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Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 10e (Robbins/Judge) Chapter 5 Motivation Concepts 1) Jim is a student who cannot work at writing a paper

for more than 30 minutes, yet he can spend many hours writing comments on blogs. What accounts for the change in motivation in this case? A) his ability B) the direction C) his personality D) the congruence E) the structure of the task Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 62-63 Topic: Defining Motivation 2) Motivation is best defined as a process that ________. A) results in a level of effort B) intensifies an individual's efforts C) accounts for an individual's efforts toward attaining a goal D) meets an individual's needs E) stabilizes over time Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 62 Topic: Defining Motivation 3) What are the three key elements of motivation? A) reactance, congruence and circumstance B) interest, activity and reward C) awareness, effort and outcome D) stimulation, progress and achievement E) intensity, direction and persistence Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 62-63 Topic: Defining Motivation 4) In Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, what is the term used for the drive to become what one is capable of becoming? A) perfection B) self-actualization C) hypo-glorification D) self-esteem E) attainment Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 63 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation

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5) The most well-known theory of motivation is Abraham Maslow's ________. A) Theories X and Y B) Hierarchy of Needs C) Two-factor Theory D) Motivator-Hygiene Theory E) Cognitive Evaluation Theory Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 63 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 6) Maslow's hierarchy has five levels of needs. Which of the following is not one of those levels? A) safety needs B) social needs C) animal needs D) self-actualization needs E) physiological needs Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 63 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 7) Which level of Maslow's hierarchy of needs deals with satisfying one's hunger, thirst, and need for sex? A) safety B) physiological C) social D) esteem E) psychological Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 63 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 8) Danielle wants to become a surgeon, not only because achieving this goal will give her selfrespect and autonomy, but also because she wants a job with high status and recognition from others. Which of Maslow's needs is Danielle trying to fill? A) self-actualization B) social C) esteem D) psychological E) safety Answer: C Diff: 3 Page Ref: 63 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills

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9) Maslow's hierarchy of needs arranges those five needs in which of the following orders? A) physiological, esteem, safety, social, and self-actualization B) physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization C) safety, physiological, esteem, social, and self-actualization D) physiological, social, safety, esteem, and self-actualization E) safety, physiological, social, esteem, and self-actualization Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 63 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 10) Hans derives a great sense of belongingness, acceptance and friendship from his relationships with his extended family. Which of Maslow's needs is Hans fulfilling through these relationships? A) lower-order B) self-actualization C) esteem D) social E) physiological Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 63 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills 11) What is the primary organizational factor that satisfies people's physiological needs? A) their relationships with co-workers B) recognition C) pay D) admiration E) their position within the organization Answer: C Diff: 3 Page Ref: 63 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills

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12) Your church is made up of people who are very different in their lifestyles and their stages of life. Mary is a 23-year-old single parent who is working for minimum wage. Jonathan is 60 years old, extremely wealthy and works because he enjoys it. Jane is single, 45 years old and has few interests outside of the office. You have decided to attempt to apply Maslow's hierarchy of needs to determine what motivates each of these individuals. What is the need that you would expect that Mary is trying to satisfy? A) social B) esteem C) physiological D) self-actualization E) alter-actualization Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 63 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills 13) Your church is made up of people who are very different in their lifestyles and their stages of life. Mary is a 23-year-old single parent who is working for minimum wage. Jonathan is 60 years old, extremely wealthy and works because he enjoys it. Jane is single, 45 years old and has few interests outside of the office. You have decided to attempt to apply Maslow's hierarchy of needs to determine what motivates each of these individuals. You would expect that Jane is trying to satisfy her ________ needs. A) social B) esteem C) physiological D) self-actualization E) psychophysical Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 63 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills 14) Your church is made up of people who are very different in their lifestyles and their stages of life. Mary is a 23-year-old single parent who is working for minimum wage. Jonathan is 60 years old, extremely wealthy and works because he enjoys it. Jane is single, 45 years old and has few interests outside of the office. You have decided to attempt to apply Maslow's hierarchy of needs to determine what motivates each of these individuals. According to Maslow, which of the following do you think would motivate Jonathan the most? A) physiological needs B) higher-order needs C) lower-order needs D) none since he is wealthy E) the need for achievement Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 63 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation

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15) According to Maslow, when does a need stop motivating? A) when it is substantially satisfied B) it never stops motivating C) when one returns to a lower-level need D) when one chooses to move to a higher-level need E) only when it is completely satisfied Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 63 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 16) Which of the following were considered higher-order needs by Maslow? A) physiological, safety, social B) safety, social, esteem C) esteem, self-actualization D) social, esteem, self-actualization E) recognition, pay, admiration Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 63 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 17) What is the major problem with Maslow's hierarchy of needs in organizational behavior? A) It is difficult to apply to the workplace. B) It is vague as to how a workplace can satisfy higher-order needs. C) Its terminology tends to alienate those to whom it is applied. D) It has received little recognition among managers. E) The research does not validate the theory. Answer: E Diff: 3 Page Ref: 63-64 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 18) Which of the following theories was proposed by Douglas McGregor? A) Hierarchy of Needs Theory B) Theories X and Y C) Two-Factor Theory D) ERG Theory E) Expectancy Theory Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 64 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation

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19) How would a Theory X manager view employees? A) seeking responsibility B) needing to be coerced to achieve goals C) viewing work as a normal daily activity D) exercising self control E) not motivated by rewards Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 64 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 20) Which of the following is a behavior that would most likely be exhibited by a Theory X manager? A) She lets her employees choose their own goals. B) She trusts her employees to use discretion in most matters. C) She strictly controls the details of any project she is managing. D) She delegates authority extensively to junior managers. E) She honestly informs her employees of the likelihood that they will lose their jobs. Answer: C Diff: 3 Page Ref: 64 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills 21) In what way are Theory X and Theory Y managers alike? A) They are skeptical about their employees' ability to operate independently. B) They have a negative view of human behavior. C) They acknowledge that people in the workplace are mostly motivated by higher-order needs. D) Their behavior follows their assumptions. E) They both motivate their workers in the optimal way given the conditions within their workplace. Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 64 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 22) A Theory Y manager would assume that employees would ________. A) dislike work B) need to be controlled C) avoid responsibility D) accept responsibility E) attempt to avoid work Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 64 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation

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23) Two managers are talking about how they get the best out of their employees: Jo: "I tell my employees that times are tough and there is no way of telling when the guys in head office might try to downsize. Let me tell you, a bit of fear keeps them focused on the task at hand." Chris: "I tell them that head office is making them more responsible for deciding how to do their work. The increased sense of ownership they have makes productivity go way up." How would these managers be best characterized by Douglas McGregor? A) Both hold Theory X assumptions. B) Both hold Theory Y assumptions. C) Chris holds Theory X assumptions; Jo holds Theory Y assumptions. D) Jo holds Theory X assumptions; Chris holds Theory Y assumptions. E) The statements would not indicate that either manager is predisposed to either Theory X or Theory Y assumptions. Answer: D Diff: 3 Page Ref: 64 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills 24) Someone subscribing to Theory Y would agree with which of the following statements? A) Individuals are dominated by Maslow's lower-level needs. B) Individuals are dominated by Maslow's higher-level needs. C) Individuals are not clearly dominated by any particular level of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. D) Individuals are in reality independent of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. E) Individuals are dominated by their needs in a situational context rather than in a strict hierarchy. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 64 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 25) You are a new employee with Acme, Inc. Your supervisor has explained your job to you and has indicated that you will have a great deal of control over your job once you become proficient at it. He compliments your history of accepting responsibility and suggests that you are to feel free to offer constructive criticism about the way that your job is structured. Your supervisor seems to possess ________ assumptions. A) Theory T B) Theory V C) Theory Z D) Theory X E) Theory Y Answer: E Diff: 1 Page Ref: 64 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills 26) You are a new employee with Acme, Inc. Your supervisor has explained your job to you and has indicated that you will have a great deal of control over your job once you become proficient at
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it. He compliments your history of accepting responsibility and suggests that you are to feel free to offer constructive criticism about the way that your job is structured. Which of the following is something you would not expect your supervisor to do? A) assume that you will be internally motivated B) assume that you want to do your job C) allow you freedom to do your job as you believe it should be done D) monitor your work very closely E) empower you to take responsibility Answer: D Diff: 3 Page Ref: 64 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills 27) Who proposed the two-factor theory of motivation? A) Maslow B) McClelland C) McGregor D) Vroom E) Herzberg Answer: E Diff: 1 Page Ref: 65 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 28) What other name is the two-factor theory known by? A) Theories X and Y B) Motivator-Hygiene Theory C) Hierarchy of Needs Theory D) Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction Theory E) Minimal Justification Theory Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 65 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 29) The two-factor theory suggests that dissatisfaction is caused by extrinsic factors. Which of the following is an example of such a factor? A) advancement B) working conditions C) achievement D) recognition E) nature of the work itself Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 65-66 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation

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30) Which of the following is not true about the two-factor theory? A) Working conditions are characterized as hygiene factors. B) Intrinsic factors are motivators. C) A job becomes satisfying when the dissatisfying characteristics are removed. D) Responsibility is a satisfier. E) Hygiene factors are demotivators. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 65-66 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 31) Gerry has a job that pays an excellent salary. She has a good relationship with her peers and her supervisors. She also likes the fact that the company policy fits well with what she personally believes, and that she has received considerable recognition for her achievements at the company. Which of these factors is most likely responsible for the fact that Gerry loves her job? A) high compensation B) good nature of peer relationships C) good nature of supervisor relationships D) good fit between personal beliefs and company policy E) recognition for her achievements Answer: E Diff: 3 Page Ref: 65-66 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills 32) Which one of the following would be considered a motivator in the two-factor theory? A) salary B) supervision C) working conditions D) bonuses E) responsibility Answer: E Diff: 3 Page Ref: 65-66 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation

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33) Your fellow employees have a terrible work situation. They work in an old, run-down building with an antiquated heating system. The work itself is tedious and the supervisor is rarely available and only shows up to give reprimands for production shortfalls. Nobody has received a promotion in two years. The work is boring, repetitious, and unrewarding. You have decided to try to apply Herzberg's two-factor theory. You decide that your first job should be to remedy the hygiene factors. Which are they? A) working conditions B) intrinsic rewards C) recognition D) advancement E) reprimands Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 66 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills 34) Your fellow employees have a terrible work situation. They work in an old, run-down building with an antiquated heating system. The work itself is tedious and the supervisor is rarely available and only shows up to give reprimands for production shortfalls. Nobody has received a promotion in two years. The work is boring, repetitious, and unrewarding. You have decided to try to apply Herzberg's two-factor theory. Which of the following statements would likely be true? A) When the working conditions are improved, employees will be satisfied. B) The relationship with the supervisor is a motivation factor. C) Fixing the conditions that make the employees dissatisfied will not make them satisfied - only not dissatisfied. D) Employees are dissatisfied due to lack of recognition. E) The major reason for dissatisfaction is probably the nature of the work itself. Answer: C Diff: 3 Page Ref: 66 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills

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35) Your fellow employees have a terrible work situation. They work in an old, run-down building with an antiquated heating system. The work itself is tedious and the supervisor is rarely available and only shows up to give reprimands for production shortfalls. Nobody has received a promotion in two years. The work is boring, repetitious, and unrewarding. You have decided to try to apply Herzberg's two-factor theory. What would be the action that could be taken that would probably most motivate the employees? A) improvement in working conditions B) fixing the heating system C) receiving recognition for a job well done D) having the supervisor "hang around" more to closely monitor their work E) a greater reliance on punishment for poor performance Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 66 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills 36) What continuum in the two-factor theory is influenced by the hygiene factors? A) no dissatisfaction to dissatisfaction B) no dissatisfaction to satisfaction C) satisfaction to no satisfaction D) satisfaction to dissatisfaction E) dissatisfaction to exit behavior Answer: A Diff: 3 Page Ref: 66 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 37) Which of the following is a not a criticism of the two-factor theory? A) No overall measure of satisfaction is utilized. B) The research methodology does not examine productivity. C) The theory is inconsistent with previous research and lacks broad appeal. D) The system used by raters is too rigid and not open to interpretation. E) He assumed a strong relationship between satisfaction and productivity, but the research methodology examined only satisfaction. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 66 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 38) McClelland's theory of needs concentrates on which three needs? A) achievement, realization and acceptance B) achievement, power and affiliation C) power, acceptance and confirmation D) affiliation, control and realization E) control, status and relationships Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 66-67 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation

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39) How does McClelland define the need for affiliation? A) drive to excel, to strive to succeed. B) need to make others behave in a novel way C) desire for friendship and close interpersonal relationships D) same as Maslow's social need E) all of the above Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 66-67 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 40) Jasmine is trying to gain control of her department. Although she will be greatly compensated if she achieves this aim, and will gain control over many subordinates, the main reason she is pursuing this position is that she thinks she can do the job better than her predecessors and wants people to know that this is so. What need would McClelland say primarily drives Jasmine in this case? A) the need for control B) the need for success C) the need for attainment D) the need for influence E) the need for power Answer: E Diff: 3 Page Ref: 66-67 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 41) Who proposed that there are three major relevant motives, or needs, that drive one's behavior in the workplace? A) McClelland B) Alderfer C) Herzberg D) Maslow E) Wittenbaum Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 66-67 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 42) According to McClelland, what is the need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise? A) the need for power B) the need for achievement C) the need for affiliation D) the need for control E) the need for social validation Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 66-67 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation

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43) According to McClelland, individuals who have a desire to excel and to succeed are high in A) the need for power. B) the need for achievement. C) the need for motivation. D) the need for affiliation. E) the need for social validation. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 66-67 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 44) Which of Maslow's needs best approximates McClelland's need for achievement? A) esteem B) self-actualization C) social D) physiological E) gratification Answer: B Diff: 3 Page Ref: 67 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills 45) You manage a department of five employees. You have identified that Joe scores high in the need for achievement, Mary scores high in the need for power, and Tim scores high in the need for affiliation. Sarah scored high in the need for power and low in the need for affiliation. Doug scores low in both need for power and need for affiliation. Which employee would be best suited to a challenging new assignment where they would receive rapid feedback? A) Joe B) Mary C) Tim D) Sarah E) Doug Answer: A Diff: 3 Page Ref: 67 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills

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46) You manage a department of five employees. You have identified that Joe scores high in the need for achievement, Mary scores high in the need for power, and Tim scores high in the need for affiliation. Sarah scored high in the need for power and low in the need for affiliation. Doug scores low in both need for power and need for affiliation. Which employee would be best suited as a mentor to new employees with a chance to develop friendships? A) Joe B) Mary C) Tim D) Sarah E) Doug Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 67 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills 47) A manager wishes to motivate a sales employee who is a high achiever. According to McClelland, which of the following sales territories should be assigned to such a salesperson? A) one where he is loosely controlled and he is certain to meet his sales targets B) one where he receives rapid feedback and the probability of success in meeting his sales targets is .5 C) one where he is loosely controlled and there is a moderate chance he will exceed his sales targets D) one where he is closely controlled and there is a small chance he will greatly exceed his sales targets E) one where he is loosely controlled and there is a small chance he will greatly exceed his sales targets Answer: B Diff: 3 Page Ref: 67 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills 48) According to McClelland, an individual who strives for personal achievement rather than the rewards of success per se, probably would have high need for ________. A) achievement B) affiliation C) power D) esteem E) love Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 67 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation

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49) You are supervising a team leader who has a high need for achievement. He is in charge of training employees to use a new phone system. According to McClelland, which of the following courses of action will best ensure this employee stays motivated in his task? A) Trust him to do the job independently, and do not give feedback until the project is completed. B) Trust him to do the job independently, and do not give any feedback unless it is asked for. C) Trust him to do the job independently, but do not fail to provide plenty of feedback. D) Closely supervise him, and provide moderate amounts of feedback. E) Closely supervise him and provide a great deal of feedback. Answer: C Diff: 3 Page Ref: 67 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills 50) The need for ________ identified by McClelland has received the most attention from researchers. A) achievement B) affiliation C) power D) esteem E) belongingness Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 67 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 51) Individuals with a high need to achieve prefer all of the following except ________. A) job situations with a high degree of personal responsibility B) a high degree of risk C) overcoming obstacles D) feedback E) personal empowerment Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 67 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 52) Which of the following appears to be the combination of needs found in the best managers? A) high nAch, high nPow B) high nAch, low nPow C) high nPow, low nAff D) low nPow, high nAff E) low nAff, high nAch Answer: C Diff: 3 Page Ref: 67 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation

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53) The issue of whether or not intrinsic and extrinsic motivators are independent is considered in which theory? A) expectancy B) reinforcement C) equity D) cognitive evaluation E) two-factor Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 67-68 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 54) Cognitive evaluation theory suggests that which of the following would not serve to increase an employee's motivation? A) base pay on performance B) praise good performance C) make the work interesting D) support employee development E) provide verbal rewards Answer: A Diff: 3 Page Ref: 67-68 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 55) According to the goal-setting theory of motivation, highest performance is reached when goals are set to which level? A) impossible but inspirational B) difficult but attainable C) slightly beyond a person's actual potential D) "do your best" E) easily attained Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 69 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 56) Deborah works for a U.S.-based firm with extensive business interests in Latin America. Deborah has successfully used goal-setting theory in her efforts to motivate her U.S. employees. When she tries to use it on her Chilean employees, she has much poorer results. Why is this probably so? A) Language difference makes it very difficult to translate the necessary concepts into Spanish. B) Goal setting theory is culture-bound. C) Chilean employees tend to score high on measures of the need for achievement. D) The goals the workers in Chile must reach are substantially simpler than those her U.S. employees must reach. E) She publicly announced the goals she wanted her Chilean workers to reach. Answer: B Diff: 3 Page Ref: 70 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding
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57) MBO emphasizes translating overall organizational objectives into ________. A) capital gains B) specific objectives for organizational units and individual members C) operational units D) terms that the individual worker can understand and accept E) personal gain Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 70 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 58) Who sets MBO objectives? A) the boss B) the boss and immediate subordinates C) they are set jointly by superior and subordinate D) the employees performing the task in question E) each working division in cooperation with management Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 70 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 59) What sort of goals does Management By Objectives (MBO) emphasize? A) tangible, verifiable and measurable B) achievable, controllable and profitable C) inspirational, teachable and creative D) challenging, emotional and constructive E) hierarchical, attainable and effective Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 70-71 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 60) What does MBO provide for the individual employee? A) specific personal performance objectives B) precise job descriptions C) explicit task objectives D) clear direction and purpose E) higher salaries Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 70-71 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation

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61) Which of the following is an example of an MBO objective? A) Decrease payroll costs in the accounting department by 6% over the next 6 months. B) Modernize outdated equipment. C) Train employees to use new invoicing software. D) Improve customer service. E) Increase employee satisfaction. Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 70-71 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills 62) Which of the following is not an ingredient common to all MBO programs? A) an explicit time period B) participative decision making C) consistent monetary rewards D) performance feedback E) goal specificity Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 70-71 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 63) What is the term used for an individual's personal evaluation of their ability to perform? A) expectancy B) autonomy C) self-efficacy D) task identity E) auto-discrimination Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 71 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 64) All of the following are ways to increase self-efficacy EXCEPT A) arousal B) vicarious modeling C) verbal persuasion D) enactive mastery E) focused training Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 72 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation

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65) In equity theory, individuals assess the ________. A) cost-benefit ratio B) efficiency-effectiveness trade-off C) quantity-quality trade-off D) outcome-input ratio for themselves as compared to others E) pareto efficient outcome Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 73 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 66) When people perceive an imbalance in their outcome-input ratio relative to others, ________. A) reinforcement theory is imbalanced B) expectancy theory is violated C) equity tension is created D) distributive justice is questioned E) they seek to move to another position of authority Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 73 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 67) You graduated from college two years ago and began working at Hampstead Electronics. You have received good performance evaluations and a raise. You just found out that a recent college graduate with no experience has been hired at a higher salary than you are now making. Which of the following will you probably use to evaluate this situation? A) equity B) expectancy C) goal setting D) reinforcement E) self-enhancement Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 73 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills

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68) You graduated from college two years ago and began working at Hampstead Electronics. You have received good performance evaluations and a raise. You just found out that a recent college graduate with no experience has been hired at a higher salary than you are now making. Your referent comparison (the recent college graduate) for equity theory is termed ________. A) self-inside B) self-outside C) other-inside D) other-outside E) inside-outside Answer: C Diff: 3 Page Ref: 73 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills 69) You graduated from college two years ago and began working at Hampstead Electronics. You have received good performance evaluations and a raise. You just found out that a recent college graduate with no experience has been hired at a higher annual salary than you are now making. How can your behavior at work be predicted to change? A) You will work harder. B) You will call in sick more often. C) You will acknowledge that the new person hired is worth more. D) You will not work so hard. E) You will act to undermine the new employee. Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 74 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills 70) James is an employee whose job it is to proofread legal documents. He is paid by the number of documents that he proofs. He discovers that he is paid substantially more than his colleagues, even though their jobs and performances are very similar. What is likely to be his reaction to this discovery according to equity theory? A) The quantity of documents he proofreads will decrease. B) The quality of documents he proofreads will decrease. C) The quality of documents he proofreads will increase. D) He will seek a position within the company commensurate with his pay. E) There will be no effect. Answer: C Diff: 3 Page Ref: 74 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills

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71) What would be the predicted result of underpaying a piece-rate worker, according to equity theory? A) Quality will increase. B) Quantity will increase while quality will decrease. C) Quality will decrease. D) There will be no effect. E) The employee will seek a higher wage. Answer: B Diff: 3 Page Ref: 74 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 72) Contemporary research in equity theory focuses on ________ justice. A) interpersonal B) distributive C) organizational D) procedural E) interactional Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 74 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 73) Equity theory historically focused on ________ justice. A) procedural B) distributive C) interpersonal D) organizational E) interactional Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 74 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 74) Gloria thinks that she is paid less than other workers in her division and feels extremely resentful. She starts taking long breaks and generally wasting time. Her actions were a result of her perceiving what kind of injustice? A) interactive B) interpersonal C) procedural D) distributive E) interactional Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 74 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills

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75) Jessica believes that she received an appropriate salary increase this year but she does not believe that the company's methods for determining salary increases were fair. She believes that there is a problem with the firm's ________ justice. A) interpersonal B) distributive C) equity D) procedural E) outcome Answer: D Diff: 3 Page Ref: 75 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 76) People who perceive that they are victims of interactional injustice tend to blame their immediate supervisor rather than the organization at large. Why is this? A) Interactional justice or injustice is intimately tied to the conveyer of the information. B) Interactional injustice can only occur during face-to-face encounters. C) When people are not treated with respect, they tend to retaliate against those closest to hand. D) Interactional injustice is in the eyes of those who perceive they are disrespected. E) Interactional injustice is most often the result of impersonal policies of the organization. Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 75-76 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills 77) Procedural justice relates most strongly to A) job satisfaction. B) employee trust. C) citizenship behaviors. D) job performance. E) all of the above Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 75-76 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation AASCB Tag: Ethical Understanding and Reasoning Abilities 78) What theory attempts to measure the strength of one's expectations and predict motivation? A) Expectancy theory B) Equity theory C) Goal setting theory D) ERG theory E) Surberist theory Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 76-77 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation

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79) The degree to which an individual believes that performing at a particular level will generate a desired outcome is defined by expectancy theory as what kind of relationship. A) performance-reward B) effort-performance C) reward-personal goal D) effort-satisfaction E) agent-actor Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 77 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 80) Which of the following is one of the relationships proposed in expectancy theory? A) reward-satisfaction relationship B) satisfaction-performance relationship C) rewards-personal goals relationship D) effort-satisfaction relationship E) performance-achievement relationship Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 77 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 81) Helen is an office worker who processes health insurance forms. She has worked at her present job for three years. Initially she was criticized by her supervisor for sloppy work, but in the months after that she improved considerably. Now she consistently processes her forms without errors and above quota. However she has found her supervisor has not responded to the extra effort she puts in, giving her no praise and no financial reward. Helen will most likely perceive that there is a problem in which of the following relationships? A) rewards-personal goals B) performance-reward C) effort-performance D) rewards-effort E) performance-achievement Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 77 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills

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82) According to expectancy theory, the degree to which organizational rewards satisfy an individual's personal goals or needs and the attractiveness of those potential rewards for the individual is known as what sort of relationship. A) performance-reward B) effort-performance C) rewards-personal goals D) effort-satisfaction E) performance-achievement Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 77 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 83) Most current motivation theories have a strong emphasis on individualism and goal accomplishment. Why is this? A) They were developed in the United States by Americans. B) These are the traits needed to successfully motivate people. C) Researchers tend to concentrate on those traits that are easiest to quantify. D) Motivation theory relies on the study of personality traits to understand what drives people. E) These are the two traits that are most distinct in most people worldwide. Answer: A Diff: 3 Page Ref: 78 Topic: Global Implications AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding 84) Which of the following motivation concepts clearly has an American bias? A) need for power B) need for affiliation C) need for achievement D) social needs E) need for association Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 78 Topic: Global Implications AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding 85) Which of the following desires would most likely be common to a worker in China, Australia, Kenya, Canada and Kuwait? A) interesting work B) higher pay C) more flexibility D) telecommuting options E) advancement Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 78 Topic: Global Implications AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding

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86) Motivation is a personality trait. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 62 Topic: Defining Motivation 87) Leadership is the processes that accounts for an individual's intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 62 Topic: Defining Motivation 88) High intensity is unlikely to lead to favorable job-performance outcomes unless the effort is channeled in a direction that benefits the organization. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 62-63 Topic: Defining Motivation 89) The persistence dimension of motivation is a measure of how long a person can maintain effort. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 63 Topic: Defining Motivation 90) The early theories of motivation are most used by practicing managers. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 63 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 91) According to Maslow, a need that is essentially satisfied no longer motivates. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 63 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 92) Esteem is considered a lower-order need. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 63 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 93) Higher-order needs are satisfied externally, whereas lower-order needs are predominantly satisfied internally. Answer: FALSE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 63 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation

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94) Research actively validates Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 63-64 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 95) An assumption of Theory Y is that people are inherently lazy. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 64 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 96) Theory X assumes that human beings view work as being as natural as play. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 64 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 97) McGregor referred to the positive assumptions about human beings as Theory Y. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 64 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 98) Theory X assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 64 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 99) Maslow proposed a two-factor theory, suggesting that intrinsic job factors motivate, whereas extrinsic factors only maintain and placate employees. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 65 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 100) According to Herzberg, the opposite of "satisfaction" is "dissatisfaction." Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 66 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 101) According to Herzberg, some factors lead to satisfaction, and if you remove these factors you create dissatisfaction. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 66 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 102) According to Herzberg, pay strongly motivates. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 66 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation

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103) Herzberg's two-factor theory has not been well supported in the literature. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 66 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 104) McClelland's theory of needs contains a frustration-regression dimension. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 66-67 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 105) A drive to succeed would be described by McClelland as a need for achievement. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 66-67 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 106) High achievers attempt the most difficult goals because once achieved, they gain more recognition. Answer: FALSE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 67 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 107) Individuals with a high need to achieve prefer job situations with personal responsibility, feedback, and an intermediate degree of risk. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 67 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 108) Evidence indicates that high achievers make good managers. Answer: FALSE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 67 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 109) Evidence indicates that the best managers are high in nPow and low in nAff. Answer: TRUE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 67 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 110) Research shows that contemporary theories of motivation are generally more valid than the early theories of motivation. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 67 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation

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111) When extrinsic rewards are given to someone for performing an interesting task, it causes intrinsic interest in the task itself to decline. Answer: TRUE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 67-68 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 112) Cognitive evaluation theory is concerned with whether individuals perceive that rewards are distributed fairly. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 67-68 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 113) According to the cognitive evaluation theory, pay should not be directly related to job performance. Answer: FALSE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 68 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 114) Evidence gathered about the cognitive evaluation theory leads us to believe that extrinsic and intrinsic rewards are independent. Answer: FALSE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 68 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 115) According to goal-setting theory, a generalized goal will produce a high level of output. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 69 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 116) External feedback has been shown to be a more powerful motivator than self-generated feedback. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 69-70 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 117) Difficult goals motivate us more than easy ones since they direct our attention to the task and away from irrelevant distractions. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 69 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 118) Participatively set goals have been clearly shown to elicit improved performance. Answer: FALSE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 70 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation

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119) Goal-setting theory is culture-bound; it is well adapted to countries like the United States and Canada. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 70 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 120) The goals-performance relationship is influenced by feedback, goal commitment, task characteristics, and national culture. Answer: TRUE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 70 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 121) Research indicates that goal-setting theory works equally well on all tasks. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 70 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 122) MBO works from the "bottom up" rather than from the "top down." Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 70 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 123) Self-efficacy refers to an individual's belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 71 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 124) Goal-setting theory and self-efficacy theory compete with one another. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 71 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 125) Equity theory proposes that equity tension is the negative tension state that provides the motivation to do something to correct it. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 73 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 126) In equity theory, if perceived outcomes and inputs are not balanced, an individual will make certain adjustments to correct the imbalance. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 73 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation

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127) Research shows that in equity theory men prefer same-sex comparisons but women do not. Answer: FALSE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 74 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 128) If you pay an individual an hourly rate, according to the equity theory, overpaying this individual will result in more output. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 74 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 129) Underpayment and overpayment, according to equity theory, tend to produce similar reactions to correct the inequities. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 74 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 130) It is possible for an employee to perceive injustice even if the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals is perceived as fair. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 74-75 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 131) Distributive justice refers to the perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 74 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 132) Interactional justice is the individual's perception of the degree to which he or she is treated with dignity, concern, and respect. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 76 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 133) To promote fairness in the workplace, managers should consider openly sharing information on how allocation decisions are made. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 76 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 134) Currently, one of the most widely accepted explanations of motivation is Vroom's expectancy. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 76 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation

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135) Many employees see the performance-reward relationship in their job as weak. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 77 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 136) In expectancy theory, the strength of a person's motivation to perform depends in part on how strongly he believes he can achieve what he attempts. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 77 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 137) The expectancy theory is a contingency model. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 77 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills 138) Most motivation theories were developed in the United States by Americans and about Americans. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 78 Topic: Global Implications AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding 139) Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory aligns with Japanese culture. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 78 Topic: Global Implications AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding 140) Evidence suggests that in collectivist cultures, employees expect rewards to reflect their individual needs as well as their performance. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 78 Topic: Global Implications AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding

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141) Describe Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Answer: Maslow's hierarchy of needs hypothesized that within every human being there exists a hierarchy of five needs. The physiological needs include hunger, thirst, shelter, sex, and other bodily needs. Safety includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm. Social includes affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship. Esteem includes internal esteem factors such as self-respect, autonomy, and achievement; and external esteem factors such as status, recognition, and attention. Self-actualization is the drive to become what one is capable of becoming; includes growth, achieving one's potential, and self-fulfillment. As each of these needs becomes substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant. So if you want to motivate someone, according to Maslow, you need to understand what level of the hierarchy that person is currently on and focus on satisfying those needs at or above that level. Page Ref: 63-64 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 142) What assumptions are held by a Theory Y manager? Answer: The Theory Y manager assumes employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play; people will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectives; the average person can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility; and the ability to make innovative decisions is widely dispersed throughout the population and is not necessarily the sole province of those in management positions. Page Ref: 64 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation 143) According to Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory, how might a manager motivate employees? Answer: According to Herzberg, the factors leading to job satisfaction are separate and distinct from those that lead to job dissatisfaction. Therefore, managers who seek to eliminate factors that can create job dissatisfaction may bring about peace but not necessarily result in motivation, conditions surrounding the job such as quality of supervision, pay, company policies, physical working conditions, relations with others, and job security were characterized by Herzberg as hygiene factors. When they are adequate, people will not be dissatisfied; neither will they be satisfied. If we want to motivate people on their jobs, Herzberg suggested emphasizing factors associated with the work itself or to outcomes directly derived from it, such as promotional opportunities, opportunities for personal growth, recognition, responsibility, and achievement. These are the characteristics that people find intrinsically rewarding. Page Ref: 66 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills

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144) Discuss McClelland's Theory of Needs. What predictions can be made based on the relationship between the achievement need and job performance? Answer: McClelland's theory of needs focuses on three needs: achievement, power, and affiliation. The need for achievement is the drive to excel; to achieve in relation to a set of standards; and to strive to succeed. The need for power is the need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise. The need for affiliation is the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships. Individuals with a high need to achieve prefer job situations with personal responsibility, feedback, and an intermediate degree of risk. When these characteristics are prevalent, high achievers will be strongly motivated. The evidence consistently demonstrates, for instance, that high achievers are successful in entrepreneurial activities such as running their own businesses and managing a self-contained unit within a large organization. A high need to achieve does not necessarily lead to being a good manager, especially in large organizations. People with a high achievement need are interested in how well they do personally and not in influencing others to do well. Employees have been successfully trained to stimulate their achievement need. So if a job calls for a high achiever, management can select a person with a high need for achievement or develop its own candidate through achievement training. Page Ref: 66-67 Topic: Early Theories of Motivation AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills 145) Explain cognitive evaluation theory. Answer: Cognitive evaluation theory proposes that the introduction of extrinsic rewards, such as pay, for work effort that had been previously intrinsically rewarding due to the pleasure associated with the content of the work itself would tend to decrease the overall level of motivation. Cognitive evaluation theory argues that when extrinsic rewards are used by organizations as payoffs for superior performance, the intrinsic rewards, which are derived from individuals doing what they like, are reduced. That is, the extrinsic rewards can cause intrinsic interest in the task itself to decline. Page Ref: 67-68 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation

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146) Discuss goal-setting theory and its implications for managers. Answer: Goal-setting theory proposed that intentions to work toward a goal are a major source of work motivation. Goals tell an employee what needs to be done and how much effort will need to be expended. The evidence strongly supports the value of goals. It shows that specific goals increase performance; that difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher performance than do easy goals; and that feedback leads to higher performance than does nonfeedback. Specific, challenging goals produce a higher level of output than does the generalized goal of "do your best." The specificity of the goal itself acts as an internal stimulus. The more difficult the goals, the higher the level of performance. However, it's logical to assume that easier goals are more likely to be accepted. But once an employee accepts a hard task, he or she will exert a high level of effort until it is achieved, lowered, or abandoned. People will do better when they get feedback on how well they are progressing toward their goals because feedback helps to identify discrepancies between what they have done and what they want to do; that is, feedback acts to guide behavior. Goal-setting theory presupposes that an individual is committed to the goals, that is, is determined not to lower or abandon the goal when the goal is made public, when the individual has an internal locus of control, and when the goal is self-set rather than assigned. Goal-setting has also been found to be culture bound. It is well adapted to countries like the United States and Canada. Page Ref: 69-70 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 147) What is self-efficacy? How does it relate to goal setting theory? Answer: Self-efficacy refers to an individual's belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. The higher your self-efficacy, the more confidence you have in your ability to succeed in a task. Individuals high in self-efficacy seem to respond to negative feedback with increased effort and motivation, while those low in self-efficacy are likely to lessen their effort when given negative feedback. Goal setting theory and self-efficacy theory complement each other. Setting difficult goals for people communicates confidence. When individuals are more confident in themselves (higher self-efficacy), they set higher personal goals, causing them to perform better. Page Ref: 71 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills

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148) Discuss equity theory. Include the concepts of equity tension and referent comparisons. Answer: Employees make comparisons of their job inputs and outcomes relative to those of others. We perceive what we get from a job situation in relation to what we put into it, and then we compare out outcome-input ratio with the outcome-input ratio of relevant others. If we perceive our ratio to be equal to that of the relevant others with whom we compare ourselves, a state of equity is said to exist. We perceive our situation as fair. Equity tension arises when we perceive that this is not the case. When we see ourselves as under-rewarded, the tension creates anger; when over-rewarded, the tension creates guilt. This negative state provides the motivation to do something to correct it. The referent that an employee selects adds to the complexity of equity theory. The four referent comparisons that an employee can use are comparisons to how that employee has been treated in the past in both the company he or she currently works for and in similar situations outside the company(the self-inside and the self-outside) and comparisons to others both within the company he or she currently works for and outside the company (the otherinside and the other-outside). Page Ref: 73-74 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation 149) Discuss distributive justice and procedural justice. Explain how managers can use these concepts. Answer: Historically, equity theory focused on distributive justice or the perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals. But equity should also consider procedural justice the perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards. The evidence indicates that distributive justice has a greater influence on employee satisfaction than procedural justice, while procedural justice tends to affect an employee's organizational commitment, trust in his or her boss, and intention to quit. As a result, managers should consider openly sharing information on how allocation decisions are made, following consistent and unbiased procedures, and engaging in similar practices to increase the perception of procedural justice. By increasing the perception of procedural fairness, employees are likely to view their bosses and the organization as positive even if they're dissatisfied with pay, promotions, and other personal outcomes. Page Ref: 74-76 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills 150) What are the three relationships in Vroom's expectancy theory? Answer: Expectancy theory argues that the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. The theory focuses on three relationships. The effort-performance relationship is the probability perceived by the individual that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance. The performance-reward relationship is the degree to which the individual believes that performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of a desired outcome. The rewards-personal goals relationship is the degree to which organizational rewards satisfy an individual's personal goals or needs and the attractiveness of those potential rewards for the individual. Page Ref: 76-77 Topic: Contemporary Theories of Motivation

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