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1 BY ORDER OF THE COMMANDER 25th Virtual Fighter Squadron

25 VFS OI 07-A-10, 25 Jul 2011 25 VFS OPERATING INSTRUCTION 07-A-10 25 Jul 2011 Combat Operations A-10C Ground Weapon Employment

COMPLIANCE WITH THIS PUBLICATION IS MANDATORY ______________________________________________________________________________ OPR: 25 VFS, Snoopy Certified by: Raven6 Pages: 58 Distribution: 25 VFS ______________________________________________________________________________ This operating instruction (OI) provides Guidance on Ground Weapon Employment in the A-10 Thunderbolt II. SUMMARY OF CHANGES None, Document based on AFTTP 3-3, Combat Aircraft Fundamentals, A-10. 1. PURPOSE: The purpose of this document is to provide guidance and training for ground weapon employment in the A-10C and will be used within the 25th VFS. 2. INTRODUCTION: The A-10‟s primary mission is close air support (CAS). This OI provides the fundamental tools to build precise weapons delivery skills essential to CAS: fundamentals of bomb theory, conventional range patterns and development of tactical delivery references, computed bomb deliveries, manual bomb deliveries, and forward firing deliveries. 3. Weapons Delivery Terminology. In order to understand the discussion on free-fall weapons delivery, be familiar with the following terms and definitions: (See Figure 7.1, Bomb Triangle.) • Aim-off distance (AOD)—A distance beyond the target that is predictable for any weapons delivery. That distance is the no-wind projected flight path of an aircraft (where the aircraft would hit the ground if the pilot did not recover) in a dive delivery. • Aim-off point (AOP)—The point on the ground, long of the target, at which the aircraft must fly to during the weapon‟s delivery pass. The AOP provides a ground reference to fly the aircraft to until a track reference can be set. • Angle of attack (AOA)—The angle between the zero sight line (ZSL) and the relative wind. • Ballistic trajectory—The path of a munition from release to impact. This trajectory is a result of release velocity, release angle, release height above the target, gravity, and weapon drag characteristics. • Bomb range (BR)—The horizontal distance the bomb will travel over the ground from release to impact. • Bomb trail (BT)—The horizontal distance between the aircraft and the bomb impact. • Combat offset—Adjusting the RAP by a certain distance to correct for a previous miss. • DB— dive bomb. • Dive angle—The angle of dive for weapons delivery.


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• Gun bore line (GBL)—Represents the initial bullet muzzle velocity vector extended to infinity. This is the depression from the ZSL where the bullets initially come out of the gun. The A-10 GBL is at 33.7 mils depression. The GBL is sometimes used to approximate the aircraft vector on roll-out because the total velocity vector (TVV) lags the actual aircraft flight path. • HADB— high altitude dive bomb. • HARB— high altitude release bomb. • HAS— high angle strafe. • HATR—high angle tactical rocket • Initial Pipper Placement (IPP)—Angle between the target to the total solution in mils at track altitude. • Initial HUD Placement (IHP)—IHP is the angle at track altitude between the ZSL and the target, in mils. IHP can be derived from the total mil setting and the value for IPP. Total Mils = IHP + IPP. • Initial Aim-off Angle (IAA)—IAA is the angle between the AOP and the target at track altitude. • Initial Target Placement (ITP)—ITP is the position of the target relative to a pitch ladder at track altitude. • LALD—low-angle low drag. • Mil—A term commonly used by A-10 pilots as an abbreviation for milliradian (1/1,000th of a radian). Mils are used to measure sight depression or relative positions and sizes of objects as seen through the HUD. One mil is equal to 1 foot at a range of 1,000 feet, and 1 degree equals 17.45 mils. • Relative wind—The speed and direction of the air mass relative to the aircraft. It is opposite in direction to the aircraft‟s velocity vector through the air mass. • Release aimpoint (RAP)—The wind-corrected point on the ground where the pipper must be placed at release for the munition to strike the target. • Release aimpoint extended (RAPE)—The point on the ground on which the aircraft track reference is set. This point is corrected upwind from the RAP. • Release altitude—The altitude above the ground at which weapons delivery is accomplished. • Roll-in Target Placement (RTP)—A cockpit reference used to establish an aim-off angle for the aircraft. • Total sight setting (TSS)—The depression from the ZSL to the target at release altitude for the planned release conditions. Deviations from planned release parameters such as airspeed, dive angle, altitude, or G-loading will have an effect on the planned total sight setting. • Track reference—A position or point in the HUD that is used to maintain or correct the aircraft to the planned wire. Some common track references used in weapons delivery are IHP, IAA, IPP, and the desired release cue (DRC). • Tracking—A portion of any dive weapons delivery that is devoted to the final alignment of aircraft sighting systems with the target. The amount of time associated is referred to as wingslevel or tracking time. • Zero sight line (ZSL)—A basic reference line extending through the fuselage of the A-10 parallel to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft. All sight depressions are referenced from the ZSL.


25 VFS OI 07-A-10, 25 Jul 2011

Figure 7.1 Bomb Triangle. 4 Preparation. 4.1. General. Weapons delivery training in the A-10 requires a thorough understanding of training rules, weapons delivery theory, head-up display (HUD) symbology, aircraft systems knowledge and basic range layout and administration. (See Figure 7.2, A-10 Air-to-Surface Weapons Employment Cockpit Interface.)


25 VFS OI 07-A-10, 25 Jul 2011

Figure 7.2 A-10 Air-to-Surface Weapons Employment Cockpit Interface. 5. Range Administration. 5.1. Range Entry and Exit. Written procedures and guidance can be found in command directives, applicable supplements, and local directives. Normally, entry to the controlled range as accomplished from a basic or tactical formation, depending on weather and/or spacing desired. 5.2. In-Flight Checks. Weapons delivery “in-flight checks” encompass nearly all systems on the A-10. They include fuel checks, weapons system checks, wind checks, estimated vertical error (EVE) checks, and a needle/ball check. 5.2.1. Fuel Checks. These are normally initiated and executed on the primary range frequency. At an absolute minimum, fuel checks are required prior to range entry, once while on the range, and once upon exiting the range. NOTE: Be extremely careful not to become distracted and drop them out of the cross-check. 5.2.2. En Route Checklists. There are certain checks that need to be accomplished before reaching the target area; these are collectively known as a “firepower, emitters, navigation, communications, and electronic countermeasures” (FENCE) checks. A FENCE check simply groups the items that need to be covered and is generic to any aircraft. Perform a FENCE check prior to weapons employment, including weapons switches set for the first pass. For training missions, do not place the Master Arm to ARM until entering the range and cleared by lead. A common A-10 acronym is listed in Figure 7.3, FENCE Checks, along with the items covered in


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a generic FENCE check. The FENCE check is an ongoing process. Start with a pre-takeoff FENCE check and accomplish another one for each phase of flight. Before arriving at the IP, the aircraft must be ready for combat. Once in the target area, your focus must be on finding and attacking the proper target. 5.2.3. Weapons System Checks. The Weapons portion of the FENCE check requires amplification to correctly set up weapons for employment. Disciplined weapons system checks are critical to mission success. When directed by the flight lead (FL) perform a Weapons System Check. Reference Figure 7.4, Common Weapons System Checks, for two common Weapons System Check acronyms. 5.2.4. Wind Checks. Analyzing winds is critical for accurate and consistent weapons delivery. Analyze winds by using your EGI readings (i.e., select STR INFO page on EGI) and visual indications provided by dust or smoke. Winds affect every aspect of the weapons delivery pattern and should be accounted for in flight. F-E-N-C-E Fire control systems set. Weapon system checks.. Gun armed. EO power on. Target identification set. Electronic warfare systems. CMS set. Navigation. EGI, map, and TACAN ready. Wind checked. Communications. Frequencies set, Emitters (reduce or select). TACAN set. External lights OFF. C-W-L-I-T-T-E-R Chaff/flare. CMS set to appropriate settings.





Weapons. Conduct weapons system checks Lights. OFF. N/A for DCS A-10C TACAN. Set to receive only or off.



Tape. DVADR running. T ECM as appropriate. E RWR as briefed. R Figure 7.3 FENCE Checks. S-P-A-D-E-S A-P-E-S Switches Set. Arm. A Profile Selected. Profile, DSMS. P Altitude Source. Elevation source. E DSMS quick-look (for stations and SOI, SPI. S profile settings). Elevation set as briefed. SOI and SPI set as briefed. Figure 7.4 Common Weapons System Checks.


Conventional Pattern and Methodology.6 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. 5.3. Typical two-ship spacing in the container pattern is on opposite corners.4.” For example. Spacing will be established by the Flight Lead. however. should be made on the turn from crosswind to downwind by varying the point at which the turn is made. (See Figure 7. Corrections to pattern spacing.2. . the standard spacing is one aircraft on each of the four corners. for both a two-ship and a four-ship.2. Conventional Pattern and Methodology. All radio transmissions while in the range pattern will be made on the respective range frequency. Establishing a contract for when flight members turn crosswind will aid in maintaining spacing. the basics remain the same. for example radio calls. Spacing. Number Two is turning crosswind to downwind. or “180 out. Figure 7.2. (See Figure 7.) For a four-ship.1. Standard and expected radio transmissions while operating on the conventional range may vary. when Number One is rolling in on final.5.5 Conventional Pattern and Methodology.3.) 5. 25 Jul 2011 5. Radio Transmissions.5.

Acknowledge this transmission IAW local guidance and the flight brief.1. If blind on the preceding aircraft. then Number Three should “KIO” (with altitude. Expect a rejoin and be prepared to communicate problems with HEFOE visual signals. expect the range control officer (RCO. 5. visually reacquire the preceding flight member by first clearing the crosswind to downwind corner. If positive separation cannot be immediately ensured. or ranger) to report the last event score while on crosswind. then follow local range procedures. Conventional Pattern.2. However. 25 Jul 2011 5. and is known as the “coffin corner. familiarity with the mechanics of flying the patterns are discussed next. Downwind. Crosswind. Since much of basic weapons delivery training will be performed on a conventional range. SAY POSITION. An example in a four-ship formation.1. Contingencies. It is important to remember that if a “SAY POSITION” call is made. or making the turn to downwind.5. particularly within a four-ship. be careful not to turn inside the preceding aircraft. 5. “CONTINUE” or “KIO.2.7 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.2.5. This will minimize variations and adjustments to the base leg turn.2. 5.6. Number Three then has two responses.2. Lost Comm.2. The basic rules apply: maintain aircraft control. Plan to be at base altitude no later than when making the . the turn from crosswind is the most dangerous portion of the pattern. Lost Sight. climb away from the ground while analyzing the problem. When turning crosswind. all aircraft must remain silent until the aircraft being addressed responds with its position and the requesting aircraft confirms the response with “CONTINUE” or “KIO.3. Due to aircraft potentially turning crosswind at different points.” 5. as a technique) to ensure safety of flight. For collision avoidance purposes. The displacement from the target (downwind spacing) is not exact and is typically flown 2 to 3 NM from the target.2. then rock wings on final then turn opposite direction to normal range traffic. 5. and call a “KNOCK IT OFF” if required on the range frequency. Contingencies. 5.” Number Two should respond immediately with two‟s position in the conventional pattern. If NORDO on range. immediately request the aircraft position. After accomplishing the safe escape maneuver. then continue to fly the briefed range pattern.5. The most common contingency is losing sight of one or more flight members. then clearing the downwind to base corner.” Ensure positive visual contact with previous flight member to ensure deconfliction. if Warthog Three loses sight of Two: “DRAGGIN TWO.5. Contingencies that could be encountered on the range must be briefed. Downwind displacement should be wide enough to allow for adequate wings-level time while on the base leg. If ever in doubt of the position of the previous flight member. on final (DRY) rock wings to indicate to the RCO and fellow flight members of the NORDO condition.2.2. A typical technique for high release altitude deliveries is to turn crosswind at track altitude. Weapon Malfunction. follow the procedures outlined in paragraph 5.2. If NORDO with emergency. Additionally. Inform lead of any suspected weapon malfunctions. Expect a rejoin followed by RTB.6.6.5. it is critical that each aircraft fly their turn from final to crosswind as briefed by FL. All pattern corrections to flight spacing should be made on the turn from crosswind to downwind.” The continue call is made when Number Three picks up a visual on Number Two or determines that there are no deconfliction problems in the pattern.

Consider the winds at pattern altitude and adjust the final roll-in point as necessary (i.to 3-G turn (normally the steady tone). note the relationship of the target to the canopy rail in order to develop/validate tactical canopy references. Set.2. and fly the aircraft to the AOP. have a known aim off point for the delivery. 5.6.3. and begin a 2.6. Establishing and using RTP can place the jet on a correct . altitude. delay the roll-in until the target is approximately three fists aft of the canopy bow. execute a roll-in by advancing the throttles to MAX. 5. Do not adjust the position of the turn from downwind to base leg as it can adversely affect the weapons delivery parameters on the upcoming pass. start an unloaded roll to 80 degrees plus the dive angle.2.8 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.2. Don‟t forget to adjust for winds. Fly a precise base leg to put the aircraft in the best position to roll in and achieve the planned parameters (e. The actual cross-check and procedures used to put the release aimpoint on the target will vary depending on the delivery and delivery mode.6.6. A technique is to start roll-in when the target is just aft of the canopy bow. Anticipate the turn to base and lead it using as little G as possible. Roll-In Target Placement (RTP). On a conventional range and attempting to validate tactical delivery references.2. and dive angle). Although ITP is measured at track altitude. While on downwind.” This phrase leads an attack pilot through each step of the final leg.1 Roll-In Timing.000 feet. delay the roll-in.3. and clearly “where the rubber meets the road.4. if encountering a headwind while on base. As a ROT.6. Pull. depending on direction of roll-in).. A-10 pilots should use canopy references based on the initial target placement (ITP) for the delivery as the primary method to establish a tactical base position.2. 5. After developing and validating base canopy rail references.g. Base.4. Center. Canopy Rail Reference. it is an accurate sight picture for target placement at base position.e. airspeed.1. The final is the weapon delivery portion of the pattern.2. 5. pilots should develop a roll-in target placement to aid in establishing a proper aim-off distance for the base position flown. 5. since most of the turn for these deliveries are made in the vertical.2. For lower angle deliveries (e.6. take the time available to assess the last pass and prepare for the next one. Use known.e. Known Ground Track. For deliveries greater than 30 degrees. 10 or 2 o‟clock position.3. The goal is to develop and validate a canopy rail reference on the conventional range that can be applied to a tactical situation without known ground references.” A technique to dissect this complicated maneuver is “Pull. the base turn radius will be approximately 3. wind-corrected GEOREFs to start the base turn. Approaching the roll-in point. Final Leg.6. A geographic reference (GEOREF) is a good starting point for finding the correct base position. The base leg must be consistent to get the aircraft on the correct wire relative to the target.g. 5. similar to perch corrections in the traffic pattern).. 25 Jul 2011 turn for the base leg. Mechanically. 30 degrees or less). start with the target about 20 to 30 degrees in front of the wing line (i.. 5.

6. Any HUD reference with a mil depression . a technique for using the DRC is to set the DRC on the target at track altitude. This allows pilots to correct for small base position errors in a tactical situation and minimize large track corrections on final.2 IHP/IPP. Note that the depressible pipper does not provide crosswind correction on final. Track References (SET). If the expected target placement in the HUD is less than planned. Since the aircraft will accelerate on final. After roll-out.7. the pilot needs accurate wind information and then must add/subtract the applicable head/tail wind component. and adjust the AOP longer than planned. Keep the minimum release staple (MRS) in your cross-check as your abort cue. it is imperative to center the target between the pitch ladders. Set it and forget it. These track references are presented below. and continue with a normal track until release. If the target is within approximately 30 mils of the CCIP pipper (just outside of the reticle). place the PBIL through the target and set a track reference. Setting the DRC in this manner establishes and refines the AOP for a correct wire. If using ITP as a roll-in (not track) reference. an opportunity to refine the dive angle exists by cross-checking the pitch ladders. After using one of the valid roll-in techniques. Since the DRC is continuously computed. as the nose of the aircraft is halfway around the final turn. Roll-Out (Center). cross check the target abeam the depressible pipper at track altitude. a pilot should still set the DRC as soon as possible.2. AOA. The DRC continuously computes and corrects for changes in airspeed. If the target is not centered within the pitch ladders. if the angle in the HUD is greater than expected during the roll-in.2. relax back pressure. Regardless of the type of delivery flown (manual or computed) a track reference must be set.2. The longer the nose is kept up during the turn (sometimes referred to as “floating” the turn).7. Therefore. set the throttle to achieve the planned airspeed at release. 5. During the roll-in. 5. 5. Initial Target Placement.2.” Because weapons employment mils are based on a specific track altitude and airspeed. begin an unloaded roll-out. set the DRC at track altitude. just like setting an IPP does for manual deliveries. and G-loading. without the aid of aim off distance markers in a tactical environment. it is wind corrected and valid at all altitudes during the pass.7. the DRC will track down slightly as the pipper tracks up during the pass. 5.6. Hold the AOP and do not make a Banana pass by trying to hold the DRC on the target. 25 Jul 2011 wire using a cockpit reference during roll-in. Likewise. 5. One technique used is setting IHP mils in the depressible pipper. Begin to relax G during the roll-in as the top of the HUD approaches the target. The depressible pipper is available in CCIP mode before designation. use the HUD pitch ladders to estimate if the target will be located at the appropriate angle when the aircraft rolls out. The best track reference that may be used for CCIP WD is the DRC.1 DRC.5.2. So if unable to set the DRC at Track. the steeper the aircraft will be after setting the AOP at track.4. decrease bank. as the HUD pitch ladders approach the edge of the target. Setting the DRC corrects the aircraft flight path toward the expected time of fall driving it toward the “correct wire. The pitch ladders should bracket the target when the roll-out is complete. increase bank angle and G to adjust the AOP shorter than planned. In any case. aggressively make an appropriate 3/9 correction to center the target. For computed deliveries.9 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. IHP is an angular representation (in mils) of the target relative to the ZSL.

IAA. (See Figure 7. For example. 5. (See Figure 7.7.8. During the dive.7. however. Continue to cross check parameters while flying to the release point. for each 17 mils of wind correction.6 Bombing Triangle – IHP and IPP Triangle. Bombing Triangle—Initial Target Placement/Initial Aim-Off Angle.) Let us look at an example delivery with an IAA of 5 degrees. These references must be used for manual weapon‟s delivery if IHP is used as the track reference. For computed deliveries.3. utilize the projected bomb impact line (PBIL) to fly the CCIP pipper to the target or combat offset point. 25 Jul 2011 corresponding to the IHP may also be set abeam the target.9. After setting the track reference at track altitude. Pipper Track.7 mil per knot correction factor for headwind/tailwind and add 1 degree to IAA (17 mils). To correct IAA for winds.2.45 mils per degree. with a 10 knot headwind.6. this will establish the correct wire. set the TVV 5 degrees long of the target.2. therefore. Concentrate on letting the sight track to the release aim point (RAP).2.) Figure 7. 5. add or subtract a degree. Regardless of where the aircraft is in relation to the planned wire. confirm aircraft parameters are within abort criteria. use a 1. Avoid attempting to slow the pipper down by . To set the correct wire.10 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. 5. IAA is the planned angle between the AOP and the target at track altitude. The CCIP pipper will track quickly to the target. divide attention between the movement rate of the pipper and the aircraft‟s parameters. IPP is the recommended track reference to use during manual weapon‟s delivery. When employing manually. Confirm the Aircraft Parameters. for a visual depiction of this track reference. IAA must be corrected for head wind or tailwind. for a depiction of the reference. coordinated control inputs on final. Fly smooth. there are 17. Bombing Triangle—Initial Head-Up Display Placement and Initial Pipper Placement Triangle.

execute a CLM SEM. on the second pass. and the back-up SEM. Computed deliveries use real time safe escape to display an abort cue.2.2. or being hit by fragmentation from the ordnance employed. Figure 7. and manual deliveries use an abort altitude. Safe escape maneuvers include the climbing SEM. for low-altitude deliveries. 20 degrees or below. if the first weapon impacted 50 meters at 2 o‟clock. the primary concerns during recovery are hitting the ground (or descending below a desired altitude). If a previous delivery was completed with the aiming reference on the target.10. perform a “combat offset. As an example. 5. reaching the abort cue. One technique to help a smooth pipper track is to trim forward one „click‟ for each 10 degrees of planned dive. Release the weapon with the aiming reference on the intended release aim point. and the weapon did not hit the target.11. or if you lose SA. Pickle. For free-fall munitions. but will cause a heavy stick. Recovery.11 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. The planned recovery maneuvers for free-fall munitions are the climbing maneuver (CLM) and turning level turn (TLT) safe escape maneuvers (SEM).12. release the weapon 25 meters at 8 o‟clock. Maintaining the minimum aircraft G for the duration of the maneuver is critical in achieving safe escape or safe separation as appropriate. or after setting track. 5. and for deliveries above 20 degrees.2. This can be accomplished on base. TLT SEM. As a general rule. Execution. offset the aimpoint one half the miss distance in the opposite direction of the previous miss. It is important to understand that when executing the SEM. . 25 Jul 2011 bunting the aircraft as this can induce release errors. Start a recovery after ordnance release.7 Bombing Triangle—Initial Target Placement/Initial Aim-Off Angle. 5. execute a TLT SEM.” As a ROT. it must be executed immediately after weapons release. Trim through the roll-in. delivering a weapon with a time of fall below the minimum fuze time (a DUD weapon). Combat offset can be used to improve subsequent pass accuracy.

• Pull-down point (PDP)—The start point for a maneuver to transition from the climbing to the diving portion of the pop-up delivery. • Tracking—A portion of any dive weapons delivery that is devoted to the final alignment of aircraft-sighting system with the target. • Angle-off (AO)—The angular difference between the approach course and attack heading. Pop-Up Pattern. • Pull-down target placement (PTP)—Sight picture used to initiate pull-down. which depicts the point at which target tracking is initiated. and exposure to threats. The pop-up is an “unmask” maneuver used at low-altitude to visually acquire the target. and Figure 7. gun. rocket. • PDP angle off nose (AON)—The angular difference between the approach course and a line directly to the target from the PDP. • Attack heading—Final attack heading. the approach course is generally 45 degrees offset from the final attack heading when employed from a conventional pattern. When employed tactically. the distance from the target to this point is the radius of the circle. CLM SEM errors include: insufficient G during the recovery. • Aim-off distance (AOD)—A distance beyond the target that is predictable for any weapons delivery. • Dive angle—The planned dive angle for weapons delivery. and most importantly. Common Errors. • Release altitude—The altitude above the ground at which weapons delivery is accomplished. • Apex—Highest altitude the aircraft reaches during the pop-up profile. Using track altitude as a point on the ground. • Climb angle—The angle-of-climb that is to be achieved following the initiation of the pop-up. turning room to reposition for the pull-down. The tasks associated with each leg of the pop-up pattern are generally the same as the conventional pattern. Pop-Up Pattern Analysis: • Run-in altitude—The altitude above or below target elevation. Pop-Up Pattern. . Review the following pop-up specific terms while referencing Figure 7. the goal should be to strive for 3 seconds wings-level time. TLT SEM errors include: an unloaded roll as the nose approaches the horizon. However.3. • Minimum attack perimeter (MAP)—Is a circle centered on the target. That distance is the no-wind projected flight path of an aircraft (where the aircraft would hit the ground if not recovered) in a dive delivery. 25 Jul 2011 5. Fly to the target from the PUP.8.12 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.12. 5. It can be used for free-fall. A 45-degree offset offers a balance of target acquisition.9.1. and not completing the maneuver to 30 degrees nose high. • PUP angle off nose (AON)—The angular difference between the approach course and a line directly to the target from the PUP. The approach (approach course) to the target can be either straight ahead or offset depending on the desired attack axis to the target. with the following exceptions and the pop-up maneuver itself. and Maverick attacks. rolling out prior to completing 60 degrees of turn. not maintaining G on the aircraft until the TLT SEM is complete. excessive nose high or nose low during the turn. The pop-up point will vary depending on the ordnance to be employed. • Approach course—The ground track the aircraft flies until reaching the pop-up point (pull-up point [PUP]). exceeding 30 degrees of bank prior to 30 degrees nose high. • Pull-up point (PUP)—The point along the approach course at which the pull-up to the climb angle is initiated.2.

25 Jul 2011 • Bomb range—The distance the bomb will travel over the ground from release to impact.13 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. Figure 7. .8 Pop-Up Pattern.

plan on depleting approximately 15 knots to 30 knots of airspeed while executing the pop-up attack. Downwind. except the aircraft will typically be 1.000 feet AGL. The downwind leg can either be parallel to the run-in leg (45 degrees offset away from the target) or parallel to the final leg. During the turn to base the aircraft needs to descend and turn to arrive on the planned range approach course (see local and squadron guidance). weather. SEM and Crosswind. for preceding aircraft.3. Upon completion of the SEM. Altitude may vary based on terrain. For pop-ups. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7.500 to 2. One technique is to level off 200 to 300 feet high and ease the aircraft down to pilot low-altitude minimums during the approach to the PUP.1. Use 10 to 15 degrees nose low maximum.3. establish a climbing vector and complete the turn to crosswind. Be very careful while descending to pilot low-altitude minimums because it is very easy to overshoot your altitude and fixate on the target or PUP. The SEM employed is generally a TLT. The considerations for actions on downwind are similar to those in the conventional pattern. 5.14 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. gain as much energy as practical prior to the pull-up point. Remember to check the crosswind to downwind corner. The turn from downwind to base is where the pop-up pattern diverges from the standard conventional pattern. Base. Pop-Up Pattern Analysis. 5. . and pilot low altitude category. The G and turn location will depend on the type of Pop-Up pattern to fly (offset or parallel downwind). As a ROT. and then downwind to base corner.

An important visual reference is the angle off the nose (AON) to the target at the pull-up point and pull-down point. Calculate the AON using the following ROT: the pull-up AON is approximately one-half the planned angle-off and the pull-down point AON is approximately three-quarters of the planned angle off. 5.15 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. select MAX power and begin a 3-G wings-level pull (G-suit inflates at 2. For most conventional range strafe deliveries. 5.1. hills. 5. a 500-foot AGL run in could be only 300 feet above target elevation.3. When on a controlled range. it is possible to plan an attack heading to fly and identify GEOREFs such as roads. 25 Jul 2011 5. focus on acquiring the target. When the desired PUP is reached. Increase the PUP distance by 0. The typical time to acquire the target from pull-up to pull-down is approximately 5 to 10 seconds depending on run-in altitude. pop-up for a low strafe or rocket delivery approximately 1 mile prior to the intended release slant range.4. Execute the pull-down as the aircraft approaches the correct pull-down visual reference. and specific range restrictions.4. a baseline sight picture can be developed for use in a tactical environment. Target Acquisition. The actual pop-up is performed referencing the target and varies dependent upon the ordnance employed.to 4-G pull down to intercept the planned attack wire.3. First learn the basics then apply the sight picture discussion in the following paragraphs to sharpen pop delivery skills. For example. The correct PUP for a strafe delivery is based upon desired delivery slant range. Flying a mechanical pop-up using planned parameters will aid in developing a sight picture to increase the chance for target acquisition and finding the wire.3. These points should be memorized in order to reduce task load on the range. During the climb. This point is referred to as PTP (pull-down target placement). As a ROT.2. Pull-Down Point.3.1 NM for every 200 feet below planned altitude (For example. pull-up and pull down. Normally.4. The pop picture must be developed by flying a mechanical approach course. there are specific range references that aid in identifying the pop-up point.3. increase the pull up point by 0. the target will move down and aft in the quarter panel. A baseline sight picture for the pull-down point relates the target placement to a known cockpit reference for bombing deliveries. pull to approximately 5 to 10 degrees nose high and begin a roll and pull to the target. The pilot can also reference the distance from the target in the HUD as a back-up if the coordinates are known for the target and entered in the active steerpoint.4.5 Gs) to the desired climb angle. This is the point at which the pull-down is initiated. PUP distances assume the ground elevation is equal to the target elevation.3. The Pop. assuming a 500-foot AGL run-in altitude. it will be done with an unloaded roll followed by a 2. At the planned PUP. Do not confuse angle off (AO) with angle off the nose (AON). Pull-Up Point. 5. With permission study.1 NM).4. . After setting the planned climb angle. Correct PUP. Knowing the pull-up/pull-down AONs helps focus the pilots eyes for target acquisition. and rivers. desired dive angle. In this case. Pull up to 5 degrees higher than the planned delivery dive angle. GEOREFs or EGI ranges are the best method for determining the correct pull-up point on a conventional range. If the conditions are correct. a 45-degree angle-off results in the target starting at the 22 degrees AON at pull-up and moving to 32 degrees of AON at pull-down. the dive angle will be 5 to 10 degrees nose low. These are the areas that should be scanned during the climb to find the target.4.

IFFCC provides . On final. A shallow climb farther out may be preferred to a steeper climb close in. 5. Use 10 to 15 degrees nose low as a maximum descent rate. this can be simulated by pulling up approximately 5 degrees nose high. The final portion is the same as with any diving delivery. This is the angle from the horizon to the target at the planned pull-down point. A common error is to level off higher than planned release altitude which may result in a CCIP consent delivery with a short time on final. Bump-Up Pattern. Normally. altitude. Use RTP cockpit references to aid in establishing a proper aim-off distance for the base position flown. the downwind will be flown at 1. Like the Pop-Up pattern. Roll-In and Track References. PTP. Integrated Flight and Fire Control Computer.5. Final. 25 Jul 2011 5. The Bump-Up maneuver is primarily used to unmask for forward-firing diving deliveries or level free-fall munitions employment. Using the grommets (dust covers) for this sight picture affords the pilot both right and left hand roll-in sight pictures. AOA.4. the delivery considerations are those of a normal weapons delivery pass. The roll-in and track references discussed in the diving delivery section above still apply. in the tactical environment the key is to acquire LOS with the target. necessitating a descent for the base leg. crosswind. Techniques. 5. The distance between the center of two grommets (dust covers) is 5 degrees. Because the target may be in sight while on a controlled range. The IAA can be used as an approximation of this angle.5.6. IFFCC provides a CCIP based on the weapon selected in the current DSMS profile that considers wind. downwind.3. Final. a visual reference for canopy bow sight picture measurements.3. aircraft velocity. Bombing with IFFCC simplifies weapons delivery significantly. Instead of using large bank angles and positive G to get the aircraft from a nose-high attitude to an attack position. Adjust the pull-down sight pictures for different IAAs as they change and add the IAA to the horizon reference for the given climb angle.6.1.6. To calculate the PTP. The pull down point visual reference is determined using PTP. In a fluid tactical environment with moving targets and inaccurate coordinates. it is an unmask maneuver designed to achieve LOS with the target. the bump-up attack will be executed within ±15 degrees of the final runin heading. the bump-up uses a slight climb to acquire the target followed by a negative G pushover to intercept planned release altitude. Computed Free-Fall Munitions Employment.1. As in the Pop-Up pattern. 6. using PTP references will aid target acquisition while maneuvering to the correct wire. Remember. add the IAA to the known horizon reference and equate that distance to a canopy reference.3.4.4. When employing a bump-up attack on the conventional range.16 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.4. Since PTP is measured from the horizon it cannot be translated to a sight picture without a known horizon reference. Pilots must determine their specific sight picture from this starting point. 5.500 to 2. This is a baseline starting point and is dependent on factors such as sitting height and seat adjustment.000 feet AGL.3. and attitude. and base leg are identical to the rectangular pattern. As the pull-down is completed. 6. 5. the pilot should be cautious when descending to pilot low-altitude minimums. followed by a pushover to reacquire and track the target. 5.

See Figure 7. UFC and IFFCC all integrate and function prior to weapons employment. 6. weapons effects may be less than desired.2.17 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. DSMS Profile Page.2.10. Digital Stores Management System. however. . Ripple Single). flying the aircraft through the planned delivery requires using solid weapons delivery techniques and procedures to include wind analysis. release mode (Single. minimum altitude and desired safe escape maneuver. DTOF. It is imperative to know how the CICU.1. Additionally. DSMS. All delivery specific information that IFFCC needs to calculate the correct solution is contained in the profiles created during mission planning and loaded to the DSMS via the DTC. 6. Figure 7. IFFCC Air-to-Surface Cockpit Interface.11 IFFCC HUD Symbology—CCIP).2. Delivery Modes. (See Figure 7. Fuzing (type and time). CCRP). This includes weapon type. delivery mode (CCIP. Free-fall bomb deliveries and rockets primarily use CCIP mode while LGBs and IAMs use continuously computed release point (CCRP). 25 Jul 2011 accurate weapons delivery even though the aircraft may be significantly off planned parameters.

” At approximately 50 to 60 KIAS. the IFFCC system records the CADC barometric altitude from the cockpit altimeter.18 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.3. 6. Baro mode computes a true MSL altitude by starting with the central air data computer (CADC) barometric altitude adjusted by the Kohlsman altimeter setting (shown on the cockpit altimeter) and adjusting it for lag. and nonstandard air temperatures. The altitude source is selected on the armament HUD control panel (AHCP). 6.000 feet AGL and below.1. Baro. Radar mode uses the radar altitude directly below the aircraft as the height above target for WD computations.3. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7. This is the starting point for all subsequent . 6.2.10 DSMS Profile Page.3. Baro Mode. This function is referred to as a “Baro update. There are three altitude sources for IFFCC WD computations: Radar. and Delta. Altitude Sources. installation error. This mode is valid only over flat terrain and is limited to altitudes 5. The aircraft will take an automatic barometric reference point during takeoff. Radar Mode.

provided the EVE is less than 50 feet.3. uses the CADC pressure altitude as a starting point for computing true MSL altitude and calculates its own nonstandard pressure correction (Delta) rather than relying on the altimeter setting. Delta mode. 25 Jul 2011 calculations.3. Delta Mode. Figure 7.19 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. From this point on. NOTE: Ensure this is accurate by dialing the cockpit altimeter until the HUD altitude reads touchdown zone elevation prior to takeoff. an initial delta update is accomplished during the takeoff roll and assumes that the cockpit altitude (altitude set in HUD) is an accurate reading of true MSL altitude at that point. the Baro update consists of barometric data plus the bias correction based on EGI GPS altitude. 6. unlike the Baro mode. Like Baro.11 IFFCC HUD Symbology—CCIP. Delta mode needs a reference altitude. The rest of the process for correcting the . To calculate the nonstandard pressure correction.

12 Delta CAL Submenu. Selecting a Mode. Figure 7. . IFFCC incorporates Level 1 digital terrain elevation data (DTED) which is loaded into the data transfer cartridge (DTC). look-aside ranging.3. Baro provides the most accurate method of WD when EVE is less than 50 feet. This is due to the constant Baro update which consists of barometric data plus the bias correction based on EGI GPS altitude. NOTE: Delta mode is completely independent of the cockpit altimeter setting except for the initial update on takeoff roll. and coordinate ranging. IFFCC provides hot elevation. then Delta provides the most accurate method of WD. an inflight Delta should be accomplished at the planned delivery altitude near the target area. Delta updates received from other A-10s or forecast values from mission planning can be entered via IFFCC menus. If EVE is greater than 50 feet. passive ranging. 6. 25 Jul 2011 pressure/altitude scale is similar to the Baro mode. The main benefit of the Delta mode is that the reference altitude may be changed via a delta update taken closer to the target area so that the corrections are more accurate for the target air mass. so changing the altimeter setting in flight does not affect Delta mode altitudes. Remember that the CADC pressure altitude is not effected by the altimeter setting.000 feet AGL.4. NOTE: If possible. Radar mode may be the preferred mode over flat terrain when the pilot is sure the terrain elevation below the aircraft at release is the same as the target elevation and release occurs below 5.20 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. Elevation Sources.4. 6. IFFCC provides the ability to select from several different elevation sources through its digital terrain system application software (DTSAS).

5. then IFFCC will use the potentially incorrect elevation from the last time the laser was fired.” 6. Use auto-elevation mode (DTS) in most cases. the correct DSMS weapon profile must be selected. then the SPI elevation will be used.2. 6. Selecting the Best Elevation Source. In order for the IFFCC system to compute accurate release displays.5.4. delivery parameter data must have been input correctly .5. the TGP elevation will be used by IFFCC. the elevation returned by CR will automatically transfer to the HUD. 6. Targeting Pod Elevation. 6. 6. When enabled in the CDU. The IFFCC only accepts the last laser ranging information received from the pod. This mode is only active in auto-elevation mode (“DTS” visible in HUD). If no elevation is known (pop up target) and DTS is not functioning.21 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. 25 Jul 2011 6. Look-Aside Ranging. if the TGP LOS has moved to an area with a significantly different elevation and the laser has not been fired.4. 6.1. the elevation in the HUD is replaced with “DTS. IFFCC then uses the calculated elevation for solution computation.4. the HUD will display „T DTS‟ indicating TGP is selected. When active. For example. use HOT. the IFFCC elevation will continuously update as long as the laser is firing. Coordinate Ranging (CR). or by selecting auto-elevation mode (referred to as “DTS” by many pilots) as a preference when loading the DTC. This only occurs if DTSAS is on and the pilot selects auto-elevation mode by using the UFC Data and Select switches.4. IFFCC calculates the elevation for the point on the ground overlaid by the gun and bomb or rocket sights simultaneously. IFFCC calculates the elevation for the point on the ground overlaid by the Maverick reticle or the depressible pipper.4.4. which will then transfer the elevation to the HUD. Hot Elevation. as opposed to the SPI elevation. If the TGP laser is set to latched mode. Computed Free-Fall Sight Application. the “T XXXX” will flash in the HUD to indicate the new elevation has been accepted. After firing the laser. In this mode the pilot manually enters a known target elevation into either the HUD via the UFC or the CDU. Profile.3. but DTS will be used until the laser is actually fired. When targeting pod (TGP) is initially selected. Passive Ranging (Data Transfer System [DTS]). the HUD will display „T XXXX‟ with X representing the elevation provided by the targeting pod. NOTE: If in CCRP mode and using the TGP as an elevation source. 6.1. and the Waypoint under modification is the active steerpoint in the HUD. CR automatically returns an elevation when the pilot enters coordinates into a Waypoint on the CDU. If the IFFCC elevation source is set to DTS or HOT elevation. If autoelevation mode is inactive (numeric elevation visible in the HUD).4. Every time the laser has stopped firing. use HOT elevation and ensure the current steerpoint while delivering weapons is the target. IFFCC will use this as the only elevation for solution computations.6. To bomb on CR. then use TGP laser elevation. On conventional (known target set) ranges.

After pickling. Several techniques exist to ensure that all necessary data have been input accurately. “Set” the DRC.1. When the computed solution is outside the HUD field of view.) This figure is based on a 4. the center of the HUD. the PBIL is dashed.2. As the pipper reaches the aimpoint. The reticle will flash when enough time has elapsed for all of the weapons to release. check the parameters and decide if they are within those required for the delivery. Head-Up Display Field of View Limits/MK 82 AIR. The PBIL guides to the desired release point by predicting the future position of the bomb along the ground. In this case. Solution Options. The HUD projection is round. Since the center of the pitch ladders show the aircraft‟s path over the ground in computed HUD modes. and IAW Pop-Up Pattern. 6. when the pilot depresses the weapons release button.5-mil per knot crosswind correction (found in the delivery parameters in the Battle Book). fix any PBIL errors with aggressive corrections while setting track. HD munitions are very susceptible to this problem.5. (See Figure 7. 6.2. 25 Jul 2011 on the ground. Begin roll-out as the pitch ladders approach the target. 6. Once track is set. and the pilot cannot accurately deliver weapons. perform the appropriate SEM. The DRC and MRS are displayed on the PBIL to show how the desired time of fall and abort cue relate to the current aircraft position. and appropriately selected on downwind. The CCIP Consent Release function provides a CCIP weapons release capability when the CCIP solution is outside the HUD FOV but above 550mils (in level flight). A delivery requiring 285 mils can display a solid PBIL out to 20 knots of crosswind (assuming the 4. not square.1. defined at 140 mils of depression.5. After roll out.2. with no crosswind capability at that depression.1. There are limitations to when a solution can be displayed in the HUD.1. 6.1.5. depress the weapon release button and hold it long enough for the aircraft to release the number of weapons selected. 6.1. 6. Track (Set). Perform the roll-in and Conventional Pattern. Remember at track that ITP is only an indication of aircraft position.2. Therefore. weapons will release IAW the profile. IFFCC provides two options for WD solutions: Manual Release and Consent to Release. Final. Roll out (Center). not a track reference. Keep the PBIL on the release aim point and allow the pipper to track to it. This creates a problem with high crosswind and deliveries with high mil depressions.5.5.22 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.3. Since the pitch ladders are wind corrected this will aid in leading a roll out that positions the aircraft upwind of the release aim point. Manual Release. The HUD can only display a pipper within a 170-mil radius of the 140-mil HUD center. is the area capable of displaying the maximum amount of crosswind solution (170 mils). 6.5. .13. Likewise. These depend on which mode is selected in the weapons submenu (or on IFFCC preferences in A/W/E). CCIP Consent Release (5 mil & 3/9). centering the pitch ladders over the target result in a smooth PBIL track through the target.4. This option allows the solution to be displayed only if the solution is within the HUD field of view (FOV).2.5. the greatest depression available is 310 mils.5 mil/kt correction). Base to Roll-In (Pull).

then 10 to 20 seconds. When the CCIP solution is outside the HUD FOV the reticle is clamped to the outer edge of the HUD (with the clamped pipper 153 mils from HUD center regardless of bank angle). . Predesignate CCIP Consent Release Symbology.23 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. The PBIL and CCIP reticle are dashed. the analog range bar is removed.2. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7.2.14.) The predesignate TTRN is displayed in increments from 0.1 to 9. and a predesignate timeto-release numeric (TTRN) is displayed inside the dashed reticle if the time to weapons release is less than 20 seconds.1. (See Figure 7. 6.5.13 Head-Up Display Field of View Limits/MK 82 AIR.9 seconds.

.2. and the CCIP consent symbology to be displayed (Figure 7. a 10-mil diameter solution cue. the clamped CCIP pipper is used as the aiming reference to designate the intended target. 6.2. To employ the CCIP consent release function. NOTE: When the solution is within the HUD FOV the solution and symbology will behave according to „Manual Release‟ regardless of IFFCC consent setting.2. and the TTRN.14 Predesignate CCIP Consent Release Symbology.5.15. and then depresses and holds the Weapons Release button to enter the CCIP Consent Release function. Postdesignate CCIP Consent Release Symbology). 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7. The symbology consists of a steering line. in whole seconds.24 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. This causes the PBIL and CCIP bomb reticle to become solid. The pilot rolls in and places the CCIP pipper over the target. . 6.2. parallel to HUD Horizontal Plane (Figure 7. If the CCIP pipper passes outside of 5 mils. IFFCC commands release when the CCIP pipper is within 5 mils and passes the 3/9 line of the solution cue.16. After designation. (Figure 7.25 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7.15 Postdesignate CCIP Consent Release Symbology. • If “5 MIL” was selected from the MAIN MENU. then the release will not be commanded. CCIP Consent Release Symbology at Release). Azimuth Error Consent Release Inhibit.2. the aircraft is flown to align the CCIP pipper with the solution cue.

17.) • The solution will become invalid prior to IFFCC commanded release (and hence aborted) if the Weapons Release button is released prior to actual weapon release.26 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. NOTE: Rockets are always manual release regardless of IFFCC Consent setting. . 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7. regardless of horizontal range to the solution. NOTE: LGBs/CBU-97 are always 3/9 regardless of IFFCC Consent setting. or if there is a fault in the consent system. CCIP Postdesignate 3/9 Delivery. parallel to HUD Horizontal Plane). IFFCC commands release when the CCIP pipper crosses the 3/9 line of the solution cue.16 CCIP Consent Release Symbology at Release. • If 3/9 was selected from the “MAIN MENU”. (See Figure 7.

No consideration is given to safe escape/safe separation. 6.3. Selecting NONE in the CBU87/CBU-89/CBU-97 submenus has a slightly different effect on the MRS and MRC than in the MK 82/MK 84 submenus.27 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. frag or Min Alt and displays the MRS and MRC based on the higher of the three. Selecting NONE.5. Abort Cues. 6.2. IFFCC will remove fragmentation as a consideration for the MRS on GP bombs. . 6. If this SEM is selected in the weapon profile. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7. IFFCC calculates and displays an abort cue based on pilot and aircraft data.3.17 CCIP Postdesignate 3/9 Delivery. as explained below: • MK 82/MK 84: MRS and MRC does not consider frag and is only based on the values the pilot enters for Min Alt and Fuze.1. IFFCC can calculate a minimum TOF for safe escape based on actual aircraft parameters and planned escape maneuver.5. IFFCC calculates safe escape for fuze.3. Real-Time Safe Escape.5. For free-fall weapons.

Only fuzing and function will be considered. To alert the pilot that IFFCC is extrapolating outside the bounds of RTSE tables.3.18 Azimuth Error Consent Release Inhibit.3. IFFCC extrapolates from the tables to calculate a RTSE value. not safe escape/safe separation. 6. Real-Time Safe Escape Cues. If actual flight parameters are outside the boundaries of these tables.5. 25 Jul 2011 • CBU-87/CBU-89/CBU-97: MRS and MRC represent submunition arming while not considering frag for an intact canister. Figure 7.28 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. The . the MRS and MRC will flash.

CCIP Rockets. 6. 25 Jul 2011 flashing cues are somewhat subtle and are not always obvious on a cluttered HUD. dive angle. MRS/MRC with MAN REL. If the range bar has not met the caret or the staple is above the pipper when the bomb is released. place the pipper short of the target. This will occur at the same time that the MRS meets the pipper. 6. CCIP Rocket Reticle. IFFCC displays an “X” over the pipper if this situation exists and the pilot should abort the pass. Slant range. Weapon Employment 7.5. the critical element in shooting rockets. Because of the shorter slant range. The rocket reticle is not displayed in the HUD unless a solution is available. In this case. IFFCC uses the inputs minimum altitude. the analog range bar will be locked at the 12 o‟clock position. Trim the aircraft to maintain correct G-loading and allow the pipper to track to the target. MRS.29 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.4. is constantly computed out to the kinematic range of the rocket. However. and safe escape maneuver to calculate a real time abort cue. Flashing MRS/MRC should have no affect on the delivery. For high sight depression parameters. this accuracy is achieved at the expense of threat standoff. the MRS is based upon the true CCIP solution. (See Figure 7.1.3. The MRS is displayed along the PBIL. The MRC is displayed as a caret on the inside of the reticle.1. When in Manual Release mode.5. the VSI may appear at roll-out but go away as the aircraft accelerates on final.) . DRC. This information is displayed by the analog ranging bar inside the reticle. This delivery is characterized by short slant ranges and generally steeper dive angles (30 degrees or more). Conventional Rocket. 6. The MRC position inside the reticle corresponds to the minimum release slant range for the highest of fuze.3. Rocket Employment.1.1. 7. the valid solution indicator (VSI) appears as a small “x” over either the MRS or the DRC when the IFFCC computer determines (with the present aircraft parameters. then the aircraft is outside the minimum slant range computed by IFFCC. fuze time. and loft rockets.000 feet.3. Valid Solution Indications. When employing in CCIP Consent Release modes. IFFCC CCIP significantly reduces the difficulty in shooting accurate rockets. If the VSI is present. or ground. frag. 7. 7.1. and winds) a solution will not be available within the HUD FOV prior to passing the respective TOF. and below the reticle in NM when the slant range exceeds 12. conventional rockets are more accurate than standoff.19. Avoid the tendency to hold the pipper on the target as this will induce tip off. and MRC are removed from the normal CCIP display. which is outside the HUD FOV. the PBIL.5. With a rocket profile selected.5. namely airspeed.4. IFFCC displays this cue as the MRS and MRC. make a decision based on wind information and accuracy of parameters to determine whether to continue the pass or abort. MRS/MRC with CCIP Consent. On roll-in. This occurs only when no consent option is selected or available. tactical. generally a half reticle short. The minimum release point is reached when the analog range bar meets the caret.

30 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.1.19 CCIP Rocket Reticle. This sight setting can also be used with the standby pipper. CCRP Rockets. 7. it can be used if wind velocity is not known and/or if there is no time to calculate wind corrections to achieve specific delivery parameters. Wind corrections are not as large as for bombs. 25 Jul 2011 7. however. or Guns. Linear offset or mil crank may be used to adjust RAP/RAPE for winds. headwind and tailwind corrections are negligible at closer slant ranges (less than 12. Manual rocket deliveries are similar to manual bomb deliveries. With the depressible pipper set to 102 mils and dive angles between 5 to 15 degrees.3.2.5 mils per knot).1. The RAN replaces the TTRN . Additionally.1.) Figure 7.20. the top of the reticle should be used as the aiming reference for 9K S/R. As a rule. HARS. (See Figure 7. 7. Manual Rockets. for additional information. the pipper for 12K S/R and the bottom of the reticle for 15K S/R shots (it can also be set to 90 mils for a 6/9/12K reference). The tactical sight setting is a manual delivery technique using a set mil reference to employ manual rockets at several slant ranges. realize that standby pipper is 50 mils in diameter vice 25 mils for the depressible pipper.1 Tactical Sight Setting.000 feet) and only the crosswind need be considered if a “close” mark is required).2. CCRP is a system delivery that will usually be employed at low-altitude to „loft‟ rockets or medium-altitude for level or shallow deliveries. Tactical Sight Setting. Use a depressible pipper with either STBY Pipper. Crosswind correction must still be applied for accurate delivery (approximately 0.

7. If the MRC is outside the analog range bar. During a low altitude run-in. Delivery parameters can vary from lofting nose high to 30 degrees nose low. Remember. the pilot uses the same CCRP references discussed previously by applying sufficient G to place the PBRL on the ASL. If the MRC is inside the analog range bar (Figure 7. 7. therefore.2.1. The “USE CCRP” message will be displayed in the HUD. pull the nose of the aircraft up to . The delivery of M257/278 rockets is restricted to CCRP mode. These rockets provide approximately 2 to 3 minutes of illumination. the pilot may perform a 10-. MAN REL is the only release mode for rocket deliveries.1. The Mk-257/278 rockets are illumination rockets. The MRC and analog range bar are utilized in a unique way with M257/278 rocket flares. Start the pull-up when the RAN equals 10 degrees plus the planned loft angle. 7. this solution is always calculated based on the SPI. During the loft profile. vertically maneuver the aircraft to place the analog range bar on the MRC.1. for a 20-degree loft. Illum rocket solutions target a point over the SPI.31 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. Rocket Continuously Computed Release Point Analog Range Bar). For example. Figure 7.4. the pickle button is “hot” and the pilot must attempt to release the rockets as close to the center of the Solution Cue as possible. or 30-degree loft.4. 20-. The analog range bar represents the predicted flare ignition height while the MRC represents the desired flare ignition height to mid-burn. For the rocket flare to attain the menuentered desired flare height at mid-burn.4.21. the pilot starts a pull-up to 20 degrees when the RAN equals 30.20 Tactical Sight Setting. 25 Jul 2011 and displays a “45” numeric seven seconds prior to the target being in range.1. push the nose of the aircraft down to position the analog range bar over the MRC. Illumination Rockets.

Figure 7. Once the analog range bar and MRC are coincident.1. 7. 25 Jul 2011 position the analog range bar over the MRC. TTRN. CAUTION: The HUD symbology for the rocket CCIP is very similar to the gun CCIP.4.21 Rocket Continuously Computed Release Point Analog Range Bar.3. RKT is displayed below the rocket reticle to help distinguish the two. analog range bar and MRC will be removed from the HUD and a dashed “X” will be displayed over the pipper.4.4.1. If launching the selected rocket flare would cause it to hit the ground before parachute deployment. ASL. In other words. maintain that flight path angle until release. Solution Cue. . the PBRL. Take care to ensure the proper symbology is being used for the two respective weapons as dangerous miss distances can occur when using opposing symbology. 7. fly the MRC to the analog range bar.32 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.

and in the HUD when in GUNS mode.1. analyze. Pilot knowledge of proper strafe techniques and the ability to recognize.2 Gun Employment. Parameters. does increase as the gun heats up.2. and HAS is usually 30 degrees and above. however. The cycle can be interrupted at any point by squeezing the trigger. and 150 seconds after firing.5 seconds after every firing. With over 1. a gun unsafe indication will result.1. 7.2. It is set in IFFCC by the weapons load crew when the gun is loaded.5 seconds. the A-10 pilot is provided unsurpassed staying power and flexibility. gun dispersion can increase to 30 mils for 100 percent and 18 to 20 mils for 80 percent of rounds fired. 7. 7. minutes between bursts.5.3. Additionally.2 Cooling Cycle. 7.150 rounds of 30mm high explosive incendiary (HEI) and armor piercing incendiary (API) rounds.000 feet slant range when in 30 degrees of dive with a 36. Gun Characteristics. Strafe deliveries for the A-10 are divided into two broad categories: highangle and low-angle. The GAU-8/A characteristics of increased standoff. the gun can detect a broken firing pin (resulting in a live round). If the clearing cycle is interrupted by safing the gun. the threat. 100. Each specific delivery has its advantages and disadvantages. Harmonization. and the weather. If two broken firing pins are detected. Dispersion. 7.1. Barrel cooling also stops when the master arm or rotate switch is set to the safe position. when designing the gun. In general. 7. a gun unsafe indication will result. was to have no unfired or “wasted” rounds in the barrel. .2. Rounds Counter. the GAU-8/A will automatically cycle at 24. strafe parameters are dictated by the target. Dive angle does not affect dispersion. The GAU-8/A goes through a barrel clearing cycle within 0.2. The cockpit gun unsafe light will illuminate if the clearing cycle is not completed in 2. The GAU-8/A was built with the specifications that 80 percent of the bullets must fall within a 5-mil diameter of the desired aimpoint and 100 percent must fall within 13 mils.2. high accuracy. only the bullet footprint.4. To cool the barrel. The cooling cycle was designed to eliminate increased bullet dispersion due to barrel heating and rotates the barrels under a schedule following trigger release. 60. The GAU-8/A is the primary weapon of the A-10. 25 Jul 2011 7.2. Rounds remaining are displayed in increments of 10 on the DSMS page. combined with a sustained rate of fire of 62 rounds per second.2. After six to eight passes of 150 rounds each with only 1. Two target strafe (TTS) can be accomplished from either LRS or HAS deliveries. and correct for common pilot errors are critical for employment. Low-angle strafe (LAS) and long range strafe (LRS) are generally considered any delivery 15 degrees and below.000-pound aircraft.1 Clearing Cycle.2.1. Dispersion. The GAU-8/A is installed such that bullets pass through the 41-mil depression at 4.33 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. and sustained firepower make strafe the most reliable and effective method for the A-10 to deliver firepower against a ground target. The goal.

lightly armored targets (e. the aiming reference is 39 to 40 mils.000 feet. Cease fire on a LAS delivery on soft targets at 2. If attacking personnel.500 feet slant range.1. the aircraft will likely sustain frag/ricochet damage.A10 for specific Pd against targets.000 feet and 3. However.2.34 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.000 to 2. If an aircraft breaks the 3/9 plane of a hard target after employing on it. Refer to the weapons shop and AFTTP 3-1. elevate the gun cross to compensate for gravity drop based on slant range. or soft skinned vehicles (e. Realize that if attacking a heavily armored target. is typically 5. 7. when employing on a controlled range.23. this can be an effective delivery. Figure 7. Low-Angle Strafe. When employing manually and assuming firing at 2.000 to 6. a mobility kill (M-Kill) may still be likely.) For LAS passes against hard targets.g.000 to 6.2.22 Manual Low-Angle Strafe Aiming Reference.. Long-Range Strafe.000 feet slant range. LRS slant range. The objective of a LAS delivery is to press into effective kill range for a hard target (tank). (See Figure 7. trucks and jeeps).2.2.000-foot slant range to avoid breaking the 3/9 plane of any target shot at. The objective of a LRS delivery is to standoff using the excellent range of the GAU-8/A to kill or immobilize a target. 25 Jul 2011 7. Manual Long Range Strafe Aiming Reference.000 feet on hard targets.2.. (See Figure 7.) If employing manually. For low-altitude shots. slant range will very nearly equal ground range. . APCs). cease fire no later than 3.22 Manual Low-Angle Strafe Aiming Reference. the probability of damage (Pd) goes down significantly as the range increases. for gun cross elevation with the target at 5.g.

. (See Figure 7.2. TTS is shooting two targets with two separate bursts on the same pass. to see how to compute slant range by referencing the target on the canopy rail. then move away from the tower to strafe the second target. When employed in a low-angle delivery.4 Two-Target Strafe.24. strafe in the direction of egress (left to right off right.2. for example). more vulnerable parts of the target are exposed. specific dive angle. The correct slant range is acquired when employing on a conventional range and firing at the desired altitude. and airspeed parameters must be met to hit the target. Just as in LRS. the slant range is dependent upon desired weapons effects and target attacked. the gun cross will have to be elevated to compensate for gravity drop at various slant ranges. 3. Shoot long then short if the targets are aligned with the run in axis to avoid breaking 3/9 with a target. Because of the increased dive angle.23 Manual Long Range Strafe Aiming Reference.35 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. Reference squadron Battle Books for specific deliveries and their mil elevations.to 30-degree dive region for hard targets due to limited weapons effects (obliquity angles may result in ricochet at impact versus penetration). If employing manually. HAS deliveries are less sensitive to elevation and slant range errors than low angle deliveries. Tactically. while on the planned dive angle. Avoid the 15.2. there is increased bullet density. targets should be close enough that they are in the confines of the HUD simultaneously when opening fire on the first target. High-Angle Strafe. As a ROT. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7. strafe the nearest target to the range tower first. Slant Range Estimation Prior to Roll-In. “think” of it as a combination of LRS and LAS— incorporating the techniques of both. When employing on a controlled range.2. HAS deliveries are used from medium-altitude with dive angles greater than 20 degrees. Similarly. altitude.) 7. 7. and the overall effective target area is increased.

3. In HARS with the GUN ARMed.25. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7.2. CCIP Gun Reticle.2. 7. GUNS mode offers CCIP reticle.000 foot gun cross.) .36 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. (See Figure 7.3. 6. CCIP guns cross. Continuously Computed Impact Point Gun Reticle and Gun Cross. The CCIP is corrected for all factors influencing the bullets after the gun has reached full speed (approximately 0. gravity drop.2. gun barrel rotation. a fixed. Some of these factors include deceleration. The power-on default sight for the gun is the CCIP gun reticle. and winds. non-wind corrected 4K GUN CROSS is displayed. Air-to-surface guns can be accomplished in GUNS and CCIP modes. aircraft angle of attack. 4/8/12 reticle. 7. and 9 o‟clock positions.1. No gun cross is available in STANDBY PIPPER. Strafe Symbology.24 Slant Range Estimation Prior to Roll-In.5 second). Guns Attack Modes. The gun reticle consists of a 1 mil pipper at the center of a 50-mil circular reticle with range marks at the 12. and wind corrected 4.2. 3. then in CCIP the 4K wind corrected gun cross will be displayed (when the gun is armed). If a fixed sight (wind corrected fixed gun cross or 4/8/12 reticle) is selected in guns. 7.3.

and an X is placed over the pipper. with the hash mark at the 6 o‟clock position.26.37 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. 7.9.1 and increasing in 0. The numeric then changes to an integer beginning at 10 and increasing to 99. A hash mark at the end of the analog range bar indicates current slant range in thousands of feet as read from the reticle clock position.2. The 2-digit numeric displays the range in nautical miles beginning at 0. Maximum ranges in excess of 6 NM were observed during flight tests of IFFCC. Analog Range Bar. In this case. This aids the pilot in keeping the pipper near the target for when a solution becomes possible. For example. the pipper will clamp at the maximum range solution (with an “X” over it) and will still be roll stabilized and wind-corrected. the range bar remains fixed at the 12 o‟clock position and an accurate range numeric is presented as long as a valid solution exists. current slant range is 6.000 feet. the range numeric is removed.000 feet.25 Continuously Computed Impact Point Gun Reticle and Gun Cross. the analog range bar is thin. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7.2. Analog Range Bar and Range Numeric. Slant ranges can be displayed from 0 to 12.) The analog range bar is located just inside the reticle and moves counter clockwise from the 12 o‟clock position as slant range to the target decreases. Outside of 12.1.1 increments to 9. An analog range bar with a 5-mil tab indicates the slant range to the CCIP gun solution in thousands of feet.3. and the maximum range that will be displayed is 99K. (See Figure 7. If there is no solution. a “K” will follow the range numeric.000 feet. If the pipper is pointed at a target that exceeds the maximum range that IFFCC can calculate. A pilot option is to display the range numeric in kilometers. .

3. 7. the target and bullets should arrive at the same point at the same time. and each line segment of the cross is 5 mils long making the cross a total of 20 mils across. CCIP Gun Reticle MTI. using more compact symbology.38 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.3. and the cross will have an X through it if a solution is not available due to lack of altitude source or a solution outside of the HUD FOV. By placing the target under the MTI with the gun pipper in front of the direction of motion. The MTI assumes the target is moving perpendicular to the aircraft at a rate of 20 knots. 5-mil lines to the left and right of the pipper can be used to estimate the lead required for a moving target.2. 7.2.2. The CCIP gun reticle includes two moving target indicators (MTI). similar to the CCIP gun reticle. These lines expand or contract as the slant range and bullet TOF is changed. The MRC functions identically to the reticle MRC. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7.2. CCIP Gun Cross.) The two vertical. The horizontal bar will not be present. no range numeric will be shown. The gun cross consists of a 2-mil pipper and a 4-mil gap.26 Analog Range Bar and Range Numeric.3. . The horizontal line at the top of the cross helps to distinguish it from a non-computed gun sight. Use the MTI to estimate movement and deliver a burst of sufficient length and dispersion to increase the probability of a hit.25 Continuously Computed Impact Point Gun Reticle and Gun Cross. (See Figure 7.27 Continuously Computed Impact Point Gun Reticle Moving Target Indicator. (See Figure 7.) The IFFCC CCIP gun cross displays the same computed impact point as the CCIP gun reticle.

Minimum Range Cue. A minimum range caret (MRC) is available in Guns and CCIP modes for the CCIP reticle and gun cross. the caret will be displayed below the 3 o‟clock tick and above the bottom of the 6 o‟clock tick.25 Continuously Computed Impact Point Gun Reticle and Gun Cross. • When the aircraft is less than 5 seconds past (or below) the minimum recovery altitude (at current rate and angle of descent). .2. The caret begins descending vertically when the time-to-go to the minimum recovery altitude (at current rate and angle of descent) decreases below 5 seconds. • When the aircraft is less than 5 seconds above the minimum recovery altitude (at current rate and angle of descent).26. • The caret is clamped vertically next to the top of the 12 o‟clock tick when there are 5 seconds or more until recovery must begin. Reference the squadron battle book for „pads‟ to add to the min alt setting to allow for a typical „climbing safe escape‟-like maneuver that allows up to 30 degrees of bank during the 4G pull to the horizon. This gun MRC defines a minimum recovery altitude that is calculated using the minimum altitude entered in the IFFCC 30 MM submenu. the caret will be next to the 3 o‟clock tick. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7. • When the aircraft is at the minimum recovery altitude. This caret also provides a time-to-go indication before aircraft recovery from guns pass must begin (four Gs in 2 seconds WINGS LEVEL is the assumed recovery). then the recover MUST be a 4G WINGS LEVEL pull to the horizon to recover at or above the min alt. (See Figure 7. the caret will be displayed below the top of the 12 o‟clock tick and above the 3 o‟clock tick. 7.39 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.3.4.) If the min alt is set to what is in the Battle Book. Minimum Range Symbology for Guns. • The caret will be clamped at the 6 o‟clock tick when the aircraft is 5 seconds or more below the minimum recovery altitude.

IFFCC corrects for crosswinds and the pilot elevates the sights for slant range. and 12. The wind-corrected gun sight (WCGS) is similar in appearance to the CCIP gun cross. 4/8/12 Gun Reticle.000. the analog range bar is not present.3.6.5. 4/8/12 Gun Reticle and 4.40 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. The WCGS is a cross set at 41 mils.3.000 feet slant range solutions.2. except it has no horizontal bar at the top and no range numeric. Figure 7. The 4/8/12 gun reticle displays three wind-corrected fixedrange pippers representing 4. Toggling the SEL rocker on the UFC or cycling DMS L/R with HUD-SOI will display the 4/8/12 gun reticle. Elevation of the gun sight for targets inside or . 25 Jul 2011 • Setting the minimum altitude in the 30 MM submenu to 0 feet deselects the gun CCIP minimum range cue display. for more information.000. (See Figure 7.2. 8. Wind Corrected Gun Cross. 7.000 Foot Wind-Corrected Gun Cross.) 7.27.26 Minimum Range Cue.

this sight is useful when target elevation information is unavailable.2. 7. HARS fixed gun cross. 25 Jul 2011 beyond 4.4. and the 4/8/12 Reticle. Manual Strafe Deliveries. elevate the sight for slant range and correct upwind for crosswind.27 4/8/12 Gun Reticle and 4. set the appropriate mils for the estimated slant range while offsetting for estimated winds.000 Foot Wind-Corrected Gun Cross 7. Like the 4/8/12 gun reticle.1.41 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.000 feet slant range have to be estimated by the pilot. . Sight Settings. When using the standby pipper.4. Figure 7. Wind Corrected 4k Gun Cross. There are several sight settings for GAU-8/A manual strafe deliveries: Standby Pipper.2. When employing the GAU-8/A manually.

there are three pippers inside one reticle to aid estimating elevation. 25 Jul 2011 7.4.29. 7. When using the wind corrected 4K gun cross. Velocity Vector and Crab and Drift Aimpoints.2. Neither drift nor crab has an advantage over the bank method other than firing with wingslevel.2. there are two basic methods to correct for wind once on final: drift/crab or bank. 7. For crosswinds.3.000 foot slant range requires the pilot to place the target one sixth the distance from the gun cross towards the TVV.4. only elevate for slant range. For direct crosswinds.000 to 10. The same effect can be achieved utilizing the crab method into the wind. Strafe wind correction presents a similar problem to that encountered in the delivery of any other type of conventional ordnance. Mil dispersion will compensate for these ROTs. Elevate for Slant Range. (See Figure 7. The drift method involves using an upwind roll-in point and AOP.4. and use 1:2 ratio for very long-range strafe (slant range greater than 10. The top pipper of the 3 is the 4K pipper and is fixed at 41 mils. When using the 4/8/12 reticle. For example.4. use 1:4 ratio for long-range strafe (4. the wind will “drift” the aircraft into its firing position. As a ROT. use 1:6 ratio against armor (up to 4. . Wind Corrections. Elevate the sight for the estimated slant range while offsetting for estimated winds.) 7. For example. Figure 7.5 mils or 30 feet upwind of the target and fire.42 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. the standard correction factors are: 0. Realize that the release aimpoint in both cases will be the same.3. for more information.000 feet).000 foot slant range).000 feet). Manual Strafe Techniques. See the Battle Book for elevation techniques based on delivery (4/6/9K strafe) and sight settings for HAS. feet slant range. illustrates a technique using a gun cross to TVV ratio against crosswinds to determine the aimpoint when employing with the OPT-C gun cross. Elevate the gun cross for a headwind and depress for a tailwind.2.000 feet of slant range.5.3. place the gun cross 7. for a 15-knot crosswind at 4.1. Once rolled out on final.2.mil per knot of crosswind for most slant ranges or 1-foot per knot of crosswind for every 2. a 4.

25 Jul 2011 Figure 7.28 Manual Strafe Techniques.43 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. . for more information.

3. 7. (See Figure 7.2. It is similar to flying a wing low approach to the runway. (See Figure 7. a drifting or crabbing attack will require a considerable offset aimpoint. Avoid using the rudder.4. headwind and tailwind corrections are minimal in low-angle and long-range strafe (unless they are very strong).4 For LAS/LRS using the bank strafe method. Banked strafe is only valid for crosswinds up to 15 knots and/or slant ranges up to 8.) Due to bullet velocity and low trajectory angles. In a strong crosswind. are the same as for low-angle deliveries. and shoot at the appropriate slant range. Keep the no crosswind aiming reference for the slant range to be used on the target with bank. 7.000 feet.) . High-angle strafe corrections.3. for further information. Manual Strafe Techniques.5 mil for every knot of direct headwind or tailwind. Since the wind drift has been canceled by bank. uncoordinated flight will cause a lateral trajectory shift error. the aircraft is flying straight at the target and is pointed at the target. during high-angle strafe.4.29 Velocity Vector and Crab and Drift Aimpoints.44 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.28. A ROT for 30 degrees or greater is to use 0.3.30. Trajectory Shift Error. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7. the aircraft drift is countered by banking into the wind. headwinds and tailwinds are much more of a factor both for the ground track and the AOP. using the drift or crab method.2. However.

Because a mil in the HUD is a fixed size.4. and mil relationship used to determine slant range and appropriate aimpoint (i. it would be 5 mils on the beam and 2.g. Slant Range/Milliradian Relationship.2. See the formula below. tank. 7.3. The aspect must be determined prior to release. it is possible to estimate the range to a target if the size of the target is known. and must be determined for both head/tail and beam aspects. Mil Sizing a Target. . APC. and 10 feet in height.000 feet slant range. A standard conventional range strafe rag is 16 feet.45 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.. for the standard Soviet tank and 4. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7.31. This leads to the slant range per mil relationship presented in Figure 7.5 mils head/tail). The mil size of a target is simple. The standard chassis of most former Soviet Union equipment (e. or selfpropelled gun) is approximately 20 feet in length. 10 feet in width.5..e.30 Trajectory Shift Error.

slant range estimation error.4.2. 25 Jul 2011 Figure 7. . 7.46 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. These include aimpoint and tracking error.31 Slant Range/Milliradian Relationship.4. and uncoordinated flight error. Common Strafe Errors.

The most common pilot-delivery error in strafe is the failure to place and maintain the aiming reference on the target and not obeying the cardinal rule of track-shoot-track.2. The second most prevalent error with non-computed gunnery is firing at the incorrect slant range for the given mil setting. The reverse of this is equally true—using the wrong mil setting at a known slant range. The bullets will hit between the aiming reference and the flight path.4. notice that HEI impacts short at long ranges.4. CCIP Gun Reticle with Combat Mix Selected. This divergence becomes prevalent at slant ranges greater than 12. HEI has a lighter. 7.5 Shooting Combat Mix (CM). The API will be on target and slightly later than the HEI impacts. Slant Range Estimation Error.47 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. but in the A-10 it is approximately onesixth of the way from the gun cross to the velocity vector.. Pilots must know the mil depressions necessary to hit a target at various slant ranges. This error is applicable for both fixed gun sight and computed gunnery. 7.2.32 CCIP Gun Reticle with Combat Mix Selected. greater than 15. Since the CM setting for bullet type optimizes the CCIP sight for API.4. does not carry speed as long as API. Aimpoint and Tracking Error.4.3. 7.g. at long ranges HEI will land shorter than API. The exact impact point depends on airspeed and bullet velocity.1.4. See Figure 7. 25 Jul 2011 7. When stepping on the left rudder. Consequently. but the flight path of the aircraft will not change immediately. . feet S/R for 45 degrees of dive and almost negligible in 60-degree HAS.2. Figure 7. faster muzzle velocity initially but due to higher drag. the nose (and aiming reference) will swing left. Uncoordinated Flight.4.000 feet in dives of 30 degrees or less.4. This could be caused by a rudder input or by the rudder being incorrectly trimmed (e. needle/ball not centered).

two Mavericks will be the standard loadout.1. 7. and the air refueling door is closed. • Shoot a 2-second burst for tactical situations. 7.2. stabilize it. The bullets at target altitude (BATA) is a small flashing circle that appears in the HUD at the point on the ground where the IFFCC computer predicts the bullets will impact. PAC-1 is engaged when the gun trigger is pulled to the first detent and PAC-2 is engaged at the second detent. AGM-65D Maverick Missile. the Master Arm switch is in ARM or Train. a standard loadout of up to six . Precision Attitude Control (PAC). not at the gun cross. continue the track momentarily (track). and pull to first detent (“track”). • Look at the target when tracking and firing.7. 7. at the end of the first bullet‟s TOF expiration when Master Arm is not safe. When the gun is fired. While these errors are small.1. 7. continuing to track the target. 7.4. or apparent target size).” If the pipper was on the target before and after firing.8. The AGM-65D and G models are also extremely useful for night target search when a targeting pod is not available. 7.2. During roll-in. Approaching the desired slant range (determined by IFFCC cues. With the current LAU-117. Smoothly squeeze the trigger to PAC-1.2. A cardinal rule for strafe is to “track-shoot-track.) Its accuracy. Combat Offset.6. The B/H/K-model Mavericks are the electro-optical (EO) version which uses dark and light contrast to lock onto targets. Strafe Delivery Techniques. If LAU-88s are used. it probably was on during firing. after the gun trigger is depressed.4. set the gun sight to the appropriate aiming reference. PAC is available in both Guns and CCIP/CCRP. standoff missile. The BATA appears.4.3. the Gun switch is set to PAC ARM. set the sight just short of the target and evaluate the slant range. Both Maverick models may also be used in conjunction with other weapons to enhance delivery capabilities of those weapons. and relative ease of employment can optimize both target destruction and aircraft survivability. effective warhead. 25 Jul 2011 7. pull the pipper up to the target. Rolling in. Maverick. The PAC system is available whenever the EAC is armed. PAC Arming.4.2. 7. (See Figure 7. This estimation is based on aircraft altitude above the target and bullet TOF for the calculated slant range. guided. The AGM-65 Maverick missile is a precise.2. they are more than enough to cause increased bullet dispersion and a complete miss. then recover. and track the target. ground references. The D/G models are infrared (IR) and use heat signatures for target acquisition. wind variations. Squeeze the trigger to PAC-2 to shoot. Whatever the error from the first attack.4.33. IFFCC compensates for these errors through the PAC system. aircraft vibration.8. standoff parameters.8. IFFCC also incorporates a valuable training tool for feedback on dry strafe passes. smoothly pull the trigger to the second detent (“shoot”). Bullets at Target Altitude.2.2. and other factors can cause errors in pipper placement that are beyond the pilot‟s ability to see or control through stick inputs.8.48 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. learn from that and make a correction (combat offset).6.

Target Expectations. For EO Mavericks.1. factor terrain. Successful Maverick employment requires thorough mission planning.2.3. 25 Jul 2011 Mavericks is possible. For a more detailed discussion on specific Mavericks. If the enemy is on the move. and threats that might drive specific attack axes.1.49 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. the AGM-65B TV Maverick Operations supplement. 7. Be ready to identify them (tank versus truck) in the MAV MFCD. the AGM-65D Maverick Operations supplement. ask intel in what direction movement is likely to plan attacks along the movement axis (versus perpendicular).1. Figure 7. Be familiar with planned fire coordination measures. Type Target. the AGM-65 G/G2 Maverick Operations supplement.1.1. ask intel if the enemy is known to use Camouflage and Deception to minimize target ID mistakes. Mission Planning.33 AGM-65D Maverick Missile.3. 7. based on size and shape. Target Area Restrictions.1.3. 7.3. weather and threats in order to determine the appropriate polarity and first lock opportunity slant range.1. 7. and the AGM-65 H/K Maverick Operations Supplement.3. Know if the targets are parked or running to aid in polarity decisions for IR Mavericks. .3.1. Know what types of targets are expected for Maverick employment. There are many factors that may be known and planned for such as target. see the AGM-65A TV Maverick Operations supplement.1. The size and relative shape will also effect the maximum planned launch envelope based on lock logic for each type of Maverick. Important target information includes the following: 7.1.

The H/K models have a 10 degree radius keyhole which is not pictured in Figure 7. 15 minutes maximum on ground.2. (See Figure 7. If the target is inside these limits. 30 minutes video total for each missile per mission. 7.2. but the pointing cross and scene magnifiers will . Lock-on to a target that is too low in contrast or too small to survive missile launch transients (less than 1/2 the tracking window) is sometimes possible. as the Mav will lose track if it enters the clouds. To achieve maximum range launches at lower altitudes. This climb is referred to as G-Bias. Knowing how high the clouds are will be a consideration when firing missiles with G-bias. B-Model Lock Logic. the missile seeker must be within the launch window. Important weather information includes the following: 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. Cloud cover could drive lower altitude employment. The following Maverick numbers are important to know: • Time limits: 3-minute EO warm-up.3.5 to +3. • Launch Envelopes: minimum altitudes are 300 feet AGL for EO and 150 feet AGL for IR.1. bank angle at lock should be less than 10 degrees.” The B model of the Maverick does not have a “keyhole.3. G-Bias. Firing inside of 12. and 30 degrees maximum bank angle change lock-on to launch.2. 30 degrees per second roll rate at launch.2.” In order to achieve the “good lock logic” in a D/G/G2/H/K-model Maverick. sun direction (and time of day) has an effect on which side of the target will likely be identifiable in the MAV page.34.1. These limits are 10 degrees (radius) around the longitudinal axis of the missile and 15 degrees down from the center. 7.”) The launch window is sometimes referred to as “The Keyhole. 60 minutes total for EO power ON. D/G Maverick “Keyhole.1. For IR employment. the point cross will flash. minimum range equals 10 x KTAS (25 x KTAS for G/G2-model). the pointing cross will become steady.3. 3-minute video on per pass for B-models. the missile will initially climb to extend its range. 25 Jul 2011 7.50 7.000 feet per second (3 NM launch equals approximately 18 seconds). Sun angle will determine how large the shadows are in relation to the targets and in what direction the shadows are located. The “Keyhole. 60degree maximum dive angle. Each degree of bank will result in 1 percent loss of range. 7. The amount of this climb is based on distance from target when launch occurs.1.34.0. Target area cloud cover. A good lock-on for the B-model is indicated when the four white dots depicting the background gates bound the target and the pointing cross is steady. and TOF equals 1. If not.1. and 45 seconds between passes for missile realignment (B-model only—missile should not be called up during this time). Sun Azimuth/Elevation.000 feet slant range minimizes the G-bias.” This launch window is one of several considerations to satisfy good lock logic. Target Acquisition and Lock Logic. For EO employment shadows can cause lock logic difficulties.3. 7.3.” 7. When launched. Cloud cover can also reduce shadows and target area heating.2.1. D/G Maverick “Keyhole.3.3. G-limits equal +0. • 30 x 30 x 30 Rule: 30 degrees maximum bank angle at lock-on.

Target aspect may either reveal or mask the heat source. friction.‖ 7. slow heat build-up) will depend on the solar heating cycle and the target‟s specific background temperature. There are many obscurants that will affect IR heat signatures. vegetation heats up faster than these same objects.3. Figure 7. Generally. or the angle of the missile seeker head from the boresight exceeds missile limits.. 7. 25 Jul 2011 flash if the target is too small. If tracking the target with an ATP. select AFT on the boat switch (polarity switch).2. other factors which can reduce the apparent temperature difference between a target and its background include: . IR Mavericks.3. select forward. IR heat signatures result from heating (i.3. 7. and conversely. the switch should be forward.34 D/G Maverick ―Keyhole. solar. EO Mavericks.e. then the boat switch should be aft.e.1. or chemical) or from basic IR properties of materials. If it is colder than the background.3. in early morning.3.3. Detection of non-operating targets or of heavy armored targets that have been operating for only a short time (i. Contrast Modes.. vegetation cools faster than metal objects.3.3. For targets which are lighter than the background. Besides humidity and precipitation. Look at the target and try to determine which of the following contrast modes the Maverick will need for a successful lock-on (this should reduce switchology on final). note the polarity (in charge-coupled devise [CCD] or forward looking infrared [FLIR]) to determine the polarity for the Maverick to minimize one more switch change on final. Detectable. For targets which are darker than the background.51 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.2. 7. at night.1. Is the target hotter or colder than the background? If it is hotter.

With a G/K/H/K-model Maverick in Force Correlate mode (i. The scene must have some contrast to establish a lock. boat switch in the center position prior to commanding lock). and the pointing cross will indicate when good lock logic criteria has been met. One technique is to roll-in and acquire the target in WFOV. • Calm water surfaces..3. Once the target area is located and in the center of the MAV page select NFOV. Ensure a Maverick profile is selected so the missile will fire (Mav will not fire in sensor mode). space stabilize (holding the DMS-FWD/LONG while changing the FOV prevents the missile from returning to the boresight position) and go to NFOV by pushing CHINA HATFWD/SHORT. or use CHINA HATFWD/SHORT with the MAV profile called up and HUD SOI to automatically switch the MFCD to Maverick video and make it SOI. at typical employment ranges. • Bare spots on a blanket of snow. 7.3. Once acquired. target description. 7. the missile will lock onto specified area.4. confirm proper mil sizing.3. either select the MAV page. a steady pointing cross and confirm positive target identification. The crosshairs will close.2. roads. WFOV will allow more of the target area to be seen and to help assess target array. 7. or CHINA HAT-FWD/LONG to SLAVE TO SPI. 7.52 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.4. creating solid crosshairs in both the horizontal and vertical axis on the aimpoint in the center of the screen. TMS-AFT/SHORT to ground stabilize.3. the missile is ready for launch. Point the crosshairs to the target and release the slew switch. array. Pull the Maverick symbol to the target. Stabilize the Mav scene: press and hold DMS-FWD/LONG to space stabilize. ATP use.4. the scene in the MAV should correlate to the features in the MAV SYMBOL on the HUD. Roll-In. 25 Jul 2011 • High winds. The biggest difference is in the WFOV versus NFOV. With a A/B-model Maverick. This improves contrast and allows target locks faster and at greater ranges than WFOV when familiar with the target area. • Dry ground. NOTE: Either way. 7.g. In WFOV. Tactical reference points (e. Ensure that the Maverick symbol has a chance to stabilize over the target. Employment.2. Once in NFOV. If these criteria are met. If the target does not lockup.4. lock target. 7. runways) will help funnel the pilot to the target area. and mission planning. continue to slew Maverick to target trying for good lock until the pass must be aborted.1..3. To get video. or using an ATP to aid in acquisition. Another technique is to roll-in and acquire the target in NFOV.2. . If the missile stays locked on.3. release the Slew switch and Space Stabilize switch. A good technique is to roll-in in wide field of view (WFOV) (if available) so that the target area is discernible.4. Locking On. the switchology is almost the same. With a D/G/G2/H/K missile.4. Compare the scene to expectations from visual indications.e. ensure the MFCD is bounded by the green square (MAV is SOI) to prevent switch errors and/or a dry pass prior to exposure to threats. • Scattered or broken cloud cover which can vary thermal heating. Do not use on moving or point targets.

3.4.and high-altitude employment.4.” 7.7.5. For example. Dial in the proper mil reference for where the missile was boresighted. a picture should be drawn on the canopy to represent the target-to-pipper relationship. Target acquisition is easier from higher altitudes. Ensure the pointing cross is steady for at least 1 second before firing. and unnecessary exposure.7. • Seeker head exceeds launch angle criteria. The pointing cross will flash with a D/G/G2/H/K-model if: • The temperature difference (delta T) between target and background is insufficient (scene bounding for H/K Mavericks). Non-IFFCC Considerations.1.4. As with the EO Maverick. Getting consumed with trying to lockup the target is a very common problem. Losing IFFCC causes two major changes. Employing the Maverick from medium-altitude has many advantages.3. Firing. 7. use the depressible pipper. This technique will help expedite target lock-ons. use 25 x TAS = Abort slant range (7.3. 7.3. • If there is not a steady cross but the target is locked up. The flight lead will establish the time of final criteria.53 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. Some key points to consider .5. Desired Launch Zone (DLZ).G2/H/K model Mavericks when NOT in sensor mode. Many use 10 seconds for medium.3. 25 Jul 2011 7.4. Medium Altitude Employment. The Maverick reticle will not come up on the HUD.3. the missile may be out of gimbal limits. Safe Escape Maneuver. slant range information will also be lost. Set the altitude alert to give a pull off cue on a Maverick pass. Do not shoot the Maverick within the minimum safe launch distance: • For AGM-65B/D/H. The Maverick is one weapon where the loss of IFFCC does not dramatically affect the delivery process.3.7. if the cross is flashing in the bottom right of the MAV page. if medium altitude. These higher altitudes may also allow the pilot to avoid flying into certain threat envelopes. 7. • For AGM-65G/K. It is critical that the correct type of Maverick is loaded in DSMS for an accurate DLZ display.4. • Target size is too small. to put the cross within the “keyhole. The only SEM for Mavericks is to stop the rate of descent and climb back out of the threats. It will also be displayed in the MAV page when NOT in the sensor mode. make a right-hand descent. Time on Final Considerations.3. A Maverick desired launch zone is displayed in the HUD for AGM-65D/G.4.6. 7. 10 x TAS = Abort slant range (typically 300 knots.4.4. or remask when low altitude. A flashing pointing cross indicates that the missile may lose lock at or after launch. 7. so 3.000 feet). 7. ground impact.500 feet).3. The DLZ is not available for B model Mavericks. With the loss of the reticle.2 For a boresight reference. so fly the Maverick towards the flashing cross. Consider time on final to avoid threats.

Consider the minimum altitude for recovery.1.1. Low-Altitude Employment.4.3.3. See the Battle Book for base parameters and slant ranges. or pilot-acquired visual contact with small point targets. One threat is the ground. Laser Guided Bombs such as GBU-12s and GBU-10s are normally delivered from level/toss CCRP deliveries much like general purpose bombs. 7. Establish base distance and altitude based on the planned slant range for release.4. it is also feasible to deliver LGBs from a diving CCIP delivery. The general steps for employing an LGB are listed below. Unmask ranges should be established in the brief by the flight lead. This range varies with the means of target identification used such as targeting pod.3. 25 Jul 2011 when employing from medium-altitude include establishing base distance and altitude.3. Do not unmask until the boresight is on a confirmed target/target area.5.3. but may change in flight due to actual TDA. 7. Take all factors into consideration to establish this unmask point. Laser Guided Bomb Employment.2. Target Identification Range. Some basic ROTs for unmasking are: 7. Target identification range is the range where the boresight can be put on the desired target or target area.6. 7. The bottom line is do not get so consumed in shooting the missile that you hit the ground. 7. Notify maintenance personnel if there are discrepancies. A good ROT to use for low-altitude Maverick employment is two slews maximum.1. The key to success is knowing when.54 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. . ensure all LGBs are set to the correct code. Budget time spent inside the cockpit and give priority to flying the aircraft. Employing the Maverick from low-altitude is very similar to medium-altitude with a few significant differences. Another common ROT is no more than 10 seconds on final. GBU Laser Codes. to unmask from the low-altitude regime in order to acquire and shoot the target.6. and target acquisition. The obvious difference when employing laser-guided bombs is that they require laser energy to guide to the target. Laser Codes are normally briefed by the flight lead or are written in the squadron standards. then come off the pass. Laser spots can also be provided by other airborne platforms such as UAVs. This laser spot is normally provided by either the employing aircraft‟s targeting pod (known as „Self Lase‟) or by a pod from another aircraft such as the flight lead or wingman (referred to as „Buddy Lase‟).3. Base Distance. its Pk is very large. In-flight visibility and other environmental factors play a part in this range. In certain tactical situations.2. helicopters and AC-130 gunships as well as ground forces using hand-held laser designators. 7. Employment. During the weapons preflight. 7. 7. 7.6. Altitude alert should be used to provide minimum altitude abort cues. FAC mark. and from where.3.

7.6. Normally check left if the targeting pod is loaded on station 10 to minimize TGP masking. 7. If the TGP laser code is different from the code set on the weapon in the DSMS Inventory. 7. The DSMS Status Page also displays the SPI coordinates and elevation and these can be compared to the appropriate target waypoint page on the CDU.1 CCRP always targets the SPI. captains bars). a caution advisory will be provided.000 feet AGL. If the LGB profile is set to CCRP. Once rolled out.1. Guide times less than this may result in the bomb not hitting the desired point.4.2.5. specifically the winds between the surface and 4.2. maneuver the aircraft in accordance with the briefed geometry. Align the PBRL with the ASL and when the TTRN reads 5 seconds. Confirm that the targeting pod has the correct laser code set.4. Select the appropriate LGB weapons profile using the DMS switch and ensure the correct stations are armed using the DSMS Quicklook (COOLIE-DOWN/LONG). 7.4. weapon release will not be inhibited.55 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.4. the SPI type is displayed in the lower-left corner of the HUD steer point (STPT) and well as the DSMS Status Page. Weapon time-of-fall is displayed on the left side of the HUD and in the lower-right corner of the TGP display.4..4. Turn the aircraft towards the target using steering symbols in the HUD (SPI Locator Line.2.2. The following lists common errors encountered when employing LGBs: . 7. refine the TGP aimpoint and fire the laser until weapon impact. Self Lase. In the target area. After weapons release. enter the target coordinates in a steerpoint and ensure this steerpoint is the current steerpoint in the HUD and also the SPI. 7. check away approximately 45 to 60 degrees in order to maintain visual and standoff from the target. however.2. hold the pickle button down until the weapon is released. High surface winds may require a laser aimpoint that is completely off the target.4. Adjust the laser aimpoint one foot upwind per knot of wind in this regime. the HUD Mode will automatically change to CCRP when the profile is selected.4. After weapons release. Buddy Lase. Additionally.2.2 Laser Guided Bombs require an absolute minimum of 8 seconds of guide time.2.2. Ensure the TGP is at the correct target location by either AREA or POINT tracking the desired DMPI or SLAVING to the target steerpoint. An additional technique is to roll in a slight dive to confirm the location of the target symbol in the HUD FOV and then pull to wings level.3. It is critical that the laser aimpoint be corrected for winds.2. 25 Jul 2011 7.7.7. 7.7.8 Common Errors. 7. A technique for all CCRP deliveries once the target steerpoint is in the HUD is to TMSAFT/LONG to ensure the SPI is set the current steerpoint. 7. as these have the most effect on the bomb. CCRP Consent Option is always „3/9‟ Mode for LGBs.4.

the weapon attempts to guide to the exact coordinates that were passed to it.56 25 VFS OI 07-A-10.1. The JDAM has two modes of operation: bomb on coordinate (BOC) and relative targeting (RT). The weapon will sacrifice these parameters in order to hit the target. If there is a . the following steps occur: 7. 7.1. The 500-pound GBU-38 and 2000-pound GBU-31 JDAMs are extremely versatile and accurate weapons that can be used against a variety of targets. 7. • Other aircraft firing a laser with the same code into the target area during someone else‟s self lase attack. When the weapon is released from the aircraft.1. When the pickle button is depressed and the aircraft SPI coordinates are passed to the weapon. causing endgame TGP adjustments with a weapon in the air resulting in a moving laser spot. It then begins guidance to the target coordinates. delayed or proximity fuzing with a FMU-152 Joint Programmable Fuze. LGBs will not guide on the Sniper‟s training laser. 7.5.1. In RT mode. The advantages of these weapons include relatively large release windows known as Launch Acceptability Regions (LARs) that provide significant standoff and they can be delivered through the weather.5. CCRP symbology for these weapons is different than laser-guided and GP bombs. These weapons guide to specific coordinates that can be generated using aircraft sensors or provided in mission planning. The JDAM is a coordinate-seeking weapon and the coordinates it guides to is the aircraft SPI. Inertially Aided Munitions Employment.1. for a guide time below the minimum of 8 seconds. These weapons are employed using level/toss deliveries in CCRP Mode. 7.1. • Not correcting the laser spot for winds. 7. When the weapon acquires GPS. A JDAM contains both an inertial measurement unit (IMU).2 Relative Targeting. much like an INS as well as a GPS.1. The weapon does not acquire GPS until after release.5. The weapon will attempt to achieve the desired impact angle and azimuth for hitting the target (see below). it will guide to the target using only its IMU. Inertially Aided Munitions include Joint Direct Attack Munitions such as GBU-38s and GBU-31s as well as Wind Corrected Munitions Dispensers such as CBU-103.5. the JDAM attempts to correct for any errors in its actual location caused by errors present in the navigation solution of the aircraft. it compares what it thinks its location is. In BOC mode.1.5. • Not having the TGP on the correct DMPI at release. 7. This can cause the LGB to guide on the wrong laser. but the weapon IMU is aligned to the aircraft EGI. . When the pickle button is depressed in a JDAM attack.3.1.5. Additionally. which will cause the bomb to deplete energy.1. its own position is known based on its internal IMU. especially with the flexibility of cockpit selectable impact. The weapon searches for GPS satellites and acquires a 3D GPS solution. Joint Direct Attack Munitions.5. derived by its own IMU (which was derived from the aircraft EGI) to the “true location” that the GPS receiver tells it.1. the current SPI coordinates are sent to the JDAM and the JDAM guides to those coordinates after release. However. 25 Jul 2011 • Inadvertent HOTAS error that causes TGP laser type to change from laser to IR Marker. If the weapon does not receive a GPS signal.2. JDAM Release Sequence.

the weapon will offset its aimpoint from the passed target coordinates the same amount. Weapon Employment.35. RT mode will be enabled and „RT‟ will be displayed in the HUD. 7. In neither case is the EGI in the employing aircraft the “source” of the coordinates and the JDAM will use BOC Mode and guide to those coordinates without correcting for any location error. another aircraft may broadcast a SADL J12. In the latter. The difference between coordinates generated by an aircraft sensor such as the targeting pod and the actual target location is known as target location error (TLE). 25 Jul 2011 difference. As with LGBs. the target coordinates should be input in a steerpoint and then that steerpoint should be the current steerpoint in the HUD.2. There are two instances where BOC mode will be used: if the SPI is a steerpoint with preplanned or hand-entered coordinates loaded into or if a hooked datalink symbol on the TAD is the SPI. JDAMs are coordinate-seeking weapons. the target coordinates may be mensurated coordinates received during mission planning or received over the radio from a joint terminal attack controller (JTAC). which of these modes to use is automatically determined by the CICU. there are some significant factors to consider.3. JDAM STAIR Check. as described in Figure 7. S T A I R Steerpoint TMS-AFT/LONG SLAVE ALL IAM Profile Readback Ensure target steerpoint is current/in the HUD Resets SPI to current Steerpoint Slave all sensors to SPI Correct JDAM Profile selected Confirm/Readback SPI coordinates on DSMS Status Page Figure 7. In the former. The pilot then hooks the Donor SPI. ensuring the SPI reflects those coordinates and maneuvering the aircraft to the weapon LAR for release. JDAMs always target the SPI.1. There are numerous ways to acquire target coordinates. 7. • If SADL is inoperable. SADL Message. In the A-10C. hence the most important element for successful employment is generating as accurate coordinates as possible.5. take a mark via TMS-RIGHT/SHORT and then copy this mark to next available steerpoint and label in accordance with the briefed contract. such as a TGP mark or a target designation cue (TDC) designation. As with other CCRP deliveries. If the target coordinates were generated by the aircraft. 7. This is because the same platform that told the JDAM where it was in space (the aircraft EGI) also generated the target coordinates.1. JDAM employment consists of acquiring target coordinates. copies to a empty steerpoint and renames the point. a flight member can generate coordinates with a TGP and pass via a J12.5.35 JDAM STAIR Check . ensuring the aircraft SPI reflects the desired target is absolutely critical. but the end result should be the same coordinates in a steerpoint that is the SPI: • Lase the target with the TGP.1.5. the generating aircraft can pass coordinates via voice and then be handentered into a steerpoint. • If the employing aircraft does not have an operable TGP.57 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. A JDAM-specific FENCE check is the STAIR check.6 target sorting message that contain the appropriate coordinates. However. 7.1.5.

a release range for a specific set of parameters should be calculated and then corrected for winds.5. This is easily accomplished by turning towards the target steerpoint and centering the captains bars. unguided or by using a CCIP pipper. due to the fact that at pickle the CICU sends the SPI coordinates to the bomb.2. • A less accurate technique for release in order to achieve desired impact angle is to release at briefed percentage of the LAR.5 seconds to complete. it can result in a hung weapon that cannot be released.3 NM.3.5. . These percentage ROTs may not be valid at all altitudes. maneuver the aircraft to place the aircraft in the LAR. sends the release signal to the JDAM station.5. release the weapon. Unlike JDAMs. WCMD can be delivered unguided and they act just like their conventional counterparts (CBU-87 and CBU-89). If the pickle button is released during this sequence. the JDAM repeats those coordinates back and when the CICU verifies that they are the same.1. • For normal releases. the timer will indicate time until max range for the LAR is reached. There are two significant differences between JDAMs and WCMD. The left side of the HUD will show the DLZ and if outside the LAR. or by using a CCIP pipper. 25 Jul 2011 7. using the same CCRP HUD symbology as GP and laser-guided bombs. Hold the pickle button down until the HUD and/or DSMS indicate that weapon release sequence is complete.5. In order to drop WCMD in a conventional mode navigate to the specific 1760 station carrying the CBU on the STAT page and turn it off. • The JDAM can be released at max range in order to maintain standoff from a collocated threat or if dropping a JDAM in proximity mode where minimizing elevation error with a 90-degree impact angle is not desired or required. WCMD contains an INS only and does not use GPS. 7.4. Once the target steerpoint has been defined and confirmed.58 25 VFS OI 07-A-10. 7. from pickle to weapon release. CAUTION: The JDAM release sequence can take up to the HUD will display MAN REL and the timer will change to a predicted time-of-fall. release the weapon. Once in the LAR. Conventional DSMS profiles can be loaded in additional to the normal guided profiles. Wind Corrected Munitions Dispensers.2. Then select the desired conventional profile and deliver the weapon in either CCRP mode. NOTE: JDAMs cannot be released ballistically. WCMD weapons such as CBU-103 and CBU104 are delivered using the same HUD symbology and techniques as JDAMs. 7. such as 50 percent. When the caret reaches halfway down the staple. Once the Range Numeric next to the caret reads 2. Different tactical scenarios will dictate where in the LAR to actually release the weapon.