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Term Paper

Water Resource Engineering-II



- Bhakra Dam

Submitted To Mr. Saumitra Shukla

Submitted By Atish Kumar Reg. No.:Roll No.:Class: - B-Tech-Civil

I would like to express my gratitude to all those who gave me the possibility to complete this term paper. I want to thank the Department of CIVIL ENGINEERING of LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY for giving me permission to commence this Term paper, to do the necessary research work and to use departmental data. I would also like to thank to Mr. Saumitra Shukla, Lecturer in Water Resource Engineering-II, who gave and confirmed this assignment and encouraged me to go ahead with my term paper. I am finally thanking of our friends whose help, valuable suggestions and encouragement helped me in all the time of research for and writing of this term paper.


S.N. Description Page No.

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Introduction Salient features of Bhakra Dam History Construction Reservoir Bhakra Dam Spillway a Case Study Environmental Management Uses of Bhakra Dam Disadvantages Irrigation and Power Data How to Reach Reference

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Bhakra Dam is a majestic monument across river Sutlej. Its construction was taken up first after independence, for the uplift and welfare of the people of Northern Region. The construction of this project was started in the year 1948 and was completed in 1963. It is 740 ft. high above the deepest foundation as straight concrete dam being more than three times the height of Qutab Minar. Bhakra Dam is the highest Concrete Gravity dam in Asia and Second Highest in the world. The water stored at Bhakra has a tremendous potential of generating hydroelectric power. There are two power houses namely Left Bank Power Plant and Right Bank Power Plant. The power houses are connected on either side by underground cable galleries with the switch yard from where transmission lined take off.

The Salient features of Bhakra Dam and Power houses are as below.

Bhakra Dam
Total cost of the Project Type of Dam Height above the deepest foundation Height above river bed Length at top Width at top Length at bottom Width at base Elevation at top of dam above mean sea level Steel used Reservoir Catchment area Normal reservoir level Dead storage level New area irrigated Area of reservoir. Length of reservoir. Live storage capacity at EL.1680 ft. Gross storage capacity at EL.1680 ft. Dead storage capacity River Outlets & Flood Control Gates Number of outlets. Size of outlets Shape of outlets Maximum discharge per outlet Outlets at EL.402.33 meters (EL.1320 ft.) Outlets at EL.432.80 meters (EL.1420 ft.) Number and sizw of flood control gates. Maximum design discharge through gates. 16 in two tiers of 8 dach at EL.1320 & EL.1420 2.64 m x 2.64 m (8.67 ft. x 8.67 ft.) Horseshoe shape 187.97 cumecs (6638 cusecs) 160.10 cumecs (5656 cusecs) 4 nos. 15.24m x 14.5m (50 ft. x 47.5ft.) 5587 cumecs (1997300 cusecs) 56980 Sq. kilometres. EL. 512.06 meters (EL.1680 faet) EL.445.62 meters. 60 lakh acres. 162.48 sq. kilometres (62.78 sq.miles) 96.56 kilometres. 6911 million cum (5.60 MAF) 9340 million cum (7.57 MAF) 2430 million cum (1.97 MAF) Rs. 245.28 crore Concrete straight gravity 225.55 metres (740 feet) 167.64 metres (550 feet) 518.16 metres (1700 feet) 9.14 metres (30 feet) 99 metres (325 feet) 190.5 metres (625 feet) 518.16 metres (1700 feet) 101600 tonnes (100000 tons)

Bhakra Power Plants Number of power houses Installed capacity of left bank power plant 2 450 MW - 5 units of 90 MW each Increased capacity of left bank power plant by 540 MW - 5 units of 108 MW uprating the machines. each Installed capacity of right bank power plant. 600 MW - 5 units of 120 MW each Increased capacity of right bank power plant Uprated to 660 MW - 5 units of 132 MW each Present capacity by further uprating the machines. 735 MW - 3 units of 157 MW each & 2 units of 132 MW each Planned uprated capacity. 785 MW - 5 units of 157 MW.

The proposal to construct a storage reservoir on the satluj first time originated in a note dated 8 November 1908 by Sir Louis Dane indicating Suni and Badu Gorges as being favourable sites for dams for storage and power development. A detailed report on this proposal was submitted in March 1910. However, the estimated cost of the project was considered prohibitive and project was shelved. 1919 Project Report The proposal for a dam on the satluj was again revived by Mr. F.E. Gwyther, the then Chief Engineer, in a note dated 20 February 1915. On the basis of this note, the first detailed and comprehensive project report for a high dam at Bhakra was prepared in 1919. The 1919 project report provided for the storage of the unutilized satluj water during the period of excess flow and essentially consisted of the following four big works:

Bhakra Dam Upper Sirhind Canal Lower Sirhind Canal The Western Yamuna Canal Extension.

The proposed dam was to be 120.40m (395 ft) high located about 69 km (43 miles) from Ropar almost at the same place as where the present dam has been constructed. It provided for a maximum storage of 3182.38 million m3 (2.58 million-acre ft). The dam was to have a solid masonry gravity section arched in plan and was to be the highest dam in the world at that time. The project did not provide for any hydroelectric installation and was essentially an irrigation project. The project was fully supported by geological investigations carried out by the Geological Survey of India. The 1919 project, however, never materialized and was shelved in favour of the satluj Valley Project sanctioned in 1919.

Proposal of the Project during 1920-1938 The 1919 Project although not pursued further, resulted in a series of investigations and examination of the Bhakra Gorge by eminent Geologists and Engineers. In December 1924, the Chief Geologist to the Attock Oil Co. inspected the site and on his recommendations drifts were excavated on both banks of the river above the summer flood level to expose unweathered rock at the dam site. In 1925, the Superintendent Geologist, Geological Survey of India scrutinized the strata thus laid bare and reported on the geological aspects of the proposed dam. In 1927, a Committee consisting of Mr. A.J. Wiley, Consulting Engineer on Dams to the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and U.S. Irrigation Service, Dr. E.S. Pinfold, the Chief Geologist to the Attock Oil Co. and Mr. W.H. Nicholson, Chief Engineer of Punjab Irrigation was formed to report on the proposed Bhakra Dam site and other possible storage sites between rivers Yamuna and the Chenab. The Committee inspected the Bhakra site in November 1927, and their report prominently brought to the notice the advantages of a 152.40m (500 ft) high dam over the previously proposed 120.40m (395 ft) high dam as contemplated in the 1919 project. In 1932, surveys for the reservoir area for a 152.40m (500 ft) high dam were carried out. 1939-42 Project Report In 1939, a Detailed Project Report for a 152.40m (500 ft) high dam was taken up by Dr. A.N. Khosla, the then Superintending Engineer, Project Circle. In this project, a 152.40m (500 ft) high straight gravity concrete dam with a storage of 5859 million m3 (4.75 million acre ft) at maximum reservoir El.487.68m (1,600 ft) was contemplated. The height of the dam was based on the detailed geological information then available. The project covered various important aspects of the design like seismicity of the dam site, silting of the reservoir, diversion of the river during construction, adequacy of spillway capacity, preparation of foundation and abutments, placing of concrete, etc., and provided for hydro-electric power development for the first time. Provision for four units of 40 MW each with a fifth auxiliary unit also of 40 MW capacity was made in the estimate. In 1944, Dr. J.L. Savage, the then Chief Engineer, United States Bureau of Reclamation was requested by the Punjab Government to examine the site and report on the feasibility of construction of a dam with maximum reservoir level at El.487.68m (1,600 ft). He recommended that the dam site was suitable for the purpose and suggested further explorations of foundation and abutments. This work was carried out during 1945-47 under the supervision of Dr. F.A. Nickell, an American Geologist of considerable experience and provided detailed geological information for the subsequent design work. In all, 58 holes were drilled in the course of preliminary explorations aggregating to an approximate length of 2,134 m. Further explorations after the approval of the project, however, continued upto 1955 to finally establish the geological features of the area correctly and to devise the foundation treatment scheme. A total of about 12,802 m of core drilling was done to complete the sub-surface investigation. Additionally, 1.21 km of drifts were excavated to supplement the knowledge of sub-surface geology and to inspect the rock available. 1945-46 Project Report In 1945-46, specification designs, with maximum reservoir at El.481.58 m (1,580 ft), were prepared by the International Engineering Co. Denver, U.S.A. The limitation of the maximum reservoir elevation was imposed by the Draft Bilaspur Agreement of 1945 between the Punjab Government and the Raja of Bilaspur. Based on the 1939-42 project, firm power studies of 1945-46 and various reports of experts, the design provided for a straight gravity dam having top at El.487.68 m (1,600 ft) with a drum gate spillway, a tunnel spillway, river outlet, tunnel outlet works and a firm power installation of 150 MW.

Final Proposal of the Project during 1948-51 In 1948 when irrigation & power demands of the partitioned state of Punjab on the Indian side further increased, the question of the height of the dam, the top elevation which was fixed at El. 487.68 m (1,600 ft) only to prevent the submergence of Bilaspur town, was reviewed and it was decided to construct the dam to the maximum safe optimum height as determined by foundation rock conditions, so as to fully exploit irrigation and power potential. After necessary water power studies and further foundation explorations, it was decided in 1948 to raise the dam to its optimum height with the full reservoir level at El.512.06 m (1,680 ft), later on further raised to El. 513.58 m (1,685 ft). The revised designs and specifications for the higher dam were again entrusted to International Company Inc. USA through an agreement dated 14 November 1948 between the Irrigation Branch of Public Works Department (PWD) of Punjab and International Company Inc. USA. In 1951, a revised project report was prepared for the 207.26 m (680 ft) high, straight gravity dam.

The final project proposal comprised the following units:

Bhakra Dam and Power Plants Nangal Dam Nangal Hydel Channel Ganguwal & Kotla Power Houses on the Nangal Hydel Channel o Remodelling of Ropar Headworks o Remodelling of Sirhind Canal Bhakra Canals Bist Doab Canal Transmission and distribution system of electrical energy Development of markets and communications of Bhakra area

Thus, with the above proposal, Bhakra Nangal Project took the shape of a true multi-purpose project, providing irrigation and power generation as its main benefits and facilities for flood prevention, recreation and fish culture as incidental advantages. Constitution of Bhakra-Control Board- An Agency for Construction of Bhakra-Nangal Project After independence in 1947, the two eminent engineers of the Punjab, Dr. A.N.Khosla and Er. Kanwar Sain, continued their efforts of impressing upon Govt. of India through Union Minister for Works, Mines & Power, Shri N.V. Gadgil the urgency & dire need of speedy construction of Bhakra Dam. A debate ensued as to who should build the dam. Did the Indian engineers possess the requisite skill and experience to construct a dam of vast magnitute and technical complexities? Could they do it alone? Could the dam be built by the Public Works Department? It was Dr.A.N. Khosla who, with great ability and vision understood the problem and laid down three fundamental policies in this regard. Firstly, he pleaded forcefully that the dam should be constructed by P.W.D. under the guidance of foreign experts. Secondly, the Government of India should play a pro-active role in the building of stupendous dam, the like of which had never been built in the country. Thirdly, since the matter was of inter-provincial importance and the aim was to meet the water requirement of three states viz Punjab, Pepsu and Rajasthan, the height of dam should be increased by about 100 feet.

Thus, Bhakra Control Board an agency to supervise and monitor the progress of the Project was constituted. This organisation had representatives of the Central Government, the Government of Punjab, Pepsu and Rajasthan consisted of:

Governor of Punjab ...... Chairman Secretary, Ministry of Finance, Government of India ...... Vice-Chairman Chairman, Central Water and Power Commission, Government of India ...... Member Secretaries of various states Governments in charge of Irrigation and Power and also Finance Member All the Chief Engineers Incharge of construction ...... Member Joint Secretary, Ministry of Finance, Government of India ...... Member

Later on, in 1952 a Board of Consultants was also set up under the Chairmanship of Dr.A.N. Khosla.

Construction Phase of Bhakra-Nangal Project during 1951 - 1963 The working conditions at Bhakra in the early years of the Project Layout and Construction were appalling, to say the least. The rail-head was up to Ropar (Punjab) only, about 60 Km away from Nangal, the construction of further extension up to Nangal started in 1946. There was hardly any road from Ropar to Nangal before independence, the extension of which up to Nangal started in 1947. Slowly and steadily, the necessary infrastructure started coming up only after 1948. A 50-bed hospital, the first of its kind, was set up at Nangal in 1951 only. Two very vital decisions were taken by Indian Planners and Engineers. One was to build the Bhakra Canal System first in preference to Bhakra Dam and the other to construct the Dam departmentally with the help of foreign experts. Although USBR was design consultant for Bhakra Dam, the execution came in the hands of Indian Engineers of the Deptt. of Irrigation. The full-fledged construction activity started only after April 1952 when Mr. M.Harvey Slocum arrived with his team of construction technicians and engineers from America. The decision to build the Bhakra Canal System before the Dam could be completed was bold, imaginative and of course fruitful. It will remain a landmark in the history of river valley projects. The chief credit for this step goes to Er. Kanwar Sain, Member of the Central Water & Power Commission. It was decided that bulk of the funds and efforts be concentrated on the early completion of the canal system so that nonperennial supply of water might be available to the farmers as early as possible. The ready acceptance and quick implementation of such a policy resulted in the completion of the Bhakra Canal System, which was inaugurated by the First Prime Minister of India, Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru, on 7th July 1954. Pt.Nehru was immensely proud and fond of Bhakra. He visited the project 10 times during its construction. Fired by passion and enthusiasm to build new India, all engineers and technicians put in untiring efforts day & night for almost a decade to build Bhakra Dam the Nations Pride. Pt. Nehru dedicated the dam to the nation on 22nd October 1963.

This is the biggest multipurpose project of India next to Narmada. It was constructed with the cooperation of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan. Its cost of construction was Rs. 2,380 million. The idea of construction of Dam goes to the Sir Louis Dane, the then Lieutenant Governor of Punjab. The total area covered by the Bhakra Dam is about 168 sq km, of which 90% is the part of Bilaspur and 10% of the area belongs to the Una district. The construction of the Dam began in the year 1948 and was completed in 1963. This concrete arch Dam has been constructed with the blood of 150 martyrs and sweat and toil of around 13, 000 workers and 300 engineers. The Dam is three times taller than the Qutab Minar and occupies the important position on the map of India. It is visited by more than 2 to 3 lakh visitors every year from all over the world. The dam 518 metre long and 226 metre high was constructed at Bhakra on river Sutlej in Himachal Pradesh. The Nangal dam in Punjab is only 29 metre high. Here a Canal 63 km long has been constructed. Two power houses-Ganguwal and Kotla have been constructed on Nangal hydel channel. An artificial lake called Gobind Sagar has been created. This lake accumulates water of R. Sutlej and R. Beas. The capacity of the whole project is 1204 mega watt.

Gobind Sagar is a man-made reservoir situated in Bilaspur District, Himachal Pradesh. The reservoir on the river Sutlej, was formed after the hydel dam at Bhakra was constructed and has been named in honour of Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Sikh guru. One of the world's highest gravity dams, the Bhakra dam rises nearly 225.5 m above its lowest foundations. Under the supervision of the American dam-builder, Harvey Slocum, work began in the year of 1955 and was completed in 1962. To maintain the level of water, the flow of river Beas was channelized to Gobind Sagar by the Beas-Sutlej link which was accomplished in 1976. The reservoir lies in the Bilaspur District and Una District. Bilaspur is about 83 km. away from the railway station at Anandpur Sahib.Sarthak In October and November, when the water level of the reservoir is high, a series of regattas are also organised by the Tourism and Civil Aviation department. Water-skiing, sailing, kayaking and water scooter racing are popular water sports activities during this period.Major attractions of the lake include ferry rides and water sports like speed boating. Gobind Sagar was declared as a water fowl refuge in 1962. Fishing is commonly practiced here. It has about fifty one species and sub species. Labeo dero, Tor pitutrata, Mystus seenghala and Mirror carp are some of the common species found here.


Maximum discharge through drum gate Maximum normal water level u /s of gate Design head for the peak discharge taken by Bhakra experts Design head Design Flood, Design discharge Maximum allowable discharge over a spillway is 7500 m3/ s 512.064 m. 10.05 m

Peak normal discharge per unit length of spillway Length of spillway L1 Distance of Toe of spillway from crest Discharge per unit length of spillway q at head hs is given by and C is the coefficient of discharge and is assumed constant. It is straight gravity

8.54 m 11327 m3/ s / 8212 m3/ s respectively 1.647 * normal discharge i.e., 1000 Year flood discharge 1.648 113.75 m3/ s 67.056 m 287.831 m
q = qd

h ss h d

Slope of the spillway Curvature of toe to apron Sloping apron Tail water details 100 year flood level 35.05 m above the sloping apron exit. Normal water level 14.93 m above the sloping apron exit. Normal maximum tail water level 20.72 m. above the sloping apron exit. River bed is 12.192 m above the lowest point of the sloping apron.

dam 225.55 m, crest length 79.24 m (4 radial gates 15.24 m * 14.47 m) 0.8 : 1 114.3 m. 10 : 1 with a length of 118.73 m.

Environment Management
Water Resources of India are contributing to the prosperity of the country a lot in general and Northern India in particular through River Valley Developmental Projects like Bhakra-Beas Project. Concern for environmental pollution is rather a recent phenomenon emerged from the ill-effects of industrial growth through the planning process which somehow overlooked the role of natural resources in developmental activities. Over the years, the information accumulated in course of working of River Valley Projects, revealed that the River Valley Projects like all other developmental projects, have been beneficial but have some adverse impacts. These impacts must be carefully assessed and balanced for achieving sustained benefits. All River Valley Projects Irrigation Power and Multipurpose, began to be referred to the Govt. of India for environmental clearance in 1978. The objective of environmental impact assessment is to ensure that development proceeds hand-in-hand with ecological preservation so as to achieve sustained growth. The objective of considering environmental aspects as integral part of development projects is to achieve:

Sustained development with minimum environmental degradation. Prevention of long-term environmental side effects by incorporating mitigative measures.


The dam was part of the larger multipurpose Bhakra Nangal Project whose aims were to prevent floods in the Sutluj-Beas river valley, to provide irrigation to adjoining states and to provide hydro-electricity. It also became a tourist spot for the tourists during later years because of it huge size and uniqueness.

(i) Hydro Power Generation Bhakra and Nangal dams house hydroelectric power generators, which are situated on both the sides of the dams. Nangal hydel Channel and Anandpur Sahib Channel are used for power generation and irrigation purposes. Each power plant consists of five turbines. Two power houses with a total capacity of 1325 MW flank the dam, on either side of the river. The left power house contains 5 x 108 MW Francis turbines while the right 5 x 157 MW. The power generated at Bhakra Power houses is distributed among partner states of Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Himachal Pradesh and also supplied to common pool consumers like National Fertilizers Ltd. and Chandigarh. (ii) Irrigation Water. The dam was constructed with an aim to provide irrigation to Punjab and Himachal Pradesh. Another reason behind the construction of the dam was to prevent damage due to monsoon floods. The dam provides irrigation to 10 million acres (40,000 km) of fields in Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, and Rajasthan. It also has four flood gates to control floods.

(iii) Flood Control. Floods in the rivers have been many a time playing havoc with the life and property of the people. Dams and reservoirs can be effectively used to control floods by regulating river water flows downstream the dam. The dams are designed, constructed and operated as per a specific plan for routing floods through the basin without any damage to life and property of the people. The water conserved by means of dams and reservoirs at the time of floods can be utilized for meeting irrigation and drinking water requirements and hydro power generation. (iv) Water for drinking and industrial use: Due to large variations in hydrological cycle, dams and reservoirs are required to be constructed to store water during periods of surplus water availability and conserve the same for utilization during lean periods when the water availability is scarce. Properly designed and well-constructed dams play a great role in optimally meeting the drinking water requirements of the people. Water stored in reservoirs is also used vastly for meeting industrial needs. Regulated flow of water from reservoirs help in diluting harmful dissolved substances in river waters during lean periods by supplementing low inflows and thus in maintaining and preserving quality of water within safe limits. (v) Tourist Spot Being the Second highest dam in India, it attracts a large number of tourists who visit its reservoir and attractive location. The distance between the Ganguwal and Bhakra Dam is about 3035 km.

Adverse effect on aquatic life: Regulating & damming of rivers affect their natural flow causing poor sediment flow and excessive sedimentation at the bottom of the reservoir, resulting in rockier stream beds and poorer habitats for rivers aquatic life. Adverse effect on soil fertility: Due to dams, there are no annual floods in the rivers and so the soil of the downstream region do not nutrient rich silt which decreases the fertility of soil. Displacement of local communities: The building of large dams results in displacement of local communities because the local people often give up their land and livelihood and their control over resources for greater food of the nation.

Adverse impact on migration of aquatic life: Dams also fragment rivers making it difficult for the aquatic fauna to migrate, especially for spawning. Change in cropping pattern: The multipurpose river projects are responsible for providing assured means of irrigation to farmers. Due to this, most of the farmers have changed the cropping pattern shifting to water intensive and commercial crops. This has led to Stalinization of soil leading to ecological imbalance. Cause of disputes: Dams created conflicts between people wanting different uses and benefits from the same water resources. Inter-state water disputes are also becoming common with regard to sharing the costs and benefits of the multi-purpose project.

Irrigation Data

Month wise Releases Of Water(In Cusecs) From Bhakra From April 1999 To September 2012
199900 16994 23522 31816 27812 26303 25542 18248 21762 19957 17608 15782 20384 16.14 200001 15073 20191 27748 23867 22779 21496 16174 18430 17891 15386 14025 12995 13.63 2001-02 9176 15144 22289 19868 19638 19999 15322 15881 15951 14834 15415 15676 12.08 2002-03 15673 22082 29520 32199 21157 20463 18803 17449 20703 16474 13331 14876 14.67 2003-04 11914 22915 29371 32112 27091 23610 16655 17991 19330 17560 16860 19415 15.566 2004-05 14112 19036 19528 19325 15801 14623 12444 13674 12567 12024 9149 10213 10.522 200506 13591 17517 23496 30254 33345 22612 16465 16063 18466 16353 19199 14783 14.624 200607 13872 24257 32687 22958 27028 21325 14606 15804 16219 16240 12384 12546 2007-08 21353 21839 21804 23880 22483 21124 15267 14142 15753 14588 15509 17183 2008-09 10019 15975 17890 26613 30553 25113 22235 14947 16704 18176 17244 17521 2009-10 11752 22496 29123 27009 19003 16948 12433 14744 14940 15781 16540 15963 2010-11 10181 20615 28249 19880 36214 38310 18210 15616 18569 15368 16669 20277 2011-12 15677 29449 27833 28098 28503 31287 17544 14159 16241 17319 19736 20574 2012-13 13819 20593 27469 25885 21646 17805


Power Data
Actual Generation (in MU's) From 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 (up to August - 2010) and Planned Generation for 2010-2011 GENERATION (MU's) PLANNED 2010-2011 ACTUAL 2009-10 2008-09 UPTO Aug-10 4795 2041 1425 950 239 102 16 21 ACTUAL UPTO Aug-09 4740 1977 1379 1012 235 99 16 21

UPTO Aug-08 5079 2147 1498 1051 242 104 16 21


9275 3786 2649 1992 539 221 37 51

9494 3870 2712 2049 547 227 37 51

11171 4533 3180 2545 576 248 37 51

How to reach

The nearest airport is Chandigarh (105 km). Nangal is on the Delhi-Una line and there is a daily train "Himachal express" on this route. Nangal is 20 Kms. from Gurdwara Sri Kesgarh Sahib, Anandpur Sahib and 30 Kms. from Gurdwara Sri Kiratpur Sahib.

Books http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhakra_Dam http://bbmb.gov.in/english/bhakra_tourism.asp http://bbmb.gov.in/english/history_nangal_dam.asp

Hydrology and Water Resources Engineering by S. K. Garg