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JMJ SOCIAL GROUPS AND SOCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Social group is composed of two or more person who are in social

l interaction, guided by a set of norms, values, and expectations. it is essential to a persons existence. social groups not only influence peoples lives but also affect the structure of the society. according to John Donne No man is an island Sociology Is the science of society and the social interactions taking place. The concept of society Was formulated during the 16th and 17th centuries to represent the whole social organization as distinct from the state. Society Includes the totality of social organizations and the complex network of interconnected, interdependent, and overlapping social relationships. Every society has its own distinct and unique culture. Culture and society are independent. According to Kendell he defines society as a large social grouping whose member share the same geographical territory and are subject to the same political authority and dominant to culture expectations. Perucci and Knudsen point out two aspects of society: 1. Society is external to the individual. 2. The member perceive society and its experience as a constraint upon their lives. There are other human cluster which do not form social groups but may be transformed into one. These are also considered important by sociologists who study them. These are called the aggregate, the social catergory, and collectivity.

RPTL Aggregate- a number of persons of cluster but do not interact with each other. Social category- groups whose member may never have met and do not interact socially, but possess common identifying status characteristics. Collectivity- They are composed of clusters of people who share some kind of belief which prepare them for action, spontaneously forming a temporary or short-lived group. Factors that influence Group Motivational base shared by individualsIndividuals find themselves together in similar social situations that may have motivational implications for group formation. -Santos cites a deviant group formed in 1970 outside of Metro Manila. Size of the group- range from two (called dyad) to more members. *type of group goals- A group will develop structural forms that will facilitate the achievement of its goals, inversely, it will block structural forms that will slow down the pursuit of its goals. (McGee) kind of group cohesion- refers to the degree to which members of a group are able to function and interact toward the pursuit of their goals. -according to Santos group cohesion depends on the degree to which the group has developed the notation of what George Simmel calls a code of honor -it is also determined by the extent to which individuals need and interests are satisfied. Social Structure

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JMJ is an abstraction, it cannot be seen directly, but it can be inferred from observing human behavior. refers to the patterned social relationships and interrelationships of the parts guided by the norms, expectations, and values of social units member. Social Function is a component of social structure. it refers to the results of action that occurs in relation to a particular structure, including the results of activities by individuals occupying particular statuses. (Schwartz) TYPES OF SOCIAL GROUPS -Social groups vary in size, quality of group interaction, purpose, structure, or combinations of these. - Character of the social interaction obtained in the groups is one criterion for group classification. - Primary and secondary groups, in-group and out-group, Gemeinschaft and Gesselschaft, and the formal and informal groups. - Useful only insofar as they help one understand the actual or real types by providing bases for comparing and analyzing existing conditions or situations. Primary Groups and Secondary Groups primary groups - was introduced by Charles W. Cooley - Small face-to-face structure such as the family and friendship groups, is where personalities are fused into a common whole. - they are the initial groups that a parson joins; they provide him or her with experiences in social relations. - Cooley calls primary groups the nursery of human nature as these shape our personality and developed our selfcontrol. -

RPTL the basic primary groups is the family. Other primary groups are play ground, peer group, gang, the immediate school group, and the cliques formed in a large impersonal organizations. - primary groups are characterized by intimacy, sympathetic understanding and friendliness among the members. Secondary Groups - Focus on the development of skills and specialized know-how, enabling their member to perform effectively and thus contribute to the efficient functioning of the society. - tends to impose the patters of conformity on their members. - the relationship are impersonal, formal, businesslike and rational. - the individual comes in contact with them later in life -primary groups persist in secondary group because of the individuals need for intimate, sympathetic relationships (Horton and Hunt). -Studies by social scientist like Shills reveal that the small well-knit primary groups perform a mediating function between the primary group and the corporate body. Advantages in maintaining secondary relations in large-scale establishments. -in matters of appointment and promotion -the merit system may be employed to ensure equality -fair treatment -efficiency the difference between the primary and secondary groups is one of degree. some primary relations develop into secondary ones, and some relationships and exchanges in secondary groups may be warm, friendly, and personal (Sullivan). Gemeinschaft and Gesselschaft

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JMJ A similar distinction in the primarysecondary group dichotomy was that developed by Ferdinand Toennies, between Gemeinschaft (close communal relationships or community) and Gesselschaft (organized impersonal relationships or society). Gemeinschaft is a community of intimate, private, and exclusive living and familism. It is based on what Toennies call the natural will of the member who relate to one another as total personalities. Gesselschaft is public life or the world itself. the members are guided by the rational will characterized by forethought and deliberation. IN-GROUP and OUT-GROUP Not actual groups but a kind of perspectiverelationship that exists in the minds as an individual learns to use the pronouns we (ingroup), and they (out-group). This unit has boundaries separating the we from they. Relations may be primary or secondary, large or small. Differentiation is important for understanding collective phenomena, as in the analysis of solidarity in the groups, cooperation and conflict situations, and patterns of discrimination and prejudice between ethnic groups. In the process of socialization, one learns to distinguish between groups to which one belongs in contrast to other groups. Members of the group have some common interests which draw them together and differentiate them from other groups. Insiders = in-group; Outsiders = out-group or other group.

RPTL Attitude towards each other range from mild dislike or aversion to hatred. Pattern of the in-group and out-group is found in all societies, simple or complex, whenever competition or aggression arises. In-Group - Group with which one individual identifies and which gives him or her a sense of belonging, solidarity, camaraderie, esprit de corps, and a protective attitude toward the other members. - Members are loyal to each other and one may accept responsibility for others. - Know each other intimately and share common norms, activities, goals, and background. - Some in-group identities and loyalties may overlap and cause conflict. - Some have bound aries (entrance rites or membership fees.) Advantages: Members develop self-esteem, social cohesion, and a sense of belonging emerging from shared belief in the superiority of their group. Disadvantages: - Members may develop a false picture of themselves and others. - Persons psychological and social development may be delayed because reality may be distorted by exaggerating ones worth while deflating that of the outgroup. - May be affected negatively upon realizing the falseness of their basis for social esteem. - May also encounter physical damage. Out-Group - Viewed as outsiders by the in-group. - Group in which and individual is in sufficient contact with as to be aware of its existence, but which he or she is prone to criticize or ridicule. - One usually feels strangeness, indifference, dislike, avoidance, and/or antagonism toward the out-group.

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RPTL organizations, but sometimes they are not in consonance with the activity of the formal group. - Influence of these is recognized. - Often affect the formal organizations operation. - Informal structures are formed spontaneously without any conscious effort of the participants. It permits adaptations to situations or demands not provided for in the formal organization. THE BUREAUCRACY - Often associated with inefficiency, red tape, delay, or under-the-table arrangements. - Aims to meet the problems which arise in carrying out tasks as society becomes more urbanized and industrialized. - The chief merit is its technical efficiency with a premium placed on precision, speed, control, continuity, discretion, and optimal returns on input. (Merton) - Bureaucratic organization type is designed to protect the members welfare through a system of rules and procedures. - Its formality and rationality would not necessarily lead to the achievement of the intended desirable results. Organizations efficiency and management remain in the leaders hands (Weber). - Formal, rationally organized social structure involving clearly defined patterns of activity in which every series of actions is fundamentally related to the purpose of the organization (Merton). - Lays out the diverse roles of individuals as they occupy statuses for carrying out specifically defined functions of the whole social organization, thus there is deliberate planning. - Max Weber wrote the classic work on bureaucracy and identified several related characteristics of an ideal bureaucracy that can





Formal Organization - Members of society become more involved with a type of secondary group called formal organization with the increasing industrialization and urbanization. - Important in industrialized, complex societies. - Social structures which are deliberately organized for the attainment of specific goals which meet their most fundamental needs. - Source of continuity and permanence in a societys efforts to meet specific goals. - Formal organizations: schools, churches, political parties, military and civic organizations. Many of these started as informal social groups. - Goals vary greatly. - Certain formal organizations come in conflict with each other due to this variety of goals. - Conflicts also arise within here. - Fundamental objective is utilitarian. - Has an administrative machinery thats aimed to enable members to meet their goals. - Administrative structure: Bureaucracy Power ability to control the behavior of others even against their will. affects human relationships. plays an important role in many organizations on account of the diversity of goals and interests that exists among the participants. Informal Organization - Within the structure of these formal organizations are informal groups called dyads (2-person groups) , triads (3-person groups), cliques, friendship groups, or circles - Membership and organization of such groups may coincide with the units of the large

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JMJ be used in analyzing large-scale formal organizations. They include the following: 1. Positions and officers are clearly defined and, in principle exist independent of the incumbent or the person occupying the position. 2. The hierarchical arrangement of authority, rights and obligations is specifically drawn and clear-cut. This shows the chain command and the levels of superordination and subordination with their corresponding privileges and responsibilities. 3. The personnel are selected on the basis of technical or professional qualification, expert training, and competence through competitive examination. 4. Definite rules govern official behavior. Knowledge of these rules represents the special technical learning which the official has. 5. Security of tenure (as long as on doesnt perform any gross misconduct at work) and the pursuit of a career with promotion (based on seniority and merit occur periodically to maintain morale and competent performance) in the hierarchy is assured. - Has penetrated various areas of living: government, religion, philosophy, politics, and law, education, health and welfare, public works and communications, and even crime and vice. - Has functions and dysfunctions. - Defects: a. Red tape extreme adherence to rigid procedures and paper work. b. Mystery mongering tendency of those in power to maintain the status quo by withholding vital information from members of out-groups. c. Jack-in-office boss officials in key positions who feel that they have become

RPTL indispensable fixtures of the social organization. d. Gentlemanly malingerers employees who have become so secure and contended in their jobs that they feel they dont have to do work too hard. - Vulnerable to nepotism and favoritism due to strong family ties in the Philippines. - Filipinos relationships are still personalistic in spite of the rise of impesonalism in urban areas. As a result, the spoils system is perpetuated. - Unclassified and temporary positions become the convenient instruments for the practice of nepotism, patronage, and influence peddling. - Demands of personalism are incongruent with the bureaucratic-legal norms (Cario). - Requires universal and collectivity oriented positions, which are in contrast to the particularistic and self-oriented demands of personalism. - Red tape has resulted in non-productivity and graft and corruption. - Some have formed associations to counteract graft and corruption but people generally seem to be inured to such misconducts. - These situations are present also in the other countries aside from the Philippines. - The Philippines is beset with an oligarchic elite group that administers the spoils system. - Becomes bloated and staffed with inept people because of appointing into positions those people who helped winning candidates in the election regardless of their qualifications. - These weaknesses should be overcome because bureaucracy is necessary for nation-building and carrying out national policies and projects. REFERENCE GROUPS - Symbolic reference or anchor for the individual. - Group to which the individual relates or aspires to relate to psychologically.

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JMJ - Becomes the individuals frame of reference and source for ordering his or her experiences, perceptions, cognitions, and ideas of self. - Important for determining a persons selfidentity, attitudes, and social ties. - Becomes the reference in making comparisons or contrasts and in evaluating ones appearance and performance. - Indices of status value. - Self-conceptualization is built upon reference group affiliation. (Coller) - Ones membership group to which he or she is officially attached or recognized as belonging. - Examples: family, peer group, school group, sorority or fraternity, religious organization, political group, or civic group. - Family is a reference group to a child if he or she has been influenced by its views and attitudes. - Attitudes are reinforced if these are supported by other groups. - Adolescents transfer their crucial reference attachment at times. - Peer group and the family are generally important reference groups. Adolescents consider their peers an important reference group. Yet the traditional, interpersonally oriented values reflected in the Filipino family are also desired. (Licuanan) - Not all are membership groups. - A person may aspire to be a member of another group. - People sometimes behave in terms of the norms they identify with rather than in terms of the norms they are officially supposed to follow. - Individuals may find themselves caught in circumstances where they have to work with people whose values are at odds with their own. - Powerful and pervasive elements in our lives and are important sources of our norms, values, attitudes, and our standards of conduct (Sullivan).

RPTL - Serve to regulate attitudes, loyalties, conformities, aspirations, and conceptions about ones self. SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS - Sometimes confused with formal organizations, but these are actually different. - An abstraction which is an organized system of social norms, belief, values, and material objects formed around the social needs of people. - All societies have institutions such as family, economy, religion, and education to meet certain social needs. - Mass media, sports, science, medicine, and the military are considered as social institutions today. - Standardized way of doing something and performs certain functions in society, while a group is composed of specific, identified people. - Man-made ways of solving some problems that individuals and societies face; are organized around critical issues; and support the important values of the group. - Consist of the combination of certain related type parts into the configuration of folkways, traditions, and beliefs (Chapin). The type parts are: 1. Common reciprocating attitudes and their conventionalized behavior patterns. Within the social institutions are clusters of established and accepted behavior patterns through which the needs of the group are adequately maintained and satisfied. Out of these patterns may develop feelings expressed by individuals in their roles. 2. Cultural objects of symbolic value which represent social institutions. These symbols give sentimental meaning to the behavior of the individual.

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JMJ 3. Cultural objects possessing utilitarian value which satisfy the wants of the individual. Among these are the house for the family, pews for the church, buildings for the state, and desks for the schools. 4. Oral or written Language symbols or traditions. These give the description, ideological systems, and specifications of the patterns of interrelationships. They are handed down from generation to generation. - Great conservers and transmitters of cultural heritage as they embody the basic cultural values of society. - Various institutions in society tend to be interrelate and integrative. LEADERSHIP - Exercise of influence over a group and directs behavior toward particular results or goals. - Can be a formal position or an informal position which is shifting and difficult. - 2 important roles: (1) The task or the instrumental roles and (2) the socioeconomic or expressive relationship roles. - Leader moves a group toward the achievement of its goals which requires skill in coordination and command. - When the leader focuses on the well-being of the peer group, then these are expressions of the socioeconomic roles or expressive relationships. - 3 kinds of leaders in terms of directiveness: 1. Autocratic leader - Thoroughly directive. - Dictator who orders all actions and techniques to be used in achieving group goals. - Likely to be more tension, conflict, hostility, and aggressiveness.

RPTL - Commonly believed that can spur higher productivity, but not always true. 2. Democratic leader - Members are given free leeway to participate in determining the policies of the group, choosing the procedures for accomplishing the group goals, and deciding the course of action to take. - Theres consensus building. - Members derive more satisfaction and greater interest in relaxed conditions for working together. - More influential with their members than the other kind of leaders. - Employee productivity and commitment are high. 3. Laissez faire leader - Members are allowed almost complete freedom to make decisions and choose alternative options. - Members may view such a situation positively but it doesnt work strongly in the achievement of the group goals thus, it is the least effective. - The best type of leadership depends on the type of group involved, it goals, and the type of environment where the group carries out its work. (Sullivan) - It is not gender per se that affects the leadership. - Qualities needed in a community-based leader are: values-centered, responsive, action oriented, a consensus builder, and a clear sense of accountability. (Felix) It is necessary for the leader to acquire the core values of life-giving relationships, cultural sensitivity, gender-sensitivity, and environmental awareness. (Felix) Being responsive to the needs and problems of the people, especially during times of adversity, implies that the leader has a clear vision, mission, and goals for the community.

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JMJ An action-oriented leader implies that he/she is enthusiastic to work for the good of the community; is skillful in assigning community members to perform specific tasks toward goal attainment; takes risks when needed; initiates and feels competent to undertake community action. A consensus builder is one who can establish a conducive interpersonal climate that enables members to have a genuine exchange of interpersonal communication, can reconcile contending perspectives, guides the discussion to attain similarities from conflicting viewpoints, achieves agreement in the members varying proposals, and informs members the nature of the problem or project. Accountability refers to the leader being transparent and responsible for providing the members with substantial information on the activities undertaken. - Traits of knowledge, capability to manage the government, and strong political will for justice and equity (Pulse Asias 2001 national survey). This may indicate that voters are looking for a leader who is capable of good governance.


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