockets. In this case. MRS. Valid Solution Indications. and safe escape maneuver to calculate a real time abort cue.5. Because of the shorter slant range.1. this accuracy is achieved at the expense of threat standoff. CCIP Rockets. place the pipper short of the target. This occurs only when no consent option is selected or available. When in Manual Release mode.

As a rule.3. Tactical Sight Setting. 7.2. realize that standby pipper is 50 mils in diameter vice 25 mils for the depressible pipper. This sight setting can also be used with the standby pipper. Linear offset or mil crank may be used to adjust RAP/RAPE for winds. 7. Manual Rockets. (See Figure 7. 25 Jul 2011 7. CCRP is a system delivery that will usually be employed at low-altitude to „loft‟ rockets or medium-altitude for level or shallow deliveries. Wind corrections are not as large as for bombs.1. for additional information.1 Tactical Sight Setting. the pipper for 12K S/R and the bottom of the reticle for 15K S/R shots (it can also be set to 90 mils for a 6/9/12K reference). The RAN replaces the TTRN . headwind and tailwind corrections are negligible at closer slant ranges (less than 12.) Figure 7. Crosswind correction must still be applied for accurate delivery (approximately 0.000 feet) and only the crosswind need be considered if a “close” mark is required).5 mils per knot). Use a depressible pipper with either STBY Pipper. HARS. Manual rocket deliveries are similar to manual bomb deliveries. The tactical sight setting is a manual delivery technique using a set mil reference to employ manual rockets at several slant ranges.2. Additionally.20.1. it can be used if wind velocity is not known and/or if there is no time to calculate wind corrections to achieve specific delivery parameters. however. the top of the reticle should be used as the aiming reference for 9K S/R.19 CCIP Rocket Reticle.30 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. With the depressible pipper set to 102 mils and dive angles between 5 to 15 degrees.1. CCRP Rockets. or Guns.

1. the pickle button is “hot” and the pilot must attempt to release the rockets as close to the center of the Solution Cue as possible. The analog range bar represents the predicted flare ignition height while the MRC represents the desired flare ignition height to mid-burn. for a 20-degree loft. the pilot may perform a 10-. vertically maneuver the aircraft to place the analog range bar on the MRC. The MRC and analog range bar are utilized in a unique way with M257/278 rocket flares. or 30-degree loft.31 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. Delivery parameters can vary from lofting nose high to 30 degrees nose low. 25 Jul 2011 and displays a “45” numeric seven seconds prior to the target being in range.1. Remember. MAN REL is the only release mode for rocket deliveries. The Mk-257/278 rockets are illumination rockets. Rocket Continuously Computed Release Point Analog Range Bar). The delivery of M257/278 rockets is restricted to CCRP mode. pull the nose of the aircraft up to . this solution is always calculated based on the SPI. Start the pull-up when the RAN equals 10 degrees plus the planned loft angle. therefore.20 Tactical Sight Setting.1.2. 20-. 7. Figure 7. 7. Illumination Rockets. If the MRC is outside the analog range bar. These rockets provide approximately 2 to 3 minutes of illumination. 7. If the MRC is inside the analog range bar (Figure 7. the pilot starts a pull-up to 20 degrees when the RAN equals 30.21. For the rocket flare to attain the menuentered desired flare height at mid-burn.4. Illum rocket solutions target a point over the SPI. For example. The “USE CCRP” message will be displayed in the HUD. During the loft profile.4. During a low altitude run-in.4.1. push the nose of the aircraft down to position the analog range bar over the MRC. the pilot uses the same CCRP references discussed previously by applying sufficient G to place the PBRL on the ASL.

4.1. If launching the selected rocket flare would cause it to hit the ground before parachute deployment. In other words. Once the analog range bar and MRC are coincident. Figure 7. fly the MRC to the analog range bar. TTRN. RKT is displayed below the rocket reticle to help distinguish the two.1. CAUTION: The HUD symbology for the rocket CCIP is very similar to the gun CCIP. maintain that flight path angle until release. the PBRL.4. .3.4. Take care to ensure the proper symbology is being used for the two respective weapons as dangerous miss distances can occur when using opposing symbology.21 Rocket Continuously Computed Release Point Analog Range Bar. analog range bar and MRC will be removed from the HUD and a dashed “X” will be displayed over the pipper. Solution Cue. 7. 25 Jul 2011 position the analog range bar over the MRC.32 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. ASL. 7.

Low-angle strafe (LAS) and long range strafe (LRS) are generally considered any delivery 15 degrees and below.1. combined with a sustained rate of fire of 62 rounds per second. gun dispersion can increase to 30 mils for 100 percent and 18 to 20 mils for 80 percent of rounds fired.5 minutes between bursts.1. The cooling cycle was designed to eliminate increased bullet dispersion due to barrel heating and rotates the barrels under a schedule following trigger release. 7. the gun can detect a broken firing pin (resulting in a live round).000 feet slant range when in 30 degrees of dive with a 36. It is set in IFFCC by the weapons load crew when the gun is loaded. In general.4. The GAU-8/A characteristics of increased standoff. Pilot knowledge of proper strafe techniques and the ability to recognize. Dive angle does not affect dispersion.000-pound aircraft. 7. strafe parameters are dictated by the target. Strafe deliveries for the A-10 are divided into two broad categories: highangle and low-angle. The GAU-8/A is the primary weapon of the A-10. 7.5 seconds after every firing. 25 Jul 2011 7. only the bullet footprint. After six to eight passes of 150 rounds each with only 1. The goal.3.2.2 Gun Employment. a gun unsafe indication will result. 7. 7. To cool the barrel.1. 60. and HAS is usually 30 degrees and above. the A-10 pilot is provided unsurpassed staying power and flexibility.2.33 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.2.2. and correct for common pilot errors are critical for employment. . Two target strafe (TTS) can be accomplished from either LRS or HAS deliveries. If the clearing cycle is interrupted by safing the gun. 7. With over 1.1.2. Barrel cooling also stops when the master arm or rotate switch is set to the safe position. was to have no unfired or “wasted” rounds in the barrel. Dispersion. the threat.1 Clearing Cycle. Parameters. and in the HUD when in GUNS mode. Rounds remaining are displayed in increments of 10 on the DSMS page. does increase as the gun heats up. however. and sustained firepower make strafe the most reliable and effective method for the A-10 to deliver firepower against a ground target. The GAU-8/A is installed such that bullets pass through the 41-mil depression at 4.150 rounds of 30mm high explosive incendiary (HEI) and armor piercing incendiary (API) rounds. 7. 100. The cockpit gun unsafe light will illuminate if the clearing cycle is not completed in 2. The GAU-8/A goes through a barrel clearing cycle within 0. and the weather. Additionally. analyze. Rounds Counter. The cycle can be interrupted at any point by squeezing the trigger. The GAU-8/A was built with the specifications that 80 percent of the bullets must fall within a 5-mil diameter of the desired aimpoint and 100 percent must fall within 13 mils. Harmonization.2 Cooling Cycle. Dispersion.1. high accuracy.2. and 150 seconds after firing.2. Gun Characteristics.5. a gun unsafe indication will result. the GAU-8/A will automatically cycle at 24.1.5 seconds. If two broken firing pins are detected. when designing the gun. Each specific delivery has its advantages and disadvantages.2.

Cease fire on a LAS delivery on soft targets at 2. the probability of damage (Pd) goes down significantly as the range increases.2. elevate the gun cross to compensate for gravity drop based on slant range. the aircraft will likely sustain frag/ricochet damage.000 feet. Long-Range Strafe. Refer to the weapons shop and AFTTP 3-1. trucks and jeeps).2.) For LAS passes against hard targets. 25 Jul 2011 7.2.000-foot slant range to avoid breaking the 3/9 plane of any target shot at.A10 for specific Pd against targets. If an aircraft breaks the 3/9 plane of a hard target after employing on it.. a mobility kill (M-Kill) may still be likely. the aiming reference is 39 to 40 mils..) If employing manually.000 feet on hard targets.2. . cease fire no later than 3.22 Manual Low-Angle Strafe Aiming Reference.000 to 6.000 feet slant range. The objective of a LAS delivery is to press into effective kill range for a hard target (tank). Low-Angle Strafe.g. Realize that if attacking a heavily armored target. However. this can be an effective delivery.23.g. for gun cross elevation with the target at 5. is typically 5. 7. (See Figure 7. Manual Long Range Strafe Aiming Reference. (See Figure 7. lightly armored targets (e.500 feet slant range.22 Manual Low-Angle Strafe Aiming Reference. For low-altitude shots. Figure 7.000 to 6. slant range will very nearly equal ground range. when employing on a controlled range. APCs).000 to 2. When employing manually and assuming firing at 2. If attacking personnel. LRS slant range.000 feet and 3.2.34 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. or soft skinned vehicles (e.1. The objective of a LRS delivery is to standoff using the excellent range of the GAU-8/A to kill or immobilize a target.

to 30-degree dive region for hard targets due to limited weapons effects (obliquity angles may result in ricochet at impact versus penetration). targets should be close enough that they are in the confines of the HUD simultaneously when opening fire on the first target. 3. then move away from the tower to strafe the second target. “think” of it as a combination of LRS and LAS— incorporating the techniques of both. . High-Angle Strafe. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7. Shoot long then short if the targets are aligned with the run in axis to avoid breaking 3/9 with a target. more vulnerable parts of the target are exposed. The correct slant range is acquired when employing on a conventional range and firing at the desired altitude.2. As a ROT. to see how to compute slant range by referencing the target on the canopy rail.23 Manual Long Range Strafe Aiming Reference. Because of the increased dive angle. altitude. strafe in the direction of egress (left to right off right. HAS deliveries are less sensitive to elevation and slant range errors than low angle deliveries. specific dive angle. Tactically. HAS deliveries are used from medium-altitude with dive angles greater than 20 degrees. (See Figure 7. Similarly. for example). strafe the nearest target to the range tower first. When employing on a controlled range.2.35 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. Slant Range Estimation Prior to Roll-In. the gun cross will have to be elevated to compensate for gravity drop at various slant ranges. and the overall effective target area is increased. there is increased bullet density.2. and airspeed parameters must be met to hit the target. the slant range is dependent upon desired weapons effects and target attacked. Avoid the 15. Just as in LRS.4 Two-Target Strafe.) 7. Reference squadron Battle Books for specific deliveries and their mil elevations.24. 7. TTS is shooting two targets with two separate bursts on the same pass. while on the planned dive angle. When employed in a low-angle delivery. If employing manually.2.

7.25. a fixed. CCIP Gun Reticle.3. (See Figure 7. In HARS with the GUN ARMed.2. then in CCIP the 4K wind corrected gun cross will be displayed (when the gun is armed). The power-on default sight for the gun is the CCIP gun reticle. No gun cross is available in STANDBY PIPPER. gun barrel rotation. 7. The gun reticle consists of a 1 mil pipper at the center of a 50-mil circular reticle with range marks at the 12.36 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. If a fixed sight (wind corrected fixed gun cross or 4/8/12 reticle) is selected in guns. 3. Air-to-surface guns can be accomplished in GUNS and CCIP modes. and winds. Some of these factors include deceleration. Strafe Symbology. CCIP guns cross.000 foot gun cross. Continuously Computed Impact Point Gun Reticle and Gun Cross. and 9 o‟clock positions.2. and wind corrected 4. GUNS mode offers CCIP reticle. gravity drop. 4/8/12 reticle. non-wind corrected 4K GUN CROSS is displayed.1. 7. The CCIP is corrected for all factors influencing the bullets after the gun has reached full speed (approximately 0.2. 6.2.24 Slant Range Estimation Prior to Roll-In. aircraft angle of attack.) . Guns Attack Modes.3.5 second).3. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7.

with the hash mark at the 6 o‟clock position.25 Continuously Computed Impact Point Gun Reticle and Gun Cross. A pilot option is to display the range numeric in kilometers. 7. the analog range bar is thin. Outside of 12. and the maximum range that will be displayed is 99K. In this case. the range numeric is removed.000 feet.000 feet.26. For example. The numeric then changes to an integer beginning at 10 and increasing to 99.) The analog range bar is located just inside the reticle and moves counter clockwise from the 12 o‟clock position as slant range to the target decreases. If the pipper is pointed at a target that exceeds the maximum range that IFFCC can calculate. This aids the pilot in keeping the pipper near the target for when a solution becomes possible. (See Figure 7.000 feet.2. Slant ranges can be displayed from 0 to 12. An analog range bar with a 5-mil tab indicates the slant range to the CCIP gun solution in thousands of feet.3.1. the pipper will clamp at the maximum range solution (with an “X” over it) and will still be roll stabilized and wind-corrected.37 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.1 and increasing in 0.2. Maximum ranges in excess of 6 NM were observed during flight tests of IFFCC. the range bar remains fixed at the 12 o‟clock position and an accurate range numeric is presented as long as a valid solution exists. and an X is placed over the pipper. Analog Range Bar. Analog Range Bar and Range Numeric. If there is no solution.9. a “K” will follow the range numeric. The 2-digit numeric displays the range in nautical miles beginning at 0. A hash mark at the end of the analog range bar indicates current slant range in thousands of feet as read from the reticle clock position. . 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7. current slant range is 6.1 increments to 9.

The MRC functions identically to the reticle MRC.) The two vertical. no range numeric will be shown.2. 5-mil lines to the left and right of the pipper can be used to estimate the lead required for a moving target.3. The horizontal bar will not be present.25 Continuously Computed Impact Point Gun Reticle and Gun Cross. similar to the CCIP gun reticle.27 Continuously Computed Impact Point Gun Reticle Moving Target Indicator. .2. and each line segment of the cross is 5 mils long making the cross a total of 20 mils across.3. Use the MTI to estimate movement and deliver a burst of sufficient length and dispersion to increase the probability of a hit. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7. The gun cross consists of a 2-mil pipper and a 4-mil gap. The horizontal line at the top of the cross helps to distinguish it from a non-computed gun sight.26 Analog Range Bar and Range Numeric. 7.3. CCIP Gun Reticle MTI. the target and bullets should arrive at the same point at the same time. (See Figure 7. and the cross will have an X through it if a solution is not available due to lack of altitude source or a solution outside of the HUD FOV. These lines expand or contract as the slant range and bullet TOF is changed. The MTI assumes the target is moving perpendicular to the aircraft at a rate of 20 knots. 7.2. The CCIP gun reticle includes two moving target indicators (MTI). (See Figure 7. By placing the target under the MTI with the gun pipper in front of the direction of motion.) The IFFCC CCIP gun cross displays the same computed impact point as the CCIP gun reticle. CCIP Gun Cross.38 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.2. using more compact symbology.

• When the aircraft is at the minimum recovery altitude. then the recover MUST be a 4G WINGS LEVEL pull to the horizon to recover at or above the min alt. • When the aircraft is less than 5 seconds above the minimum recovery altitude (at current rate and angle of descent). the caret will be displayed below the 3 o‟clock tick and above the bottom of the 6 o‟clock tick.2. 7.26.3. • When the aircraft is less than 5 seconds past (or below) the minimum recovery altitude (at current rate and angle of descent). A minimum range caret (MRC) is available in Guns and CCIP modes for the CCIP reticle and gun cross. Minimum Range Symbology for Guns. the caret will be displayed below the top of the 12 o‟clock tick and above the 3 o‟clock tick. The caret begins descending vertically when the time-to-go to the minimum recovery altitude (at current rate and angle of descent) decreases below 5 seconds. .) If the min alt is set to what is in the Battle Book. Minimum Range Cue. Reference the squadron battle book for „pads‟ to add to the min alt setting to allow for a typical „climbing safe escape‟-like maneuver that allows up to 30 degrees of bank during the 4G pull to the horizon. This caret also provides a time-to-go indication before aircraft recovery from guns pass must begin (four Gs in 2 seconds WINGS LEVEL is the assumed recovery). This gun MRC defines a minimum recovery altitude that is calculated using the minimum altitude entered in the IFFCC 30 MM submenu. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7. (See Figure 7. • The caret will be clamped at the 6 o‟clock tick when the aircraft is 5 seconds or more below the minimum recovery altitude.25 Continuously Computed Impact Point Gun Reticle and Gun Cross.39 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.4. • The caret is clamped vertically next to the top of the 12 o‟clock tick when there are 5 seconds or more until recovery must begin. the caret will be next to the 3 o‟clock tick.

000.) 7. (See Figure 7. The wind-corrected gun sight (WCGS) is similar in appearance to the CCIP gun cross.000.26 Minimum Range Cue. for more information. Toggling the SEL rocker on the UFC or cycling DMS L/R with HUD-SOI will display the 4/8/12 gun reticle.000 feet slant range solutions.27.2. The 4/8/12 gun reticle displays three wind-corrected fixedrange pippers representing 4.3. Figure 7. and 12. the analog range bar is not present.000 Foot Wind-Corrected Gun Cross. 4/8/12 Gun Reticle.40 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. except it has no horizontal bar at the top and no range numeric. 25 Jul 2011 • Setting the minimum altitude in the 30 MM submenu to 0 feet deselects the gun CCIP minimum range cue display.3. IFFCC corrects for crosswinds and the pilot elevates the sights for slant range. 4/8/12 Gun Reticle and 4.6. 8.5. 7.2. The WCGS is a cross set at 41 mils. Wind Corrected Gun Cross. Elevation of the gun sight for targets inside or .

4.2. this sight is useful when target elevation information is unavailable.000 feet slant range have to be estimated by the pilot. Like the 4/8/12 gun reticle. Manual Strafe Deliveries.000 Foot Wind-Corrected Gun Cross 7. There are several sight settings for GAU-8/A manual strafe deliveries: Standby Pipper. Sight Settings.27 4/8/12 Gun Reticle and 4.41 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. Figure 7. and the 4/8/12 Reticle. When employing the GAU-8/A manually. set the appropriate mils for the estimated slant range while offsetting for estimated winds. elevate the sight for slant range and correct upwind for crosswind. .1. When using the standby pipper. 25 Jul 2011 beyond 4. 7. Wind Corrected 4k Gun Cross. HARS fixed gun cross.4.2.

When using the 4/8/12 reticle. for more information. When using the wind corrected 4K gun cross.29.5 mils or 30 feet upwind of the target and fire. place the gun cross 7. 7. use 1:4 ratio for long-range strafe (4. Figure 7.2. For direct crosswinds.2. Manual Strafe Techniques. Elevate the sight for the estimated slant range while offsetting for estimated winds. there are two basic methods to correct for wind once on final: drift/crab or bank. Strafe wind correction presents a similar problem to that encountered in the delivery of any other type of conventional ordnance.4.2.000 feet).000 foot slant range requires the pilot to place the target one sixth the distance from the gun cross towards the TVV. 7.28. For example. Once rolled out on final.4. (See Figure 7. Neither drift nor crab has an advantage over the bank method other than firing with wingslevel. The top pipper of the 3 is the 4K pipper and is fixed at 41 mils. Realize that the release aimpoint in both cases will be the same.000 to 10.42 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.4.000 feet slant range. Elevate for Slant Range. For example. only elevate for slant range. For crosswinds.3. Elevate the gun cross for a headwind and depress for a tailwind. The same effect can be achieved utilizing the crab method into the wind.2. As a ROT. .2. the standard correction factors are: 0.5. Velocity Vector and Crab and Drift Aimpoints.000 feet). The drift method involves using an upwind roll-in point and AOP.) 7.000 feet of slant range. 25 Jul 2011 7.3.1. the wind will “drift” the aircraft into its firing position. a 4. illustrates a technique using a gun cross to TVV ratio against crosswinds to determine the aimpoint when employing with the OPT-C gun cross.2.mil per knot of crosswind for most slant ranges or 1-foot per knot of crosswind for every 2.000 foot slant range).3. and use 1:2 ratio for very long-range strafe (slant range greater than 10. for a 15-knot crosswind at 4.4. use 1:6 ratio against armor (up to 4. See the Battle Book for elevation techniques based on delivery (4/6/9K strafe) and sight settings for HAS. Wind Corrections. there are three pippers inside one reticle to aid estimating elevation. Mil dispersion will compensate for these ROTs.

for more information. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7.28 Manual Strafe Techniques.43 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. .

High-angle strafe corrections. Since the wind drift has been canceled by bank. the aircraft drift is countered by banking into the wind.2. a drifting or crabbing attack will require a considerable offset aimpoint. Avoid using the rudder. for further information.3. headwinds and tailwinds are much more of a factor both for the ground track and the AOP. (See Figure 7. using the drift or crab method.) . are the same as for low-angle deliveries. uncoordinated flight will cause a lateral trajectory shift error.2.44 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.30. Banked strafe is only valid for crosswinds up to 15 knots and/or slant ranges up to 8.29 Velocity Vector and Crab and Drift Aimpoints. It is similar to flying a wing low approach to the runway.4 For LAS/LRS using the bank strafe method. Trajectory Shift Error. 7. and shoot at the appropriate slant range.4. Manual Strafe Techniques. (See Figure 7. during high-angle strafe. However.28.000 feet.3.4.5 mil for every knot of direct headwind or tailwind.3. the aircraft is flying straight at the target and is pointed at the target. In a strong crosswind. A ROT for 30 degrees or greater is to use 0. 7. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7.) Due to bullet velocity and low trajectory angles. Keep the no crosswind aiming reference for the slant range to be used on the target with bank. headwind and tailwind corrections are minimal in low-angle and long-range strafe (unless they are very strong).

. 10 feet in width.4.000 feet slant range.30 Trajectory Shift Error. A standard conventional range strafe rag is 16 feet..g. . Mil Sizing a Target. for the standard Soviet tank and 4. or selfpropelled gun) is approximately 20 feet in length.5. APC. The standard chassis of most former Soviet Union equipment (e. The mil size of a target is simple.2. and must be determined for both head/tail and beam aspects.e.5 mils head/tail).45 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. Slant Range/Milliradian Relationship. tank. The aspect must be determined prior to release. and mil relationship used to determine slant range and appropriate aimpoint (i. it is possible to estimate the range to a target if the size of the target is known. This leads to the slant range per mil relationship presented in Figure 7. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7.31. Because a mil in the HUD is a fixed size. and 10 feet in height. 7.3. it would be 5 mils on the beam and 2. See the formula below.

2.4. and uncoordinated flight error. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7.46 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.31 Slant Range/Milliradian Relationship. These include aimpoint and tracking error. 7. Common Strafe Errors.4. slant range estimation error. .

The exact impact point depends on airspeed and bullet velocity. greater than 15. notice that HEI impacts short at long ranges. The reverse of this is equally true—using the wrong mil setting at a known slant range.4.32 CCIP Gun Reticle with Combat Mix Selected.4.2.5 Shooting Combat Mix (CM). The most common pilot-delivery error in strafe is the failure to place and maintain the aiming reference on the target and not obeying the cardinal rule of track-shoot-track.000 feet S/R for 45 degrees of dive and almost negligible in 60-degree HAS. Uncoordinated Flight. See Figure 7.47 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. Figure 7.3.4. Consequently. Aimpoint and Tracking Error.000 feet in dives of 30 degrees or less. HEI has a lighter. Slant Range Estimation Error..4.4. When stepping on the left rudder. This error is applicable for both fixed gun sight and computed gunnery.4.2.1. faster muzzle velocity initially but due to higher drag. The API will be on target and slightly later than the HEI impacts. . The bullets will hit between the aiming reference and the flight path. 25 Jul 2011 7.g. The second most prevalent error with non-computed gunnery is firing at the incorrect slant range for the given mil setting. but the flight path of the aircraft will not change immediately. 7. does not carry speed as long as API. CCIP Gun Reticle with Combat Mix Selected. 7. Pilots must know the mil depressions necessary to hit a target at various slant ranges. needle/ball not centered).4. This divergence becomes prevalent at slant ranges greater than 12. 7. at long ranges HEI will land shorter than API. This could be caused by a rudder input or by the rudder being incorrectly trimmed (e. Since the CM setting for bullet type optimizes the CCIP sight for API. but in the A-10 it is approximately onesixth of the way from the gun cross to the velocity vector. the nose (and aiming reference) will swing left.

7. • Shoot a 2-second burst for tactical situations. With the current LAU-117.6.4. 7. then recover. AGM-65D Maverick Missile. they are more than enough to cause increased bullet dispersion and a complete miss. set the gun sight to the appropriate aiming reference. Both Maverick models may also be used in conjunction with other weapons to enhance delivery capabilities of those weapons. If LAU-88s are used. The BATA appears.8. 7. This estimation is based on aircraft altitude above the target and bullet TOF for the calculated slant range. stabilize it. continuing to track the target. Precision Attitude Control (PAC).1. The AGM-65D and G models are also extremely useful for night target search when a targeting pod is not available. Approaching the desired slant range (determined by IFFCC cues. effective warhead. PAC Arming. Rolling in. • Look at the target when tracking and firing. The D/G models are infrared (IR) and use heat signatures for target acquisition.4. 7.7. 7. pull the pipper up to the target.8. The PAC system is available whenever the EAC is armed. set the sight just short of the target and evaluate the slant range. a standard loadout of up to six .8. and track the target.4.4. guided.2. Combat Offset.2. Maverick. the Master Arm switch is in ARM or Train. IFFCC compensates for these errors through the PAC system.2. the Gun switch is set to PAC ARM. 25 Jul 2011 7. or apparent target size). not at the gun cross. PAC-1 is engaged when the gun trigger is pulled to the first detent and PAC-2 is engaged at the second detent. The bullets at target altitude (BATA) is a small flashing circle that appears in the HUD at the point on the ground where the IFFCC computer predicts the bullets will impact.8.4.4. The AGM-65 Maverick missile is a precise. standoff missile. (See Figure 7. and relative ease of employment can optimize both target destruction and aircraft survivability. IFFCC also incorporates a valuable training tool for feedback on dry strafe passes. Strafe Delivery Techniques. it probably was on during firing.3. aircraft vibration. A cardinal rule for strafe is to “track-shoot-track. ground references. PAC is available in both Guns and CCIP/CCRP.” If the pipper was on the target before and after firing. 7. When the gun is fired. standoff parameters.1.33.3. Bullets at Target Altitude. wind variations. two Mavericks will be the standard loadout. at the end of the first bullet‟s TOF expiration when Master Arm is not safe. During roll-in. learn from that and make a correction (combat offset). continue the track momentarily (track). and the air refueling door is closed.48 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. and other factors can cause errors in pipper placement that are beyond the pilot‟s ability to see or control through stick inputs.2.) Its accuracy. and pull to first detent (“track”). 7. The B/H/K-model Mavericks are the electro-optical (EO) version which uses dark and light contrast to lock onto targets. Whatever the error from the first attack. Smoothly squeeze the trigger to PAC-1. smoothly pull the trigger to the second detent (“shoot”). after the gun trigger is depressed.4.2. Squeeze the trigger to PAC-2 to shoot. While these errors are small.

3.3. factor terrain. Successful Maverick employment requires thorough mission planning. .49 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.1. and the AGM-65 H/K Maverick Operations Supplement.1. There are many factors that may be known and planned for such as target.3. 7. Target Expectations. the AGM-65B TV Maverick Operations supplement. For a more detailed discussion on specific Mavericks. ask intel if the enemy is known to use Camouflage and Deception to minimize target ID mistakes. 7.1. see the AGM-65A TV Maverick Operations supplement. weather and threats in order to determine the appropriate polarity and first lock opportunity slant range. Important target information includes the following: 7. Type Target. and threats that might drive specific attack axes.1. Know if the targets are parked or running to aid in polarity decisions for IR Mavericks. Be ready to identify them (tank versus truck) in the MAV MFCD. ask intel in what direction movement is likely to plan attacks along the movement axis (versus perpendicular).1. 7.33 AGM-65D Maverick Missile.1. If the enemy is on the move. Figure 7. The size and relative shape will also effect the maximum planned launch envelope based on lock logic for each type of Maverick. based on size and shape. Be familiar with planned fire coordination measures. Mission Planning. Know what types of targets are expected for Maverick employment. For EO Mavericks. the AGM-65D Maverick Operations supplement.3. Target Area Restrictions. the AGM-65 G/G2 Maverick Operations supplement. 7. 25 Jul 2011 Mavericks is possible.1.

Knowing how high the clouds are will be a consideration when firing missiles with G-bias. G-Bias.000 feet per second (3 NM launch equals approximately 18 seconds).2.1.” This launch window is one of several considerations to satisfy good lock logic. 60degree maximum dive angle. 7. D/G Maverick “Keyhole. When launched. Target Acquisition and Lock Logic. • 30 x 30 x 30 Rule: 30 degrees maximum bank angle at lock-on. The amount of this climb is based on distance from target when launch occurs.2. 7. Lock-on to a target that is too low in contrast or too small to survive missile launch transients (less than 1/2 the tracking window) is sometimes possible. sun direction (and time of day) has an effect on which side of the target will likely be identifiable in the MAV page. Sun angle will determine how large the shadows are in relation to the targets and in what direction the shadows are located. 15 minutes maximum on ground. 25 Jul 2011 7.1. the missile will initially climb to extend its range. minimum range equals 10 x KTAS (25 x KTAS for G/G2-model).34. 30 minutes video total for each missile per mission.1. bank angle at lock should be less than 10 degrees. and TOF equals 1. Each degree of bank will result in 1 percent loss of range.3. 30 degrees per second roll rate at launch.2.3.2.” In order to achieve the “good lock logic” in a D/G/G2/H/K-model Maverick. Cloud cover can also reduce shadows and target area heating. If the target is inside these limits.”) The launch window is sometimes referred to as “The Keyhole. and 45 seconds between passes for missile realignment (B-model only—missile should not be called up during this time). A good lock-on for the B-model is indicated when the four white dots depicting the background gates bound the target and the pointing cross is steady.3.50 7.0. These limits are 10 degrees (radius) around the longitudinal axis of the missile and 15 degrees down from the center. This climb is referred to as G-Bias.34. To achieve maximum range launches at lower altitudes.2. Cloud cover could drive lower altitude employment. 3-minute video on per pass for B-models.1. The H/K models have a 10 degree radius keyhole which is not pictured in Figure 7. Firing inside of 12.5 to +3. If not. The following Maverick numbers are important to know: • Time limits: 3-minute EO warm-up. as the Mav will lose track if it enters the clouds. (See Figure 7. The “Keyhole. Sun Azimuth/Elevation. For IR employment.3. the point cross will flash.2.3. 7.” The B model of the Maverick does not have a “keyhole. D/G Maverick “Keyhole. and 30 degrees maximum bank angle change lock-on to launch. but the pointing cross and scene magnifiers will . B-Model Lock Logic. 7. • Launch Envelopes: minimum altitudes are 300 feet AGL for EO and 150 feet AGL for IR.1.2. Important weather information includes the following: 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.3. the pointing cross will become steady. G-limits equal +0. the missile seeker must be within the launch window.1.” 7. Target area cloud cover. 7. 60 minutes total for EO power ON.4. For EO employment shadows can cause lock logic difficulties.3.000 feet slant range minimizes the G-bias.

If tracking the target with an ATP.51 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. vegetation heats up faster than these same objects. Besides humidity and precipitation. Target aspect may either reveal or mask the heat source. at night. then the boat switch should be aft. or the angle of the missile seeker head from the boresight exceeds missile limits.3.34 D/G Maverick ―Keyhole.3. Look at the target and try to determine which of the following contrast modes the Maverick will need for a successful lock-on (this should reduce switchology on final). vegetation cools faster than metal objects.3. Contrast Modes. IR Mavericks. For targets which are lighter than the background.. EO Mavericks.2. or chemical) or from basic IR properties of materials.3.3.e.2. select AFT on the boat switch (polarity switch). 7. 7. Is the target hotter or colder than the background? If it is hotter. slow heat build-up) will depend on the solar heating cycle and the target‟s specific background temperature. There are many obscurants that will affect IR heat signatures. If it is colder than the background.3. other factors which can reduce the apparent temperature difference between a target and its background include: . IR heat signatures result from heating (i. the switch should be forward.. Generally. For targets which are darker than the background. in early morning. Figure 7. friction.1. and conversely. select forward. note the polarity (in charge-coupled devise [CCD] or forward looking infrared [FLIR]) to determine the polarity for the Maverick to minimize one more switch change on final.‖ 7. 7.e.3. Detectable. 25 Jul 2011 flash if the target is too small. Detection of non-operating targets or of heavy armored targets that have been operating for only a short time (i. solar.1.3.

Pull the Maverick symbol to the target. • Calm water surfaces. In WFOV. the scene in the MAV should correlate to the features in the MAV SYMBOL on the HUD.4. 7.2. One technique is to roll-in and acquire the target in WFOV. Ensure that the Maverick symbol has a chance to stabilize over the target. • Scattered or broken cloud cover which can vary thermal heating.3. 25 Jul 2011 • High winds. the switchology is almost the same..1. If these criteria are met. ATP use.2. the missile is ready for launch. or use CHINA HATFWD/SHORT with the MAV profile called up and HUD SOI to automatically switch the MFCD to Maverick video and make it SOI. With a G/K/H/K-model Maverick in Force Correlate mode (i. or using an ATP to aid in acquisition. TMS-AFT/SHORT to ground stabilize. With a D/G/G2/H/K missile. 7. target description.3. creating solid crosshairs in both the horizontal and vertical axis on the aimpoint in the center of the screen.3.3. Tactical reference points (e.3. The biggest difference is in the WFOV versus NFOV.4.e. Ensure a Maverick profile is selected so the missile will fire (Mav will not fire in sensor mode). boat switch in the center position prior to commanding lock). Stabilize the Mav scene: press and hold DMS-FWD/LONG to space stabilize. NOTE: Either way. space stabilize (holding the DMS-FWD/LONG while changing the FOV prevents the missile from returning to the boresight position) and go to NFOV by pushing CHINA HATFWD/SHORT. roads. 7. Locking On.1.4. Roll-In.3. release the Slew switch and Space Stabilize switch. Compare the scene to expectations from visual indications. and the pointing cross will indicate when good lock logic criteria has been met. The crosshairs will close. This improves contrast and allows target locks faster and at greater ranges than WFOV when familiar with the target area. Another technique is to roll-in and acquire the target in NFOV. either select the MAV page. Employment.2. • Dry ground.2. confirm proper mil sizing. To get video. continue to slew Maverick to target trying for good lock until the pass must be aborted. Do not use on moving or point targets. A good technique is to roll-in in wide field of view (WFOV) (if available) so that the target area is discernible. Once the target area is located and in the center of the MAV page select NFOV.52 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. the missile will lock onto specified area.g. at typical employment ranges. a steady pointing cross and confirm positive target identification. With a A/B-model Maverick. • Bare spots on a blanket of snow. Point the crosshairs to the target and release the slew switch. runways) will help funnel the pilot to the target area. 7. If the target does not lockup. . and mission planning.4. WFOV will allow more of the target area to be seen and to help assess target array.2.3. array.. 7. 7. Once in NFOV. lock target.4. or CHINA HAT-FWD/LONG to SLAVE TO SPI. The scene must have some contrast to establish a lock. ensure the MFCD is bounded by the green square (MAV is SOI) to prevent switch errors and/or a dry pass prior to exposure to threats. Once acquired.4. If the missile stays locked on.

and unnecessary exposure.3. Set the altitude alert to give a pull off cue on a Maverick pass.5. Desired Launch Zone (DLZ). use the depressible pipper.3.3. Do not shoot the Maverick within the minimum safe launch distance: • For AGM-65B/D/H. 7.7. make a right-hand descent. • Target size is too small. Medium Altitude Employment.6. The Maverick is one weapon where the loss of IFFCC does not dramatically affect the delivery process.4. Consider time on final to avoid threats.3. if the cross is flashing in the bottom right of the MAV page. The Maverick reticle will not come up on the HUD. It is critical that the correct type of Maverick is loaded in DSMS for an accurate DLZ display.4. • For AGM-65G/K. Firing. With the loss of the reticle. so 3. Safe Escape Maneuver.3. The pointing cross will flash with a D/G/G2/H/K-model if: • The temperature difference (delta T) between target and background is insufficient (scene bounding for H/K Mavericks).3.G2/H/K model Mavericks when NOT in sensor mode.2 For a boresight reference. A Maverick desired launch zone is displayed in the HUD for AGM-65D/G. • If there is not a steady cross but the target is locked up. or remask when low altitude. • Seeker head exceeds launch angle criteria. A flashing pointing cross indicates that the missile may lose lock at or after launch. 7.3. to put the cross within the “keyhole.3.1.7. Some key points to consider . Dial in the proper mil reference for where the missile was boresighted. 7. For example. Non-IFFCC Considerations.” 7. Getting consumed with trying to lockup the target is a very common problem.4. slant range information will also be lost.7. These higher altitudes may also allow the pilot to avoid flying into certain threat envelopes.53 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.500 feet). if medium altitude.and high-altitude employment. use 25 x TAS = Abort slant range (7. Time on Final Considerations. Employing the Maverick from medium-altitude has many advantages. ground impact. 7. The flight lead will establish the time of final criteria. Target acquisition is easier from higher altitudes.4. 7. It will also be displayed in the MAV page when NOT in the sensor mode. Ensure the pointing cross is steady for at least 1 second before firing.4. As with the EO Maverick. so fly the Maverick towards the flashing cross. The only SEM for Mavericks is to stop the rate of descent and climb back out of the threats. Many use 10 seconds for medium. 10 x TAS = Abort slant range (typically 300 knots.3. This technique will help expedite target lock-ons. 7. The DLZ is not available for B model Mavericks. Losing IFFCC causes two major changes.4. 25 Jul 2011 7.000 feet).5.4. a picture should be drawn on the canopy to represent the target-to-pipper relationship.4. the missile may be out of gimbal limits.

6. Employing the Maverick from low-altitude is very similar to medium-altitude with a few significant differences. or pilot-acquired visual contact with small point targets. During the weapons preflight.1. but may change in flight due to actual TDA.1.6. to unmask from the low-altitude regime in order to acquire and shoot the target.3. 7.3. then come off the pass. Notify maintenance personnel if there are discrepancies. 7. Budget time spent inside the cockpit and give priority to flying the aircraft. 7. Unmask ranges should be established in the brief by the flight lead. Low-Altitude Employment.6. In certain tactical situations.5.54 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.2.2. 7. Take all factors into consideration to establish this unmask point. This range varies with the means of target identification used such as targeting pod. Laser Codes are normally briefed by the flight lead or are written in the squadron standards.4. Another common ROT is no more than 10 seconds on final.4. This laser spot is normally provided by either the employing aircraft‟s targeting pod (known as „Self Lase‟) or by a pod from another aircraft such as the flight lead or wingman (referred to as „Buddy Lase‟). it is also feasible to deliver LGBs from a diving CCIP delivery. Laser Guided Bomb Employment. The key to success is knowing when. 7. 7.4. Employment. Laser spots can also be provided by other airborne platforms such as UAVs. 7. GBU Laser Codes.3. Do not unmask until the boresight is on a confirmed target/target area. 7.1.3. Altitude alert should be used to provide minimum altitude abort cues. Some basic ROTs for unmasking are: 7. and from where. Base Distance. helicopters and AC-130 gunships as well as ground forces using hand-held laser designators. Target Identification Range. The obvious difference when employing laser-guided bombs is that they require laser energy to guide to the target. The bottom line is do not get so consumed in shooting the missile that you hit the ground. and target acquisition.6. its Pk is very large. Laser Guided Bombs such as GBU-12s and GBU-10s are normally delivered from level/toss CCRP deliveries much like general purpose bombs. Consider the minimum altitude for recovery. A good ROT to use for low-altitude Maverick employment is two slews maximum.3. See the Battle Book for base parameters and slant ranges.3. .3.6. In-flight visibility and other environmental factors play a part in this range.3. One threat is the ground.1. Target identification range is the range where the boresight can be put on the desired target or target area. The general steps for employing an LGB are listed below. ensure all LGBs are set to the correct code. FAC mark. Establish base distance and altitude based on the planned slant range for release. 25 Jul 2011 when employing from medium-altitude include establishing base distance and altitude.

7.5. the HUD Mode will automatically change to CCRP when the profile is selected. check away approximately 45 to 60 degrees in order to maintain visual and standoff from the target. 7. Align the PBRL with the ASL and when the TTRN reads 5 seconds. weapon release will not be inhibited. captains bars). Once rolled out. A technique for all CCRP deliveries once the target steerpoint is in the HUD is to TMSAFT/LONG to ensure the SPI is set the current steerpoint.2.2. Self Lase. Additionally.2 Laser Guided Bombs require an absolute minimum of 8 seconds of guide time. 7.2. maneuver the aircraft in accordance with the briefed geometry.4. enter the target coordinates in a steerpoint and ensure this steerpoint is the current steerpoint in the HUD and also the SPI. Adjust the laser aimpoint one foot upwind per knot of wind in this regime. as these have the most effect on the bomb. 7. High surface winds may require a laser aimpoint that is completely off the target. CCRP Consent Option is always „3/9‟ Mode for LGBs. 7.4. 7. An additional technique is to roll in a slight dive to confirm the location of the target symbol in the HUD FOV and then pull to wings level. In the target area.7.4.55 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.4. a caution advisory will be provided.6.2.000 feet AGL. After weapons release.2.4. Buddy Lase. however. Normally check left if the targeting pod is loaded on station 10 to minimize TGP masking. Confirm that the targeting pod has the correct laser code set. 25 Jul 2011 7. Weapon time-of-fall is displayed on the left side of the HUD and in the lower-right corner of the TGP display. The DSMS Status Page also displays the SPI coordinates and elevation and these can be compared to the appropriate target waypoint page on the CDU. Select the appropriate LGB weapons profile using the DMS switch and ensure the correct stations are armed using the DSMS Quicklook (COOLIE-DOWN/LONG). 7.2.2. Turn the aircraft towards the target using steering symbols in the HUD (SPI Locator Line.3.4. specifically the winds between the surface and the SPI type is displayed in the lower-left corner of the HUD steer point (STPT) and well as the DSMS Status Page. refine the TGP aimpoint and fire the laser until weapon impact.8 Common Errors. Guide times less than this may result in the bomb not hitting the desired point.. If the TGP laser code is different from the code set on the weapon in the DSMS Inventory. hold the pickle button down until the weapon is released.2. The following lists common errors encountered when employing LGBs: .2. 7. Ensure the TGP is at the correct target location by either AREA or POINT tracking the desired DMPI or SLAVING to the target steerpoint. 7.1 CCRP always targets the SPI. It is critical that the laser aimpoint be corrected for winds.2. If the LGB profile is set to CCRP. After weapons release.

7. These weapons are employed using level/toss deliveries in CCRP Mode. especially with the flexibility of cockpit selectable impact. • Not having the TGP on the correct DMPI at release. The 500-pound GBU-38 and 2000-pound GBU-31 JDAMs are extremely versatile and accurate weapons that can be used against a variety of targets.56 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. the current SPI coordinates are sent to the JDAM and the JDAM guides to those coordinates after release. The advantages of these weapons include relatively large release windows known as Launch Acceptability Regions (LARs) that provide significant standoff and they can be delivered through the weather.5. .1.1.1. the following steps occur: 7. for a guide time below the minimum of 8 seconds. When the weapon acquires GPS. much like an INS as well as a GPS.5. It then begins guidance to the target coordinates.1. 7.1. If there is a .3. These weapons guide to specific coordinates that can be generated using aircraft sensors or provided in mission planning.1. The weapon does not acquire GPS until after release. Joint Direct Attack Munitions. • Not correcting the laser spot for winds.1. 7. The JDAM has two modes of operation: bomb on coordinate (BOC) and relative targeting (RT). A JDAM contains both an inertial measurement unit (IMU). This can cause the LGB to guide on the wrong laser. The weapon will attempt to achieve the desired impact angle and azimuth for hitting the target (see below).5. which will cause the bomb to deplete energy.1. 7. Inertially Aided Munitions Employment. causing endgame TGP adjustments with a weapon in the air resulting in a moving laser spot. derived by its own IMU (which was derived from the aircraft EGI) to the “true location” that the GPS receiver tells it. it compares what it thinks its location is. In BOC mode.5. When the weapon is released from the aircraft. its own position is known based on its internal IMU. If the weapon does not receive a GPS signal. Inertially Aided Munitions include Joint Direct Attack Munitions such as GBU-38s and GBU-31s as well as Wind Corrected Munitions Dispensers such as CBU-103. LGBs will not guide on the Sniper‟s training laser. When the pickle button is depressed in a JDAM attack.5. The weapon will sacrifice these parameters in order to hit the target.2. but the weapon IMU is aligned to the aircraft EGI.5. it will guide to the target using only its IMU. 25 Jul 2011 • Inadvertent HOTAS error that causes TGP laser type to change from laser to IR Marker. However. The weapon searches for GPS satellites and acquires a 3D GPS solution.2 Relative Targeting. The JDAM is a coordinate-seeking weapon and the coordinates it guides to is the aircraft SPI. In RT mode. Additionally.1. the weapon attempts to guide to the exact coordinates that were passed to it. JDAM Release Sequence. • Other aircraft firing a laser with the same code into the target area during someone else‟s self lase attack. CCRP symbology for these weapons is different than laser-guided and GP bombs. delayed or proximity fuzing with a FMU-152 Joint Programmable Fuze.1. the JDAM attempts to correct for any errors in its actual location caused by errors present in the navigation solution of the aircraft. 7.1. When the pickle button is depressed and the aircraft SPI coordinates are passed to the weapon. 7.5.

3.1.35 JDAM STAIR Check . take a mark via TMS-RIGHT/SHORT and then copy this mark to next available steerpoint and label in accordance with the briefed contract. 7. such as a TGP mark or a target designation cue (TDC) designation. the weapon will offset its aimpoint from the passed target coordinates the same amount.5. the target coordinates may be mensurated coordinates received during mission planning or received over the radio from a joint terminal attack controller (JTAC). ensuring the SPI reflects those coordinates and maneuvering the aircraft to the weapon LAR for release. The pilot then hooks the Donor SPI.3.3. S T A I R Steerpoint TMS-AFT/LONG SLAVE ALL IAM Profile Readback Ensure target steerpoint is current/in the HUD Resets SPI to current Steerpoint Slave all sensors to SPI Correct JDAM Profile selected Confirm/Readback SPI coordinates on DSMS Status Page Figure 7.1. but the end result should be the same coordinates in a steerpoint that is the SPI: • Lase the target with the TGP.6 target sorting message that contain the appropriate coordinates. JDAMs always target the SPI. ensuring the aircraft SPI reflects the desired target is absolutely critical.3.57 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. • If the employing aircraft does not have an operable TGP. there are some significant factors to consider. There are two instances where BOC mode will be used: if the SPI is a steerpoint with preplanned or hand-entered coordinates loaded into or if a hooked datalink symbol on the TAD is the SPI. which of these modes to use is automatically determined by the CICU. In the A-10C. However. 25 Jul 2011 difference. a flight member can generate coordinates with a TGP and pass via a J12.5. The difference between coordinates generated by an aircraft sensor such as the targeting pod and the actual target location is known as target location error (TLE). In neither case is the EGI in the employing aircraft the “source” of the coordinates and the JDAM will use BOC Mode and guide to those coordinates without correcting for any location error. JDAM employment consists of acquiring target coordinates.1. the target coordinates should be input in a steerpoint and then that steerpoint should be the current steerpoint in the HUD. As with other CCRP deliveries. the generating aircraft can pass coordinates via voice and then be handentered into a steerpoint. as described in Figure 7. hence the most important element for successful employment is generating as accurate coordinates as possible. JDAMs are coordinate-seeking weapons. As with LGBs. another aircraft may broadcast a SADL J12.6 SADL Message. If the target coordinates were generated by the aircraft. RT mode will be enabled and „RT‟ will be displayed in the HUD. In the latter.2. 7.5. There are numerous ways to acquire target coordinates. 7. JDAM STAIR Check.35. This is because the same platform that told the JDAM where it was in space (the aircraft EGI) also generated the target coordinates. In the former. copies to a empty steerpoint and renames the point. Weapon Employment. 7. • If SADL is inoperable. A JDAM-specific FENCE check is the STAIR check.

These percentage ROTs may not be valid at all altitudes.4. release the weapon.58 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. Wind Corrected Munitions Dispensers. using the same CCRP HUD symbology as GP and laser-guided bombs. unguided or by using a CCIP pipper. CAUTION: The JDAM release sequence can take up to 1. maneuver the aircraft to place the aircraft in the LAR. • The JDAM can be released at max range in order to maintain standoff from a collocated threat or if dropping a JDAM in proximity mode where minimizing elevation error with a 90-degree impact angle is not desired or required. 7.3.2. due to the fact that at pickle the CICU sends the SPI coordinates to the bomb. When the caret reaches halfway down the staple. WCMD weapons such as CBU-103 and CBU104 are delivered using the same HUD symbology and techniques as JDAMs.2.2. WCMD can be delivered unguided and they act just like their conventional counterparts (CBU-87 and CBU-89).5. the JDAM repeats those coordinates back and when the CICU verifies that they are the same. . • A less accurate technique for release in order to achieve desired impact angle is to release at briefed percentage of the LAR.5. sends the release signal to the JDAM station. Once the Range Numeric next to the caret reads 2. In order to drop WCMD in a conventional mode navigate to the specific 1760 station carrying the CBU on the STAT page and turn it off. There are two significant differences between JDAMs and WCMD. 7. 7. such as 50 percent. the timer will indicate time until max range for the LAR is reached.1.5.5 seconds to complete. NOTE: JDAMs cannot be released ballistically. If the pickle button is released during this sequence. a release range for a specific set of parameters should be calculated and then corrected for winds. Then select the desired conventional profile and deliver the weapon in either CCRP mode. WCMD contains an INS only and does not use GPS. 25 Jul 2011 7.3 NM.2.1. it can result in a hung weapon that cannot be released. Different tactical scenarios will dictate where in the LAR to actually release the weapon. or by using a CCIP pipper. from pickle to weapon release. release the weapon. The left side of the HUD will show the DLZ and if outside the LAR. Unlike JDAMs. Once in the LAR.5. • For normal releases. Hold the pickle button down until the HUD and/or DSMS indicate that weapon release sequence is complete. Conventional DSMS profiles can be loaded in additional to the normal guided profiles. the HUD will display MAN REL and the timer will change to a predicted time-of-fall. This is easily accomplished by turning towards the target steerpoint and centering the captains bars. Once the target steerpoint has been defined and confirmed.