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PATHO PHYSIOLOGICAL

EFFECTS OF DRUG
ADDICTION

BY: JOHN ARBIE T. TATTAO, RN


DRUG
 is a chemical substance used as medicine or
in making medicines which affects the body
and mind and have a potential for abuse.

 Drugs are chemicals that have a profound


impact on the neurochemical balance in the
brain which directly affects how you feel and
act.
DRUG ABUSE
 Dangerous Drugs Board (DDB) – is the
deliberate use of medically useful drugs
which have the capacity to alter mood and
behavior without the benefit of a
prescription.

 Means the use of any drug, medically


speaking, to the point where it seriously
interferes with the health, economic status,
or social functioning of the drug user or
others affected by the drug user’s behavior.
DRUG DEPENDENCY
 as defined by DDB is a state of psychological
or physical reliance or dependence on a
dangerous drug following the administration
or use of the drug on a periodic or
continuous basis

 WHO: refers to it as a condition or state


arising from repeated administration of a
drug periodically or continuously
DRUG DEPENDENCY: SIGNS
 TOLERANCE

 WITHDRAWAL/ABSTINENCE SYNDROME
2 TYPES OF DEPENDENCE
1. DRUG HABITUATION/PSYCHOLOGICAL
DEPENDENCE:
Ø A condition resulting from the repeated
consumption of drug
Characteristics:
d. A desire (but not compulsion) to continue
taking the drug for the sense of improved well-
being.
e. Little or no tendency to increase the dose.
f. The drug user is more deleteriously affected
with the drug than is society or another person.
2 TYPES OF DEPENDENCE
2. DRUG ADDICTION/PHYSICAL DEPENDENCY:
ØIs a state of period or chronic intoxication
produced by the repeated consumption of a
drug.
Characteristics:
d. Overpowering desire or need (compulsion) to
continue taking the drug and to obtain it by
any means
e. A tendency to increase the dose
f. Detrimental effects on the individual and
society
g. When the drug is stopped, physical disturbance
results
DRUG ABUSER
 a person who uses or administers to
himself or allows other to administer
dangerous drugs to himself without
medical approval.
3 Categories:
3. EXPERIMENTER – out of curiosity ,
uses or administers to himself
dangerous drugs one or a few
times.
4. CASUAL USERS – who from time to
time uses or administers drug to
himself in an attempt to refresh his
mind and body and as a form of
play, amusement or relaxation.
5. DRUG DEPENDENT – who regularly
consumes or administers
dangerous drugs to himself and
has acquired psychological or
physical dependence on the drugs
which has gone beyond a state of
voluntary control.
CLASSIFICATION OF DRUGS THAT ARE
ABUSED
1. DEPRESSANTS (DOWNERS) – these are Heroin and
drugs which suppress vital body Morphine
functions especially those of the brain or
central nervous system with the
resulting impairment of judgment,
hearing, speech and muscular
coordination. They dull the minds, slow
down body reactions to such an extent
that accidental deaths and or suicides,
usually happen.
Example: Opiates (CHOM)
Sedative-Hypnotics BENZO
(Barbiturates, DIAZEPINES
Benzodiazepines (Valium),
Tranquilizer)
Inhalants
Alcohol
CLASSIFICATION OF DRUGS
THAT ARE ABUSED
2. STIMULANTS (Uppers) – instead of bringing
about relaxation and sleep, they produce
increased mental alertness, wakefulness,
reduce hunger, and provide a feeling of well-
being.
Examples: (CANS)
CLASSIFICATION OF DRUGS
THAT ARE ABUSED
3. HALLUCINOGENS (Psychedelic) – consists of
drugs which affect sensation, thinking, self-
awareness and emotion. The user
experiences delusions and hallucinations.
Examples: Marijuana
LSD (Lysergic Acid Diethlylamide)
PCP (Phencyclidine)
What is Drug Addiction?
 Addiction is defined as a chronic, relapsing
brain disease that is characterized by
compulsive drug seeking and use, despite
harmful consequences.
Reason Why People Takes
Drugs
 To feel good.

 To feel better.

 To do better.

 Curiosity and "because


others are doing it.”
Risk Factors For Drug
Addiction
Pathophysiology: Drugs and
the Brain
Brain areas affected by drug abuse -
 The brain stem controls basic functions
critical to life, such as heart rate,
breathing, and sleeping.

 The limbic system contains the brain's


reward circuit - it links together a number
of brain structures that control and
regulate our ability to feel pleasure

 The cerebral cortex is divided into


areas that control specific functions.
Different areas process information from
our senses, enabling us to see, feel, hear,
and taste. The front part of the cortex,
the frontal cortex or forebrain, is the
thinking center of the brain;
Pathophysiology

DRUG
TOLERANCE

EUPHORI
A
Pathophysiological Effects of
Drug Abuse
How do drugs work in the
brain to produce pleasure?
All drugs of abuse directly or indirectly
target the brain's reward system by flooding
the circuit with dopamine.
How does stimulation of the brain's
pleasure circuit teach us to keep taking
drugs?
Our brains are wired to ensure
that we will repeat life-
sustaining activities by
associating those activities
with pleasure or reward.
Whenever this reward circuit is
activated, the brain notes that
something important is
happening that needs to be
remembered, and teaches us
to do it again and again,
without thinking about it.
Because drugs of abuse
stimulate the same circuit, we
learn to abuse drugs in the
same way.
Why are drugs more addictive
than natural rewards?
When some drugs of abuse are taken, they
can release 2 to 10 times the amount of
dopamine that natural rewards do. In some
cases, this occurs almost immediately (as
when drugs are smoked or injected), and the
effects can last much longer than those
produced by natural rewards.
SYMPTOMS OF DRUG
ABUSE Signs and symptoms of use
DOWNERS and dependence on these
drugs include:
(Suppress vital
Body functions) •Drowsiness
•Slurred speech
•Seems drunk as if from
alcohol but without the
associated odor of alcohol
•Lack of coordination
•Clumsiness
•Memory impairment
•Confusion
•Slowed breathing and
decreased blood pressure
•Dizziness
•Depression
•Contracted pupils
SYMPTOMS OF DRUG
ABUSE Signs and symptoms of use
and dependence on these
drugs include:
UPPERS
(Elevation •Euphoria
•Decreased appetite
Of body functions) •May go long periods of time
without eating or sleeping
•Rapid speech
•Dilated pupils
•Irritability
•Restlessness
•Nasal congestion and damage to
the mucous membrane of the
nose in users who snort drugs
(Perforated Nasal Septum)
•Insomnia
•Weight loss
•Increased heart rate, blood
pressure and temperature
•Paranoia
SYMPTOMS OF DRUG
ABUSE

H
PSYCHEDELICS
(Impairs Thought ALLUCINOGENS
Process)

S/SX:
Marijuana:
Serious mental changes
(psychoses) like insanity, ALLUCINATION
suicidal, and or homicidal
tendencies
Bloodshot eyes
Altered sense of
time/disorientation
Forgetfulness/inability to
think
Impaired concentration
Long Term Effects: “Marijuana
Burn out” – dull, slow
moving, inattentive,
unaware of surroundings
SYMPTOMS OF DRUG
ABUSE
Signs and symptoms of LSD Signs and symptoms of PCP
use include: use include:

 Hallucinations  Hallucinations
 Greatly impaired  Euphoria
perception of reality  Delusions
 Permanent mental  Panic
changes in perception  Loss of appetite
 Rapid heart rate  Depression
 High blood pressure  Aggressive, possibly
 Tremors violent behavior
 Flashbacks, a re-
experience of the
hallucinations — even
years later
SYMPTOMS OF DRUG
DEPENDENCE
PHYSICAL EFFECTS OF DRUG
ADDICTION
Depressants
How They're Used: Depressants are swallowed (Oral tablets).

Effects & Dangers:


 When used as prescribed by a doctor and taken at the correct
dosage, depressants can help people feel calm and reduce
angry feelings.
 Larger doses can cause confusion, slurred speech, lack of
coordination, and tremors.
 Very large doses can cause a person to stop breathing and
result in death.
 Depressants and alcohol should never be mixed — this
combination greatly increases the risk of overdose and death.

Addictiveness: Depressants can cause both psychological and


physical dependence.
PHYSICAL EFFECTS OF DRUG
ADDICTION
Alcohol
How It's Used: Alcohol is a liquid that is drunk.
Effects & Dangers:
 Alcohol first acts as a stimulant, and then it makes people feel relaxed and a bit
sleepy.

 High doses of alcohol seriously affect judgment and coordination. Drinkers may
have slurred speech, confusion, depression, short-term memory loss, and slow
reaction times.

 Large volumes of alcohol drunk in a short period of time may cause alcohol
poisoning.

Addictiveness: Teens who use alcohol can become psychologically dependent


upon it to feel good, deal with life, or handle stress. In addition, their bodies may
demand more and more to achieve the same kind of high experienced in the
beginning. Some teens are also at risk of becoming physically addicted to
alcohol. Withdrawal from alcohol can be painful and even life threatening.
Symptoms range from shaking, sweating, nausea, anxiety, and depression to
hallucinations, fever, and convulsions.
PHYSICAL EFFECTS OF DRUG ADDICTION

Inhalants
 Inhalants are substances that are sniffed or "huffed" to give the user an
immediate rush or high.

How It's Used: Inhalants are breathed in directly from the original
container (sniffing or snorting), from a plastic bag (bagging), or by
holding an inhalant-soaked rag in the mouth (huffing).

Effects & Dangers:


 Inhalants make you feel giddy and confused, as if you were drunk. Long-
time users get headaches, nosebleeds, and may suffer loss of hearing
and sense of smell.
 Inhalants are the most likely of abused substances to cause severe toxic
reaction and death. Using inhalants, even one time, can kill you.

Addictiveness: Inhalants can be very addictive. Teens who use inhalants


can become psychologically dependent upon them to feel good, deal
with life, or handle stress.
PHYSICAL EFFECTS OF DRUG
ADDICTION
Heroin

How It's Used: Heroin is injected, smoked, or inhaled (if it is pure).

Effects & Dangers:


 Heroin gives you a burst of euphoric (high) feelings, especially if it's
injected. This high is often followed by drowsiness, nausea, stomach
cramps, and vomiting.
 Users feel the need to take more heroin as soon as possible just to feel
good again.
 With long-term use, heroin ravages the body. It is associated with chronic
constipation, dry skin, scarred veins, and breathing problems.
 Users who inject heroin often have collapsed veins and put themselves at
risk of getting deadly infections such as HIV, hepatitis B or C, and bacterial
endocarditis (inflammation of the lining of the heart) if they share needles
with other users.

Addictiveness: Heroin is extremely addictive and easy to overdose on


(which can cause death). Withdrawal is intense and symptoms include
insomnia, vomiting, and muscle pain.
PHYSICAL EFFECTS OF DRUG
ADDICTION
Cocaine

How They're Used: Cocaine is inhaled through the nose or


injected.

Effects & Dangers:


 Cocaine is a stimulant that rocks the central nervous system,
giving users a quick, intense feeling of power and energy.
Snorting highs last between 15 and 30 minutes; smoking highs
last between 5 and 10 minutes.
 Injecting cocaine can give you hepatitis or AIDS if you share
needles with other users. Snorting can also put a hole inside the
lining of your nose.
 First-time users — even teens — can stop breathing or have fatal
heart attacks. Using either of these drugs even one time can kill
you.

Addictiveness: These drugs are highly addictive. Even after one


use, cocaine can create both physical and psychological
cravings that make it very, very difficult for users to stop.
PHYSICAL EFFECTS OF DRUG
ADDICTION
Amphetamines

How They're Used: Amphetamines are swallowed,


inhaled, or injected.

Effects & Dangers:


 Swallowed or snorted, these drugs hit users with a fast
high, making them feel powerful, alert, and energized.
 Uppers pump up heart rate, breathing, and blood
pressure, and they can also cause sweating, shaking,
headaches, sleeplessness, and blurred vision.
 Prolonged use may cause hallucinations and intense
paranoia.

Addictiveness: Amphetamines are psychologically


addictive. Users who stop report that they experience
various mood problems such as aggression, anxiety,
and intense cravings for the drugs.
PHYSICAL EFFECTS OF DRUG
ADDICTION
Nicotine

How It's Used: Nicotine is typically smoked in cigarettes or cigars.


Some people put a pinch of tobacco (called chewing or
smokeless tobacco) into their mouths and absorb nicotine through
the lining of their mouths.

Effects & Dangers:


 Physical effects include rapid heartbeat, increased blood pressure,
shortness of breath, and a greater likelihood of colds and flu.
 Nicotine users have an increased risk for lung and heart disease and
stroke. Smokers also have bad breath and yellowed teeth. Chewing
tobacco users may suffer from cancers of the mouth and neck.
 Withdrawal symptoms include anxiety, anger, restlessness, and
insomnia.

Addictiveness: Nicotine is as addictive as heroin or cocaine, which


makes it extremely difficult to quit. Those who start smoking before
the age of 21 have the hardest time breaking the habit.
PHYSICAL EFFECTS OF DRUG
ADDICTION
Methamphetamine

How It's Used: It can be swallowed, snorted, injected, or


smoked.

Effects & Dangers:


 Users feel a euphoric rush from methamphetamine,
particularly if it is smoked or shot up. But they can develop
tolerance quickly — and will use more meth for longer
periods of time, resulting in sleeplessness, paranoia, and
hallucinations.
 Users sometimes have intense delusions such as believing
that there are insects crawling under their skin.
 Prolonged use may result in violent, aggressive behavior,
psychosis, and brain damage.

 Addictiveness: Methamphetamine is highly addictive.


PHYSICAL EFFECTS OF DRUG
ADDICTION
Marijuana
 Marijuana is often called a gateway drug because frequent use can lead
to the use of stronger drugs.

How It's Used: Marijuana is usually smoked — rolled in papers like a


cigarette (joints). Some people mix it into foods or brew it as a tea.

Effects & Dangers:


 Marijuana can affect mood and coordination. Users may experience
mood swings that range from stimulated or happy to drowsy or
depressed.
 Marijuana also elevates heart rate and blood pressure. Some people get
red eyes and feel very sleepy or hungry. The drug can also make some
people paranoid or cause them to hallucinate.
 Marijuana is as tough on the lungs as cigarettes — steady smokers
suffer coughs, wheezing, and frequent colds.

Addictiveness: Teens who use marijuana can become psychologically


dependent upon it to feel good, deal with life, or handle stress. In
addition, their bodies may demand more and more marijuana to
achieve the same kind of high experienced in the beginning.
PHYSICAL EFFECTS OF DRUG
ADDICTION
LSD

How It's Used: LSD is licked or sucked off small squares of blotting
paper. Capsules and liquid forms are swallowed. Paper squares
containing acid may be decorated with cute cartoon characters or
colorful designs.

Effects & Dangers:


 Hallucinations occur within 30 to 90 minutes of dropping acid. People
say their senses are intensified and distorted — they see colors or hear
sounds with other delusions such as melting walls and a loss of any
sense of time. But effects are unpredictable, depending on how much
LSD is taken and the user.
 May cause panic attacks, confusion, depression, and frightening
delusions.
 Physical risks include sleeplessness, mangled speech, convulsions,
increased heart rate, and coma.
 Users often have flashbacks in which they feel some of the effects of
LSD at a later time without having used the drug again.

Addictiveness: Teens who use it can become psychologically dependent


upon it to feel good, deal with life, or handle stress.
PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF
DRUG ADDICTION
qDeterioration of personality with impaired
emotional maturation

qImpairment of adequate mental function

qLoss of drive and ambition

qDevelopment of psychosis and depression


PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF
DRUG ADDICTION
qLoss of interest to study

qLaziness and Lethargy

qBoredom and Restlessness

qIrritability, Rebellious Attitude

qWithdrawn, forgetfulness
MENTAL EFFECTS OF DRUG
ADDICTION
qAdverse effects on the CNS. Regular use or
injection of large doses reduces the activity
of the brain and depresses the CNS. The drug
dependent then manifests changes in his
mind and behavior that are undesirable by
people in his environment.

qDeterioration of the mind. In other instances,


the drug dependent abruptly loses interest
and motivation in the pursuit of achievement
and constructive goals.
FAQ’S: What causes people to
abused drugs?
 Some are thrill-seekers, some just curious; some
try drugs because their friends use, or they want
to be perceived as cool.

 Many people use drugs in order to cope with


unpleasant emotions and the difficulties of life.

 People who are suffering emotionally use drugs


not so much for the rush but to escape from
their problems. They’re trying to self-medicate
themselves out of loneliness, low self-esteem,
unhappy relationships, stress, and many other
types of problems.
FAQ’s: Why are teenagers
especially vulnerable to drug
abuse
 In the adolescent brain, the centers for judgment and
self-control are still developing, resulting in many teens
being less than careful about the decisions they make
and more open to risk-taking

 Kids think they’re immortal and nothing can kill them

 Teens are notorious conformists, so many are going to


want to do what the other kids are doing, or do things
that they think will make them look cool

 Contemporary adolescence is filled with stress and


problems, some of which is exaggerated, but
unfortunately some of the stress is experienced fully.
FAQ’s: What are some
common warnings of teen
drug use?
 School performance, declining grades, increased
absences, reported truancy

 Withdrawal from hobbies, teams, family life

 Marked change in behavior ranging from hostility


to violence

 Changes in energy level, having unusual


amounts of energy or increased fatigue
FAQ’s: What are some
common warnings of teen
drug use?
 Increased secrecy about possessions or
activities

 Use of incense, room freshener, or perfume


to hide smoke or chemical odors

 Wearing new clothes that highlight drug use,


or suggest inappropriate conduct, or lack of
concern for appearance and grooming

 Evidence of drug paraphernalia


FAQ’s: What are some
common warnings of teen
drug use?
 Evidence of eye drops used to mask
bloodshot eyes or dilated pupils.

 Unusual requests for money without


reasonable explanations for why they need
it, discovering money has been stolen from
your home or wallet, or finding objects
missing which may have been sold to
support a drug habit.
FAQ’s: What is the Phil.
Government doing about drug
abuse?
 The Phil. Government considers drug abuse
as a multi-faceted problem that threatens
the health and well-being of Filipinos across
all levels of society.
 R.A. 6425 – Dangerous Drug Act which
defined the role of gov’t in the prevention
and control of drug abuse in the country
> Created the DDB, the national drug
policy making and coordinating
body.
FAQ’s: What is K.l.L.L.
Droga?
KILL Droga (Kilos Laya Laban sa Droga)
ØIt is an apolitical and non-profit organization. The sole
reason of its creation is to fight illegal drugs for a drug-
free Philippines.

VISSION:
ØKILL DROGA is committed to the attainment of a drug-
free Philippines by the year 2010.

MISSION:
ØTo actively participate in and support the drug law
enforcement and prevention efforts

GOAL:
> To reduce both the demand and supply of dangerous
drugs to zero by the year 2010.
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