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20122011

12:30

14:00:

15:30

08:00

09:30

" - - - "

data
processing
data output
storage
networks

.1
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1
2

SOFT

HARD

matriel ou hardware

logiciels ou software

arithmtique binaire

Transistor

1
1

circuit

2
( )

,1948
IBM

PC

1970

standard

Personal Computer
----------- -- 2

Input unit
Unit dentr

Output unit
Unit de sortie

Central Unit
Unit central

1.2

1
2
3
4
5

PS2
serial mouse

USB

6
1.1.2

()

----------- -- 3

12
20
155
1
2.1.2

2
:

:
.

----------- -- 4

12

ISA PCI

SATA IDE

.
.
3.1.2

1000
1000

1
2


Arthmetic Logical Unit
ALU


Input Units


Control Unit


Output Units


Main Memory Unit MMU


Help Storaage Unit
HSU

Input Units 1
Central Processing Unit (CPU) 2

----------- -- 5

)Arithmetic Logical Unit (ALU

Control Unit

)Main Memory Unit (MMU


Random Access Memory

)Read Only Memory (ROM


)(RAM
3 Out Put Unit:

Monitor

:Printer
: XT
ATpentium 5


:
Cyrix AMD
Intel
Pentium 4

2.4 G.Hz/512/400/1.7V

KOSTA RIKA
3239A882-227

() :
:Low Level Language (LLL) )1.0 (
( )
(. )Machine Language
:Middle Level Language
(:)Assembly Language
:High Level Language
(
) ++ .

4 1.2
. )Random Access Memory ( RAM
. (Read Only Memory) ROM
----------- -- 6


( : )

.
:
.cpu
.

2 : ROM

RAM

ROM

()

(
)

51.2 ( )

----------- -- 7

128

32

)intel, sis, ati

6 1.2

7 1.2:

----------- -- 8

8.1.2 HDD :
G80
80000

1024

1024

1024

1024

kilobyte

1024 1024

1048576

megabyte

1024 1024 1024

1073741824

gigabyte

1024 1024 1024 1024

1099511627776

terabyte

1024 1024 1024 1024 1024

1.125899906843 e+15

petabyte

1024 1024 1024 1024 1024 1024

1.152921504607 e+18

exabyte

1.180591620717 e+21 10241024 1024 10241024 1024 1024

zitabyte

1.208925819615 e+24

yobabyte

1024 1024102410241024 1024 1024


1024

: e+15 15 :
2.55 e+8 2.55 100000000 = 255000000 255
1024 .

9.1,2

4
10.1.2

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DVD

4.7

DVD
DVD
1
2
-3

DVD

.
DVD
6 MAX
DVD

DVD

1MAX

MAX
4,7

800 700
11.2.1

F1,F2.F12, ALT,CTRL.
A.B.C
1.2.3.4.5.6.7

1
2
3

Shift + E
Shift + X
Ctrl + X
Shift + Q
Shift + A
+ Shift
Shift + Z
Shift + W
Shift + S
Shift + R
Shift + T
Shift + G
Shift + Y
Shift + H
Shift + N

Shlft + F12
F12
Shift + F12
Ctrl + Home
Ctrl + End
Shift + F1
Ctrl + U
Ctrl + F4
Ctrl + N
Ctrl + H
Ctrl + I
Ctrl + K
Ctrl + P
Ctrl + O
+ Ctrl

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Shift + B
Shift + V
Shift + C
Shift + F
Shift + D
Shift + J
Ctrl + C
Ctrl + V
Ctrl + Z
Ctrl + A
Shift + U
Ctrl + Esc
Ctrl + Enter
Ctrl + Shift
Ctrl + Shift
Ctrl + 1
Ctrl + 5
Ctrl + 2
Ctrl + G
Ctrl + End
Ctrl + F5
Ctrl + F6 +
Ctrl + F2
+ CTRL
Ctrl + Enter
Ctrl + F9

{
}
[
]

Ctrl + Alt +F2


Ctrl + J
Ctrl + L
F10
F5
F8
Ctrl + c
Ctrl + x

Ctrl + Alt
F3
F9
F1
F7
Ctrl + a
Ctrl + v
Ctrl + z

Ctrl + p
Ctrl + w

Ctrl + o
Ctrl + d

Ctrl + F

Ctrl + b

Ctrl + s
Ctrl + Shift
alt + esc

Ctrl + Shift
alt + F4
F2

alt + shift
alt + tab

+ Ctrl
Alt + S
Alt + J
] Alt +
[ Alt +
Alt + U
Alt + P
Alt + L
'' Alt +
Alt + Q
Ctrl + E
Ctrl + F
Ctrl + B
Ctrl + Shift + P
Ctrl + Shift+ S
Ctrl + D
Ctrl + Shift + K
Shift + F3
Ctrl + Shift + L
Ctrl + Alt + E
Ctrl + Alt + I
Shift + F7
Ctrl + Alt + F1
Ctrl + Q
Ctrl + M
Shift + F5


Capital








alt : shift

13.1.2

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14

17

15

( )

( )

640

480

640 480

800

600

800 600

1024

768

1024 768

1152

864

1152 864

1280

1024

1280 1024

1600

1200

1600 1200

14.1.2 :
PC

By Purpose
1

General Purpose Computer

Special Purpose Computer

Type Of Data Processed

Analog Computer

Digital Computer

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Hybrid Computer

Microcomputers

Microprcessor

Personal Computer (PC

20

Minicomputers

)Personal Computers(PC

Main Computers
Main Computers

)4 :Super Computers
( )SYBER ( )CDC
.
Super Computers

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3 .
: 1959 1945
1945 )INICE( :
* .
*
* .
.
* .
: 1964 1959 :
* .
* .
* .
* .
* .
Integrated Circuit )IC
: 1970 1964 (
.
: 1995 1970
* ( )IC.
*

(.)PC
*
)Pintume( 100 .

*
( Random Access Memory )RAM
(.Read Only Memory )ROM
*
( )Windows .

1995 :
* .
* ( )CD-ROM
( )Flash Memory .

*
( )ROBOT ( .)
*
.

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