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Submitted to:Ms.

Garima Mathur (HOD,ECE)

Submitted by:Vaibhav Bhootna (EC09121)

A presentation on summer training taken at AT bsnl

Company Profile Introduction Services Provided Exchange MDF OCB GSM Conclusion

Type: State-Owned Enterprise

Head Quarter's New Delhi Key People: Mr. R K Upadhyay (Chairman & MD) Established: Oct 2000 Owner: Govt. Of India

Today, BSNL is the No. 1 telecommunication company and the largest public sector undertaking of India and its responsibilities includes improvement of the already impeccable quality of telecom

services, expansion of telecom services in all villages and cities

Universal Telecom Services Cellular Mobile Telephone Services WLL-CDMA Telecom Services Internet Intelligent Network 3G IPTV VVoIP WiMax (4th Gen Wireless Broadband)

Equipment which effects interconnection of

telephones is known as switching equipment. The

switching centre, which houses the terminating and

switching equipment is called telephone exchange.


All telephone subscribers are served by automatic exchanges. 2. Todays automatic exchanges uses a pair of computers. One, running the program that provides services.

Second, monitoring the operation of the first, ready to take over in a few seconds in the event of equipment failure.

Various exchanges present in BSNL are: > C-DOT > OCB > EWSD

Typical exchange consist of :


Room Operations and Maintenance (OMC) Room Input Output processor (IOP) Room Power Plant Room Battery Room Main Distribution Frame (MDF) Room


Switch room consists of BM and CM cabinets mounted in standard switch. These cabinets are fastened to a switch Room and interconnected by cables.

Main Distribution Frame is a signal distribution frame or a cable rack used in telephony to interconnect and manage telecommunication between itself and any number of intermediate distribution frame and cabling from the telephone network it supports

Vertical side Horizontal side

RACK: -On the rack, the tags are situated. One rack is having eight tags. The
counting is done from up (0) to down (7).

TAGS: -Each rack consists of eight tags.

1 tag = 4 core 1 core = 4 bunch 1 bunch = 2 line

N.E.:-The word NE stands for the NUMBER OF EQUIPMENT.

It is used for testing number .

WEDGE: Wedge is used as a device for checking the ring. Wedge is placed in
jack strips, which is connected to telephone for checking.


The horizontal side connected to the underground cable. This cable is having 100 pairs. These pair is distributed when we allot the telephone number to the subscriber.
Horizontal side is again subdivided in two parts: One part is connected with the vertical side. Another with the subscriber line by using 100 pair underground cable.

The new switching systems are based on Stored Program Control concept. The call processing programmers are distributed over different control organs of the system and are stored in ROM/RAM of the units Processor in the control units . Features:

It is a digital switching system. The system supports all the existing signaling system .
The system has auto recovery feature. When a serious fault occur in control unit, it gives a message to SMM (operation & maintenance unit).

DC voltage is used because it doesnt produce any noise on the line. 48v is efficient to transmit over a long distance and safe for Telecom Technician and service personnel. Negative Voltage is used to reduce the corrosion from electro-chemical reactions occurring on a wet telephone wire.

- Torleiv Maseng is regarded as the father of the GSM Technology. - 1989, GSM responsibility was transferred to the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) - first GSM network was launched in 1991 by Radiolinja in Finland with joint technical infrastructure maintenance from Ericsson.

Global System for Mobile Communication

GSM is an ETSI standard for 2G Pan-European digital cellular with international roaming

2G GSM networks operate in the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz bands. GSM-900 uses 890915 MHz to send information from the mobile station to the base station (uplink) 935960 MHz for the other direction (downlink),

This system structured hierarchically as shown:

It consist of one administrative region, which is assigned to a MSC(Mobile Switching Center). Each administrative Region is made up of at least one Location Area(LA). LA is also called the visited area. An LA consists of several cell groups. Each cell group is assigned to a base station controller(BSC). Cells of one BSC may belong to different LAs.

Mobile Equipment (ME) Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) Base Station controller (BSC) Base Station Subsystem (BSS) Mobile services Switching Center (MSC) Home Location Register (HLR) Authentication Centre (AuC) Equipment Identity Register (EIR) Visitor Location Register (VLR) Public Switch Telephone Network (PSTN)

MS refers to the physical

phone itself. uniquely identified by the International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) number. Sim is small smart card that is inserted into the phone and carries information specific to the subscriber

carry out radio communications between the network and the MS

handles speech encoding, encryption, multiplexing (TDMA), and modulation/demodulation

allocation of radio channels

frequency administration

power and signal measurements from the MS,

handovers from one BTS to another

call routing, call setup, and basic switching functions

inter-BSC handoffs as well as coordinates with other MSC's for inter-MSC handoffs.

gateway between two networks switch to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN).

HLR maintains subscriberspecific information such as the MSISDN, IMSI, current location of the MS, roaming restrictions,
VLR is a database that contains a subset of the information located on the HLR

EIR is a database that keeps tracks of handsets on the network using the IMEI handles the authentication and encryption tasks for the network =

MSISDN is Subscriber Telephone number IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity) MSISDN is a number uniquely identifying a subscription in a GSM or UMTS network.

The MSISDN and IMSI are two important numbers used for identifying a mobile subscriber IMSI is used as key in HLR IMSI is uniquely associated to a SIM

During this summer training period at RTTC Jaipur , I come to know about the various telecommunication equipment and technologies used earlier , or which are currently in use such as GSM 3G & CDMA, switching systems of OCB & CDOT and data communication systems with Internet nodes , Wi-Fi equipment, IP VPN. Basically I have discussed the GSM and the telephone exchange to give an overview to understand the telecommunication system.