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GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN

NATIONAL HIGHWAY AUTHORITY

RT GNCR SPCCIFICRTIONS
(DECEMBER- 1998)

By: Prepared Presented &

5F|':T1 FFIF<
INTERNATIONAL (PVT) LTD.
Engineering Design, Supervisionand ManagementConsultants

JoharTown, G-568, Pakistan. Lahore,

FOREWORD

Review and updating of General Specificationsof National Highway Authority (1991) became essential in light of new responsibilities entrusted by the Honorable Prime Ministerof Pakistanon this Agency to Construct Motorways and other important highways standards. on international In order to assess the new requirementsof General Specifications we arranged series of meetings with other consultants of the Authority, besides getting the opinions of major contractors in Highway Industry. We also consulted different Directoratesof the Authority to know the problems felt by them during execution of highway projects. A seminar was also arranged to discuss various maters, which attracted representatives of various clients, consultants and contractors of highway industry in Pakistan. We have carried out amendments in the current General Specifications looking to the causes of disputes and reasons of failure of certain roads constructed in various parts of the country. Addition of new items has also been made in the existing specifications to cater for future needs of NationalHighway Authority. Our sincere thanks are due to several agencies, which contributed in compilation of this important document, however special attention of Contracts and SpecificationsSection of NationalHighwayAuthority under the guidanceof GhairmanNHA, helped us to complete the assignment successfully. We hope that this document will iontribute effectively in improvingthe workmanshipand qualityof highwayconstructionin Pakistan.

For SAMPAK International(Pvt) Ltd., (S.M.A. Shirazi)

NAIIONAI,

HIGEWAY

AI]THOnITY

GEi\TERAI SPECII{CAIIONS Table of Contents


Item No.
General EARTITVYORKAND ALLIED ACTIVITIES Item-100 101 102 103 104 105 106 . 107 108 109 110 111 112 General Clearing and Grubbing. . . Removalof Trees Stripping Compactionof NaturalGround Roadway and Borrow Excavation or Excavation Unsuitable SurplusMaterial of and Backfill StructuralExcavation Formationof Embankment SubgradePreparation lmprovedsubgrade Subgrade Soil Cement Stabilized Lime StabilizedSubgrade .. . . .

Description

Page
G-1- G-39 100-1 100-4 101-1 101-2 102-1 103-1 104-1 105-1 1054 106-1 106-2 107-1 107-7 108-1 108-7 109-1 109.4 110-1-',t104 111-1 111-5 1 1 2 - 1' t 1 2 - 4 1 1 3 -- 1 1 3 - 3 1 114-1 114-2 115-- 115-3 1 200-1- 200-3 201-1 201-5 202-1- 2024 203-1 203-13 204-1- 204-6 205-1- 205-3 206-1- 206-4 207-'l

'113 BitumenStabilizedSubgrade 114 115 of Dressingand Compaction Berms

from Brick Kiln Material Reinstatement Shoulders of SUBBASEANp B.{SE

Item -200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207

General Subbase Granular AggregateBase Course AsphalticBase CoursePlant Mix . . and Base Subbase SoilCementStabilized Crack-ReliefLayer Water Bound MacadamBase . Deep Patching

Item No. 208 209

Description
Reinstatement Road Surface of Scarification Existing of Road/ Breaking RoadPavement of Structure

Page
208-1- 2Og-2

210

Pavement Widening

211 LimeStabilized Aggregate BaseCourse 2 1 2 BitumenStabilized Sub-Base Base or

209-1 210-1- 210-2 211-1 211-4

212-1- 215-5 zt5 ColdRecycling RoadPavement of Structure SoilStabilization / ..... 213-1- 213-4 2 1 4 Asphaltic ConcreteBinderCourse 214-1 214-4 215 Geotextiles 216
SolingStone .

215-1 215-6 '216-2 216-1 217-1 217-5

2 1 7 Interlocking ConcretePavingBlocks
SURFACECOURSES AND PAVEIVIENT

Item-300

General

301 Asphaltic Materials 302 Bituminous PrimeCoat ,303 Bituminous Tack Coat 304
BituminousSurfaceTreatmentand Seal Coat

300-1 301-1 301-3d 302-1- 302-4 303-1 303-2 304-1- 304-7 305-1 305-6 306-1- 306-3 307-1 307-5 308-1 308-2 309-1 309-2 310-1 310-26 3 ' t1 - 1- 3 11 - 8 312-1
4OO-1 4OO_2 400(z\)_1400(A)_3 401_j- 401_33 402..1- 402-4 403-1- 403_4 404-1- 104-5 405-1 405-10

305 Asphaltic Concrete WearingCoursePlantMix 306 307 308 309


?1n ? 11

Shoulder Treatment Bit - Mac Hot Recycling AsphaltConcrete of ColdMilling ConcretePavements ...:.

AsphaltConcrete WearingCourse(PlantMix)with Cellulose Fibre

312

ProofRolling STRUCTURES

Item -400

General

400(4)Bridges and Cutverts 401 402 403 404 105 Concrete Falsework and Centering Bridges for Form work SteelReinforcement PrestressedConcreteStructures

Item No. 406 407 408

Description
JointsandBearing Devices concrete for Structures
Piling . Sheet Piling . Well Foundation

Page
406-1- 406-8 407-1- 407-23 408-1- 4A8-3 409-1- 409-6 410-1 410-3 411-1 411-3 412-1- 412-6 413-1 413-21 500-1 501-1 501-7 502-1- 502-2 503-1- 503-2 504-'1 504-3 505-1- 5054 506-1- 506-3 507-1 507-g 508-1- 508-2 509-1- 509-5 510-1 510-3 5 11 - 1- 5 11 - 3 512-1 512-3 600-1 601-1 601-6 602-1- 602-4 603-1 604-1- 604-3 605-1- 605-2 606-1- 606-2 607-1 607-10

409 410 411 412 413

BrickMasonry...
Randomand DressedUncoursedStone Masonry DressedCoursedStone Masonry

SteelStructures . DRAINAGE ANDEROSION WORKS General


Reinforced ConcretePipe Culverts

Item-500 501 502 503 504

pipeCulverts Bedding Encasement Concrete or of Under Drain . Headwalls, WingWalls,Parapets, Approach Slabs, Aprons andSiphon Inlets Ouflets / Manholes Droplnlets andCatchBasins
Gabions

505 s06 507 508 509

BrickPaving RipRapandReinforced Concrete Slopeprotection

5 1 0 Dismantling Structures Stonepitching of and 5 1 1 StonePitching 512 Item-600 601 602 603 604 605 606 607 DitchLining WashChecks and ANCILLARY WORKS General Concrete Kerbs, Gutters Channels. . . and Asphalt Concrete Cement and Concrete Walk Side BrickEdging Metal Beam Guard Rail Concrete BeamGuardRail . Bridge Railing TrafficRoadSignsandSafety Devices

Item No.
608 609 610 611 612 613 Marking Pavement

'

DescriPtion

Page
608-1- 608-13 609-1 - 609-4 610-1- 610-2 6 1 1 - 1' 6 1 1 - 2 612-1 - 612-9 6 1 3 - 1- 6 1 3 - 4

Reflectorized Pavement Studs PrecastConcretePosts and Markers Fencing Trees,Shrubsand GroundCover and Planting Furnishing and Sodding. . . Sprigging
MISCELLANEOUS

Item -701 702

of Provrsion SurveyTeams and Instruments and Residence OfficeFacility Equipand Maintain Provide, (BaseCamp Facility) for the Engineer

701-1

702-1 - 702-2 703-1 '703-2

703 704

for Laboratory the Project Equipand Maintain Provide, of Maintenance Works for one year after Completion . (Periodof Maintenance) . '

704-1

705 T e m p o r a r y R o a d W o r k s 706 707 of and Control Protection Traffic

.'''

705-1'705-2 706-1' 706-2 707-1 M-1- M-4

of Relocation Utilities. Removal/ Equipments Construction Major Recommended

GENERAL
l.
1.1

Introduction
Preamble for have been produced NationalHighwayAuthority, GeneralSpecifications are being carried followingtypes of activities keepingin consideration that out in this organization: Bridges and alliedworks. new Highways, i) Construction Motorways, of of road network. and ii) Rehabilitation lmprovement existing roadsand structures. iii) Maintenance existing of and rehabilitation maintenance All the abovethree aspectsof construction, chapters Subsequent in these GeneralSpecifications. have been covered give a list of such items of work with an indicationof their probable would use, in case of the above three categoriesof works.

t.2

Standards These Specifications describe the requirements and procedures for executionof work items to achieve requiredworkmanshipand quality.The and testing procedures materialsto be used shall conform to specifications Officials as per AmericanAssociationof State Highwayand Transpo:'tation (AASHTO), the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) or British Standard(B.S.) as indicatedin their latest editions.Samples of materialsfor laboratorytests and their subsequentapprovalshall be utilized accordingto these references.

1.3

ManDower Contractor shall also provideskilled manpowerin adequatenumber,who can perform executionwith quality and workmanshipcontrol in accordance with the requirements the work item. of

1.4

Equipment items of work shall be required different for Nunrberand kind of Equipment planned by the contractor keeping in view the workmanshiprequired by a particularitem and the quantityof finrsheditem requiredto be carried out in or shall approvesuch planning any cnanges eighthoursshift.The Engineer shall be proposedfor guidance of the Contractor.However this procedure shall not relieve the Contractor of his contractualobligationspertainingto performance of and maintenance project. G-1

1.5

Alternative Equipment while few of these specifications may providethat equipment a particular of size and type is to be used to perform portionsof the work, it is to be understood that the deployment and use of new or improvedequipment to is be encouraged. The contractormay request, writing,permission in from the Engineer use to equipment a different of size or type in place of the equipment specified or recommended thesechapters. in The Engineer, beforeconsidering grantingsuch request,may requirethe or contractorto furnish,at his expense,evidenceto satisfythe Engineer that the equipmentproposedfor use by the contractoris capableof producing work equal to or betterin qualitythan, that which can be producedby the equipment specified. lf such permission grantedby the Engineer,it shall be understood is that such permissionis grantedfor the purposeof testing the qualityof work actually produced by such equipment and is subject to continuous attainment resultswhich,in the opinionof the Engineer, of are equalto, or betterthan, that which can be obtainedwith the equipmentspecified. The Engineer shall have the rightto withdraw such permission any time when at he determines that the alternative equipment not producing is work of equal quality in all respects,to that which can be produced by the equipment specified. Upon withdrawalof such permission by the Engineer, the contractor will be requiredto use the equipmentoriginallyspecifiedand shall,in accordance with the directions the Engineer, of removeand dispose off or othena/se remedy,at his expense,any defectiveor unsatisfactory work produced with the alternative equipment. Neitherthe Employernor the contractorshall have any claim againstthe other for either the withholdingor the granting of permissionto use alternative equipment, for the withdrawal such permission. or of Nothingin this clause shall relievethe contractor of his responsibility for furnishingmaterialsor producingfinishedwork of the qualityspecifiedin thesespecifications.

1.6

Storage Materials of Articles or materialsto be incorporated the work shall be stored in such a in manner as to ensure the preservation their quality and fitness for the of work,and to facilitate inspection.

t.7

Defective Materials All materialswhich the Engineerhas determined not conforming the as to requirements the drawingsand specifications be rejectedwhetherin of will placeor not. They shall be removedimmediately from the site of the work, unless otherwise permitted by the Engineer. No rejected material, the defects of which have been subsequenily corrected,shall be used in the
v-z

work, unless approvalin writing has been given by the Engineer.Upon with any order of the Engineer to failureof the Contractor complypromptly to shallhaveauthority the in made underthe provisions this clause, Engineer cause the removalof rejectedmaterialand to deductthe cost thereoffrom due or to becomedue to the Contractor. any payments
1.8

Ouarry Materials other Quarrymaterialts rock, sand gravel,earth,or other mineralmaterial, than local borrow or selected material,obtainedon the project. Quarry materialdoes not includematerialssuch as cement, lime, marble powder sources. commercial from established etc. obtained from any source he QuarryMaterialsshall be furnishedby the Contractor local sourcesof certainmaterials may select,exceptthat when mandatory are designatedin the Special Provisions,the Contractor shall furnish sources. mandatory from such designated material The furnishing of quarry materialsfrom any source is subject to the and Specifications, item of Work". of provisions "Examination drawings, of materialSourcesshall not be Unlessapprovedin writing by the Engineer, excavatedat locationswhere the resultingscars will presentan unsightly appearancefrom any highway. No payment will be made for material of in obtained violation this provision. for necessary shall,at his expense,make any arrangements The Contractor roadsfrom any source. over localpublicand private hauling and tools,equipment, all for Full compensation furnishing labour,materials, incidentals,and for doing all the work involved in conformingto the and producingmaterialsfrom any provisions this clause,for furnishing in in as shallbe considered included the pricepaid for the contractitem source will be of work involvingsuch materialand no additionalcompensation therefor. allowed

1.9

and Alternatives TradeNames certain on in For convenience designation the plansor in the specifications, under in be incorporated the work may be designated to or articles materials information. and of a manufacturer the catalogue a trade name or the name that is of equalqualityand of the articleor material The use of an alternative subjectto will intended be permitted, for the purpose characteristics required requirements: the following shallbe of and suitability alternatives of The responsibility proofas to quality he shall furnrsh all informationnecessaryas uoon the Contractorand shall be the sole judge as to the requiredby the Engineer. The Engineer shall and his decision articles materials or of quality and suitability alternative be final.

G-3

Wheneverthe specifications permitthe substitution a similaror equivalent of material or article, no tests or action relating to the approvalof such substitute material be made untilthe requestfor the substitution made will is in writingby the contractoraccompanied completedata as to the equality by of the material articleproposed.such requestshall be made well in time or to permitapproval withoutdelaying work. the 1.10 Frequency Tests& TestDesisnation of Frequency of tests for the items of constructionhas been given in subsequent chapters. Test designation and procedure be used ls given will in the latestversionof relative publication.
l.1l

Testing Unlessotheruvise specified, tests shall be performedin accordance all with the methodsused by AASHTO/ASTM and shall be made by the contractor underthe supervision the Engineer his designated of or representative. whenever the specifications providean option between two or more tests, the Engineer determine test to be used. will the whenever a reference is made in the specificationsto a specification manual,or a test designation eitherof the AmericanSocietyFor Testingand Materials, the AmericanAssociation state Highwayand rransportation of officials, FederalHighwayspecification, any othei recognized or national organization, the numberor otheridentification and representing year of the adoption latestrevision omitted,it shall mean the specificaiion, or is manual or test designation in effect on the day 30 days prior to the date for submission bids.whenever said specification of manualor test designation provides for test reports (such as certified mill test reports) from the manufacturer, copiesof such reports,identifiedas to the lot of material,shall be furnishedto the Engineer. when materialthat cannot be identified with specific test reportsis proposed use,the Engineer for may, at his discretion, select random samplesfrom the lot for testing.Test specimensfrom the random samples,including those requiredfor retest,shall be preparedin accordance with the referenced specification and furnished by the contractorat his expense. The numberof such samplesand test specimens shall be entirely at the discretionof the Engineer. Unidentified metal products such as sheet plate, hardware,etc. shall be subject to the test requirements prescribed the Engineer. by when desiredby the Engineer, contractorshall furnish,withoutcharge, the samplesof all materials entering intothe work and no materialshallbe used prior to approvalby the Engineer. samples of materialfrom local sources shall be taken by or in the presence the Engineer, of otherurrise samples the will not be considered testing. for

t.L2

Construction Stakes. Linesand Grades The Engineer will furnish design survey data and joinfly locate with contractor, pointsof intersection of tangentsand basic benchmarks. all and The plans indicatethe propertiesof horizontaland vertical curves,together with rates of superelevationwhere required. The contractor shall set

G-4

profile-grade lines,slopes,and continuous construction stakes establishing work, in roadwork, and centerlineand benchmarksfor bridgework, culvert protectiveand accessorystructuresand appurtenances and will furnish the Engineer with the originalcopy of the field notestogetherwith all necessary information relatingto lines, slopes and grades.These stakes and marks shall constitutethe field control by and in accordancewith which the controls contractor shallestablish othernecessary and performthe work. lf, in the opinion of the Engineer,modification the line or grade is of advisable, before or after stakeout, the Engineer will issue detailed instructionsto the Contractorfor such modificationand the Contractorwill revisethe stakeoutfor furtherapproval. change in bid unit pricewill be No madefor such modifications. The profiles and cross sections the plansindicate elevation the top on the of of road surface or as otherwisenoted on the plans. The contractorshall be responsible the preservation all stakes and marks, and if any of the for of constructionstakes or marks has been destroyed or disturbed, the will Contractor replace them at his own expense. The Contractorshall be responsible the accuracyof all lines, slopes, for grades,and othersurveywork. 1.13 As-Built Drawinss/Shon Drawinss During construction, the Contractorshall keep an accurate record of all deviations work as actuallyinstalled of from that shown or indicated the on ContractDrawingsor revisedduring construction. Upon completion the of Works,the Contractor shalldeliver "As Built"drawings the Engineer. all to All shop drawings/fabrication drawingsshall be prepared by the Contractor and submittedto the Engineerbeforethe start of the work. The Engineer shall check and approve or return the same to the Contractor for correction/modification. works are to be executed in accordancewith All shop drawings,approvedbefore the commencement the works. Shop of drawings shouldtruly reflectthe provisions typicaldrawings. of Any deviation from the provision contractdrawings, of Shallnot be allowedunlesswritten approval issuedby the Engineer. is L.t4 Utilitv Lines The Contractor shallconducthis operations, make necessary arrangements, take suitableprecautions and performall requiredworks incidental the to protection of and avoidance of interference with power transmission, telegraph,telephoneand naturalgas lines, oil lines water and sewerage mainsand otherutilities withinthe areasof his operations connection in with his contract and the Contractorshall save harrnlessand indemnifythe Employerin respect of all claims, demands,proceedings, costs, charges and expenses whatsoever arising out of or in relation to any such interference.

G-5

1.15

SafetrPrecautions. The contractorshalladequately provide the safety,healthand welfareof for persons and for the preventionof damage to works, materials and equipment the purpose or in connection for of with the Contract.

l.l6

Inspection The Engineershall, at all times, have safe access to the work during its construction,and shall be furnished with every reasonablefacility for ascertaining the materials that and the workmanship are in accordance with the requirementsand intentions of these specifications,the special Provisions,and the plans/drawings. works done and all maierials All furnished shall be subject inspection Engineer. to by The inspection the work or materialsshall not relievethe Contractor of of any of his obligations fulfillhis contract prescribed.Work and materials to as not meetingsuch requirements shall be made good and unsuitable work or materials may be rejected, withstanding such work or materials not that have been previouslyinspectedby the Engineeror that paymenttherefor has been included a progress in estimate.

t.t7

Removal Reiected Unauthorized of and Work All works, which have been rejected,shall be remedied,or removedand replacedby the contractorin an acceptable manner and no compensation will be allowed him for such removal, to replacement, remedialwork. or Any work done beyond the lines and grades shown on the plans or established the Engineer, any extrawork done withoutwrittenauthority by or will be considered unauthorized as work and will not be paidfor. Upon orderof the Engineer, unauthorized work shall be remedied, removed. or replaced the Contractor's at expenses. Upon failure of the contractorto comply prompflywith any order of the Engineer made under this ltem, the Emproyermay cause rejected or unauthorized work tq be remedied, removed,or replacedand to deductthe costsfrom any payment due or to becomedue to the contractor.

l.l8

Alternative Methods Construction of wheneverthe plansor specifications provide that more than one specified methods of construction more than one specifiedtype of construction or equrpmentmay be use to perform portions of the work and leave the selection the method construction the type of equipment be used of of or to up to the contractor, is understood the Employer it that does not guarantee that everysuch methodof construction type of equipment or can be used successfully throughout or any part of any project.lt shall be the all Contractor's responsibility select and use the alternative alternatives, to or whichwill satisfactorily perform work underthe conditions the encountered.
Lr-O

to are ln the eventsome of the alternatives not feasibleor it is necessary use on any project,full compensationfor any more than one of the alternatives as shall be considered includedin the contractprice cost involved additional paid for the item of work involved and no additionalcompensationwill be thereof. allowed
1.19

and ContractDocuments AllowableDeviations. Conformitvrn'ith Work and materialsshall conform to the lines, grades, cross sections, shown on the including tolerances, and materialrequirements, dimensions sampling Althoughmeasurement, plans or indicatedin the specifications. the Engineer as evidence to such conformity, and testingmay be considered deviatefrom the shallbe the solejudge as to whetherthe work or materials to any allowable plans and specifications, and his decision relating shallbe final. therefrom deviations

r.20

Trial Section of Contractorshall submit completemethodology trial sectionfor approvalof Engineer.Trial sections shall be prepared for each type of road the pavement layer. Inspite of the approval of Engineer for trial section, for contractorshall be responsible the qualityof work. Contractorwill provide in informations the methodology. following minimumof to i) Equipment be used. adoPted thrckness rr,1 Layer production. iii) Per day of iv) Results tests.

2.

Scope is Specifications a part of contractdocumentswhich shall be The Stand.ard with the followingcontractdocumentswhich are mutually read in conjunction to explanatory one another and mentionedhereunder,with the order of of precedence givenin the Condition Contract. as (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) (xi) Agreement. Contract to Instruction bidders. Addenda. Letterof accePtance. conditions. SupplementarY Provisions. Special Part- ll. of Conditions Contract Part- l. of Contract Conditions Drawings. GeneralSpecifications. "A The bid and Appendices to L"

and Definitions 3. Abbreviations or Wherever in these specifications in other contract documents the in or pronouns placeof them are used,the and abbreviations terms following as interpreted follows: intentand meaningshallbe G-7

3.1

Abbreviations

AASHTO

AmericanAssociationof State Highwayand Transportation Officials.

ASTM AWG AWPA BS ACr FHWA PCA

American Society Testingand Material for American Wire Gauge AmericanWood Preservers Association BritishStandardCode of Practice AmericanConcreteInstitute U.S.FederalHighway Administration Portland CementAssociation Weight Pound American WeldingSociety U.S.Gallon Inch Foot Yard Litre Millimeter Centimeter Meter Kilometer SquareMeter degree

wt.
Lb. AWS Gallon In. Ft. Yd. Ltr. mm cm. M Km SM

Sq. cm. CM ha Kg Ton

SquareCentimeter CubicMeter Hectare Kilogram MetricTon (1000Kg) DegreeCentigrade DegreeFahrenheit

oc
oF

G-8

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lueule-.rEdalaJJII()J lllrqusv

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sEbiftuso

!r

Barrage A low dam or weir across a river equippedwith a series of gates to regulatethe water surface level above the weir. Base Course The layerof specifiedmaterialand thicknessplacedimmediately below the surfacing. Batten

Beam, structural member.


Beldar Unskilledlabour employed on maintenance gangs for canals or roads. Bid/Tender Price The sum of the products of the quantities of work with the quoted prices in the Tender by the Contractor. Bill of Ouantities and Iist of Prices

A listshowing workquantities specifying price and unit and/or lumpsum for specific itemsof work.
Blindins Layer

A layerof concrete othermaterial or (Generally covering surface thin) the ground fill,forming stable of excavated or a surface whichfurther on work maybe constructed.
Boulder

A rock fragment, usually rounded weathering abrasion, by or with an average dimension 10centimeters more. of or
Boundary Limitof right-of-way other zones. or Bridse Any structure other than a culveft, which carries a utility, facility, or railroad highway, pedestrian,or other traffic over a water course, over, under or around any obstruction and with a clear span of more than6.50M.

G-10

Bund A continuous embankment, dike or levee (generally associated with training or containing the flow of rivers).

Catchment The watershed or area which contributes runoff to a drain or other channel. Contractor

for with contracting the Employer/Client firm The individual or corporation work. performance the prescribed of
Contract Price

with the agreed prices The sum of the productsof the quantities 'agreement'between the Contractor and the appearing in the Engineer/Employer.
Construction Limit

left is limit Construction of a project area between & rightside of catch this in caseof Structures limit whereas points roadunder construction, of structure of permanent for to willextend areawhichis required execution
Cubic Meter

to equivalent 1.0M x 1.0M x 1.0M. A volume


Cuboid

cuboid and in roughly with eachface fractured stoneparticles Crushed shape. Culvert undera an whichprovides opening otherthan a bridge Any structure, proposesand with a clearspanof 6'5 or irrigation for roadway drainage M or less.

ry
'Railroad-cum-road' bridge. With or associated with - for example, Cusec

A rateof flowof onecubicfootpersecond.

G-11

Daywork Work to be paidfor on the basisof actuallabour,material, and plantused - Forceaccount. Detour(Diversion) A temporary roadway, which leavesthe main,routeand rejoinit later,for the uninterrupted of traffic. flow Drarvings The approvedplans(drawings), profiles,typical cross-sections, revised drawings and supplementaldrawings,or exact reproduction thereof, whichshowthe location, character, dimensions and detailsof the work. Earth sediments or other unconsolidated accumulations solid particles, of produced the physical by and chemicaldisintegration rock, and which of may or may not containorganicmatter. Engineer The duly authorized representative the client/Employer controlling of for the project site, acting directly or through his duly authorized representatives, who is responsible engineering for supervision the of work. Ettuipment All machinery and equipment, together withthe necessary supplies up for keep and maintenance and also tools and apparatusnecessary the for properconstruction acceptable and completion the work. of Fir Any item of construction which requires specialplacement the works. in Flexitrle Pavement Structure Any combinationof improved subgrade,subbase, base and asphalt placedon the subgradeto supportthe trafficload and reduce surfacing its intensity the subgrade at surface. Formsor Formvvork Shuttering including supports and falsework.

G-12

Frustrationof a Contract Rendered impossibleof performanceby external cause beyond the of contemplation the Parties.
Gang Header

workmanor labourinchargeof small groupsof workmenor Experienced labour. Gasoline Motorspirit,petrol. Godown storeroomor storageshed' Warehouse, Grade planeintersecting top surfaceof the proposed the The trace of a verttcal of center-line the roadbed. alongthe longitudinal usually wearingsurface, or eitherelevation gradientof such trace according Profilegrade means to the context. Gravel small sized stone,shingleor rock fragmentsusuallyroundedin shape action by formedfrom rocksor boulders glacialor weathering GuideBank (for Bund) riverflow. or embankment leveefor directing and A protective training
Highway

A general term denotingpublic way for purposes of vehiculartravel, Usage: (Recommended the entirearea withinthe right-of-way. including or or street;in ruralareas-highway road)' in urbanareas-highway Install To place in special position any hardware, equipmentor fixture for a completing job. Kilometer equalto1000meters. A distance

G-13

Laboratory

A testinglaboratory approved NHA or any testihglaboratory, by which maybe designated the Engineer. by
Levelins Course The layer of specifiedmaterialof variablethickness placed generallyon an existingroad surface to compensatefor depressionsand undulations in order to conect grades and cross falls accordingto design. Materials Any substancespecifiedfor use in the constructionof the project and its appurtenances. Metalled(roadwav) Surfaced, paved (roadway). Mile Distanceof 5,280feet. (1,610M) Monsoon

The rainy season associated with the south-west monsoon. Motor Spirit

Octroi A municipalfeefor municipalservices.

Pe$od of Mqintenance Periodof maintenance shall mean the periodof contractor,s maintenance named in the contract,calculatedfrom the date of completionof the work as certified by the Hand-over committee. Pitchins or Rin-Ran Brokenstone, brickworkor other materialsplaced usuallyon side slopes of Embankmentsfor protectionof the earth surface, dry or in cement mortaras specified.

G-14

Prime Cost by A net sum enteredin the Bill of Quantities the employeras the sum to cost of or to be paid by the Contractor merchants providedto coverthe articles or materialsto be suppliedafter deducting or others for specific all trade discountsand any discountfor cash' Provide time as or an To make available item for a certainperiod/time indefinite case maYbe. the Sum Provisional Any sum of money fixed by the Employerand includedin the Bill of Quantitiesto provide for work not otherwise included thereln. A eitherwhollyor in part underthe provisional sum is onlyto be expended, or Lmployer'sRepresentatives the Enginee/s directionin accordance with Contract.This sum may or may not be utilisedin full or partially throughthe contractor' Regulator A canal structure,usuallyequippedwith gates, for control,or checking,of flow in the canalor an off takingchannel. Return Report Revetment(Material) Rock.

Rieht-of-wav (ROW) or denotingland, property, interesttherein,usuallyin a A general-term purposes' acquiredfor or devotedto transportation strip, Roadside A general term denoting the area adjoining the outer edge of the roadway. Extensiveareas between the roadwaysof a divided highway roadside' may also be considered Roadwav The portionof a highwaywithin limitsof construction'

G-15

Scaffoldine Arrangementof struts/columns/pipes support shuttering or other to platforms. Settingout Layingout or staking out-establishing the site the lines, levels and on gradesto whichthe construction worksare to be carriedout. Shinsle See Aggregates. Shoulders The portion of the roadway contiguous with the traveled way for accommodation stoppedvehicles, emergencyuse, and for lateral of for supportof baseand surfacecourses. Sidewalk That portion of the roadway primarily constructedfor the use of pedestrians. SleeDers Crossties, railroad ties. SoilBinder Portion Soil passing0.425mm (# 40) sieve. of Special Provisions Additions and revisionsto the standard specificationsand General conditions of contract, coveringconditionsparticularto an individual contract. Spoil-Banb Disposal areafor excessexcavation, spoiltip or wastedump. Structures Bridges,culverts,catch basins,drop inlets retainingwalls, manholes, headwalls,service pipes causewayslrish bridges and other"features whichmay be encountered the work and not otherwise in classedherein. Subbase - The layer of specifiedmaterialand thicknessplaced betweenthe base courseand subgrade. G-16

Lt-9 'salclLlaA pa;enerl Jo uoluodleql e Aenn Jo ourl al6urse Jo luouanoul aLl]Duhnolle ffiTffirrr'repuel e butptuuqns lo V lenplnlpul tuJU rSlmue;plB lesodo.td isFEeI 'slseq luaueulad uo uteltIue lonllepo16ulueau A;ueutt.t6 I-Iildn$
'IUOtUAAeO

'aslnoc acepns ala:cuoo alaJcuoc Jo lleqdse 1o (6utssalp oce1.lns 'raplnoLls Jo 1oq) luauleaJl ocelns Jo lstsuoc Ieu Outce;lns sad^f aq} lsotueddn aqf ro {ennpalaneJl uo paceldletJa}eupetltcads rer(e1 1o

;umrn-S
',,eslnoo6uttea14,, pallecosle :]uauaned ssau)ctlll palilcads 1o ;eAel lsoLueddn eq1 alarcuoo lleqdse ue lo Ssrno-5@nS

']uoro
ro ourocutJo lanol utepaoe anoqe;t;o;d .to aulocul uo xe] luelsl)ed V IEt;itdnS 'sauer] pt6t.t 'sueds 's;;enn to 6unn'sllem Iceq 6ulpn;cut pue alduts ;o s6utleaqelll Molaqornlcnrlse jo ued lelll ]o llv snonurluoc SrIuinilsqES 'uorlezrltqels paqpeolJo uollec4lpoy\1 Aq ;ettaleLu trlelu-rea'iJ;pP'J;quS 'paceldaq ol seq 'Lo) uo lprlaleuipeol laqlo LlctL.lM (]ueuu>lueqLua peqpeolaq] lo la^alleql i5^fllTiE.q-flS sloplnoqs palcnllsuoo sqlnc 6ulpnlcut ale puE soJnlcnJls uodn peqpeoi e Jo acepns dol aq1 eq1qcrqnn ]uouja^Bd tF-Br5.qnS

Unmetalled(Roadwav) Unsurfaced, unpaved(roadway)/dirt road. Variation Order A documentcompiledto includechanges,substitutions and additional work items not coveredin the B.o.e, for the sanctionof the competent Authorityand shall includeincreaseor decreasein quantitiesor rates also. Work The work shall mean the furnishing all labour, materials, of equipment and other incidentals necessary or convenient to the successful . completion the projectand carrying of all the dutiesand obligations of out imposedby the contract. . Wason (railway) A railroad freightcar. Wavleave Permission cross land,rightof entryas definedin the land acquisition to act of the Government Pakistan. of Well A concrete masonrycaissonincorporated foundations. or in Working Drawings Stress sheets,shop drawings,erectionplans,falseworkplans,form work plans, cofferdam plans, bending diagrams for reinforcingsteel, or any other supplementary plansor similardata which the contractoris required to submitto the Engineer approval. for Written Undertakins A written promise.

G-18

TABLE FOR SAMPLING ANI) TESTING FREQUENCY

AND SUBGRADE FOR SAMPLING AND TESTING OF EIVIBANKMEN'T SC]HEDL]LE fiTEtVINO. 108TO 113)
Material Test Designation Sam;llingand Testing Frequencv Reference

Soil

Classification.

AASHTOM-,I45

1/2.000M c

As per ltem 108.2, 109.2.5, 110.2etc. As per ltem 108.2 nd a e 110.2 tc. As per ltem ( 108.2 c) As per ltem 1 0 83 , 109.2.2 etc ref. Density As per ltem '108.3, 109.2.2 etc.

CBR

AASHTOT-193

M 1/2,000 .

Swelling

AASHTOT.193

1 / 2 , 0 0c M . 0 1t2,000 M. ' t 1 1 , 0 0 0. M M. 1/200

Density Moisture (Lab) or Density. Relative

AASHTOT-180 ASTM D-4254-83

FieldDensity.

AASHTOT-191

SCHEDULE F'OR SAMPLING AND TESTING OF'GRANULAR SUBBASE (rTEM NO. 201)
Material

Test

Designation

Sampling and Testing Frequency

Reference

Aggregate

Gradation

AASHTO T.27

plus 3/Source 1/1000CM


3/Source plus as required baseon visualobservation. 3/Source plus as required based on variation in gradation 1/'1000 or CM 3/Sourceplus 1/500CM 1/1000 M c

As per ltem No.201.2 -do-

Plasticity Index.

AASHTO T-89 and T-90 MSHTO T-193

CBR

-do-

Abrasion Moisture Density. Field Density

AASHTO T-96 AASHTO T-180 AASHTO T-191, T-238 and f -239

-do-do-

4llayerl400 M laid, 3 As per ltem Minimum/layer less than N o . 2 0 1 . 3 . 4 . if 400 M laid. 3/source plus as required As per ltem basedon visualobservation. N o .2 0 1 . 2

Sand Equivalent

AASHTO T-176

SCHEDULEFOR SAMPLING AND TESTING OF AGGREGATE BASE COURSE (rTEM NO.202)


Material

Test Gradation

Designation

Sampling and Testing Frequencv

Reference

Aggregate

AASHTO T-27

plus 1/'1000 M 3/Source

As perltem 202.2(a)

Index. Plasticity

AASHTO T-89 and T-90 AASHTO T-193

3/Sourceplus as required As perltem basedon visualobservatron. 202.2(e) pile 3/Source/stock plusas base on variation in required gradation. 3/Sourceplus 1/5,000 CM

CBR

As perltem (f) 202.2 As perltem (c) 202.2 As per ltem 202.2(d)

Abrasion

AASHTO T-96

Sodium Sulphate Soundness Fractured faces.

AASHTO T-104

plus 3/Source 1/5,000 CM

Visual

plus 3/Source as required As per ltem (b) based visual on observation.202.2 1 / 1 0 0c M 0 M 4llayerl400 laid3 minimum/layer than if less 400M laid. As perltem 203.3.3. As peritem 202.3.3.

Moisture Density.

AASHTO T-180

FieldDensity.

AASHTO T-191or T-238 and T-239.

Sand Equivalent

AASHTO T-176

plus As per ltem 3/source as required on based visual observation.202.2(e)

G-21

SCHEDULE FOR SAMPLING AND TESTING OF ASPHALTIC BASE COURSE PLANT NIIX (ITEM NO. 203) ilIaterial Coarse Aggregate Gradation Abrasion Designatiou AASHTO T-27 AASHTO T_96 Sampling and Testing 1 1 1 0 0c M 0 pile 3/Source/stock plus 1/5000 cM plus'l15000 3/Source CM As per ltem 2 0 3 . 2 . 1a ) ( As per ltem ( 2 0 3 . 2 . 1b )
Reference

SodiumSulphate Soundness Stripping Fractured faces

AASHTO T-104

AASHTO T_-I82 Visual

plus2/5000 3/Source CM plusas required 3/Source As per ltem basedon visual observation 203.2.1 As per ltem (e) 243.2.1 4/Source each size in Hot for binsof Asphalt Plant For use in preparation of Jl\4F

Flatand Elongated Visual Particle. SpecificGravity. and Absorption AASHTO T-85

Fine Aggregate

Sand Equivalent or Plasticity Index.

AASHTO T - 1 7 6 AASHTO T-89 andT-90.

plusas required 3iSource As per ltem basedon visualobservation. 203.2.1(c) 2/1000 cM As per ltem ( 2 0 3 . 2 . 1d )

SpecificGravity.

AASHTO T-84

4/Source.

For use in preparation ofJMF.

FriableParticles Asphalt Cement SpecificGravity.

AASHTO T - 1 1 2 AASHTO T-228

2/5000 cM 2/Shipment.
For use in preparation ofJMF.

Penetration

AASHTO T-49

3/Weekof plantoperation As per ltem Samples takenfromheating 203.2.2. tank at staggered intervals.
I

Mixture

Extraction Gradation B u l kS p G r .

AASHTO T - 1 6 4 T-30 AASHTO T - 1 6 6 l/lethodB


(Jr

Maxrmum p S Air Voids

AASHTO T-209 AASHTO T-269

production. 2lday's

As per ltem 203.2.3.

v-tz

SCHEDULE FOR SAMPLING AND TESTING OF ASPHALTIC BASE COURSE (ITEM NO. 203) PLANT MIX
Material

Test

Designation

Sampling and Testing Frequency. lllayer @ 100 M interval per lane.

Reference

Thickness Mixture Compacted in place. Compaction

AASHTO T-230

As per item 203.3.11.

AASHTOT-230 ASTMD2950

lllayer @ 100 M interval per lane.

As per item 203.3.9

Notes: at will Test locations be selected random

G-23

SCHEDULB FOR SAMPLING AND TESTING OF SOIL-CEMENT BASE COURSE (ITEM NO. 204)
Vlaterial

Test

Designation

Sampling and Testing Freguencv.

Reference

Soil

Classification.

AASHTO T-27 and T-89.

3/Borrow plus Source 1 / 1 0 0c M 0 1/Soil Class.

SoilClass must be A-3 orA-4. As per ltem 204.3.4for ref. Density

Mixture

MoistureDensitv.

AASHTOT-134

Pulverization. FieldDensity.

Note(a) AASHTOT-,I91 T-238& T-205. ASTM D-1633

1/300 strip m 1/300 strip m 1/300 strip m 1/Soil Class '1lSoil Class
As per ltem 204.3.5. As per ltem 204.2.4 For mix design.

Compressive Strength Wetting& Drying

AASHTOT-135

Note:
a)

Screening Soilthrough of one inchand No.4 sievespriorto mixingwith cement.

G-24

SCHEDULE FOR SAMPLING AND TESTING OF CRACK-RELIEF LAYER (ITEM NO. 205)
Material

Test

Designation

Sampling and Testing Frequency

Reference

Aggregate (Crushed)

Gradation

AASHTO T-27

Same as for ftem2A2.

As per ltem 205.2.1.

Aggregate Gradation (Asphaltic open-graded plantmix) Asphalt Cement Mixture Asphalt Coating.

AASHTO T-27

Same as for coarse As per item aggregate underitem203. 2 0 5 . 2 . 1 .

Sameas for ltem203 '195

As per ltem 203.2.2.

AASHTO

production as 1/day's or requiredbasedon visual observation.

SCHBDULE FOR SAMPLING AND TESTING OF WEARING COURSE PLANT MIX (ITBM NO. 305)
Material Test Designation Sampling and Testing Frequency Reference

Coarse Aggregate

Gradation Abrasion.

AASHTO T-27 AASHTO T-96

1i1000M c plus 1/5000CM 3/Source As per ltem ( 3 0 5 . 2 . 1a ) As per ltem 305.21 (b)

Sodium Sulphate Soundness Stripping Fractured faces

AASHTO T-104

plus 1/5000CM 3/Source 3/Source plus '115000 CM

AASHTO I-182 Visual

3iSource plus as required As per ltem baseon visual observation. 305.2.1 -do4/Source each size in Hot for binsof Asphalt Plant. As per ltem (e) 305.2.1 For use in preparation of JMF.

Flatand Elongated Particle. Visual Specific Gravity and Absorption. AASHTO T-85

Fine Aggregate

SandEquivalent or Plasticity Index.

AASHTO T-176 AASHTO T-89 & T-90. AASHTO T-84

plus 3/Source as required As per ltem baseon visual (c) observation. 305.2.1 1 / 1 0 0c M 0 As per ltem
305.21 (d)

Specific Gravity.

2/Source 1/5000 cM 2/shipment.

For use in preparation of JMF.

Friable Particles Asphalt Cement. Specific Gravity.

AASHTO T-112 AASHTO T-228

For use in preparation of JMF.

Penetration.

AASHTO T-49

3iweekof plantoperation. As per Samplestakenfrom heating clause tank at staggered intervals. 305.2.2

Premix Asphalt

Extraction Gradation Flow Stability BulkSp. Gravity LossStability

AASHTO T-164 AASHTO T-30 AASHTO T-245 AASHTO T-245 AASHTO T-166 AASHTO T-245 2lday'sproduction.

As per Clause 305.2.3.

SCTIEDULE FOR SAMPLING AND TESTING OF WEARING COURSE PLANT MrX (ITBM NO. 30s)
Material Test Designation Sampling and Testing Frequency Rel'erence

Mixture in compacted prace.

Thickness

AASHTO T-230

lllayer @ 100 M interval Per lane.

As per item 305.3.2.

Compaction

AASHTO T.230 ASTM D2950

lllayer @ 100 M interval Per lane.

As per ltem 305.3.2.

Notes at will Test locations be selected random.

SCHEDULE FOR SAMPLING AND TESTING OF'CONCRETE (rTEM NO. 401)


Sampling and Testing

Coarse Aggregate

AASHTO T.27

2/Stockpile plus 1/1000 CM 1/Source plus1/1000 CM

As perltem 401.2.3 Forusein preparation of mixdesign. -do_oo_ As perltem 401.2.3 As perltem 401.2.3 As perltem 401.2.3

AASHTO T-19

AASHTO T-85 AASHTO T-85 AASHTO T-96

2/Source 1 / 1 0 0c M plus 0 1/Source 1/500 plus cM 1/Source 1/5000 plus cM


1/Source plus 1/5000 CM

AASHTO r-104

AASHTO M-BO Fine Aggregate

1/Source plus 1/5000CM

2/Source 1/1000 plus CM 4/Source 1/800 plus CM

As perltem 401.2.2 Forusein preparation of mixdesign. -do-doAs perltem 4 0 1 . 3 .a n d 9 401.2.2

AASHTO T-84 AASHTO T-84

4/Source 1/1000 plus CM '1lSource plus1/1000 CM 1/Source plus'l/1000 CM

AASHTO T-21

AASHTOT-104 AASHTO M-6

1/Source 1/5000 plus CM 1/Source 1/1000 plus CM 1/Source 1/5000 plus CM 1/Source 1/5000 plus CM As perltem 401.2.2 As perltem 401.2.2

AASHTO M-6

G-28

SCHEDULE FOR SAMPLING AND TESTING OF CONCRETE

(rrEM NO. 401)


Material Test Designation Sampling and Testing Freouencv. Acceptance Limit.

YieldTest for CementContent

AASHTO T-121

or Bags 1/Lot 1000 1/Lot 1000 or Bags 1/Lot 1000 or Bags 1/Source 6/Shift 50 CM (2 setsof 3 or each) 2/shift 50 CM or

As per ltem 310.3.3 As per ltem 401.2.1 As per ltem 401.2.1 As per ltem 401.2.7 As per ltem 4 0 1 . 1 .t1 b l e a 401-1 -do-

Cement

Time Setting

AASHTO T-131

Strength Mortar
Water

AASHTO T,132

ChemicalTests AASHTO T-26


AASHTO T-22 Compression (Cube Cylinder) or

Concrete mix

Slump

AASHTO T-119

G-29

TABLE FOR ALLOWABLE TOLERANCES (EARTTTWORKS, PAVBMENT COURSES AND CONCRETE)


Thickness Description (mm) (mm) Level 5M Straightedge (mm)
2n

Cross-fall (%)

Longitudinal Grade in30M f/"\


fu. l

Sub-grade

+zv

+0 -40 +0 -25 +5 -10

+ 0.5

(Granular Subbase or Stabilized)

+10 -20

20

t 0.3
+ 0.2

+ 0.1

BaseCourse(Granular + 5 - 10 or Stabilized) Asphaltic Base Course.


+?

10.1
+ 0.1

o
4n

-10 Asphaltic Wearing . Course. Concretefor Pavements. +3

!0.2 !0.2
+ 0.2

+<

+ 0.1

+10 -5

+'1n

10.1

Concrete structures + 5 for

110

Note:

1 2.

Material stabilization soil may be cement,lime or bitumen. for of Accumulative tolerance shallnot be morethanthat as specified against the finallaver.

G-30

ALLOWABLE TOLERANCE FROM THEORETICAL WEIGHTS (REINFORCEMENT) AS PER AASHTO M-31

Diarneterof Bars

Lot under

Individual Bar under

Atl

3.5%

6%

in weightper linearmetercontained an The term"Lot"meansall barsof the samenominal order. release shipping or shipping individual Notei on bars are evaluated the basis of nominalweights.ln no case shall the Reinforcing of overweight any bar or lot of barsbe causeof rejection.

u-J

TABLE FOR ALLOWABLE TOLERANCE (REINFORCED CONCRETE pIpES OF, CLASS _ II AND Iv) AS PER AASHTO M-170

Description

Internal diameter variation ("h\

Wall Thickness

PermissibleVariation in the Position of Reinforcement

Pipesof internal diameter 300 mm to of 6 1 0m m Pipesof internal diameter 690 mm to of 2750mm

+ 1.5

-5mmor - 5 percent Whichever less is

+ 10 percent wallthickness of or + 12 mm. whichever less is + 10 percentof wall thickness or + 12 mm. whichever less is

t 1.0

-5mmor - 5 percent Whichever less is

Notes:

1.

Pipe having localized variations in wall thickness exceeding those specified above shall be accepted, the three-edge if bearingstrengthand minimum steelcoverrequirements met. are Pipes having variationsin the positionof the reinforcement exceeding thosespecified aboveshallbe accepted the three-edge if bearingstrength requirements a representative on sampleare met.

2.

SECTION-I EARTH WORK AND ALLIE

Item No

Descriotion

Nelr.Construction

Rehabilitation

Maintenance

'100 10'l 102 103 104 105 106

General,EarthWork. and Grubbing. Clearing Removalof Trees. Stripping. of Compaction NaturalGround. and BorrowExcavation. Roadway surplus Excavation Unsuitable of material. Excavation Backfill. and Structural of Formation Embankment. Preparation. Subgrade ImprovedSubgrade. Subgrade. Soil CementStabilized Lime Stabilized Subgrade. BitumenStabilized Subgrade. and Compaction of Dressing Berms. from Reinstatement shoulders of BrickKilnmaterial. o o o o o o o o o o o

107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114

1'15

SECTION-II

SUBBASE AND BASE.


ltem No Descriotion Nerv Construction Rehabilitation Maintenance

200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209

General. Granular Subbase. Aggregate BaseCourse. Aspiraltic BaseCourse PlantMix. SoilCement Stabilized Subbase and Base. CrackRelief layer. WaterBoundMacadam Base. DeepPatching. Reinstatement RoadSurface. of Scarification Existing of Road/ Breaking RoadPavement of Structure. Pavement Widening and Grooving of existing surface. Lime Stabilized Aggregate Base Course. Bitumen Stabilized Subbase or Base. ColdRecycling RoadPavement of Structure/Soil Stabilisation. Asphaltic Base/ Binder Course Geotextiles
U

o o o

o o

o o o o o

210

211

212

zt3

214
ztc

SECTION-III SURFACE COURSES AN


Item \o I DescriPtion Nelv Construction Rehabilitation Maintenance

300 301 302 303 304

General. Materials. Asphaltic PrimeCoat. Bituminous TackCoat. Bituminous and Treatment Surface Bituminous SealCoat. WearingCourse, Concrete Asphaltic PlantMix. Treatment. Shoulder Bit-Mac. Concrete of Hot Recycling AsPhalt C o l dM i l l i n g ConcretePavements.

o o o

o o o o

o o

305

306 307 308 309 310

o o o o

G-35

SECTION-TV

STRUqTURTS
Nerv Construction

400 400A 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411

General - Structures. Bridges and Culverts. Concrete. Falsework Centring Bridges & for Formwork. SteelReinforcement. Prestressed Concrete Structures. Joints& Bearing Devices Concrete for Piling. SheetPiling. Well Foundation BrickMasonry Random and.Dressed Uncoursed StoneMasonry. DressedCoursedStoneMasonry. SteelStructures.

412 413

SECTION-V DRAINAGE AND EROSIO TTEMNO 500 501 502 503 504
DESCRIPTION New Construction Rehabilitation Maintenance

General-Drainage Erosion Works. & Reinforced Concrete PipeCulverts Bed to Concrete PipeCulverts. Underdrain. Headwalls, Wingwalls, Parapets, ApproachSlabs,Apronsand siphon inlets/ outlets. Manholes. DropInlets and CatchBasins. Gabions
U

o o o
n

o o

505 506

o o o o o

o o o o

o o o

508 509

BrickPaving. Riprapand Reinforced Concrete SlopeProtection. Dismantling Structures of and Obstructions. StonePitching. DitchLining and Wash Checks.

61n

511 512

o o

o o o

SECTION-VI ANCILLARY WORKS.


Item No Description New Construction I Rehabilitation Maintenance

600 601

General- Ancillary Works. ConcreteKerbs,Guttersand Channels. Asphalt Concrete and Cement Concrete SideWalk. BrickEdging. MetalBeamGuard-rail. Concrete BeamGuard-rail. Bridge Railing. TrafficSignsand SafetyDevices. Pavement Marking. Reflectorized Pavement Studs. PrecastConcretePosts& Markers. Fencing. Furnishing Planting and Trees, Shrubs and Ground cover. Sprigging Sodding. and

o o

o
n

602

603 604 605 606 607 608 609 6'10 6'11


otz

o o
U

o o

o o

o o

o
U

o o

613

SECTION-VII

NIISCETLANSQIIS
Item No I DescriPtion New Construction Rehabilitation Maintenance

701

7O2

of | Provision SurveyTeams and I lnstruments. I Office Equipand Maintain | Provide, to I Facility the Engineer. I (ease CAmPFacilitY)

703

and Maintain EquiP | Provide, for the Project. I LaboratorY

704

I
I

705

of | Vtaintenance Works for One Year (Periodof I aftercomPletion I Maintenance ) I RoadWorks for Traffic | f"tporary I Diversion.

7OG

of I Controland Protection Traffic.

EARTHWORK ANI) ALLIED ACTIVITIES

EARTHWORK
TTEM 1OO G E N E R A L
100.1 DESCRIPTION and placingin work for the excavation will Earthwork consistof all necessary embankmentor backfillor disposal by dumping of earth, rock or other materialfrom or to the roadwayor adjacenttheretoor from borrowareas, ditches,the removal of of includingthe excavation side and interception the of formation laybyes, wideningof cuts the material, subgrade unsuitadle for cut slopeswhetherto obtain material embankments of and the flattening or tolncrease the stabilityof the slopes,clearingand grubbing, or backfill, the selective removal of trees, stripping and the removal of existing in withinthe approvedcross sectionfor excavation, accordance obstructions with the lines,grades,sections' and with these specifications in conformity by or shownon the drawings as directed the Engineer. and dimensions 100.2 SOIL INFORMATION of the properties the soil or sub Soiland other concerning Any information forming shown on the drawingor otherdocuments information geotechnical to is only. The contractor obliged make is of the contract for information [art his own assessmentof site conditionsprevailing. No claim for extra cost or provided. basedon the information will time extension be entertained shall be deemedto have visitedthe site priorto makinghis The Contractor bid and shall ascertainthe nature of the earth and rock, its quantity, and he shall to locationsand suitability meet the specifiedrequirements, Aftef the award solelyon his own soil investigation. base his bid estimates on of no of the contract claimfor a revision bid pricesdepending the sources will of soil information be entertained. 100.3 EXPLOSIVES or buildings suitable shall providO are Where explosives usedthe Contractor which shall positions the storageof explosives, for in approved warehouses be stored in the mannerand quantityapprovedby the Engineeror as per only to Such storageplacesshallbe accessible relativelaws of government. all doors or accesses They shall be properlymarked, personnel. authorized of thereto shall be constructed materialsas directedby the Engineerand providedwith secure locks and all necessarymeans for preventingaccess by unauthorizedpersons.The Contractorshall be responsiblefor the issue or improperuse of any explosives. pieventionof any unauthorized of explosivesshall be entrusted only to experiencedand The handling with and in conformity of men, to the satisfaction the Engineer, responsible regulations. the statutorY

100-1

7,-OOL 'IJo/r^ sulolt laLllo Jo ul pepnpul aq ol peulaep eq lleqs lnq ,AlalBledas ptpd eq lou lleqs lro/vl eql 6uunp o !pa#s Alsnonuquoc ueql ereu or buu'arc pue'ecueualureuJror.0 pue uorpnJlsuoc6uunp rJo/vllo uorpal0.rdJoJsleuec Jo sal{cltp eoeujerp 'papedxa gcns sr urpJ oJoreqeoeurerp :ado.rd pe#e ol ,t.ressaceu eq reu se sreu'c io sorrclrplegno e6eureJp qcns eprnord-ileqs JolcBrruooaqr 'raaur6u3 eql Aq perrnbaraJaq/'A rJol lce4uoc eql Jo uollcol0.rd Jo aql.ro1 fuessaceu uaq/v\ses,nocJele^ Ourpenrp 6urure;prcj pue 6r,r.1"*"p ,o1 .ro sonrloe; fuesseceu apnoJd lleqs Jolce4uoCaql .Uo/rru{Uea secud p1q tol ,6uuaaqs or{l ur pepnlcuroq 1;eqs pue ourdund 'suepregoc ,6ur.roqs oururerp 'suolletedo Jo lsoc aql IJoMqUealeue Jo 6uunp Jalem Jo lenoual Jo Jo lorluocJoJepeu oq lln^ lueuded epredas ou 'JoJpaprnord oJaqM1decx3

s'00r
'solnleal qcns Jol slstxa ualt aleledes e ssalun ,uotlenecxa eq1 6upnp peJolunocualeualetrtleqlo due Jo slfe/v\ bururelai,;oelaql s;led lo seoprjq 'sua^lnc 'slueuened pp 's;uatuoe4Jo sJaplnoqpor 'A.ruoseu ro aleJcuoo'auols '1cuq ounsxa ;o 'laaurouf eql fq pa.rrnba.r ,lesodsrp se pue le^oujar aq1 ourpnpur 'uotcas-ssoJcpano.rdde aql Jo silurl aql urrllr/v\ 'ornlBu sil paJalunocuo lo ssolpreoer leueleuj lle Jo le^olleJ JO lsoc aql ,901 ,9Ol ,egr'l0l apnlcur lleqsB01 pue ZgL sulall repun suay Ied eq1 t'00I 'onoqesJaqpequcsop se sluotueOuele qcns roJ olqrssil'upe lleLlsluau{ed eixa oN 'lr peurp}qoserl eq aq 1eq1.reeurbu3 eq1 ilsnes lleqs pue sanuorlne ledo.rd aLlt ulo4 uo4dn.riagur qcns roJ olnpoqossrq ;o lenoldde urelqo ller{sjolceJluoCaq} ,pa$rule1u1 ol spq eq pPoJaLlluo ctgeJlll 'louueui ssel)peJe ut lno petJJec 6ureqsr Jo .saJnlcnJls luecefpero suosrado1snoreouepoq plno/v\ 'uorurdo ui li ,suear! Jeqlo stq 1r Aq pelenecxaaq ol IcoJ eql JopJopue Durlselq Ieur'.reaur6uf eqf ttqlr.lord aLllIq aultl ol polctJlseJ oq ',fuessacau 'suos:ed uo[ceioJd llerls Ourlsegq jrrro^r\ otrlpueApado.rd rol'ieu oriisBiq 1o :eaul6u3 pequcsa:d

qsatui{neaqaprnotd orll eq} lleqstolceJ}uoC ,leeur0u3 Aq pjparlp aJaLlM

'teeur6u3 AqBurlcaqc aql lo; JolceJluoC 'pesn'senrsoldxaqr ^q 1de>1 ileL{s'slunoruB eq pue suorl'3orbuinnoqs lle Jo plocarV 'aloq qceo ut pesn eq llerls eDleqcaleJepoue A;uopue 'peddec pue papeol Apedo.rd lleqsslorls 'rrompoLlsruu ol ro rueo'ord aq oql o1 aOeuepro suosredor auop aq rfunfur reqr eJnsuoo1 suoileredo ou Ourlselq 6ur.rnp rolcelluoCaLll Iq ualel aq lleqs eJBcgsaleajO ;;e eq1 'suotsueulp suoDces-ssoJc Jo penordde eLll eprsno eoelearq {q pauorsecco rJo/v\e.rya roi lueurr{ed ol urep ou oneqllBrlsoq/v\ JolcerluoS Jo {lrlqrsuodseJ rsrJ sJrlua eql pue 'seloLl oq1 paulo;.ted lleqspoqleu .raq1o Jo ,sleuunl eq le {ue lltJp sueeu lo {q Durlselg 'ece1d ual aq ol leuoleueq1elqrssod driiirsB qrnlsrp ur si o] pue 'suotlsasssoJcpeJtnbel aql 01 elqrssod esolc sp uorlBnecxs se aq16uuqol se reuueur qcns ut auopaq llpLls e pue Ouilgup 6urlse;q ;;y

suchengines, and fix, shallalsoprovide, maintain operate The contractor to as are necessary keepthe pu*p., hoses,chutesand otherappliances as for the safetyof the structures waterat a level required accumulated by directed theEngineer,
100.6

DITCIIES ditches,and inlet interception side ditches, shallconstruct The Contractor or where orderedby the and outlet ditchesas shown on the Drawings . drainage.In orderto keep or for E"gin""r, whether temporary permanent subgrade,and/or pavementduring *"i", ,*"v from the embankment, by drainage shallat all timesensureadequate the construction, contractor beforework is is outletso that the drainage operative ditcnano scr'eourlng He or subgrade pavement. shallcleanandtrim on stated the embankment, fromtimeto time,so thattheremay be a freeflow ditches drainage sucn aiL shallfirst be Ditches the oi *rt", inrouglnout wholeperiodof the Contract. including and finaltrimming, cross-sections, to according approved trimmed the beendoneduring construction have. in" r"p"ii of anyl"m"bb that may work of the completion the otherconstruction oi,t work,shallbe c-aried "ft"r. and for finalapproval acceptance' andshallbe a condition specifiedno separatepaymentwill be .made for the Unlessothenrvise inletand outletditchesbut ditches, interception of excavation sideOitcnes, applicable. item105or 106whichever rr.n p.vr"nt willbe madeunder the by or on where indicated the drawings wlren required the Engineer, and in of existingstreamchannels, shall take cross-seciions Contractor mark them with detailsof the excavation with collaboration the Engineer, of the streamchannel.work shallnot proceed for requireo the relocation by cross-sections the Engineer. of approval the marked written without

100.7

FORCULVERTS EXCAVATION and backfillfor culvertand excavation specified Exceptwhereotherwise will to underdrains, not be paidfor backfill pipes, exceptgranular drainage obligationof the as a subsidiary ."frr."t"ty,' nui snatt 5e considered of classes pipe pricefor the various contract underthe covered Contractor in ltem501' as culvert Provided

100.8

from landslides' resulting of may orderthe removal material The Engineer the cut slopeor in the embankment in oi tne conitruction benches or above the rtop" or where in his opinionthe .slopeshows signs of instability, prices of Payment all suctiworkshallbe at contract of Ralening the slope. be' in ltem106or 108as thecasemaY r00.9 ANDLEVELINGPRIORTO SURVEY OF COMMENCEMENT EARTr{woRK in for The contractorshall be responsible the settingout of the work the General Conditionsof Contract' with Clause 17 of accordance to havebeenissued the contractor' that Notwithstanding projectdrawings 100-3

the contractorshallalso be responsible takingjoint cross-sections the for on proposed alignment the road,submitting of threecopiesof the plottedcrosssectionsand longitudinal profileto the Engineerand obtaining the approval of the Engineerto such cross-section and longitudinal profitebefore any work in connection with Earthworkis commenced. These cross-sections and longitudinal profileshall be in the form and manner as instructedin writingby the Engineer.

r00.10

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT The quantitiesof the variousclassesof excavationor embankment be to measuredfor paymentunder the contractshall be limitedto the lines and level as taken under clause 100.9 above. However if the levels so taken differappreciably from designlevelsthe matershall be referred the client. to Excavation and filling beyondthe lines and level shown on the drawings, approvedprofilesand cross-sections not be paid for. The Engineer will will decidethe angle of the slope of cuts and fills as the work proceedson the basis of evaluation the soil characteristics. of The actual lines of the cuts and fills as made will be duly measuredand recordedby the contractor. The Engineer will checkthese recordsand will approvethe measurements, if correct,as a basis of payment. Excessof excavation shall be backfilled, as directedby the Engineer, with subbasematerials withoutextra payment to the contractor;excess of fill may be either left in place or removedas required by the Engineer. The quantities of excavation,backfill and earthworkto be paid for in ltems 103, 106, 107 and 10g respectivelv shall be the number of cubic metersof materialmeasuredby the averageendarea method,exceptwherethe errormay exceedplus or minusfive bercent as comparedwith the prismoidal formula in which case the Engineerwill authorizethe use of the more accuratemethod. However,the contractor shall requestsuch authoritybeforehe submits his quantities approval. for Quantities measuredon the averageend-areabasis,once they have been submittedand approved,shall not be subjectto review for the purposeof applying more accurate a method.

100-4

ITEM 101

CLEARING AND GRUBBING


DESCRIPTION depth, grubbingand This work shall consistof removalto the specified directed in writing by the disposalof all sudace objects, as and where stumps,roots,bushesand trees with less than 150 mm girth, Engineer, vegetation,logs, rubbish and other objectionablematerial except such objectsas are designatedto remainor are to be removed in accordance with othersectionof specification.

101.1

101.2 101.2.1

REQUIREi\{ENTS CONSTRUCTION Clearins/Grubbing in roadwaycut areas,all surfaceobjectsor any objectto the depthof 30 Cm bushes,logs, below subgradelevel such as stumps,roots, vegetation, In rubbishshall be clearedand/orgrubbedas directedby the Engineer. same shall be is and grubbing required, fill roadway areaswhere clearing carriedout to the depth of 30 Cm belownaturalsurfacelevel as described above. of Operation clearingand grubbingshall in no way be deemedto effectany of levelor volumechange the area. to of the and grubbing, compaction the area will be restored its Afterclearing originalvalue withoutany extra payment.HoweverEngineermay directin (if for writingto the Contractor stripping so required)under item 103 or for of underitem 104, Compaction NaturalGround,if the original compaction zone. Paymentof these for is compaction less than the required respective under the relative items used for such items will be made separately purpose. will grub up and is Before bottom layer of embankment placed,contractor that may, in the meantime removewithout extra payment,any vegetation clearedand grubbed. havegrownon surfacepreviously All trees having girth less than 150 mm measured at (600) mm above limitsshall be felled& removedby groundand fallingwithinthe construction and removal of trees, roots and stumps The excavation the contractor. includingbackfillingand compactingof holes and restoringthe natural for of groundto the originalconditionshall be responsibility the contractor which no extra paymentshall be made to him. The trees, stumps & roots remains the propefty of the Employer, which shall be delivered at placeas directedby the Engineer. designated

r0r.2.2

and Restoration Protection wires,cablesor shall preventdamageto all pipes,conduits, The Contractor propertymarkers, or aboveor belowground.No land monuments, structure official datum points shall be damaged or removed until the their locations has witnessedor otherwisereferenced Employer/Engineer 101-1

and approvedtheir removal. The contractorshall so controlhis operations as to preventdamageto shrubs,which are to be preserved.protectionmay include fences and boards latched to shrubs, to prevent damage from machineoperations. Any damageas a resultof contractor's operation shall immediately rectified him at his own expense. be by 101.3 10r.3.1 M EASUR.EMENT AND PAYMENT Measurement clearing and grubbingwill be measuredfor payment only on areas so designatedin writing by the Engineeror shown on the drawings. The quantityto be paid for shall be the number of square meters satisfactorily clearedand grubbed. Any tree havinggirth of less than 150 mm (measured 600 mm abovegroundlevel)shall be measured be underthis item. to Engineershall ensure that a minimumof 500 sM area is designated for clearing and grubbing in any stretch of roadway for the sake of ease to construction activities. clearing and grubbingcarriedout by the contractorin roadwaycut areas and borrowpitsshallnot be measured payment for 101.3.2 Payment The quantities determined providedabovewill be paid for at the contract as unit price for the pay item mentionedbelow and shown in the Bill of which priceand paymentshall be full compensation clearing Quantities, for and grubbing and restoration area,to its originalcondition. of Pay ltem No.

Description

Unitof Measurement
SM

101

Clearing and Grubbing

101-2

ITEM 102 102.1

REMOVAL OF TREES
DESCRIPTION their This work shall consistof the removalof trees and stumps alongwith rootsto a depth,to ensurecompleteremovalof roots and stumpsand their disposalas providedin SpecialProvisionor as directedin writing by the Engineer.

rcz.2

CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS Such individualtrees as the Engineermay designateand mark in white paintshall be left standing uninjured.All othertrees to be removedshall be prepared showinggirthof the tree stem. countedand an inventory When necessaryto preventinjuryto other trees or structuresor to minimise dangerto traffic,trees shall be cut in sectionsfrom top downwards. from the removalof trees shall be filled and Hole or loose earth resulting degree of compaction of -adjoining area. Any extra recompacted to a for shallnot be measured payment. for material required such purpose

102.3

GENERAL REOUIREMENTS utilities, such as pipes shall preventdamageto all under-ground Contractor removalof trees shall cablesor conduitsetc. For this purposeif so required, be carried out manually. Any under-groundor over-ground property damaged by the contractorshall be immediatelyrepaired by the contractor at his own expense.

102.4 102.4.1

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT Measurement shalljointlymeasurethe girth and numberof trees Engineer and Contractor to be removedunderthis item.Anytree havinga girth of lessthan 150 mm measuredsix hundred(600)mm abovegroundlevel shall not be measured under this item, as the same shall be removed under item "Clearingand Grubbing".

102.4.2

Payment The quantitiesdeterminedas provided above shall be paid for at the belowand shownin the Bill of contractunit pricefor the pay item mentioned Quantitieswhich price shall be deemed to include all cost of labour to related the item. equipment and incidental

Pay ltem No.

Description

Unitof Measurement

Each mm of 102a Removal trees,150-300 girth Each mm of 102b Removal vees,301-600 girth of trees, 601 mm or overgirth Each 102c Removal 102-1

TTEM 103

STRIPPING

103.1

DESCRIPTION This work shall consist of removing unsuitabletopsoil, transportingand in depositing stockpiles spreading or where indicated the Drawingsor as on directedby the Engineer.Engineershall give instruction writing,stating in area and depthto be stripped.

103.2

CONSTRUCTION REQUI REMENTs The areasfrom whichstripping topsoilis required of shallbe as indicated on the Drawingsor as directedby the Engineer. The Contractor shall remove topsoil from these areas to depth as directed by Engineer.Strippingof topsoil in any case shall be not less than 10 cm. in depth. The removed topsoilshall be transported, deposited stock pilesat locations in designated by the Engineerand/or spread where indicatedon the drawings or as directed by the Engineer. Engineer shall, however identify the soil as unsuitable throughlaboratory tests The top soil shall be placedseparately from other excavatedmaterials and be completelyremovedto the requireddepth from the area prior to the beginningof regular excavationor embankmentwork in that area. No payment will be made for topsoil removed from places other than that directed by the Engineer. Engineer shall, however identify the soil as throughlaboratory unsuitable tests,beforesuch a decision.

103.3 103.3.1

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT Measurement Measurement shall be made by multiplying length,breadthand depth of the layer approvedby the Engineerin cubic meter of materialremoved and disposed directedby the Engineer. as Howeverspacethus createdshall be filledby the material directedby the Engineer as and paid separately under relative item.

103.3.2

Payment The paymentunderthis item shallbe made for at the contractunit price per cubic meter of strippingmeasuredas above, for removalof materialto a depth approvedby the Engineerincluding disposaiat designatedplace its and in the manneras directedby the Engineer.

Pay ltem No. 103

Descnption Stripping.

Unitof Measurement
CM

103-1

ITEM 104 104.1

COMPACTION OF NATURAL GROUND.


DESCRIPTION. purposes after clearing The naturalgroundor surfacereadyfor construction and grubbing or stripping,(if required) will be consideredas (natural) of Groundfor the purposeof this item.The compaction naturalgroundshall by the Engineer. be carriedout througha writtenorder

104.2

REOUIREMENTS. CONSTRUCTION Up to a depth of twenty (20) cm below the naturalground, all sods and mattersshallbe removedand clear surfaceshall be brokenup by vegetable to ploughing and scarifying compactto the degreeas definedbelow:For heightof Embankment below sub qrade level.

Dry Percent Maximum Density of T-180.. bv as determined AASHTO


q6 YJ

0to30cm 30 to 75 cm Over 75 cm of Belowthe foundation structures t04.2.1

on 95

Compaction of original ground surface in areas of high water levels and salinity. Compaction of the natural ground surface in such areas will be difficult if not

impossible.See ltems 108, etc. under Formation of Embankmentfor under these conditions,where compactionof requirements construction shallnot be carriedout. NaturalGround 104.3 104.3.1 MEASUREMENTAI.IDPAYMENT. Measurement. the shall be made by multiplying length and breadthof The measurement to in writingby the Engineer be paid underthis item.The the area approved of measurement the item shall be in Squaremeter. under this of Any subsidence levelsof NaturalGround due to compaction is the contractor expectedto take for payment, item shall not be measured care of suchfactorswhilebidding.

rc43.2

Payment. The paymentunderthis item shall be made for at the contractunit pricefor of Square meter of compaction (natural)ground measuredas above and watering,mixing,leveling, shall be deemedto includecost of scarification, to necessary completethis tools, and incidentals rolling,labour,equipment, item. Pay ltem No. 104

Description of Compaction Natural Ground 104-1

Unitof Measurement
SM

ITEM 105

ROADWAY AND BORROW EXCAVATION FOR EMBANKMENT


DESCRIPTION

105.1

The work shall consist of excavatingthe roadway and borrowpits,removal disposalof all materials taken from withinthe limitsof the and satisfactory for as excavation is necessary inlet and outlet ditchesof work, also Such shaping and sloping for the structuresand shall include all excavation, construction, preparation of all embankment, subgrade, shoulders, to as and in conformity the alignment, and intersections approaches directed grade, level and cross-sections by shown on the plans or established the Engineer. t05.2 105.2.1 CLASSIFICATIONOF EXCAVATION RoadWav Excavation as that is not classified shall compriseall excavation RoadwayExcavation structural excavation carried out within the limits of roadway including permanent ditchesand side slopesin cut. drainage Roadway Excavationshall further, be classifiedas "Common Excavation", (commonexcavation shall includeall the materials of or "Rock Excavation", whatevernaiure encounteredbut not includingrock excavation). a) CommonExcavation disposal of shallconsistof the removaland satisfactory Commonexcavation materials, inplaceunaltered and unweathered all eolian,alluvialandresidual of not firm or rigidenoughto possessall the characteristics strata, '"Rock which are Excavation". Bouldersof less than one quarter (1/4) cubic meter volume shall also be classifiedas "Common Excavation". Eolian and consistof $ravel,shale, volcanicash, loess, dunes and, alluvialmaterials of and termed loams,sands and clays or any combination these materials, as CommonExcavation. b) Rock Excavation and sedimentary rocks. This inbludes firm and rigid igneous,metamorphic Boulders larger than quarter (1/4) cubic meter in volume will also be provided theseare firm and stablelyingin as considered "Rock Excavation", more than 50% by volume as comparedto continuous bed and constitute in othertype of materials the totalmass. of The classification Hard,Mediumor Soft Rock shall be same as described underitem 106.2of GeneralSpecifications.

105-1

ro5.2.2

Borrow Excavation

Borrow Excavationshall comprise all excavationtaken from borrow pits. Material from borrow pits shall normally be used for the constructionof or embankment for the backfillwhen there is no materialavailablefrom roadway excavaiion or structural excavation. Permission to use material from borrowpit shall first be obtained in writing from the Engineer. Neverthelessthe total quantity of material from roadway excavation and structuralexcavationafter deductionof the materialdeclared unsuitableby the Engineer,shall be consideredavailablefor use in the work and any material used from borrow pits for formation of embankment shall not be measuredfor payment. In m6king his bid, the Contractorshall inspectthe site and prepare his of estimate the haulagecost on the basisof his own surveyof the possible of natureand locations the borrow pits.Their distancefrom the work sites shall not be groundsfor extra paymentor revisionof the contractprice. the borrow material The consentof the landowneror tenantfor excavating shall be securedby the Contractor along privateaccessroads and'hauling pay for such concession. Borrowpits shall be left in a who shall,if required, and/ortenantand the Engineer. to acceptable the landowner condition 105.2.3 Structural Excavation and paymentof this sectionshall methodof measurement The description conformto as specifiedin item 107. 105.3 REOUIREMENTS CONSTRUCTION All material removed from excavation shall be used in the formation of embankment,subgrade, shoulders,and at such other places as directed, unless it is declared unsuitableand ordered to waste by the Engineer. No excavated material shall be wasted without written permission from the and when such materialis to be wasted,it shall be so placedthat Engineer, it will present a neat appearanceand not offer any danger to abutting property. if The materialshall be declaredunsuitable the soaked CBR (96 hours) is less than five (5) percent or if falls under ,4-6 or A-7 of AASHTO soil classification. of During construction the roadway,the road bed shall be maintainedin that it will be well drainedat alltimes. such a condition All slopes,exceptin solid rock or other materialshall be trimmed precisely and care must be exercisedthat no materialshall be as per cross-sections, rock slopes,a reasonably beyondthe requiredslopes. In blasting loosened regardlessof whether or not the excavation is uniform face shall be left, carried beyond the specified side slope. All breakage and slides shall be removedby the contractorand disposedof as directedby the Engineer.

105-2

in Rock, shale and other unsuitableroad bed materialencountered cuts on width and depth indicated the plansor as to shall be excavated required Any overbreakage belowthe depth shown on the plans directed. otherwise will not be paid for. Backfillof the overcut shall be of approved earth as on and shallhavethe same densityrequirements specified the material olansand shall be at the expenseof contractor, shall be locatedso that the nearestedge of the pit is at least Borrowpits (30) metersfrom the roadwaytoe of slope unless otherwise directed thirty by the Engineer. its including suitability, shall be to Permission use any borrow material, obtained in writing from the Engineer before execution of work. lt is responsibiiityof the contractor to submit a requestfor test at least fifteen (15) working days prior to the day the contractorintendsto begin from the borrowarea. takingmaterial In no case shall borrow material be obtained from downstreamof any hydraulicstructure. However the borrowpitmay be establishedat five of structure. The side slopes hundred(500) metersupstream the hydraulic as of the pits or channelsshall be constructed shown on the plans or In directedby the Engineer. no casethe side slopesof borrowpit be steeper 1 t h a na s l o p e ; : 5( V : H ) . shall,at his of Upon abandonment borrowpit or quarryarea,the contractor own expense,cleanand trim the borrowpit or quarryarea,the rightof way, of which were occupiedduringexecution work, all and adjoiningproperties of to the satisfaction the Engineer. and blasting shallbe done in such a manneras will most nearly All drilling to completethe excavation the requiredgrade line, and producethe least of disturbance the materialto be left in place. Blastingby means of drill holes or any other methods shall be performedat the entire risk and of Care shall be taken to ensurethat no injury responsibility the contractor. or be done to personsor properties to the finishedwork. Blastingshall be by or restricted the hoursprescribed the localauthorities the Engineer. to two successive cross-sections the road,the properties of of Where between in rock boulders, sizes largerthan a one quarter(114)of a cubic meter,to will whollyas rock. earthis morethan 50%,the excavation be considered pilesof stone, Rock materialabove groundlevel such as stones,boulders, sizes are greaterthan one quarter and dry stoneswallingwhose individual of a cubic meter shall be removedand disposedof if directedin writingby the Engineerand shall be paid under relevantitem of work in the Bill of Quantities. 105.4 105.,1.1 MBASUREMENTAND PAYMENT Measurement When the Bill of Quantitiesspecifiesfor "Common Excavation", "Rock Excavation" and "BorrowExcavation'! quantities the different of classes the shallbe computed follows: as of excavation
1nq_?

a) CommonExcqvation for The unit of measurement common excavationshall be in cubic meter and be computedby average end area method based on cross-sections of and completion duly approvedby the Engineerprior to commencement required excavation. The excavated material approvedfor fill under any item of the Bill of item underthe relevant Quantities shallbe used in the manneras described of of work, irrespective haulagedistance. b) Rock Excavation "Rock Excavation" be measuredin cubic metersshall consist to Authorized of area that is necessaryto providethe design section and grade or as directedby the Engineer. Any over breakagebeyond the lines shown on set the plansand outsideof the tolerances for subgradein cuts shall not be paid for. The Engineershall define the beginningand ending points of areas classified as "Rock Excavation". Any area over excavated in the subgradeshall be reinstatedat the cost of contractoras directedby the Engineer. shall be computed by means of The pay quantityfor "Rock Excavation" based on original averageend area methodfrom approvedcross-sections or removalof unsuitable overburden groundelevations after the authorized if materials, required. For disposalof excavatedrock material,same procedureshall be followed specifiedin sub item as describedabove for the "Common Excavation" (1 ) . a No.105.4. c) Borrow Excavjltion howeverthis shall be made for any Borrow Excavation, No measurement materialif used in any of the Bill items, shall be measuredand paid as provided itemsof work. underthe relative

r05.4.2

Payment shall be made under this No paymentfor Roadwayor Borrow Excavation under relativeitem of Formation as the same is deemedto be included item of Embankment.

105-4

ITEM 106

EXCAVATION OF UNSUITABLE OR SURPLUS MATERIAL


DESCRIPTION The work shall consistof excavation and disposalof unsuitable surplus or material arisingfrom roadway excavation, which is declaredin writingby the Engineerto be unsuitable for use or surplus to the requirements the of project. When excavation unsuitable of materialrequiresspecialattention for a known condition a specificproject,construction on requirements and provisions. paymentshallbe coveredunderrelevant

106.I

106.2

CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS All suitablematerialexcavatedwithin the limits and scope of the project shall be used in the most effective manner for the formation of the embankment, widening roadway, backfill, for otherwork included for of for or in the contract. Any material surplusto these requirement any material or declared writing in by the Engineerto be unsuitable shall be disposedof and leveledin thin layers by the contractor outsidethe right of way within 7 Km of excavation. The Engineershall decide regardingthe unsuitability the material by of conducting appropriate laboratory tests. when unsuitable materials orderedto be removedand replaced, soil are the left in place shall be compactedto a depth of twenty (20) cm to the density prescribedunder ltem 108.3.1. Payment for such compactionshall be includedin the contractpricesfor the excavationmaterials. lf the unsuitable material, which is to be removed,is below standingwater level and the replacementmaterial is gravel or a similar self-draining material of at least thirty (30) cm in depth, the compaction may be dispensed with if approved the Engineer. by Rock excavation shallbe classified under: as a) Hard Rock Any rock whichcan not be removedwith Ripperof a2oo H.p. Bulldozer and constitutes firm and continuous a bed of rock onlv. b) Medium Rock Any rock which can not be removedwith the blade of 200 H.p. Buldozerbut can be removedby the ripper,will be termed as Medium Rock, irrespective of the fact that it is removedby blasting. c) Soft Rock Any rock whichcan be removedwith the bladeof a 200 H.p. Bulldozer. This item will be termed as soft Rock, irrespectiveof the fact that it is removed by blasting.

106-1

106.3 106.3.1

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT Measurement is When the contractor directedto excavateunsuitablematerialbelow the surfaceof originalgroundin fill areas,the depth to which these unsuitable materialsare to be removed will be determinedby the Engineer.The cross contractorshall schedulehis work in a such a way that authorized Only has been removed. can be taken beforeand afterthe material sections of which is surplusto the requirements the projector is declaredin material will to writingby the Engineer be unsuitable qualifyfor paymentsunder pay I t e mN o . 1 0 6a , 1 0 6b , 1 0 6c , a n d 1 0 6d a s t h e c a s em a y b e . of The cost of excavation materialwhich is used anywherein the project shall be deemed to be includedin the pay ltem relatingto the part of the is work wherethe material used. Pay ltem Nos. 106 a, 106 b, 106 c, and 106 d shall The undermentioned the includethe cost of obtaining consentof the owner or tenantof the land material made. is of wherethe disposal surplusor unsuitable and shall be measuredin its originalposition or Unsuitable surplusmaterial in its volumeshallbe calculated cubicmetersusingend area method.

106.3.2

Payment The quantitiesdeterminedas provided above shall be paid for at the for contractunit price respectively each of the particularpay ltems listed which prices and paymentshall below and shown in the Bill of Quantities of in for all costsinvolved the propercompletion full constitute compensation in the work prescribed this item. Pay ltem No.

Description

Unitof Measurement
CM

106a

Common Unsuitable Excavate Material Rock Unsuitable Excavate Material. i. HardRock Rock ii. Medium iii. Soft Rock

106b

CM CM CM

106c

Surplus Common Excavate Material SurplusRockMaterial Excavate i. HardRock ii. MediumRock iii. Soft Rock
lvo-z

CM

106d

CM CM

ITEM 107

STRUCTURAL EXCAVATION AND BACKFILL


DESCRIPTION structural excavationshall include the removal of all material of whatever nature, necessaryfor the constructionof foundationsof bridges, culverts, retaining walls, headwalls, wing walls, catch basins,manholes,inlets and other structures not otherwise provided for in these specificationsand in accordance with the plans or as directedby the Engineer. lt shall include the furnishingof all riecessaryequipmentand constructionof all cribs, cofferdams,caissons,dewatering,sheeting,shoring etc., which may be necessary the execution the work. lt shallalso includethe subsequent for of removalof cofferdamsand cribs and the placementof all necessarybackfill as hereinafterspecified. lt shall also include the disposing of eicavated material, which is not required backfill, a mannerand in locations as for in so not to affectthe carryingcapacityof any channeland not to be unsighfly.

r07.1

107.2

to7.2.r

Backfill aroundstructure Backfillaround structureshall be made with the followingmaterial. a. Granularbackfillof selectedmaterialas specifiedhere under b. common backfill shall be carried out from excavated material or any other borrow materialapprovedby the Engineer.

t07.2.2

Granular ba,ckfill Granularbackfillmaterialshall meet the followingrequirements. a) GradinsRequirement

mm 25 19 4.75 2.4 0.425 0.075

Inch. 1" 314" No.4 N o .1 0 NO.40 No.200 100 60-100 50-85 40-70 2545 0-15 100 75-100 55-100 40-100 20-50 5-15

b) Material satisfying requirements coarsesand fallingurider soil the of classification (AASHTo). case,coarse A-3 In sandis utilised granular for fill it shallbe ensured that the sameis confined properly with af,proved material. c) The material shall-have Plasticity a Indexof not morethansize (6) as determined AASHTO by T-89andT-90. 107-1

t07.2.3

Commonbackfill may be allowedunderthis item. Use of as material backfill Use of excavated borrow materialfor common backfillshall be allowed subjectto approvalof borrow materialby the Engineer.

107.2.4

Rock backlill of in of Rock material smallsize shall be permitted the backfilling structures by of or wallssubjectto the approval methodology the Engineer.

107.3 107.3.1

R-E,OUIREMENTS CONSTRUCTION Structuralexcavation a) General All substructures,where practicable, shall be constructed in open shall be shored,braced, the excavation excavation and, where necessary, protected by cofferdamsin accordancewith approved methods. When or footings can be placed in the dry without the use of cribs or cofferdams, backformsmay be omittedwith the approvalof the Engineer,and the entire excavationfilled with lean concreteto the requiredelevationof the top of the footing.The additionalconcreteshall be at the expenseof the Contractor. In case the contractor has excavated additional volumes than specified thereunder,the contractorshall at his own expense backfillthe volume with approvedmaterialas directedby Engineer. of The classification Hard, Medium or Soft Rock shall be same as described under item 106.2of GeneralSpecifications. of b) Preservation channel Unless otherwise soecified. no excavation shall be made outside of caissons,cribs, cofferdams,piling, or sheeting,and the natural stream bed adjacentto the structureshall not be disturbedwithout permissionfrom the Engineer.lf any excavationor dredging is made at the site of the structure before caissons, cribs or cofferdams are in place, the Contractor shall, without extra charge, after the foundationbase is in place, backfill all such excavationto the originalground surfaceor river bed with nraterialapproved by the Engineer.Materialdepositedwithin the stream area from foundation or other excavationor from filling of cofferdamsshall be removed and the thereby. stream bed freed from obstruction dpjefF,otllg: The elevationof the bottomsof footings,as shown on the drawings,shall be consideredas approximateonly and the Engineer may order, in writing, such changesin dimensionsor elevationof footingsas may be necessaryto foundation. securea satisfactory

107-2

d) Preparation Foundations Footings of of i) All rock or otherhardfoundation material shallbe freedfrom all loose material, cleaned and cut to a firm surface, eitherleveled, stepped, or roughened, maybe directed the Engineer. as by ii) when masonryis to rest on an excavated surfaceother than rock special, careshallbe takennotto disturb bottom the excavation, the of andthe finalleveling the grade of just before shallnot be madeuntil the masonry to be placed. is e)Cofferdams Cribs and i) For substructure work, the contractor shall submit, upon request, drawings showing proposed his methodof cofferdams construction and otherdetails opento his choice notfullyshownon the Enginee/s left or drawings. The contractor shall not start work until the Engineer has approved suchdrawings. ii) cofferdamsand cribs for foundation construction shall be carriedto adequate depths and heights, safelydesigned constructed, be and and be madeas watertightas is necessary the properperformance the for of workwhichmustbe doneinside them.In general, interior the dimensions of cofferdams cribsshallbe suchas to give sufficient and clearance for the construction formsand the inspection'of of their exteriors, to and permit pumping outside forms.cofferdams cribs, the or whichare tilted or movedlaterally during process sinking, the of shallbe righted, reset, or enlarged as to provide necessary so the clearance this shallbe and solelyat the expense the Contractor. of iii) when conditions encountered are which, the opinion the Engineer, in of render impracticable dewater foundation it to the beforeplacing masonry, he may requirethe construction a concrete of foundation seal of suih dimensions may be necessary. foundation as The watershallthen be pumped and the balance the masonry out of placedin the dry. \Men weightedcribs are employedand the weight is utilizedto partially overcomethe hydrostatic pressureacting againstthe bottomof the foundation seal,special anchorage such as dowelsor keys shall be provided transfer entireweightof the crib intothe foundation to the seal. During placing a foundation the of seal,the elevation thewaterinside of the cofferdam shall be controlled preventany flow through seal, to the and if the cofferdam to remainin place,it shallbe ventedor portedat is lowwaterlevel. iv) cofferdams cribsshallbe constructed as to protect or so greenconcrete againstdamagefrom a suddenrisingof the streamor river and to prevent damage thefoundation erosion. timber bracing to by No or shall be left in cofferdams cribs in such a way as to extend inio the or substructure masonry without permission the Engineer. written from v) Unlessothenvise provided, cofferdams cribswith all sheeting of and bracing shall be removed afterthe completion the substructure, of care beingtakennotto disturb otherwise or injure finished the masonry. 107-3

f) Pumpine enc|osuresha|| be done in i) Pumpingfrom the interiorof any foundation of possibility the movementof water such a manneras to precludethe ttrrougrranyfreshconcrete.Nopumpingofwaterwil|bepermitted four (24). durin! the placing of concreteor for a period of at least twenty it is done from a suitablesump pit separated hours thereafter, unless from the concretework by a watertightwall or other effectivemeans' i i ) P u m'fraJg t o u n w a t e r a s e a | e d c o f f e r d a m s h a | | n o t c o m m e n c e u n t i | t h e pin to set sufficiently with standthe hydrostaticpressure' seal g) Inspection the Engineer, After each excavationis completedthe Contractorshall notify has approved or and no concrete masonryshallbe placeduntilthe Engineer material' of and the character the foundation the depthof the excavation the In case if an existing structure is to be replaced with a new.structure shall be paid under item 510 quantitiesfor dismJntlingthe structure and additionalexcavation required shall be {bismanttingof structure-s) carriedout underthis item. of h) Classification Excavation shall be made as describedunder items 106'2 of Classification excavation of this SPecification. 107.3.2 in Excavation Embankments approvalof unless otherwisespecified,the contractor may choose with the pipe culvertsafier the the Engineerto excavatefor structures, culverts,and of has been placed. Any space remaining after the placing emban-kment by the such structures or culverts s[all be fiiteC witfr material approved Engineerand comPactedas follows: placed and Layers of not more than 20 cm in loose thickness shall be tampers, plate.compactorsor compacteo in succession,with mechanical the densities hand guided rollers operaied transverselyto the rgldway' to Moisturecontentshall be adjustedas directed in specin"eO the item tb3.g.t. bonding of ni, tn" Engineer. proper benching sha.llbe made to ensure eiirting and n6w materialwithoutany extra payment' purposes The excavationin embankmentand the placing of backfillfor the payment.also if sand or describedabove shall not constituteany claim for granular backflll is used by the contractorfor his convenience,no extra paymentwill be made.

107-4

107.3.3

Backfill a) Granularbackfill where-ever directedshall be placedin the positionand to the requireddepth,shown on the drawingsor where and as required in writing by the Engineerand it shall be well compactedin rayersnot exceeding twenty(20)cm in thickness 100 perceniof Max. dry density to as per AASHTO r-180 (D). In case of water ioggedareasttrethicrnesi 9f th.elayer shall not exceed fifty (50) centimeteis or as directed by the Engineer. Volume of granularfi'llaround structures shall be calculated within the verticallimits of approved-excavation such a structure, for whereas the horizontal limitsshallbe those as specified drawings. on b) common backfill shall consistof earth free from large lumps,wood and other organic materialsand of a quality acceptable the Engineer.lt to shall be placedin the positionand to the requireddepthsshown on the Drawingsand/or as requiredin writing by the Engineerand it shall be well compactedin layers not to exceed twenty (20) cms in depth to the density, percentof maximumdry density, per AASHTOr-180 (D). 95 as c) The rock backfillmaterialwhose individualsizes are not more than 30 cm shall be placedin the position the requireddepthas specified to and the voids shail be fiiled in layer of fine material apprwed by the Engineer.The compacting efforts shall be made so as to achieve the desiredcompaction approvedvisuallyby the Engineer. The depth of the layer in any case shail not exceed sixty (60) centimeters.However in water loggedareas,the thicknessmay be increased directedby as the Engineer. Rock backfill will not be placed within two meters from concreteface of any structure. d) All spaces excavated and not occupied by abutments, piers or other permanentwork shall be refilledwith earth or granularfill as approvedby the Engineer up to the surface of the surroundingground, with a sufficientallowancefor setflement.All such backfill shall be thoroughly compactedand, in general,its top surface shall be neaflygraded. e) The fill behindabutments and wing wails of ail bridgestructures shail be depositedin well-compacted, horizontallayers not to exceed twenty (20) cm. in thickness.The common backfillin front of such units shall be placedfirst to preventthe possibility fon,uard of movement. special precautions shallbe takento preventany wedgingactionagainst the masonry, and the slope boundingthe excavation abutmentsand for wingwails shail be destroyed by stepping or roughening to prevent wedge action.Jettingof the fill behindabutmentsand wingwalls will not be permitted.

107-5

Fill placedaroundculvertsand piersshall be depositedon both sidesto approximatelythe same elevatron at the same time. where the Contractordoes not have proper equipmentsto ensure compactionin restricted areas, Engineer may allow backfill with sand saturation method,at no extracostto the Client. shall be madefor the throughdrainageof all backfill. g ) Adequateprovision Frenchdrainsshallbe placedas weep holes. before h ) No backfillshall be placedagainstconcreteor masonrystructure shall be carriedout on fourteen(14) days of placementand backfilling simultaneously. both sidesof the structure t07.4 107.4.1
MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT Measurement a) Structural Excavation

of to excavation be paidfor shallbe the number of The quantities structural by position computed the in measured its original of cubicmeters material of average end-area method, and excavatedto the satisfaction the Engineer. and paymentas for will StructuralExcavation be classified measurement in "struCtural Excavation CommOn Material", in Excavation Common "structural and in Level","structuralExcavation Rock Material" MaterialBelow Water to is the to whether excavation in eadhor rockandaccording whether according levelto is the excavation aboveor belowthe waterlevelwhichis the constant pit. rises naturally in a foundation the which water shall excavation for of The volume earthor rockto be measured structural planes:by bounded thefollowing of consist a prismoid 1) will pay limitsfor computing quantities be vertical The vertical or of outside the neat linesof footings planes50 centimeters by directed the or as foundations shownon the Drawings as Engineer. shallbe the excavation of limitfor payment structural The upper groundsurfaceas it existedprior to the start of construction except where structuralexcavationis performed operations, areas, upper the or excavation ditchexcavation withinroadway of of limitshallbe the planes the bottomand sideslopes said areas. excavated pay quantities structural of The lower limits for computing be a planeat the bottomof shall backfill or excavation structure or structures leanconcrete. foundations, footings, thecompleted
107-6

2)

3)

Measurement structural for excavationshall not includematerialremoved below the footing grade and beyond specific limits to compensatefor anticipated swell or as a result of effectiveswell during pile driving, or additionalmaterialresultingfrom slides,slips, cave-ins,siiting or fillings, whether due to the action of the elements or to carelessnessof the contractor. The depths of the footings shown on the drawings are approximate only and any variation found to be necessary during construction shall be paid for at the contract unit price. b) GranularBack{ill The quantities GranularBackfillto be paid for shall be the number of of cubic meters of materiallaid and compactedin place within the line of structureand limits defined in ltem 107.4.1 (a) above, iomputed and accepted the Engineer. by c) CommonBackfill The quantities common Backfillto be paid for shall be the number of of cubic meters of materiallaid and compacted,placed within the lines of structureand limits definedin ltem 107.4.1(a) above and acceptedby the Engineer. 107.4.2 Payment The quantitiesdeterminedas provided above shall be paid for at the contractunit price respectively each of the particularpay item listed for belowthat is shown in the Bill of euantities, which priceand pLymentshall be full compensation all the costs involvedin the proper completionof for the work prescribed this item. in Pay ltem No.

Description

Unitof Measurement

1O7a

Structural Excavation in CommonMaterial StructuralExcavationin CommonMaterial Below Water Level Structural Excavation in RockMaterial i. ii. iii. Hard Rock MediumRock Soft Rock

CM

107b

CM

107c

CM CM CM CM CM

107d 107e

Granular Backfitt type-CommonBackfill 107-7

ITEM 108

oF FORMATTON EMBAr{4IvrpNr
DESCRIPTION preparation of including of This work shallconsistof formation embankment, layers and in materialin of area for placingand co.mpaction embankment within the roadwayarea in accordance piis anO other depressions holes, and in conformitywith the lines, grades,thickness *itn 11.ispecifications andtypica|cross-sectionshownontheplansorestab|ishedbythe Engineer.

108.1

108.2

MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS shall consistof suitablematerialexcavatedfrom Materialfor embankment include all borrow,roadwayexcavationor structuralexcavationand shall only when materialobtainedfrom will be used lead and lift. Borrowmaterial roadwayorstructura|excavationisnotsuitab|eorisdeficientfor and shallincludeall leadand lift' formation embankment specification' underthis item shallconformto the following The material a)ContractorshalluseAASHTOClassA-1,A-2'A-3'A-4orA-5 soil as specifiedin AASHTO M-145 or other materialapproved by the Engineer. b) cBR of the material shall not be less than five (5) percent, with AASHTOT-193.CBR value shall in determined accordance beobtainedatadensitycorrespondingtothedegreeof layer' for required the corresponding compaction swell value of the materialfor embankmentformation shall not exceedfive tenth (0.5) percent. However,while establishingthe the overburdenwill swell value, surchargeweights representing sandy-material is used for embankment be used. in "a." formation,itshallbeproperlyconfinedatnoextrapaymentwith. a materiil and to the exteni as approved by the Engineer and sandymateria|shalInotbeusedons|opesofembankment. In areas subject to flood and prolonged inundation of the embankment,such as at bridge sites, the material used in embankment,unlessrock,shallbeAASHTOClassAl(a)'A1 (b)andA-z.a,soils.othersoilsmaybeusedon|ywiththe writtenconsentof Engineer.

c)

d)

108.3 108.3.1

CONSTRUCTION REOUIREMENTS

shall above, as and obtained approved provided for Material embankment, with andin conformity thickness layers of uniform in Oe ptaceO horizontal 108-1

the lines, grades,sectionsand dimensions shown on the Drawingsor as requiredby the Engineer. The layersof loose materialother than rock shall be not more than 20 cm. thick, unlessotherwiseallowed by the Engineer aftera trialsectionis prepared and approved. The materialplacedin layersand that scarified the designated to depthfor formation of embankmentshall be compactedto the d?nsity specified below:

Depthin centimeters belowsubqrade Level 0to30 30 to 75 Over75

Percent Maximum of Dry Density. 95 93 90

* Method'B' or 'D' whichever appricabre, corresponding is or Relative Density caseof sandfill. in In-place density determinations the compacted of layers shallbe madein accordance AASHTO with r-191 or otherapproved methods.For all soils, withthe exception rockfill materials, of containing morethan 10%oversize particles (retained 3r4 inch/ 19 mm sieve),1he on in-place density thus obtainedshall be adjustedto aecountfor suChoversizeparticlesor as directed. the Engineer. subsequent by rayersshail not be pracedand compacted unlessthe previous layerhas been properly compacted and accepted the Engineer. by Material embankment locations for at inaccessible normalcompacting to equipment shallbe placedin horizontal layersof loosematerial more not than15centimeters andcompacted thedensities thick to speciRed above by theuseof mechanical tempers, other or appropriate equipment. The compaction the embankment be carried at the designated of shall out moisture content consistent theavailable with compacting equipment. Embankment material doesnot contain that sufficient moisture obtainthe to requiredcompaction shail be given additionar moistur" 6y means of approved sprinklers mixing. and Material containing morethanihe optimum moisture may not,without writtenapproval the dngineer, incorporated of be in the embankment it has beensufflcienfly untit driedout. in" orying wet of material may be expedited scarification, by diskingor other approved methods. when materials wide_ly of divergent characteristics, as clay and chalk such or sand,drawnfrom different sources, to be used in the emoankment are theyshallbe deposited alternate in layers the samematerial of overthe full widthof theembankment depths to approved the Engineerby Rock, cray or othermaterial shallbe broken andno accumulation tumps boulders up, 6f or in theembankment be permitted. surplus will No material snaitbe permitted to be leftat thetoeof embankment at thetopof cutsections. or 108-2

Side slopesshall be neatlytrimmedto the lines and slopes shown on the and the finishedwork shall be left drawings as directedby the Engineer, or condition. in a neatand acceptable 108.3.2 Formationof Embankment With RockMaterial predominantly rock fragment Embankment of formed of materialconsisting of such size that the materialcannot be placed in layers of the thickness prescribed pulverizing furtherbreaking or down the pieces, withoutcrushing, such materialmay be placed in layersnot exceedingin thicknessthan the approximate average size of the rocks except that no layer shall exceed by eighty(80)centimeters loose measurement compacted a vibratory of and rollerwith the minimummass as shownin the following table.

Massper metrewidth of Vibiatinq roll(Kq/M) 2300- 2900 2900- 3600 2600- 4300 4300- 500 >5000

Depth of fill layer (mm)

Number passes of of the ioller on eachlaver


6

400 500 600 700 800

5 5
A A

The material shall be carefullyplacedin layers,so that all largerstoneswill be well distributed and voids completely filled with smaller stones, clean small spells,shale, earth,sand, gravel,to form a solid mass. After placing rock material,surface shall be covered with a layer of fine material having thicknessless than twenty (20) centimeters. Such fine.materialshall be reservedfrom roadwayexcavationby the Contractor. Should such material be available but not reserved, Contractor will supply and place borrow formingsmoothgradewithoutextrapayment. materialfor Each layershall be bladedor leveled with motorgrader,bulldozer similar or equipmentcapable of shiftingand formingthe layer into a neat and orderly condition. No rock largerthan eight (8) centimeters any dimension in shall be placed in the top fifteen (15) centimetersof embankment unless otherwiseallowed by the Engineer. Materialfor each layer should be consolidated with heavy weight vibratory roller until settlernentas checked betweentwo consecutivepasses of roller is less that one (1) percent of the layer thickness. ln evaluation of settlement, survey pointsshould be established and rollingcontinueduntil differenceof levels as checked after two consecutive passes is less than one (1) percent of the total layer thickness.More over initial rolling of overlaid fine material shall be done withoutwatering ensuretheir intrusion to in voids of rock layer beneath.Watering shall be done when voids are properlyfilled.

Embankments, whichare formedof material that containrock but also materialother than rock or other hard containsufficientcompactable material make rolling feasible, to shall be placedand compacted the in prescribed manner aboveand to the pointwhensettlement withinabove is mentionedrequirement. Compaction test will be made wheneverthe Eachlayermust be Engineer determines they are feasible and necessary. approved the Engineer by before nextlayeris placed. the 108-3

in When rock to be incorporated fill is composedlargelyof weak or friable material, the rock shall be reducedto a maximumsize not exceeding fifty (50) percentof the thickness the layerbeingplaced. of 108.3.3 of on Formation Embankment Steep Slopes Where embankments are to be constructed steep slope, hill sides or on where new fill is to be placedand compactedagainstexistingpavementor where embankment to be built along one half the width at a time, the is originalslope of the hill side,of existingpavementor adjacent to half width of embankmentshall be cut in steps of twenty (20) centimeters depth. Benching shall be of sufficientwidth to permit operation of equipment possible duringplacing and compaction material. of Cut materialshall be incorporated with the new embankment materialand compactedin horizontal layers.No extra paymentwill be allowedfor such an ooeration. 108.3.4 Formation Embankment Existing of on Roads Before fill is placed and compactedon an existingroadway,the existing embankment and/or pavement may be leveled by cutting, rooting or by scarifying approved mechanical meansto a levelto be determined the by Engineer.The earth,old asphaltor other materialarisingas a resultof this operationwill be declared either suitable or unsuitable,for use in the embankmentor other items, by the Engineer.lf the materialis declared suitable it will be measured under relative item and if it is declared unsuitable, will be measured it underitem 106a. 108.3.5 Formationof Embankment Water LoggedAreas in Where embankments to be placedin water loggedareas and which are are inaccessible heavy construction to equipment,a special working platform shall be first established, consisting a blanketof fill materialplacedon top of of the soft layer.The material the workingtable shall consistof normalor of processed granular obtained fill, from borrowexcavation. This material shall conformto the following specifications:
Percentageof Weight Passing Mesh Sieve.AASHTO T-27

SieveDescription 3 inch (75 mm)

100

gradingshall be such as to avoid intrusioninto the working The remaining ptatform material of subgrade or natural ground surface material.For this to condition be met it will be required that the ratio. D 15(Working Platform Material) is lessthan5. D65(Natural GroundMaterial) Du5and D15mean the particlediameterscorresponding 85% and 1So/o, to passing(by weight)in a grainsize analysis. respectively, Construction this workingtable shall proceedfrom one edge of the soft of area by usingthe fill as a rampfor furthermaterial transport. '108-4

The thickness of the working table as prescribed above shall be and the otherwiseby the Engineer, 0.5 approximatelV meter unlessdirected of The placementand compaction wiOtnsnatt n6 tnat of the embankment. as the workingtable shall be carriedout by use of light equipment, directed by the Engineer. pla.tform, however, No density requirementsare specifiedfor the wor.king. in specified to layersabove it shail be compacted the densities subsequent I t e m1 0 8 . 3 . 1 . 108.3.6 GeneralRequirements of with the construction bridge abutmentsand wing To avoid interference pointsdeterminedby the Engineer,suspend shall at walls, the Contractor to and/orin cuts formingthe approaches any such work on embankments until such time as the constructionof the later is sufficiently structure of advancedto permit the completion the approacheswithout the risk of of or interference damageto the bridgeworks.The cost of such suspension work shall be included in the contract unit prtces for embankment.In care culvertsor pipe drainage, up carryingembankments to or over bridges, to have the embankmentsbroughtto shall be taken by the Contractor equally on both sides and over the top of any such structure.Contractor in to shall make specialarrangements ensurepropercompaction restricted and around structures.No compensationshall be made to the spaces for Contractor working in narrowor otherwiserestrictedareas. an When as a result of settlement, embankmentrequiresthe additionof to materialup to 30 cm in thickness bring it up to the requiredgrade level, the top of the embankment shall be thoroughly scarified before the for materialis being placed,withoutextra paymentto Contractor additional the scarification. and of for shall be responsible the stability all embankments The Contractor shall replace any portionsthat in the opinion of the Engineerhave been or damaged or displaceddue to carelessness neglecton the part of the as whichmay be lost or displaced a result material Embankment Contractor. or of naturalcausessuch as storms,cloud-burst as a resultof unavoidable movement or settlementof the ground or foundation upon which the embankment is constructedshall be replaced by the Contractorwith compensation or material from excavation borrow.No additional acceptable will be allowedfor the replacement. the Duringconstruction, roadwayshall be kept in shape and drainedout at by has been placedin the embankment material all times. When unsuitable he the Contractor, shall removeit withoutextra payment. 108.4 108.4.1 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT Measurement to The quantities be paid for shall be the numberof cubic meterscalculated on theoretical designed lines and grades and the ground levels as establishedunder clause 100.9, compacted in place, accepted by the from: resulting formedwith material Engineer 108-5

D Formation of Embankment from Borrow Excavation Measurement shall be made as under:-

Formation from Borrow =

Total Embankment Quantity (minus) Roadway excavationQuantity (minus) structural excavation Quantity.

ii) Formationfrom structuralExcavation This quantityshall be the same as calculated structuralexcavation for irrespectiveof its haulage distance except that declared unsuitable by the Engineer. iii) F.o,fm?tion from RoadwayExcavation. This quantityshall be the same as calculated RoadwayExcavation. for The contractor will be supposed to use material from Roadway Excavation irrespective haulagedistance,Howeverif contractor, of for his own convenience, uses the materialfrom borrow,the paymentwill stillbe madeunderthis item 108 (a) & 108(b). In the measurement "Formation Embankment steep slopes"no of of on allowance will be made for the benchingor volume of materialcut out from the hill side or from the first half width fill to accommodate the compacting equipment will be calculated but only on the net volumeof fill placedagainstthe originalhill sides,the old embankment the first half or widthfill. 108.4.2 Payment. a) Formationfrom Borrow Excavation . The quantityto be paid for shall be the number of cubic meters placed in embankment,measured as provided above for material from borrow excavation and such a payment will be deemed to include cost of paymentof royalty,levies and taxes of Local, provincialand excavation, FederalGovernment, cost of haulingincluding lead and lift, spreading, all watering, rolling, labour, equipment,tools and incidentalnecessary to complete item. this b) Formationfrom StructuralExcavation. The quantityto be paid for shall be the number of cubic meters placed in embankment and measuredas providedabove for material from structural excavation and such paymentwill be deemedto includecost of excavation, hauling, dumping, spreading, watering,rolling,labour,equipment, tools and ineidental necessary complete to this item.

108-6

c) Formationfrom RoadwayExcavation The quantityto be paid for shall be the number of cubic meters placed in embankment and measuredas providedabove for materialform roadway excavation and such payment will be deemedto includecost of excavation, hauling, dumping, spreading, watering, rolling, labour, equipment, toolsand incidental necessary complete to this item. Pay ltem No. Description

Unit of Measurement

108a

Formation Embankment of form Roadway Excavation in CommonMaterial Formation Embankment of from RoadwayExcavation in RockMaterial. i. Hard Rock ii. MediumRock iii. Soft Rock

CM

108b

CM CM CM

'108c

Formation Embankment of from BorrowExcavation in Common Material.

CM

1OBd Formation Embankment of from Structural Excavation in Common Material. 108e Formation Embankment of from StructuralExcavation in RockMaterial i. HardRock ii. MediumRock iii. Soft Rock

CM

CM CM CM

108-7

TTEM109

SUBGRADEPREPARATION
DESCRIPTION shall be that part of the work on which,the The subgradepreparation placedor, in the absence subbase, as the base of the of act is subbase pavement to lt structure. shallextend the fullwidthof the roadbed including on and laybyesas indicated the Drawingsor as specified the shoulders herein.

109.1

109.2 109.2.1

REOUIREMENT CONSTRUCTION PriorWork fully the Beforecommencing work all culverts,drains,ditchesincluding wallsof for headwalls/wing overthem outlbts drainage, compacted backfill of culvertsand any other minor structurebelow thirty (30) centimeters which will be below thirty (30) existingsubgradelevel or all structures of centimeters newly placedsubgradelevel, shall be in such operative promptandeffective and drainage to avoiddamage conditions to ensure as will by to subgrade surfacewater. No work of subgradepreparation be by have beenapproved the startedbeforethe priorwork hereindescribed Engineer.

109.2.2

Compaction Requirement

levelin earthcut the All materials downto a depthof 30 cm below subgrade of to or embankment shallbe compacted at least95 percent the maximum 'B' T-180Method or'D' to according AASHTO dry density determined as Relative Density as per Dor whicheveris applicable, corresponding (ASTM). 4254-83

tog.2.3

Subsrade Preparation,in Earth Cut

In case bottomof subgradelevel is withinthirty (30) cm of the natural ground,the surfaceshall be scarified, brokenup, adjustedto moisture of density ninety of flve (95)percent the to content compacted minimum and by as determined AASHTO T-180 Method D. maximumdry density that to shallbe incorporated ensure material layerof approved Subsequent layeris thirty(30)cm. the depthof subgrade is ln case,the bottomof subgrade belowthe naturalgroundby morethan and shallbe removed above top of subgrade the Thirty(30)cm,the material to brokenup, adjusted subsequent layerof thirty(30)cm shallbe scarified, as to contentand compacted the same degreeof compaction moisture described above.

109-1

at is material encountered the sub gradelevelwithina ln case,unsuitable byin (30)cm, the sameshallbe removed total1n{ replaced O"ptnoi tnirty 'miterial. The contractorshall be paid for removal of ih" of "pproueb as material per pay ltem 106aand for replacement approved unsuitbbte payltem108c' madeunder will the material, payment be
1o9.2.4

in PreParation RockCut Suberade levelas shownon drawings' to in Excavation rockshallextend the subgrade shownon and elevation sections nearlyto required undercut Rockshallbe and longitudinal plans or as directedby the Engineer'Transverse the Cuts requirement' to frofiies checkedby templateshall be accurate the and material subbase with levelshallbe backfilled selected subgrade betow (9S) percentqf t!9 maximumdry compactei to minimumninety eight 'D'. by o"nditvas determined AASHToT-180,method No compensation for shall be made to the Contractor over-cutor remedialmeasuresas above. described abovethe undercut section thantwo (2) centimeters No rockshallbe higher or shall be placedin embankment elevation. The under cut material of of disposed at thedirection Engineer.

109.2.5

in Subsrade Embankment its is \Men the subgrade formedin embankment, width shall be the full and materialplaced in the YPperpart of o1 embankment width of top belowsubgrade down to a depth of thirty (30) centimeters embankment a Soilshaving minimum of requirement 109.2.2. shallmeetcompaction level and swellvalueof not morethan0.3 valueof c.B.R of seven(7) percent the (7)%maybe 999din case, iessthanseven C.A.R percent shallbe used. withinthe eiisting if encountered material designallowsfor it. Unsuitable disposed test,shallbe removed, specified layeras per laboratory formation the of of oneas perdirection the Engineer which by of andreplaled suitable itemsof work' madeunderrelevant payment be will by size and type, accepted the of and otherequipments approved Rollers addedto obtain Watershall be shallbe usedfor compaction. Engineer, shall ensureproper Contractor content; if necessary. moisture opti-mum and equipments rollers'No areasby use of special in compaction restricted space. workdueto restricted shall compensation be madefor extra but of Performance this itemof workshallnot be paidfor underthis section to be coveredby the contractpricefor pay item 108a, shall be deemed of Formation Embankment' 108e, through

r09.2.6

Subgrade Level in Existing Road

that the by or on Whereindicated the Drawings directed the Engineer on elevation the correct is roadsurface to be usedas the subgrade, existing wherenecessary, laidshallbe obtained, is which baseor subbase to be the course The courseor by excavation. leveling eitherby meansof leveling and of to theiequirements the Engineer paidfor under shallbe constructed 109-2

the appropriate Pay ltem involved. Excavation shall includedisposalof any surplusmaterialin the adjacentembankmentor elsewhereas directedby the Engineer. ln case, the design level of subgrade is within 30 cm of the existing ground/road then the item shallbe measured and paid accordingly.
109.2.7

Subgrade reinforcement \Men the width of the existing pavement, either to be scarified or not, is insufficientto contain the subbase or base to be placed upon it, the Engineermay orderto strengthen and supportthe subbaseor base on one or both sides of the existing pavement. This work shall consist of the removaland disposalof any unsuitable materialand its replacements with suitable materialtosuchwidthand depthas requiredby the Engineer. The excavatedmaterialshall, if declaredsuitablefor use elsewherein the embankment the Engineer so used,and paymentfor its removalshall by be be covered under the contract price of pay ltem No. 10ga; if declared unsuitable shall be disposedof and paid as providedin ltem 106a. The it finishedcompactedsurfaceof the subgradeshall be as specifiedin ltem 109.2.3.

109.2.8

Protection Completed of Work Any part.of the subgradethat has been completedshall be protectedand kept well drained. Any damage resulting from carelessnessof the contractorshall be repairedas directedby the Engineerwithoutadditional payment. The contractor shall be responsible all the consequencesof traffic being for admitted the subgrade. iie shall repairany ruts or ridgesoccasioned {o b! his own traffic or that of others by reshapingdnd compactingwith rollers of the size and type necessaryfoi such repiir. He shall tiriit tne area of subgrade preparationto an area easily maintainedwith the equipment available. subgrade preparation and subbase or base placing shall be arrangedto follow each other closely. The subgrade,when preparedtoo soon in relationto the placingof the subbase,is liableto deteriorate, and in such case the contractorshall,withoutadditional payment,repair,reroll,or recompact the subgrade as may be necessary to restore it to the state specified herein.

109.2.9

Templates Straightedges and The contractor shall provide for the use of the Engineer,satisfactory templates and straightedges sufficient in numbersto check the accuracyoi the work, as providedin these specifications no subsequent and work shall be permitted untilthe subgradelevelshave been checkedand approvedby the Engineer. For tolerances,referred to the, "Table for Allowable Tolerances"in these specifications.

109.3 109.3.r

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT Measurement The quantityto be paid for shall be the number of square meters of subgradeprepared hereinbeforeprescribed as and accepted. subgradein rock cuts and on embankment consisting the existingroad surfacein not of fill area shallnot be measured directpayment. for subgrade preparationon "Existingsurface" shall only be measuredfor payment when orderedby the Engineer.

109.J.2

Pavment The quantities,determinedas providedabove, shall be paid for at the contractunit price respectively, each of the particularpay items listed for belowthat is shown in the Bill of Quantities which pricesand paymentshall be full compensation furnishingof material,water, equipment,tools, for labour, and all otheritems necessary completion work. for of

Pay ltem No.

Description

Unit of Measurement

109a 109b

preparation Subgrade in Earth Cut preparation Subgrade in Existing Road


i, ii. Withoutany fill With fill lessthan 30 cms

SM

SM SM

109-4

ITEM 110

IMPROVED SUBGRADE
DESCRIPTION This work shall consist of the formation of the roadbed, under subbase or base course as the case may be, with an approved blend of materials, uniformlymixed, compacted,shaped and finished to the lines, grades and shown on the Drawings,or in thicknessas directed by typicalcross-sections the Engineer. lmproved subgrade as herein referred to may be defined as material suitable for embankmentto which better quality of material is blended in or properproportion improveits strengthproperties performance. to

110.1

110.2

MATERHL REQUIREMENTS The major component of improved subgrade shall consist of material for conformingto ltem 108.2- "Materialrequirements embankment." as The blending materialshall be any soilthat classifies A-1(a),A-1(b),Az-aor A-3arcordingto AASHTO M-145 with Pl of not more than 6. The blended mixture when compacted to ninety five (95) percent of the maximumdry densitydeterminedby AASHTO T 180-D Method,shall exhibit a laboratorysoaked CBR (96 hours) of not less than 20, or as specified in the drawings.

110.3 110.3.1

CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS Preparation The surface of the roadbed on which the improved subgrade is to be shall be compactedto the densityspecifiedunder ltem 108.3.1. constructed

t10.3.2

Proportioninq of Materials Prior to start of construction, the proportion of each material to be as for incorporated improvedsubgradeshall be established approved by the of The Engineershall specifya single percentage each materialto Engineer. be blended and shall establish the gradation of the resulting mixtures alongwith the ranges of permissible gradation tolerances to obtain the requiredCBR for the improvedsubgrade. thus establishedshall apply only when each material The blend proportions to be used is obtained from same source. Should a change in source of material be made, a new proportion shall be established. When results or other conditions make it necessary,the Engineer unsatisfactory laboratorytests. may requireadditional

110-1

110.3.3

Mixins andSnreading of with may be constructed any combination machines subgrade lmproved thesespecifications. meeting willyieldresults that or equipment PlantMethod a) Stationarv mixingplant and The soil ingredients watershallbe mixedin an approved devices and metering with The plantshallbe equipped feeding (pug Mill). quantities. Water in to add the materials be blended the specified that will be added duringthe mixingoperationin the quantityrequiredfor shall contentplus optimummoisture whichis approximately propercompaction. to time shallbe thatwhichis required The minustwo (2) percent. mixing or a uniformmixture.After mixing,the blendedmaterialshall be secure and moisture shall the to transported the job sitewhileit contains sufficient spreader. mechanical plaeed the ioadbcdby meansof an approved on be compacted a shallbe spreadat ratethat will produce uniform The mixture Compaction gradeand cross-Section. to conforming the required thickness untilthe and shallcontinue afterspreading shallstartas soonas possible is compaction achieved. relative specified PlantMethod b) Traveline shafttype or a windrow plantshallbe eithera flat transverse The traveling materialshave been placed by a mechanical type pugmill.After the mixedby shallbe uniformly the sizingdevice materials or spreader windrow watershallbe added operation, plant.During mixing the mixing the traveling to of content the mixture the percentage to as necessary bringthe moisture proper compaction. for suitable c) RoadMix Method to shall be transported the site and spreadin layerson the The materials Afterthe blend. the quantities to produce specified required in roadbed the shall be mixedby the materials for materials each lift have beenspread, is untilthe mixture uniform equipment motorgradersand otherapproved throughout. to watershall be addedas ne@ssary bringthe Duringmixingoperation, to content the properpercentage. moisture

110.3.4

Comoaction

of Unlessotherwisepermittedby the Engineerbased on the performance each section, from the trial usedas determined equipment the compacting layer of improvedsubgradeshall-beplacedin horizontallayersof uniform Eachlayershall be twenty(20) centimdters. loosethicknessnot exceeding specifiedin ltem to to compacted the densityconforming the requirements 108.3.1 layersshallLremadein of In-pacedensitydeterminations the compacted methods. T-191,T-238or otherapproved with a@ordance AASHTO

fia=2

110.3.5

Trial Sections

Prior to the formation of the improved subgrade, the contractor shall construct three trial sectionsof 200 meter lengthone (1) for each blend of improved materialproposed be incorporated improved to for subgrade, as or directedby the Engineer. The compacting equipment be used in the trial to sections shall be the same equipment that the contractorintendsto use for mainwork,acceptedby the Engineer. The object of these trials is to determine the proper moisturecontent,the relationshipbetween the number .of passes of compacting equipment, densityobtainedfor the blendedmaterial, and to estabiish the optimum lift thicknessthat can be effectively compactedwith the equipmentused. No separatepaymentwill be made for this work, which will be regardedas a subsidiary obligation the Contractor of underpay ltem No. 110. | 10.3.6 Protection Completed of Work Any part of the completedimprovedsubgradeshall be protectedand well drained and any damage shall be repairedas directed by.the Engineer withoutadditional payment. The contractorshall be responsible allthe consequences trafficbeing for of admittedto the improved subgrade.He shall repair any ruts or ridgei occasionedby his own traffic or that of others by reshapingand compactlng with rollersof the size and type necessary such repair.-He for shall limitthe improved subgrade preparationto an area easily maihtainedwith the equipmentavailable.subgrade preparation and placementof succeeding layer to follow each other closely.The improvedsubgrade,when prepared too soon in relation to the placing of the layer ibove it, is liable to deteriorate,and in such case the contractor shall, without additional payment,repair, rero.ll, recompactthe improvedsubgrade as may or be necessaryto restoreit to the state specifiedherein.

110.3.7

Temolates Straiehtedses and The contractor shall provide for the use of the Engineer, satisfactory templates and straightedges sufficient in numbersto check the accuracyof the work, as providedin these specifications no subsequent and work shall be permitted until the improved subgrade level have been checked and approved the Engineer. by

110.3.8

Tolerance The allowable tolerances the finished for improved subgradesurfacepnor to placingthe overlying subbase,base or asphaltic concretecourseare given in the relevant, "Tablefor Allowable Tolerances" thesespecifications. in

110-3

110.4

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

110.4.1

Measurement The quantityof improvedsubgradeto be paid for shall be measuredin square meter by the theoreticalarea covered in place as shown on the Drawings, completed and acceptedimprovedsubgradein a thicknessof 30 cms.

ttO.4.2

Pavment measuredas providedabove shall be paid for at The acceptedquantities price per cubic meter of improvedsubgradefor the pay the contractunit which price and item listed below and shown in the Bill of Quantities, payment shall constitutefull compensationfor furnishing all materials, hauling, mixing, piacing in layers, watering and compacting, labour, the to necessary complete item. equipment, toolsand incidentals

Pay ltem No.

Description

Unit of Measurement

110

lmproved Subgrade

CM

110-4

ITEM IlI

SOIL CEMENT STABILIZED ST]BGR,ADE


DESCRIPTION The work shallconsistof performing operations connection all in with the formation of soil cement stabilizedsubgrade and all incidentalsin accordance the specifications in conformity the linesand level, with and with grade and typicalcross-sections shown on the plans or directedby the Engineer.

111.1

ttr.2
l.tt.2.l

MATERIALREOUIREMENTS
General

The mix in placemethod construction of shallonly be applied siteswith to naturallyoccurringsand, gravel or sand and gravel mixture. For the stationaryplant methodof construction materialsshall complywith the the specifications materials or fromanyothersourceselected the Contractor by shallbe subject the Engineer's to approval.
ttl.2.2
Soil

Soil usedfor cementstabilization shall be either"Siltyor ClayeySoils"or sandyandgravely soilswiththefollowing characteristics


a) Siltv and Clavey Soils

\Mten this type of soil is usedfor cementstabilization shallfulfillthe it following requirements.


i) ii) iii) iv) v) LiquidLimit(Max). PlasticLimit (Max). P.H.Value SolubleSulphateContentmax: SolubleChlorideContentmax: 45% 20o/o Not less lhan 12 4o/o 8%

lf the soil at site does not have P.H.value specified above,it shall be improved addingcalcium by chloride upto two (2) percentby rirreight of thedrysoil, Soils, wtrich don't meet above requirement, shall be subjectto the approval Engineer. of
b) Sandv an4 qravely soils

Sandy and gravely soils used for cement stabilization shall fulfill the following requirements:

'111-1

i) ii) iii) ili ui

100% size maximum fifty(50)mm sieve Passing above50% (5) mm (\9: 4) sieve Passin!five above15% pissin60.4;m (No.'36) sieve.' below 5% Passin!0.075mm (No'200)sieve below3% than0.002mm (Clay) Finer

to shall subject the approval soil whichdo not meetaboverequirements be results' testing laboratory the oifngin""r. afterreviewing
ttl.2.3
Cement

shall be Portlandcement or The cement to be used for stabilization to the Engineeraccording the cemlnt as directedby sulphateresistant of to pot1"ndCement shallconform requirement t"itt. of results laboratory resistant cement shall conform to AASIITO M-85 whil; sulphate M-74' of requirement AASHTO in the site, cementbagsshallbestored weather upon lmmediately arrivalto platform.At the time of on from dampness raiied to proofbuilding protect snati ne free flowingand free of lumps. Undernormal use, all cement four cementshall not be storedfor a periodlongerthan circumstances in storefor a periodin excessof months. Any cemenithat has remained quality, shallbe retested or fourmonths, of wntfr inereis anydoubtas to its Noiuch cementshallbe usedin the works requirements. for specification of the without aPProval Engineer'
Ltl.2.4

walcr quantities, oil' alkali, of water to be used shall be free from injurious v e g e t a b l e m a t t e r a n d s a l t s . l t s h a | | n o t c o n t a i n m o r e t h a extent0 p a r t s p e r n100 to impurities the tn of millions sulphates. no case,watershallcontain twentyfive time of cementby more-than that will causecnangein setting strengthof mortarafter fourteen(14) ilga9|i noi reductioi in "otpt"-tsive with to when compared resultsobtained ["v, nv morethan rive ts) percent water. distilled

111.2,5

in Requirement Laboratorv Mix Desien mix designshowing the the Beforestarting work of stabilization, proposed so as to obtaina mixture' -iact percentigeof cementandwaterto be used The mix of for ov shallbe submitted tre contractor the approval Engineer' requirements. following the proportions be iuch so as to satisfy shall

and four hours submerged nu"tgsl%fortwenty (24) ilY?l:ll?: compresslve a minimum


shallhave two lrours beforecrushing, centimeter' per of strength 17 kilogram square
ii)

of humidity ninety storedin box,with maximum sample, Mixture

of swelling volumeshallbe two (2) % permissive The maximum in weight eignt (g) % when tested in and maximumloss T-135' with accordance AASHTO 111-2

iii)

Maximum permissibre toreranceof cement and water content duringconstruction shall be as under:_ cement content:Torerance + 1.g percentof that given in of the mix design. WaterContent: to (+)2%of that given in the mix design. 0

ttt.2.6

Composition Mixture at Site of soil shall be mixed with sufficientcement to obtain required crushing strength. The cementcontentshall be determined the laboratory at so that minimumcompressive strength mixtureis thirty(ao) xglsqu;re centimeter of -the at seven (7) days. The moisture content of hii stabirized materialshall not be.lessthan the optimumas determined "en'ent by AASHTO r_ 134 Method and not more than rwo (2) percent above the optimum as determinedby this test or sucn nigner.varue ,"y be agreeo by the Engineer basisof preliminary on ". trial.

111.3 111.3.1

CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS Mix in PlaceMethod The field equipments used for pulverizing and mixingthe stabilizeo material shall be approved by the engineer on tne basis'of pr"iirin"rv triars to ensurethat the plant is capableof producing the requiredoegreeor mixing and uniformityof stabilizedmaterialto the full thickness or tayer nein! processed. The mixersshall be equippedwith a devicefor contiolling th6 depth of processingand the mixing'bladesshalr be maintaineoso that correctdepthof mixingis obtained aiall times. The cementshall be spread ahead of mixer by means of a cement spreader, fitted with a device to ensure a uniform and controllable rate of spread of cement both transversely longitudinally. and water shall be addedto adjustmoisturecontentof material to optimumfor compactionusing water sprayerin uniform and controllable manner both transversely longitudinally. and The mixing machineshail be set so that, it srighflycuts edge of adjoining rane processed previousryto ensure proper processing 6f ail material throughout the depth of.rayer. The output br tnb mixing .t,"tt not be less than twenty five rinear meters per hour r""rrrEo [t"nt tongituoinaily or completed stabilized layerin orderto achievesatisfactory comfiction.

I I 1.3.2

StationarvPlant Method The stationary prant shail be of the power driven paddre or pan type and may be of the batchor continuous type. In case the batch mixes are used, the appropriatemeasuredquantity-ofmaterial and cement shall first be placed in the.mixer and then water be added n"""rr"ry1o bring the moisture contentof the resurting "" mixture with in the range .p"tiilo above.

111-3

Care shall be takenwith batchtype paddlemixersto ensurethat the cement is spread uniformlyin the loadingskip so that it is fed evenly along the mixing trough and that with both paddle and pan mixers, the cement is proportioned devicefrom by weighingor proportioning accurately a separate that used for the materialbeing stabilized. Mixing shall be continueduntil and mixingtime will not be less than one (1) the mixturehas the uniformity minute. 111.3.3 Compaction Any modification meet the specification to shall be completed togetherwith '/2) withinone and a half (1 hoursafter mixing,or makinggood compaction, areas at contractor's expense. Thicknessshall be as shown on to deficient the drawingsor as directedby the Engineerand shall complythe following reouirements. lmmediatelyafter spreadingand shaping operation,the mixture shall be thoroughlyand uniformlycompactedwith approved rollers. Rolling shall compacted continueuntil entiredepth and width of subgradeis uniformly to maximum density of Ninety five (95) % as tested in accordancewith modifiedAASHTO I-134. Compactionshall be completedas soon as possibleafter mixing, normallywithin three hours, dependingmainly on settingtime of cementand weatherconditions. Compactionshall not be carriedout after cement hydrationand any soils which has been mixed or depositedafter cement hydration, material, shall with fresh mixedmaterial. be removedand replaced After compaction, stabilized subgradeshall be protected againstdryingout damp or wet for a periodof at leastthree (3) days by keepingit continuously or by coatingwith approved curingmaterial. Surfaceshall be maintain an in acceptable condition all times priorto the construction sub-base. at of No vehiculartrafficshall run on the stabilized subgradewithin a minimum curing periodof seven days.

ttt.3.4

Tolerance Tolerance the thickness compacted in of layersshall conformto as specified "Tablefor Allowable in the relevant, Tolerances" thesespecifications. in

ttt.4 111.4.1

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT Measurement The unit of measurement paymentshall be cubic meterof completed for and acceptedsubgradeas measuredin place. Measurement shall not include any areas in excess of that shown on the drawings,except the areas in authorized the Engineer writing. Measurement cementcontentused by of shall be the numberof metricTon used to stabilize subgrade. This quantity of Cement consumed shall not exceed the theoretical percentage in established the laboratory.

111-4

ttt.4.2

Payment

quantity stabilized determined aboveshqllbe as of subgrade The measured paidfor at the contract priceper cubicmeterfor a particular itemlisted unit which paymentshall be full below and shown on the bill of quantities, all tool, plant,equipment, for compensation furnishing labour,material, placing,shaping,compacting, mixing manipulating, including handling, finishing; waterfor compaction, rolling, correcting unsatisfactory necessary material;maintenance includingprotectionof areas and unsatisfactory necessary completion work except for layers;and incidentals of stabilized consumed whichshallbe paidseparately measured as above. cement

Payltem No.

Description

Unitof Measurement
CM

111a SoilCement stabilized Sub-grade

1 1 1 b C e m e n t c o n t e n t t y p e . . . . . . Ton

111-5

ITEM 112

LIME STABILIZED SUBGRADE


DESCRIPTION with in all The work shall consistof performing operations connection in and all incidentals accordance subgrade of construction lime stabilized with linesand level,gradeand and *itn tn"t" specifications in conformity by shownon the plansor as directed the Engineer. tyfical cross-sections

tt2.l

112.2 tlz.2.l

MATERIALREOUIREMENTS Soil a soils containing heavyclay soils,clayeygravelsor_ occurring Naturally stabilization satisfactory of .ufi"i"nl proportion cliy oi silty clay to enable and of for with limeshallbe required the-Mixin Placemethod construction propertiesas specified in ltem 111.2, "Material shaff conform to from any sub stabilized grade. Materials undeisoilscement Reluirements" withthe specification shallcomply by the Contractor selected othersources plant construction by all as approved the Engineerin case of stationary method. in has been used successfully clayey soils having Lime stabilization to is indexmorethanten (10). Thistypeof stabilization applicable plasticity or siltyclay' of a contain highpercentage clay ihat soiiwnich

112.2.2

Lime

(slakedor shall be calciumhydroxide Lime to be used for stabilization for (quicklime)to the requireme-nts building oxide lime) nVOrat"O or Calcium fromtemporary limeas in tabiegivenbelowor lowerqualitylime produced by the Engineer' whenapproved pits burning or Kilns

Tablell2l2
SPECIFICATION REOUIREMENT FOR LIME

Oxides Not less than 92% or Calcium Magnesium


Kiln Carbon Dioxide-at Carbon Dioxide-elsewhere

Notlessthan95% than5% Notmore NotmorethanT%

Notmorethan3% Notmorethan3%

1t2.2.3

Water water used for lime stabilization shall be clean and free from injurious substances. Potablewater is preferredand organic water is not permitted. It shall neithercontain more than 1,000 parts per millionof chloridesnor more than 1,300 parts per millionof sulphates(soa). water from doubtful sourcesshall not be used until tested as specifiedin AASHTo- T-26 and approvedby the Engineer.

rI2.2.4

Mix Design Laboratorv in The mix designshall be workedout in the laboratory and it strallstate the followingfield requirements: (i) The percentage of rime and water (optimum content and tolerances) The field densityof lime stabilized mixtureto minimumninetyfive (95) percent of raboratorydensity estabrishedwith modified AASHTOT-134test. The requiredresultsof the compressive strengthin laboratory at 7 days shaltnot be lessthanten (10) Kg/sq.cm.

(ii)

(iii)

112.2.5

Comnosition Mixture at Site of soil containingclay shall be mixed with sufficientlime, normallythree (3) percent to eight (8) percent lime content, so that minimum compressive strength is seven (7) Kilogram force per square centimetersat seven (7) days. Moisture contentof the lime stabilized materialshall be not less than the optimum nor more. than two (2) percent above the optimum as determined Vibrating by Hammermethodtest of BS 1924(1975). As a guidetrials,lime contentshouldbe established startingwith 1% of lime by weightof dry soil for each ten (,10) percentof clay in soil.

t12.3 tt2.3.l

CONSTRUCTION REOUIREMENTS Stationarv Plant Method The construction requirements this clauseshall conformto as specified of in s u b i t e m1 1 1 . 3 . 2 .

r12.3.2

Mix in PlaceMethod The requirements construction of underthis clause shall be in accordance w i t hs u bi t e m1 1 1 . 3 . 1 .

112-2

rt2.3.3

Measures PrecautionarY Keepingin view the caustic nature of calcium oxide (quick lime), special measures shall be taken in handling, since it wiil attack equipment shall also be taken againstthe risk of severe and precautions corrosively skin burnsto personnel. Suitablehandlingmethodsshall be used such as fully mechanisedor bottom dump handling equipment, and protective doining worn by the operators. working operationsshould take into the dust problem and consequent accountthe wind directionto minirnise personnelinvolvedin the vicinity.Even when to eye or skin irritation any calciumhydroxide(slakedor hydratedlime) is used, care must be taken to exposure skin. the against effectsof prolonged

112.3.4

Requirement Compaction lmmediatelyupon completionof spreadinganC shaping operation' the mixtureshall be thoroughlycompactedwith approvedroller. Compaction compacted is untilthe entiredepthof subgrade uniformly shall be continued AASHTo Tby density of 95% as determined modified to the maximum 134. lf quick lime is used, it shall not be permittedto compact the layers of the hydration the lime will the lime, because after spreading immediately layers. The time withinwhich compaction causedamageto the compacted shall be completedwill be estimatedin the laboratory. Dry density of layersshall not be less than Ninetyfive (95) % of the maximum compacted in dry densitydetermined laboratory. Compactionshall not take place after hydrationof lime and any lime of stabilizedmaterialthat has been mixed and depositedafter h1'dration mixed and treated with fresh material, lime,shall be removedand replaced of with the requirements this clause. in accordance Surface of subgradeshall be acceptablein all respectsto specification, together with compactionwith One and half (1.'/2) hours after mixing. for will Contractor be responsible any removalof or makinggood to deficient No areawithoutany extrapayment. vehicleor equiprrentshallbe allowedto of beforeinitialsetting 7 days. subgrade moveoverstabilised

112.3.5

Tolerance shall be as specifiedin the relevant, subgrade for Tolerance lime stabilized in Tolerances" thesespecifications. "Tablefor Allowable

1t2.3.6

WeatherLimitation duringcold The layingof lime coursesshall be avoidedas far as practicable and wet weather and shall be suspendedwhen free standing water is presenton the surface. The stabilizedmaterialshall not be laid on any which is frozenor coveredwith ice or Snow,and layingshall cease surface, reachesfive (5) degree C. on a falling temperature when the atmospheric to or thermometer as directedby the Engineer. lf wet weatherthreatens be mix prolonged, manufacture layingof stabilized shallbe suspended. and the

112-3

r12.4

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

t12.4.l

Measurement

The unit of measurement payment for shall be the cubic meterof the compacted accepted and subgrade measured place. Measurement as in shallnot include areain excess thatshownon the drawrngs, any of except the areas authorized the Engineer writing. Measurement lime by in of consumed shall be the numberof metricTon used to stabilize subgrade. This quantity limeconsumed of shallnot exceedthe theoretical percentage established the laboratory. in ttz.4.2

Payment The measuredquantity stabilized of subgradedetermined aboveshall be as paid for at the contractunit price.percubic meter for a particularitem listed below and shown on the bill of quantities,which payment shall be full compensationfor furnishingall labour, material, tool, plant, equipment; handling, mixing, manipurating, pracing, shaping, compacting inituoing necessarywater for compaction,rolling,finishing; correctingunsatisfactor! areas and unsatisfactorymixtures; maintenance includin! protection of stabilized layers; and incidentalsnecessaryfor completion-ofwork except lime consumedwhich shall be paid separatelyas measuredabove.

Pay ltem No.

Description

Unitof Measurement
CM Ton

112a 112b

LimeStabitized Subgrade Lime

112-4

ITEM llJ 11 3 . 1

BITUMEN STABILIZED SUBGRADE


DESCRIPTION

The work shall consist of performingall operations in connectionwith construction of bitumen stabilized subgrade and all incrdentals in in acuordancewith the specifications conformitywith the lines. grade, thicknessand typicalcross-sections shown on the plans or as clirected by the Engineer. tt3.2 tt3.2.l MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS Soil This method will only apply to sites with naturallyoccurringnon plastic materialsuch as sand. lf the materialis brouqht at site. it shall be nonplastichavinguniformgradation. 113.2.2 Bitumen Bituminous material used for subgrade stabilization shall complywith the requirementas per relevant tables specified in item 301, "Asphaltic Materials" hot mix asphalticconcreteor can be viscous cut back that for requires heating in areas where moisture content of sand is high, necessitating heatingand dryingof sand. ln dry areas,where naturalmoisture contentof sand is low, the bituminous bindershall be fluid cut back conforming requirements given in tables the as 301-3and 301-4respectively item 301 "Asphaltic of Materials". grade bitumencan also be used Bitumenemulsionor foamed penetration subjectto the approval Engineer of aftertrialtest. Bitumen-sand mixture the gradeof bitumenselectedshall be ascertained for by trial mixes using MarshallTest to determinethe quantity of bitumen requiredusing either heated or unheatedsand. The quantityof bitumen requiredwill generallylie betweenthree (3) to six (6) percentby weightof dry sand,the higherproportions beingrequired with fine-grained materials. 113.3 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS Equipment, tools,and machines usedfor bitumen stabilized subgrade shall be subject to the approval of Engineerand shall be maintarned in satisfactory workingconditions the times, all Mix in placemethodof bitumen stabilizatron be subject the approval will to of Engineer ensurefull control bitumen to of content, uniformand thorough processing the materialto the full depth of the mixing and satisfactory of layer. For scarification in situ materialand spreadingof Bituminous of qrader material, with bladeand bitumen distributor shallbe used

ttJ-l

The stabilized soil shall be left uncompacted after pulverization and mixing to allow for evaporation volatile materialsthus increasingstabilityand of decreasing water absorption particularlyin fine grained sand when temperature low. is ll3.3.1 Compaction lmmediately after completion spreading, of aerationand shapingoperation, the mixtureshall be thoroughlycompacted with rubberor pneumatictyred rollers. compactionshall continueuntilentirewidth and depth of subgiade is uniformly compactedto give soaked (96 hours)unconfined compressive strength accordingto design requirementto meet traffic loading. steel wheeled tandem roller shall be used to carry out final rolling of compacted surface eliminate tyre marks. to the To determine the efficiency mixing,spreading, of degree of compactionof equipment and suitability construction of method,trial sectionsas directed by the Engineer, shall be preparedby the contractor before main work of stabilization started. is lf thickness compacted of layeris lessthan 20 centimeters, shall be laid as it singleoperation where as if thickness compacted of stabilized layer is more than twentycentimeter, material shall be placedin two or more layers,eaeh within the range of eight (B) to twenty (20) centimetersin compacted thickness. The resultsof cBR test for measuringthe strengthof bitumen stabilized materials cone stability or test for designing bitumen-sand mixtureshall not supersede those of Marshallrest unlessagreed by the Engineer. In-situ densityof compacted layershall be deiermined using methodas described by MSHTO - T-191, AASHTO - T-205 or AASHTO -T-2ZB and shail be minirnLrm ninety five (95) % modified AASHTO according to the above mentioned methods. Frequency testingin field and in laboratory be accordingto relevant of will schedule sampling for and testingof thesespecifications. 113.3.2 Tolerance compactedlayer shall complywith the tolerance requirements specified as in relevant, "Tablefor Allowable Tolerances,' thesespecification. in 113.3.3 Weather Limitation The laying of bituminouscourses shall be avoided as for as practicable during wet weather and shall be suspendedwhen free standingwater is presenton the surface.The stabilizedmaterialshall not be laid on any surface,which is frozen or covered with ice or snow and laying shall cease when the air temperature reaches five (s) degree c on a falling thermometer. Layingshallnot commence untilthe air temperature at least is flve (5) degree c on a rising thermometerunless othenruise directed by the Engineer and also if wet weatherthreatens be prolonged manufatture to the and layingof stabilized shall be suspended. mix

113-2

113.4 173.4.1

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT Measurement for The unit of measurement payment shall be cubic meters of a given thickness of compactedand accepted subgrade as measuredin place. shall not includeany areas in excess of that shown on the Measurement drawings, except the areas authorized by the Engineer in writing. of Measurement bitumenbinder used shall be the number of metric Ton used to stabilizesubgrade. This quantityof bitumenconsumedshall not percentage in established the laboratory' exceedthe theoretical

t13.4.2

Payment as determined aboveshall be paid quantity stabilized subgrade of Measured item listeJbelow priceper cubic meterfor a particular for at the contractunit on the bill of quantities, which payment shall be full and shown compensationfor furnishingall labour, material, tool, plant, equipment; placing, shaping, compactingincluding handling,mixing, manipulating, necessarywater for compaction,rolling, finishing; correctingunsuitable material; maintenanceincluding protectionof areas and unsatisfactory of for necessary completion work subgradelayer and incidentals stabilized except bitumen consumedwhich shall be paid separatelyas measured above.

Pay ltem No.

Description

Unit of Measurement

113a 113b

Subgrade. BitumenStabilized tYPeBitumenBinder,

CM Ton

11 3 - 3

ITEM 114

DRJ,SSING AND COMPACTION

OF BERMS

tt4.l

DESCRIPTION This work shallconsistof scarification berms,which are undulated, out of or of level. The existing material shall be scarified, watered, mixed and properly leveled and compacted accordingto specificationdescribed here underor as directedby the Engineer.

tt4.2

MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS In this item no fresh material required, is however,if fresh material is used it shall be measuredand paid under other relativeitems of works.

114.3 1t4.3.1

CONSTRUCTIONREQUIREMENTS

In case the berms show undulation more than 5 cms in level from the of reconstructed pavementstructure,the berms shall be scarifiedto a depth of 15 cm and material will be watered,mixed and compactwith appropriate equipment approved the Engineer. by t14.3.2 Dressing bermwith the useof extra material of ln case the difference of elevation of existing berm with respect to reconstructed road structure less than 15 cm than additional is material (to be measuredunderother itemsof work) shall be addedto bringthe levelof berms in conformity with the linesand grades of the existingr6ad.Existing and fresh material shall be properlymixed, wateredand compactedas directed the Engineer. by

t14.J.J

Compaction requirement compaction requirementof the fresh and existing material shall be in accordance with the type of material usedin berms,as under:_ Dgt[ in cm Compactionrequirement as per AASHTO T-180 (D). 95% for material common earth

0 - ' t 5 l T o pl a y e n 0 - 15 (Toplayer)

100%for subbasematerial

11+1

t14.3.4

Comoaction of slopes While reinstating/dressirrgof berms, it shall be ensured that compaction requirements are observed on slopes of the berms. The degree of compaction shall be as per direction of the Engineer.

114.4

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

I l-t.4.1

Measurement

Measurement under this item shall be made in square meter of berms dressed or compactedin accordancewith theoretieallines, or sections edgeof road. or shownon tne drawings, as per existing for In case partialfreshmaterialis used to compensate shortageof material in the top layerthe quantityof such materialshall be measuredby survey levelsof existingground and designedlines,gradesor sectionsshown on the drawing. The quantityof materialthus measuredshall be paid under other items of / of worksof formation embankment subbase.

1I4.4.2

Payment The paymentof this item shall be made for at the contractunit price per square meter of dressed and compactedberm measuredas above, for scarificationwatering, mixing, rolling, labour, equipment, tools and necessary complete to thts item. incidentals Pay ltem No.

Description

Unit of Measurement

of 114a Dressing bermwithout extra material. of 114b Dressing bermwith extramaterial.

SM

SM

114-2

ITEM 115

REINSTATEMENT OF SHOULDERS FROM BRICK KILN MATERIAL


DESCRIPTION This work shall consistof furnishing and placingin singlelayerof Brick Kiln materialon shoulders and to mechanically interlockby wateringand rolling, in conformity with lines,gradesand cross-sections shownon driwino.

11 5 . 1

L15.2

!4AIN,RIAL REOUIREMENTS The material shallconform the following to requirements.

11s.2.1

Texture The Kiln material shall be fully burnthavingreddishbrowniblack colour. No unburntor semi burntmaterialshall be allowed. The material shall behave like improved sub gradewith following properties.

rr5.2.2

Cradation The gradingshallconformto the following limits.

SieveDesiqnation 1" (25mm) 3/8" (9.5mm) No.10 No.200

MassPercent Passing. 100 80-1 00 50-85 15-35

Note:- coarser than 1" (25 mm) size materialmay be allowedupto five (5) percentby the Engineer. 115.2.3 Phvsical Reouirements

The additionalphysicalrequirements the kiln materialwill satisfy the of following limits:4

P . l .v a l u e . Swelling Value. Soaked C.B.R. hours) (96

6.0%max. 0.2Ook max. 20o/omin.

2.

115-1

115.3

CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS

11s.3.1

General

obtainedand approvedas providedabove shall be Materialfor shoulders, placed and thoroughlymixed with water in horizontallayer of uniform with the lines,grades,sectionsand dimensions ihicknessand in conformity shownon the Drawings.The layerof loose materialshall not be morethan twenty (20) centimeters in thickness unless othenrviseapproved by the Engineer.

The compactionof the shouldersshall be carried out at the designated moisture content, consistentwith the approved compacting equipment. Shoulder materialthat does not contain sufficientmoistureto obtain the required compaction shall be given additional moisture by means of approved sprrnklersand mixing operation. Material containingmoisture more than necessaryto obtain the requiredcompactionmay not, without untilit has in be writtenapprovalof tlre Engineer incorporated the shoulders by dried out. The dryingof wet materialmay be expedited sufficiently been discingor otherapprovedmethods. Side slopes shall be neatlytrimmedto the lines and slopes shown on the and the finishedwork shallbe kept drawingsor as directedby the Engineer, condition. in a neat and acceptable 115.3.2 Compaction to shall be compacted a minimumninetyfive (95) percentof the All material to according AASHTO T-180 method maximumdry densityas determined 'B' or 'D' whicheveris applicable. ln place density determination the of with AASHTOT-191or other layershall be made in accordance compacted method. approved

115.4

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT

115.4.1

Measurement

The quantitiesto be paid for shall be the number in cubic meter by the to according designedlinesand constructed volumeof shoulders theoretical in in gradescompacted placeand complete all respect.

115-2

115.4.2

Payment The acceptedquantities measuredas providedabove shall be paid for at the contractunit priceper cubic meter oi Brick Kiln shouldermaterial for the pay item listedbelow and shown in the Bill of euantities,wrrichprrceand payment shall constitutefull compensation for furnishingall materials, hauling, mixing,placing, watering and compacting, labour, e!uipment, toots and incidentals necessary complete item. to the Pay ltem No.

Description

Unit of Measurement

Reinstatement Shoulders of from BrickKiln Material

CM

11 5 - 3

SUBBASE AND BASE

SUBBASEAND BASE
ITEM 2OO

GENERAL
DESCRIPTION

200.1

The work shall consist of furnishing,spreading,and compactinggraded subbase, base, asphalticbase course, crushed limestone base course, subbaseand subbaseand base course,lime stabilized cement stabilized on subbaseand base, crack relieflayers,constructed a bitumenstabilized with these specification in preparedbed and all incidentals accordance in shownon and typicalcross-section withthe lines,gradethickness conformity by and/oras directed the Engineer. the drawing

200.2

MATERIAL The material shallconsistof sand, gravelor a sand gravelmixtureobtained Materialrequirements this for from the source approvedby the Engineer. undervariousitemsof the section. work are specified

200.2.1

Samnlins Testins and for to samplesshall be submitted Engineer testing Adequaterepresentative approvalnot less than twenty days, before the intended and preliminary when deemednecessary by is material to be used in the work.The material, by shallbe sampledand testedin his presence the contractor the Engineer, of for particularsubbase,base course as called for in the specification partrcular and/oras shown on the and /or the bill of quantities, application Any with the requirements specification. of drawing, assureconformance to will be subject to materialfound not to confortn with the requirements rejection.All rejected material shall be removed and replacedwith the at costto the Client. meeting requirement, no additional the material approvalof source shall not mean that all the materialin the Preliminary sourceis approved. Samplingand testing,uniess otherwisestated,shall be accordingto the standard methods prescribed in the latest edition of the American Officials(AASHTO)or Association State Highway and Transportation of and methods of samplingand testing, providedin standardspecification latest versionof AmericanSocietyof Testingand Materials(ASTM).Any prescribed thereinmay be made deviation from the methodsand procedure only as directed in writing by the Engineeras per relevant "Table for and TestingFrequency". Sampling

200-1

200.2.2

Selection Place SamDling of for The selectionof representative samplesfor testing shall be by "Random samplingMethod"by whicheverypari of a lot or stockpile has equalchance to be selected.when it is necessaryto sample stockpiles.every effort shouldbe madeto enlistthe service powerequipment of that is capable of exposing material various the at levels and locations. sampling In sandfrom stockpiles, outer layerwhichmay have becomedry, causingsegregation the shallbe removedand representative samplesof the damp sand selected.

200.2.3

Number andSize Samplcs of The numberand sizeof sample required depends the intended of the on use material, the quantityof materialinvolvedand the variationboth in quality and size of aggregate. sufficient A numbero{,samplesshall be obtained to cover all variationsin the material. The qriantitiesmust be sufficient to provide properexecution the requued for of tests.

200.2.4

Scheclule Sarnpling Testing fbr and The sampling frequency, acceptance limits,and other information proper for controlof each work shall be as given in "Tablesfor sampling and resting Frequency" which will providethe minimumtestingfrequencyunder normal conditions. where sampling frequencies not given in the tablethey shall are be as directedby the Engineer. where frequencies givenas per layeror are per stripthis will meanthe widthof stripor layerbeinglaid at any one item.lf the materialsor operationsare variableand good control is difficultto maintain,greater sampling frequencymay be taken as directed bv the Engineer.

200.2.5

Tolerances The allowabletolerancesfor the subgrade prior to placing the overlying courses,togetherwith the allowable tolerances the subbaseand base for are as specified "TableforAllowable in Tolerances", thesespecifications. in

200.3

PLANT & EQUIPMENT All equipment, tools and machines used in the performance work shall be of maintained satisfactory in conditions all times and be subiectto the at approval the Engineer. of recommended of equipmeni onlyfor of List type is guidance of contractor.However contractorwill be responsibleto give required quality and workmanshipthrough any type of equipment irrespective any approval of givenby the Engineer.

200-2

:()(|.J

I'RIAL STIIIPS contractorshall preparetrial strip for any item as appearing this chapter, in to establish following. the a) Maximum thickness looselayer. of whichcan be laid, b) Typeof equipment be used. to c) Watering and mixing procedures. d) Numberof passesrequired satisfactorily to compactthe layerto required level. e) Any otherrequirement ordered the Engineer. by Engineershall then inspect and test the Trial strip and approve the procedure writing,to carry out the work. Howeverthis approvalshall nol in relieve contractor the from his contractual obligation

200-3

TTEM201
201.1

GRANULAR SUBBASE
DESCRIPTION This item shall consistof furnishing, spreadingin one or more layersand granularsubbaseaccording the specifications drawings compacting to and and/oras directed the Engineer. by

201.2

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS Granularsubbasematerial shall consistof naturalor processed aggregates such as gravel, sand or stonefragmentand shallbe cleanand free from dirt, organicmatterand otherdeleterious substances, shallbe of such nature and that it can be compacted readilyunder wateringand rollingto form a firm, stablesubbase. The material shallcomplyto the following gradingand quality requirements: a) The subbase materialshall have a gradationcurve within the limitsfor gradingA, B, and C given below.HowevergradingA may be allowed the Engineer special by in circumstances.

Grading Requirementsfor Subbase Material


SieveDesignation mm Inch Mass PercentPassing Gradine A B

60.0
qnn

25.0 9.5 4.75 2.0 0.425 0.075

(2.1t2) (2) (1) (3/8) N o .4 No.10 No.40 No.200

100 90-100 50-80

.1-_to
2-8

'100 55-85 40-70 30-60 20-50 10-30 5-1 5

The Coefficient Uniformity of D60/D1O shall be not less than 3, where D60 and D10 are the particle diameters corresponding 60% and 10%, to passing weight)in a grainsizeanalysis, (by respectively, curve.

201-1

b)

shallhavea CBR value of at least50%, determined The Material to according AASHTOT-193. The CBR value shall be obtained to at a densitycorresponding Ninety eight (98) percentof the accordingto AASHTO T-180 maximumdry densitydetermined Method-D. The coarse aggregatematerial retainedon sieve No. 4 shall have a percentageof wear by the Los Angeles Abrasion (AASHTOT-96) of not more than fifty (50) percent. of In order to avoid intrusion silty and clayey materialfrom the subgrade in the subbase, the ratio D15 (Subbase)/D85 (Subgrade) shouldbe lessthan 5. to corresponding Where D85 and D15 are the particlediarneters eighty five (85) o/oand fifteen (15) 9/o,respectively,passing (by curve. weight)in a grainsizeanalysis,

c)

d)

e)

The fractionpassingthe 0.075 mm (No. 200) sieve shall not be greaterthan two third of the fractionpassingthe 0.425 mm (No. 40) sieve.The fractionpassingthe 0.425 mm sieveshall have a index of 6 ol liquid limit of not greaterthan 25 and a plasticity
IESS.

at of screening material source,shall is lf over-size encountered, be invariably done, no hand pickingshall be allowed,however hand picking may be allowed by the Engineer, if over-size quantity lessthan 5% of the total mass. is shallbe 25 min. for Sandeouivalent all classes

g)

20t.3 20r.3.1

REOUIREMENTS CONSTRUCTION Spreadins subgradelayeras a uniforr,i Granularsubbaseshallbe spreadon approved shall be avoided during spreading and the f;nal mixture. Segregation of layershallbe free from concentration coarseor fine materials. compacted in on Granularsubbaseshall be deposited the roadbedor shoulders a quantity which will providethe requiredcompactedthickness without pickingup or othenruise shifting the subbasematerial. to resorting spotting, the same shall for is In case any material to be addedto compensate levels, to the existingmaterial, ensure proper bondingof be done after scarifying material. additional

201-2

When the required thicknessis fifteen(15) cm or less, the aggregates may be spreadand compacted one layer,but in no case shall a layer be less as than seven and' one half (7.5) centimeters thick. Where the required thicknessis more than 15 cm, the aggregatesshall be spread and compacted 2 or more layersof approximately in equalthickness, but in anv case the maximumcompactedthicknessof one layershallnot exceed15 cm. All subsequent layers shall be spread and compactedin a similar manner. Granular subbase shallbe spread withequipment will provide uniform that a layer conforming the specifieditem both transversely to and longitudinally within the tolerancesas specifiedin "Table for AllowableTolerances"in these specifications. haulingor placement materialwill be permitted No of when,in the judgmentof the Engineer, weatheror road conditions the are such that the hauling operation causecutting ruttingof subgrade will or or contamination sub basematerial. of 201.3.2 Contiraction Trials Prior to commencement granularsubbaseoperaron,contractor of shall constructa trial length,not to exceed,five hundred(500) meters and not less than two hundred(200) meterswith the approvedsubbasematerialas wlll be used during construction determinethe adequacy of the to contractor's equipment, loosedepthmeasurement necessary resultin the to specified corripactedlayer depths, the field moisture content, and the relationship betweenthe number of compaition passes and the resulting densityof the material.For details,refer to clause 1.20 (General)of these specifications. 201.3.3 Compaction The moisture content of subbase material shall be adjusted prior to compaction, wateringwith approvedsprinklers by mountedon trucks or by dryingout, as required, orderto obtainthe specified in compaction. The subbasematerialshall be compactedby means of approvedvibrating rollers or steel wheel rollers (rubber tyred rollers may be used as a progressing supplement), graduallyfrom the outside towards the centre, excepton superelevated curves,wherethe rollingshall beginat the low side and progress the high side. Each succeeding to pass shall overlapthe previouspass by at least one third of the roller width. while the rolling progresses, entire surface of each layer shall be properlyshaped and the dressedwith a motor grader,to attaina smooth surfacefree from ruts or ridges and having proper section and crown. Rolling shall continue until entirethickness each layer is thoroughly of and uniformly compacted the to specified density. Any area inaccessible rollingequipment to shall be compactedby means of hand guided rollers,plate compactorsor mechanical tampers,where the thickness looselayershallnotbe morethan 10 cm. in

zv t-5

lf the layer of subbase material,or part thereof does not conform to the rework, required the shall,ot his own expense, water,and finish, Contractor beforesucceeding layerof the pavement structure is recompact material the constructed. prior to the placingof first layer of base course the subbase lmmediately shall conformto the layer (both underthe traveledway and the shoulders) required level and shape. Prior to placing the succeeding layers of the material, top surfaceof each layershall be made sufficiently the moistto ensurebond between layers. The edges or edge slopesshall be bladed the dressedto conformto the lines and dimensions or otherwise shown on the otans. No materialfor construction the base shall be olaceduntil the subbase of has beenapproved the Engineer. by 201.3.1 C'omDaction uirements req of The relativecompaction each layer of the compactedsubbaseshall not be less than Ninety eight (98) percent of the maximum dry density to determined according AASHTOT-180 Method-D. The field densityshall be determined according AASHTOT-191 or otherapproved to method. For all matbrials, field densitythus obtainedshall be adjusted accountfor to the (retained 19 mm sieve) as directedby the Engineer oversizeparticles on of Also for adjustinent any materialretainedon 4,75 mm sieve,AASi-1TO Methodf -224 shallbe used 201.3.5 Determination Moisture Content in As rr is customary the projectlaboratories smallsamplesof materials that are placed in ovens for moisture determination for proctor, following precautions necessary ensurepropercompaction are to results. a) Same sizeof sampleis placedin oven for moisture in determination case density(Proctor) and fielddensity. of laboratory b) Moisturecontent for calculationof field density and proctor shall be passing 4.75 mm sieve. observed material on Tolerance The subbase to shallbe compacted the desiredleveland cross slopesas The allowable shownon the drawings. tolerance shall be according the to "Tablefor Allowable Tolerances" thesesoecifications. in 20L.4 201.4.1 MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT Measurement The quantity subbaseto be paid for shall be measuredby the theoretical of volumein placeas shown on the drawingsor as directedand approvedfor placedand accepted the completed granular construction the Engineer, by in placedoutsidethe will subbasecourse.No allowan.ce be givenfor materials limitsas shownon the cross-sections. theoretical

201.3.6

201-4

201.4.2

Pavment quantities The accepted measured provided as aboveshall be paidfor at the contractunit price per cubic meter of granularsubbase,for the Pay ltem listed below and shown in the Bill of Quantities, which price and payment shall constitute full compensationfor furnishing all materials, hauling, placing, watering, rolling, labour,equipment, tools and incidentals necessary to complete item. the

Pay ltem No.

Description

Unit of Measurement

201

Granular SubOase

CM

201-5

ITEM 202

AGGREGATE BASE COURSE

202.1

DESCRIPTION and compactingone (1) or spreading This item shall consistof furnishing, or subbase, existing subgrade, baseon a prepared more layersof aggregate and with the specifications the drawingsand/or road surface,in accordance bY as directed the Engineer.

202.2

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS Materialfor aggregatebase course shall consistof crushed hard durable gtatef, rocf oi-itone fragments. lt shall be clean and free from organtc shall substances.The material iratters,lumpsof clay and otherdeleterious be of such a naturethat it can be compactedreadilyunder wateringand and rigidpavements. rolling form a firm, stablebasefor bothflexible to The aggregate base shall comply to the following grading and quality requirements. a) The gradationcurve of the materialshall be smooth and within the A limitsfor Grading or B givenbelow. envelope

Gradine Requirementsfor AggregateBaseMaterial


Sieve Designation mm Inch A Mass Percent Passing Grading

50.0 25.0 9.5 4.75 2.00 0.425


n n76

2 1 3/8 No.4 N o .1 0 No.40 No.200

100 70-95 30-65 25-55 15-40 8-20 2-8

100 75-95 40-75 30-60 20-50 12-25 5-1 0

of The materialshall be well gradedsuch that the coefficient Uniformity be greaterthanfour (4). shall D60/D10 on retained sieve NO. 4) shall consist b) crushed Aggregate(material of material of which at least ninety (90) percent by weight shall be faces' of havinga minimum two (2) fractured crushedparticles,

202 1

c) The Coarseaggregate shall have a percentage wear by the Loss of Angeles Abrdsion test (AASHTOT-96)of not morethan forty(40)
d ) The material shall have a loss of less than twelve(.12) percent.when

subjectedto five cycles of the Sodium Sulphate Soundnesstest according AASHTOf -104. to e) The sand equivalent determined according AASHTOT-176 shall to not be lessthan 45 and the material shallhaVea Liquidlimitof not more than twentyfive (25) and a plasticity Indexof not more than 6 as determined AASHTOT-89 and T-90. by The materialpassingthe 1g mm sieve shall have a CBR value of minimumeighty(80) percent, testedaccording the AASHTO T to 193.The cBR valueshall be obtained the maximumdrv densitv at detbrmined accoiding AASHTOT 180,tUetfroA to O.

g) Laminated materialshall not exceed 1s% of total volume of Aggregate BaseCourse. 202.2.r
Filler for Blendine lf filler,in addition that naturally pregentin the aggregate to base materialis necessary meetingthe gradingrequirement for satisfactory for or bondingof the material, shall be uniformly it blendedwith the base course materialat the crushingplantor in a pugmillunlessothenrrise approved. The material for such purposeshall be obtained from sourcesapproved the Engineer. by The material shallbe free from organicmatter,dirt,shale,clayand clay lump or otherdeleterious matterand shallconformto following requirement.
AASHTO Sieve PercentPassi

3/8 lnch 4

100 Plasticity Index (AASHTO T-90) Sand Equivalent (AASHTO T-176)

100 85-'100 10-30 6 maximum 3 0m i n i m u m

Howeverthe combined preparedby mixingthe coarse material aggregates and fillershallsatisfy requirements mentioned clause202.2above. the as in 202.3 202.3.1 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS Prenaration ofsurface Aggregate for base course In case crushed aggregatebase is to be laid over preparedsub base course, the subbasecourse shall not have loose materialor moisturein excessto optimummoisture content.

2.02-2

under specified to spreadingshall conformin all respects the requirements - S u b b a s e2 0 1 . 3 . 1 ) ' ( i t h i sh e a d i n gn l t e m2 0 1 202.3.2 Comnaction compaction process shall conform in all respect to the requirements in underthisheading ltem201 (201.3.3)' specified 202.3.3 Requirement ComDaction of The relativecompaction each layer of the compactedbase shall not be to according less than 100 percentto the maximumdry densitydetermined shallbe determined fielddensity The D AASHTOT-180,Method (Modified). to according AASHTOT-191 or other approvedmethod' For all materials, the field densitythus obtainedshall be adjustedto accountfor overstze on particles(retained 19 mm sieve)as directedby the Engineer' Also for on retained 4]5 mm sieve,AASHTOMethodTof any material adjustment 224 shall be used at condition all in base courseshallbe maintained an acceptable Completed When base courseis to carrytrafficfor an times untilprimecoat is applied. indefinitelength of time before receivingsurfacing,the contractorshall nraintainthe lurface until final acceptanceand shall preventrevelingby to of rollingand addition fines as may be required keep the wetting,blading, base iightly bound and leave a slight excess of materialover the entire surface which must be removed and the surface finish restored before of application Primecoat. 202.3.4 Determination Content Moisture shall conform in all respects to the Moisture content deternrination 201 underclause .3'5for subbase' specified requirements 202.3.5 Trial Sections a base courseoperations, trialsection of Priorto commencement aggregate but not to exceedfive hundred(500) of two hundred(200)metersminimum, meters shall be prepared by the contractor using same material and of the adequacy equipment, as equipment will be used at site to determine to necessary result in the specifiedcompacted measurement loose depth the numberof between and relationship content, layerdepths,field moisture detailsreferto ui densrty inaierial.For passesand the resulting compaction of clause1.20(General) thesespecifications. 202.3.6 Tolerance The completedbase course shall be tested for requiredthicknessand in smoothnessbefore acceptance. Any area having waves, irregularities (3) M Ortwo (2) cm in fifteen(15) M shall be excessof one (1) cm in three rereshaping, material, addingapproved the by corrected scaiifying surface, as anO tihistrlng specified. Skin patchingof an area without compacting r""rifying ihe surfaceto permitproper bondingof added materialshall not to shall be according the "Tablefor tolerances The allowable be permitted. in Tolerances" thesespecifications. Allowable

202-3

292.3.1

Acceptance. Sampling and Testinq Acceptance of sampling and testing with respect to materials and construction requirements shall be governed by the relevant,"Table for Samplihg and TestingFrequency" as approved the Engineer. or by

202.4 202.4.1

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT Measurement The quantityof aggregatebase to be paid for, shall be measuredby the theoreticalvolume in place as shown on the drawings or as directed'and approvedfor construction the Engineer,placed and accepted in the by completedcrushedaggregatebase course.No allowance will be given for materials placed outside the theoreticallimits as shown on the cross sections.

202.4.2

Payment The accepted quantities measured aboveshallbe paid for at the contract as unit price per cubic meter of aggregate base,for the item listedbelowand shown in the Bill of Quantities,which price and payment shall constitutefull compensation furnishing materials, for all hauling,placing,watering,rolling, labour, equipment, toolsand incidentals necessary complete to this item.

Pay ltem No. 202

Description

Unitof Measurement
CM

AggregateBase.

ITEM 203

ASPHALTIC BASE COURSE PLANT MIX

203.1

DESCRIPTION and material of This work shallconsistof furnishing plant,labour,equipment of and performingall operationsin connectionwith the construction an and accepted constructed plant-hix base courseon a previously asphaltic of subbaseor base course,subjectto terms and conditions the subgrade, the with this Sectionof the Specification' and in strictaccordance Con'iract, of the Engineer. and the directions Drawings

203.2 203.2.r

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS Mineral Aggregate Mineral aggregatefor bituminousbase course shall consist of coarse with all if iinJaggregateand filler material, required, conforming aggregate, requirements: the following which is the materialretainedon AASHTO No. 4 sieve Coarseaggregate oi crushedrock, crushedgravelor crushedboulder.lt shall be shallconsiit stones,organic free from decomposed clean,hard,tough,sound,durable, substances.Rock or boulders matter,shale,clly lump or other deleterious from which coarse aggregate is obtained,shall be of uniform quality the throughout quarry that at least ninetyfive (95) percentby The crushingshall be so regulated retainedon AASHTO No. 4 sieve shall consistof pieces weightof miterial with-at least two (2) mechanicallyfractured faces, and when tested for stability. mix of stability bituminous shallshow satisfactory is Fineaggregatewhich materialpassingNo.4 sieve,shall consistof 100% sandwill be allowedin the miterialfrom rock or boulder. No natural crushe-d mix. in is gradingof the coarseand fine aggregates deficient When the combined shall be added.The fillermaterial passingtto.2OOsieve,additional material lime,hydraulic shill consistof finelydividedrock dust,hydrated fillermaterial cement or other suitable mineral matter. However,in case the coarse nature,then hydratedlime or a bettermaterial are aggregates of quartizitic dry At sfritt ne allowed. the time of use, it shall be sufficiently to flow freely. gradation: to following shallconform Fillermaterial
US Standard Sieve PercentPassing

Weisht

No.30 No.50 No.200

100 95-100 00 70-1

203-1

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TABLE203-1

GradinqRequirements CombinedAqqreqate

Mix Designation Use Thickness Comoacted

ClassA

ClassB Leveling/Base 50-80mm

Leveling/Base 70-90mm

passing weight by SieveSizePercent U.S.Standard 2" (50 mm) 1 . 1 / 2("3 8m m ) 1" (25 mnt)

100 9 0- 1 0 0 100
75-90

3/4"(19mm)
(12.5mm) 112" 3/8"(9.5mm) m No.4(4.75 m) m N o .8 ( 2 . 3 8 m )

56-75

65-80

55-70

45-60

23-40
1 5- 3 0

30-45 1 5- 3 5

0 N o .5 0 ( 0 . 3 0 m m )
mm) No. 200 (0.075 weight AsphaltContent oercentof totalmix

4-10

3-6

2-7

(Minimum)

(minimum)

The asphalt concrete leveling/ base course mixture shall meet the following Marshall Test Criteria. Compaction, numberof blowseach end of specimen Stability....... F l o w 0 . 2 5m m ( 0 . 0 ' i n . ) . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . , 1 Percent voidsin mix air Percent voidsin mineral aggregates

75 1000Ks (Min.) 8-14 4_8 According Table 5.3 MS-2 , to Asphalt institute, sixth edition 1993. 25 percent (Max.)

Loss in Stability

Mixes composed largersize aggregates of with maximumsize upto 3g mm (1.5 inches)will be prepared according modifiedMarshallmethodas per to MS-2 Asphalt institute, sixth edition, 1993 or the latest edition.The pr_ocedure basically same as the originalmethodexceptfor following is the differences are due to the largerspecimensizethat is used: that a) The hammer weighs10.2kg (22.slb.)and has a 149.4 mm (5.88inches) flat tamping face. only mechanically-operated device is used for the same457 mm ('18 inches) dropheight. b) The specimenhas a 152.4 mm (6 inches)diameterby 95,2 mm (3.75 inches) height. c) The batchweightsare typicaily 4 Kg. of d) The equipment compacting for and testing(moldsand breakingheads) are proportionately largerto accommodate largerspecimens. the e) The mix is placedin the mold in two approximately equal increments, with spadingperformed aftereach increment avoidhoney-combing. to f) The numberof blowsneededfor the largerspecimenis 1.5 times (75 or 112 blows)of that required the smallerspecimen(s0 or 75 blows)to for obtainequivalent compaction.

s)The designcriteriashall be modifiedas well, the minimumstabilityshall

be 2-25 times and the range of flow values shall be 1.5 times normalsizedsoecimens.

h ) similarto the normalprocedure, following valuesshallbe usedto convert

the measured stability valuesto an equivalent valuefor a specimenwith a 95.2 mm (3.75inches) thickness, the actualthickness if varies:

203-4

Approximate Height

Volume Specimen

88.9 90.5 e2.1 93.7 95.2 96.8 e8.4 100.0 . 1016

(3 t^tr) (3l/,u) (3 "4') (3 /ru) " (3",tJ) (3,"/ru) (3 .{') (3 "/,0) (4)

1608to 1626 t 1637 o 1665 1666to 1694 1695to 1723 1724o 1752 l 1753to 1781 1782to 1810 ' 1 8 1t o 1 8 3 9 1 t 1840 o 1968.

1.12
,1 no l.uo

1.03 1.00 0.97 0.95 0.92 0.90

203.2.1

Job-Mix Formula

a At least one (1) week priorto production, Job-MixFormula(JMF)for the jointly base courseto be used for the project,shall be established asphaltic project laboratory. Job mix by ihe Engineerand the contractor in the forrnula shall combine the mineral aggregates and asphalts in such requirements. to proportion conforming specification The JMF shall be establishedby MARSHALL Method of Mix Design ManualSeries prescribed the AsphaltInstitute in to according the procedure 1993,orthe latestEdition. sixthedition No.2 (MS-2), in shall be withinthe rangespecified tolerances The JMF, with the allowable of Each JMF shall indicatea single percentage aggregate Item 203.2.3. of sieve size and a singlepercentage bitumento be passingeach required addedto the aggregate. sieveNo. 200) to that of asphaltshall range The ratioof wt. of filler(passing morethan 4OoC. areaswithtemperature between1-1.5 for hot ciimate After the JMF is established,all mixtures furnished for the project shall by represented samplestaken from the asphaltplantduringoperation, job-mix, approved by the conform thereto Moreoverupon receivingthe the individual shall adjust his plant to proportion the Contractor Engineer, asphalt to produce a final mix that, when aggregates,mineralfiller and limits' the shallbe within following to compireO job mixformula

203-s

Maximum Valiation of Percentaqeof Materials Retained 4 and larger No. Passing 4 to No. 100 sieve No. Passing 200 No. AsphaltContent Weightpercentof total mix
+ 0.30h + 7.00h + 4.00h + 1.Oo/o

In addition meeting to the requirements specified the proceeding in items, the mixtureas established the JMF shall also satisfythe following by property physical Loss of Marshall. stabilityby immersionof specimenin water at sixty (60) dqgree centrgrade 24 hours as comparedwith stabilitymeasuredafter for immersionin water at 60 degreescentigraoe 20 minutesshall not for exceedstwentyfive (25) percent. lf the mixturefails to meet this criterion, JMF shallbe modified an antistripping or agentshallbe used. shoulda changeof sourcesof materials made,a new Job Mix Formula be shall be established beforethe new materialis used. when unsatisfactory resultsor otherconditions make it necessarv, new Job Mix Formulawill be a required 203.3 203.3.r
C O N S T R U C T I O NR E Q U I R E M E N T S BituminousMixing Plant

Plants used for the preparation bituminous of mixturesshall be "Batching Plants" conforming to AASHTO M 156, and of adequate capacity, coordinated and operatedto producea mixturewithin the limits of these specifications. Plant shall have minrmumthree cold bins and at least 3.5 decksof hot sieves. 203.3.2 Prerraration Aggregates of Before being fed to the dryer, aggregates the asphalticbase courses for shall be separatedinto three or more sizes and stored separately cold in bins. One bin shall containaggregate such size that eighty(80) percent of will passsieveNo. 4, and the othertwo bins shallcontainaggregate such of sizes that eighty(80) percentwill be retainedon sieve No. 4. Should fine material, incorporated the mix, separatebin shall be provid6din be in additionto the three bins mentionedabove. lf filler is used as a separare componentit will also be stored and measuredseparately and accuratery beforebeingfed intothe mixerthrough fillerscrewmechanism. Asphaltcementshall be heatedwithina temperature range of hundredand thirtyfive to hundredand sixty three (135-163)degreescentigradeat the time of mixing. Asphaltcement heatedabove maximumshown shall be considered overheated and shallbe rejected and removedfrom iob site.

203-6

weighedand drawn to pugmillshall be combinedwith Dried aggregate to quantityof asphaltcement according the job mix formula. proportionate shallnot be lower fluctuations, exceptfor temporary of Temperature asphalt, of belowthe temperature the aggregate, than fifteen(15)degreescentigrade intothe pugmill. enter at the time, the two materials in the materials bins or in movingthem from bins to the dryer, For placing any method which causes segregationor uncontrolledcombinationof or and the segregated of materials differentgrading,shall be discontinued for be Prescreened reuse. shall materials degraded not shall be heatedand driedat temperature to ingredient Each aggregate exceedhundredand sixty three (163) degreescentigrade. lf aggregate contain sufficient moisture to cause foaming in the mixture or their temperatureis in excess of hundred and sixty three (163) degrees centigtad. they qhall be removqd frqm tlle bins and returnedto their , of respective stock piles. In no case, shall the temperature asphalticmix '163 from the pugmill. when discharged degreecentigrade exceed shall be screenedto required the aggregates after heating, lmmediately sizes and stored in separate hot bins for batching and mixing with material. bituminous Asphaltplant shall have mtnimumthree and half (3 of the control gradation hot bins. effectively 203.3.3 Hauling Equipment shall have tight,clean, mixtures Dump truck used for haulingbituminous material smoothmetalbedswhichhave beenthinlycoatedwith an approved to of to prevent adhering material the beds. Eachtruckshallhave a coverof canvas or of other suitable material of sufficientsize as to protect the mixturefrom the weather.The mixturewill be deliveredon the road at a (130) degree C. Driversof not less than hundred and thirty, temperature the vehicles,paver is not will ensure that while reversing dump trucks pushed a backproducing humP. 203.3.,1 Pavers Bituminous power-propelled units, provided paversshall be self-contained, Bitumrnous controlledactivatedscreed or strike-offassembly, with an automatically heated if necessary,capable of spreadingand finishing courses of to plant mix materialin lane widths applicable the specified bituminous shownon the plans. Paversusedfor shoulders typicalsectionand thickness and finishingcourse shall be capableof spreading and simitarconstruction shownon the plans. plantmix material widths in of bituminous The paver shall be equipped with a receivinghopper having sufficient capacityfor a uniformspreadingoperation. The paver shall be equipped adjusted maintaina uniformdepth to feed controls,properly with automatic of material aheadof the screed. tlr) sieve decks to

203-7

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s'f'f u;

203.3.6

Surface of Preparation Baseor ExistingPavement the surface of base or existingpavementon Before spreadingmaterials, of by which the mix is to be placedshall be conditioned application a prime or tack coat as sPecified. not After a primecoat is applied,it shall be left undisturbed less than twenty the primedsurfaceuntilthe shall maintain (24) hours. The Contractor four shallincludethe spreading has been placed. This maintenance mix material of to if material, necessary preventadherence the of sand or otherapproved prime coat to the tyres of vehiclesusingthe primed surface,and patching material.Any bituminous any breaks in the primed surfacewith additional primedsurfacethat has becomedamagedshall be repairedbefore area of of the mix is placed,to the satisfaction Engineer.lt shall be ensuredthat when premixis !aid, primedsurfaceis nol in tackyconditionr After a tack coat is applied,it shall be allowedto dry until it is in the proper the to of condition tackiness receive mix. The'tackcoat shallbe appliedonly to as far in advanceof the placingof mix, as is necessary obtainthe proper in the tack coat shallbe repaired. of condition tackiness.Any breaks it pavement old base is irregular, shallbe or When the surfaceof the existing by broughtto uniformgrade and cross-section levelingcourse as directed. of to coursemixtureshallconform the requirements ltem 203.2. The leveling shallbe sprayedon contactsurfaceof material A thin coatingof bituminous curbing,gutters,manholes,and other structures,prior to the bituminous mixturebeingplacedagainstthem.

203.3.7

and Spreadinq Finishins The mixtureshall be laid upon an approvedsurface,spread and struck off to paversshall be used to established.Bituminous the sectionand elevation the mixtureeitherover the entirewidth or over such partialwidth distribute as may be practicable. in The longitudinaljoint one layershalloffsetto that in the layerimmediately the 15.0cm; however, joint in the top layershallbe below,by approximately at the centerlineof the pavement if the roadway comprises two lanes of is width,or at lane linesif the roadway more than 2lanes in width' obstaclesmake the use of or On areas where irregularities unavoidable the mixture mechanicalspreadingand finishingequipmentimpracticable, For such areas the mixture shall be spread,raked and lutedby hand'tools. shall be dumped, spread and screededto give the requiredcompacted of even distrlbution coarseand fine material. ensuring thickness, and whereverpractical, of When production the mixturecan be maintained shall be used in echelonto ptacethe wearing course in adjacent Oavers withoutlateraljoint' to lanesand compacted form a surface

203-9

All mixturesshall be spreadat a temperature not less than hundredand of thirty (130) degree c and atl initiatrollingor tamping shall be performed when the temperatureof the mixture is such that the sum of the air plus the temperature the mixtureis between165 degree c temperature of and 190 degreec. The mixtureshall not be placedon any wet surfaceor when weather conditionswill otherwise prevent its proper handling or finishing. 203.3.8 Compaction After spreading and strike off and as soon as the mix condition permitsthe rollingto be performedwithout excessiveshovingor tearing,the mixture shallbe thoroughly and uniformly compacted.Rolling shallnol be prolonged when cracksappearon the surface. lnitialor breakdown rollingshall be done bl meansof eithera tandem steel roller or three wheeled steel roller. Rollingshall begin as soon as the mixture bearthe rollerwithoutunduedisplacement. will The numberand weight of rollersshall be sufficient obtainthe required to compaction whilethe mixtureis stillin workable condition.The sequenceof rollingand the selection rollertypes shall providethe specified of pavement density. Initialrollingwith a tandem steel roller or a three-wheeled steel rollershallfollowthe paveras closelyas possible. Unlessotherwise directed, rollingshall beginat the lowerside and proceed longitudinally, parallel the road centerline, to eachtrip overlapping one-half of the roller width, graduallyprogressing the crown of the road. when to pavingin echelonor abuttinga previously placedlane,the longitudinaljoint should be rolledfirst followedby the regularrollingprocedure. on super elevatedcurvesthe rollingshall begin at the low side and progressto the high side by overlappingof longitudinal trips parallel to the centerline. lntermediate rollingwith a pneumatic tyred rollershall be done behindthe initialrolling. Finalrollingshall eliminate marksfrom previous rolling. In no case shallthe temperature less than hundred be and twenty(120)degreec. for initialbreak down rollingwhile all other compactiorr operations shall be completedbeforethe temperaturedrops down to hundredand ten (110) degreeC. Rollersshall move at a slow but uniformspeedwith the drive roll or wheels nearest the paver. Rolling shall be continueduntil all roller marrs are eliminatedand a minimum density of Ninety seven (g7) percent of a laboratory compacted specimenmade from asphaltic materiaiobtainedfor dailyMarshall density achieved. is Any displacement resulting while reversing the direction a roller,or from of othercauses,shallbe corrected once by the use of rakesand additionof at fresh mixture when required. care shall be exercisedin rolling not to displace lineand gradeof the edgesof the bituminous the mixture. To preventadhesionof the mixtureto the rollers, wheelsof rollersshall be kept properly moistened with wateror water mixedwith very small quantities of detergent otherapproved or materral.Excessliquidwill not be permitted. 203-1 0

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0I't'gOz

6't'02

'xruro:d pelceduocun aq] umop pue ia^ed uoa/mloq lleqdse palaedLuoc 'qcrul esdele uaam}aq drunponrssaocns }ou saop eutl 6uo; looc{eu qorr1m e leql 'pa6eueu os sq lleLls xruard 1o uotlceduocpue 6utAe1 acuanbeg ;o 'pacelda: pue ponourer lo eale [uy oq lleqs leualeursnouil.!n]rq r{cuaot;ap ssecxo ue ounnoqs 1o 'eere aLll burpunoJrns rllrmtlroluoc o1 pelceduoo aq llel{s tlcttlm'eln}xttu qlnn pecelderpue ponourar lleqs ,{ltsuap qstu4ut anllca}op lo aq lor.lL{sar; Aean ur sr ro '1.tlp poxrur'uolorq pue asoolsauocaq leql e:nlxttu{uV Aue Llllm 'eoJepessa:dap o1uotsselduoc eq] lltusuell o] rellor aLll repun pasn aq Aeu sdr:1suotssalduoc paleels lo posn aq Dutqloou;s u6 s:adutellectueqcauqlm Jo suo.lt s:adua1'sBarepessa:dap 's:adurelpuell all} 'lellol lotl qyanpelceduloc{lq6nolotl}aq lleLlsoln}xll.x 'sqlnc 'stu.to; 6uoly JaLllopue sliem 'sJopeaq oqt o] olqrssaoce saceqd 1ou

203.3.11

BaseThickness Tolerances For determination thickness,one (1) core for each hundred(100) linear of meter of each lane shall be taken. Unless othenryisepermitted, cores extracted for thickness measurement shall not be used for density determination and density cores shall not be used for thicknesi measurements. when layer thicknessof asphalticbase course is deficientby more than five (5) rnm from that specifiedin the Drawings,the deficiencyshall be removed with satisfactory base course material andlor made up by additional asphalt concrete wearing course thickness without extra cost to the Employer. lf suchremedial actionis authorised, revised thickness determinations shallbe made by measurements of new cores taken after placing of "Asphaltic wearing Goursel!material or as direeted by the Engineer. lf base course deficienciesare corrected in this manner, full payment for the "Asphaltic Base course" will be made to the contractor, but no additional payment will be madefor the increase thickness the "Asphaltic in of WearingCourse,,.

203.3.12

Acceptance Sampling and Testing Acceptance of samples and testing of materials and construction requirements, shall be governedby the relevant,"Table for Samplingand TestingFrequency" as approved the Engineer. or by

203.3.13

Weather Limitations Hot asphaltic mixturesshall be placedonly when the air temperature four is (4) degreescentigrade aboveand no asphaltshall be laid under foggyor or rainyweatheror over moistsurface.

203.3.r{

Trial Section contractorshall preparea trial sectionbeforethe start of work in light of procedure givenin clause1.20(General).

203.4 20J.l.l

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT Measurement The quantitiesfor asphalticleveling/ base course will be measured by volumein cubicmeterscompacted place.Measurement in shallbe basedon the dimensionas shown on plan or as otherwise directedor authorized by the Engineer. measurement No shallbe made for unauthorized areas or for extrathickness. The quantityof asphalticmaterialused is includedin the asphaltconerete mixtureand will not be measuredseparately. of Quantities liquidasphalt, wastedor remaining hand aftercompletion on of the work,shallnot be measured paidfor. or

203-12

203.4.2

P4vment determinedas providedabove shall be paid for at the contract The quantities for price respectively each of the particularpay items listed below and unit which pricesand paymentshail constitutefull shown in the bitt of Quantities, for compensation all the costs necessaryfor the proper completionof the agent, if work prescribedin this item. Asphalt additive or antistripping shall not be paid directly, requirement allowedand used to meet with JMF paymentshall be deemed to be includedin the respectivepay items of BaseCourse. Asphaltic

Pay ltem No.

Description

Unit of Measurement

203a

BaseCourseAsphaltic A) Mix Plant (Class

CM

BaseCourse203b Asphaltic B) Mix Plant (Class 203c 203d CourseLeveling Asphaltic A) Mix Plant (Class CourseLeveling Asphaltic B) Mix Plant (Class

CM

CM

CM

203-13

ITEM 204
204.1

QgIL CEMENT qIAEIIIZED


DESCRIPTION

SUBBASE AND BASE

The work shall consistof performing operations connection all in with the construction cement stabilized of subbase or base and all incidentals in accordancewith the specifications conformitywith ttre in iines, grade, thicknessand typicalcross-sections shown on the plans or as directedby the Engineer. 204.2 204.2.r MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS Mineral Aggregate Aggregate shall be crean,. tough,hard durabreparticles free of decomposed stone,organicmatterand other deleterious substances and shall consistof materialof which at least by _50yo weight of the total aggregatesstratthave at least two (2) mechanicaily fracturedfaces tor cem6it Jtabirized subbase whereas for cement stabilizedbase course, materialshall have at reast Ninety(90) percentby weightof totalaggregate havingtwo (2) mechanically fracturedfaces. coarse aggregateretainedon sieve No. 4 shail have a percentage of wear !v t-9s Angeles Abrasion as determinedby AASHTO r g6 not more than forty five (45) for base courseand fifty (50) filr subbasemateriat. FractionPassing0.075 mm (No. 200) shall not be greaterthan two{hird of the^fraction.passing 0.425 mm (t,to.40) sievel The fractionpassrng the

0,425 (No. sieve a0) ym shail have tiquid notgreateiiiin zsv, ana a iimit plasticity notgreater 6. index than
sandy and gravelysoilsusedfor cementstabilization shallfulfillthe following gradingrequirements. Fassingmaximumsize50 mm sieve 1OO% Passing AASHTONo. 4 sieve above50% PassingAASHTO No. 40 sieve above15o/o Passing AASHTONo. 200 sieve betow 5% Clayfraction, finerthan 0.002mm betow 3% 204.2.2 Cement Cementshallconformin all respectto requirement specified undersub-item 111.2.2 and item401 ,'Concrete,'. 201.2.3 Water water used for cementstabilized base courseor subbaseshall conformrn arrrespect requirements to specified undersub-item112.2.3.

_44-t

204.24

in Requirements Laboratorv Mix Design proposed mix design the work of stabilization, Prior to commencement and water to be used so as to of the exact percentage cement indicating for by shall be submitted the Contractor Engineer's obtaina uniformmixture, requirements: shallfulfillthefollowing and approval, i) The mixture sample submergedin water for two hours before crushing,after storage in a box having minimum humidityof ninety five (95) percentfor Twenty four (24) hours shall have a for of strength twentythree (23) kg/sq.cm minimumcompressive sub baseand thirty(30) kg/sq.cm for base respectively. swellingof volume shall be two (2) The maximum permissive percent ald mqximum loss in weight eight (8) percent when withAASHTOT-'135. testedin accordance shall be as givenbelow:duringconstructions Maximumvariation a. CementContent: Water contents: -1 to +1ok of that given in the mix design. 61s +2okof that givenin the mix design.

ii)

iii)

iv)

for material curing seal shall be any one of the Bituminous : following
Type RC-250 MC-250 SS-1 RT-5 cations Srrecifi Applicatrle AASHTOM-81 AASHTOM-82 AASHTOM-140 AASHTOM-52

Optimum moisture content shall be determined in accordance with MSHTO T-134 by placingmoist sample under shade for seven days and in aftertlo hoursof immersion water. crushing 204.2.5 of Comnosition Mixture at Site cement be shallthoroughly mixedat site with sufficient material The granular required crushing strength. The cement content shall be to obtain determinedat the laboratoryso that minimum compressivestrength of mixtureis fifty (50) kg/sq. cm for sub base and eighty (80) kg/sq. cm for contentof the mix cement at base respectively seven(7) days.The moisture stabilizedmaterialshall not be less than the optimum as determinedby MSHTO T-134 Method and nor more than two (2) percent above the by optimumas determined this test or such highervalue as may be agreed trial. on by the Engineer basisof preliminary

204.3 204.3.r

CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS Stationary PlantMethod Equipment, tools, machinesused in the performance cement stabirized of subbase,base shall be subjectto the approvalof Engineerand shall be maintained satisfactory in workingconditionat all times. lf stationaryplant is used, it shail be of the power driven paddreor pan type and may be of batchor continuous type. lf batch mixer is used, measuredamountof materialand cement shall first be placed in mixer, water being added to bring moisturecontent of mixture within the optimum.range. Mixing shail b6 continued uniit mixture is uniformly mixedbut in no case lessthan one minutemixingtime. The mixing plant shail be of approvedtype, coordinatedand operatedas to produce mixture within mix design requirementsand shall be of sufficient capacity. The aggregate, cement and water shall be mixed at an approvedcentral mixingplant by eithercontinuous-flow batchtype mixer reloving or blades or rotarydrum mixer. The plantshall be equipped with feedingand meteringdevicesthat add the materials, cement and water into the mixer in specitiedquantities; mixed thoroughlyand sufficienilyto obtain intimate and uniform mixture with out cementlumps. The mixtureshall be transportedto paving area in trucks or other approved eq_uipments having clean bed within a mlximum hauling time of fbity five (45) minutes. The mixture shall be placed on moist subgrade/or subbase wthout segregation at a rate. that wiil produce a uiriformry comfacted rayer conformingto the required grade and cross-section. The mixture shall be spread by spreaderwithinthirty minutesafter placementof mixure. compactionshall start as soon as possibleafter spreadingand elapsedtime betweenthe additionof water to mixture and start or co"mfacttn shall not exceedninety(90)minutes.

204.3.2

Mix in Place Method cement stabilized subbase/base coursecan also be constructed Mlx_lN_ by PLACE method. The plant used for pulverising ano mixint-ihe stabilized material shallbe approved the Engineer the basisof triil conducted by on to establish that the prantis capabreof producing the degree oi mixing and uniformityof materialaccordingto specificatiorirequireiient. The material shall be processedthroughoutthe depth of layer *it ot"ol, of approved mixingequipment.The cementshallbe spread-ahead mixer of by meansof cement spreader,fitted with a device to ensure uniformand required - -'rate of spreadof cementbothtransversely longitudinally. and

204-3

Moisturecontentof the materialshall be adjustedto optimum using water in sprayerof such designthat water is discharged uniformand controllable and mannerbothtransversely longitudinally 20-1.3.3 Joints Construction joint construction a In the end of each day construction, straighttransverse work to form a true verticalface. shall be formedby cuttingintocompleted length and width For large area, a series of parallellanes of convenient meetingapprovalof Engineershall be built with true verticalface free of material. looseor shattered and mixing. Guidestakesshallbe set for cementspreading Giade and alignmbntstakes shall be furnished,set ahd maintaihedby in contractor, orderthat the work shallconformto the lines,gradeand crossshownon the drawing. sections All materialshall be placed and spread evenly by mechanicalspreader off capableof leveling the materialto an even depth. The mixtureshall be material content. Areas of segregated with propermoisture mixed uniformly materialor by shall be correctedby removingand replacingwith satisfactory additional approved to re-mixing. When necessary meet the requirements, and materialshall be spreadin such amountsas are foundto be necessary placedmaterial, mixed into previously shall be uniformly the added material density. to addingwateras required obtainthe specified 204.3.4 Compaction The thicknessof layer shall be as shown on the Drawingsbut in no case of shall be less than eight(B) centimeters.lf thickness each layerdoes not it exceed twentycentimeters, shall be constructedas one layer. lf thickness of layer exceeds twenty (20) centimeters,it shall be constructedin two or more layers each within the range of eight (8) to twenty (20) centimetersin thickness. compacted The mixture shall be spread and finished true to crown and grade by as machine or hand method where machine methods are impracticable determined by the Engineer and shall be thoroughlycompacted with is approvedrollersuntil entire depth and width of subbase/base uniformly compacted to maximum density of 95% as tested accordingto procedure in outlined AASHTOT-134. The compactionshall be complete as soon as possible after mixing, on withinthree (3) hoursafter addingwater depending settingtime normally of ceinentand the weatherconditions. and any materialthat Compactionshall not take place after cement hydration has been mixed or depositedafter cement has hydratedshall be removed withfresh mix material. and replaced

204-4

204.3.5

PreliminaryTrial At leastone (1) week beforemain work of stabilization startedcontractor is shall constructa trial section of two hundred (200) meters in length at locationapproved by the Engineerwith same material,equipmen[ mix proportion and construction procedure that he proposes use for the main to work. Purposeof this trial sectionis to determine efficiency mixing,spreading, of compaction,suitabilityof constructionprocedures,depth of layer being compacted with available compactive effon. In qlqge density determination wiil be made using AASHTO r-19.1 or AASHTOT-205& T-238Method.

204.3.6

Curing/Maintenance After compactionthe stabilizedsubbase/baselayer shall be protected againstdryingout by keepingit continuously damp for a periodof at least three (3) days or by coating with approvedcuring material at the rate approved the Engineer. by The completedcement stabilized subbase/base shall be maintained an in acceptable conditionat all the times, prior to construction subsequent of asphaltic layer. No vehicular traffic shall be allowedto pass on the compactedlayer until curing period has elapsedwith a minimum notraffic period of seven (7) days. Cement stabilized subbase/baseshall be constructed only when the atmospherictemperatureis above 4 degrees centigradeand when the weatheris not rainy.

204.3.7

Tolerance The surface of each subbase/base course shall be properlyshaped to a smooth uniformsurfaceparallelto the finishedsurfaceof the carriageway ,'Table and shallnot vary morethan the limitsas specified the relevant, in for Allowable Tolerances" thesespecifications. in The completed subbase/Base courseshall be testedfor requiredthickness and surfacebeforeacceptance.Any area havingcompacted thicknessless thanthe thickness shownin the billof quantities and/oron the drawings shall be reclifiedby scarifyingthe top seventyfive (75) mm, reshapingwith added rnaterial and recompacting to specification.skin patchingof an area all withoutscarifying surfaceto permitproperbonding added material the of will not be permitted.

204-5

204.4 204.4.r

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT Measurement The unitof measurement paymentshallbe cubicmeterof the compacted for materialas measuredin place. Measurement and acceptedsubbase/base shall not includeany areas in excessof that shown on the drawingsexcept in the areasauthorized, writing,by the Engineer. of Measurement cement content used shall be the number of metric Ton This quantity cementused shallnot to subbase/base. consumed stabilize of percentage in exceedthe theoretical established the laboratory. Bituminouscuring material shall be measured by the metric Ton. The certifiedwei$hl tidketS from the batdh Contiadbrshall fuinish in dupliCate plants. scalesof commercial

204.4.2

Payment subbase/base Measuredquantityof stabilized determinedas providedabove shall be paid for at the contractunit price per cubic meter for a particular which payment shallbe item listedbelowand shownon the Billof Quantities, for full compensation furnishingall labour,material, tool, plant,equipment, placing, shaping, compactingincluding handling,mixing, manipulating, waterfor compaction, rolling, finishing; unsuitable necessary correcting area material;maintenance includingprotection stabilized of and unsatisfactory layerand incidentals necessary completion work except of subbase/base for cement consumedwhich shall be paid separatelyas measured above. Paymentfor bituminous curing materialshall includeall labour, material, heating (if required)equipment,spreadingand protectionfrom traffic as by directed the Engineer.

Pay ltem No.

Description

Unitof Measurement
CM

204a 204b 204c


204d

CementStabilized Subbase CementStabilized Base Cementcbntent Asphaltfor Liquid curingseal,type-Emulsified Asphalt for curingseal,type_

CM Ton Ton Ton

204e

204-6

ITEM2O5

CRACK. RELIEF LAYER

205.1

DESCRIPTION The work shall consist of constructing layer of graded crushed aggregate a plant mix on a preparedsoil-cement or asphaltic open-graded base course in accordance with these specificationsand in conformity with the lines, grades,thicknesses typicalcrosssections and shownon the Drawings.

205.2 205.2.1

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS Aggregates Material gradedcrushedaggregates for shallin all respects conformwiththe requirementsspecified under ltem 202, with the following exceptionsand supplementary requirements: a) The portionof the aggregate retainedon the 9.5 mm. (3/8 inch) sieve shall not contain more than 10 percent by weight of flat and/or elongated particles (ratio of maximum to minimum d i m e n s i o= 2 . 5 : 1 ) . n ' Crushedaggregates shall consistof particles with not less than Ninety(90) percentof the portionretainedon the 4.75 mm. (No. 4) sieve havingat leasttwo fracturedfaces.

b)

Aggregates the asphaltic for plantmix shallconform the open-graded to requirements ltem203.2.1with following of the exceptions:

a) b) 205.2.2

Fineaggregates and mineral fillerwill be required. Sand equivalent plasticity and requirements not applicable. are

Asphaltic Material

Asphaltic binder shallbe asphalt cement, 60-70penetration grade, meeting the requirementsAASHTO of M-20.
205.2.3
Asphaltic Open-Graded Mixture The composition of the asphaltie open-graded crack-relief layer shall meet the following criteria:

Aggregate Grading Requirements


Designation Sieve Inch mm 502 1.1t2 37.5 3t4 19 No.4 4.75 N o .1 0 0 0.15 AsphaltCementContentof totalMix Time Mixing Mix Design
Percent Passingby weight

100 75-90 50-70 8-20 0-5 2-3%byweight (Maximum) 30 seconds Range Gradation Master Within

of The exact percentage asphaltcementcontentshall be such that at least Ninetyfive (95) percentcoatingof aggregateswill be achievedwhen tested withAASHTOT-195. in accordance 205.3 CONSTRUCTIONREQUIREMENTS layer (CRL) the completedsoilof Prior to construction the crack-relief by cementbasecourseshallbe dulyaccepted the Engineer.

205.3.1

GradedCrushedAgsregate of Construction this layer shall conformin all respectsto the requirements underltem 202.3. specified

205.3.2

CRL AsnhalticOpen-Graded of Construction this layer shall conformin all respectsto the requirements below:underltem 203.3,exceptas provided specified a) Compaction shall be accomplishedby ten (10) Ton steel Wheeled tandem rollers. A maximum of three complete or coverages, as otherwisedirectedby the Engineer,shall be sufficient. No density test will be required, however the shall be achievedin the same manneras displayed compaction of in the totaltest and to satisfaction the Engineer. The consistencyand temperatureof the mix shall be such controlledthat it does not squeeze out or move under the pressureof dompactingroller. For this purpose,trial reaches to by shallbe prepared the contractor fix the aboveparameters.

b)

205-2

In order to ensurethe stability CRL beforethe placementof of any subsequent layer or openingof a layerto traffic,a priming time of 4 days in hot weatherwill be allowed.This tine mav be reduced two dayswherethe lowertemperature to allows. c) All trafficshall be kept off this layeruntila subsequent layernas been placedon it. Any damagecausedby trafficmovingdirecfly on the crack-relieflayer shall be the responsibility the of contractorand all necessaryrepairwork theretoshall be at the Contractor's exoense.

205.{ 205..1.1

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT Vleasurenrent The quantity gradedcrushedaggregate of crack-relief asphaltic open graded layerto be paidfor shallbe measuredby the theoretical volumein pllce as or for by thown on the drawings as directedand approved construction the placedand acceptedin the completed Engineer, gradedcrushedaggregate crack-relief layer. The quantity asphaltic of open gradedcrack relieflayershallbe measuredin cubic metersby takingout cores as detailed Base course Asphaltunder for item 203.4.1 The quantity Asphaltic of materialis includedin the mixtureand will not be measured separately.

205.4.2

Payment The quantities determined provided as aboveshallbe paidfor at the contract unit price respectively each of the particular for pay items listedbelow and shownin the Billof Quantities, which pricesand payment shallconstitute full compensation all costs necessary the propercompletion the work for for of prescribed this item: in Pay ltem No. Description Unit of Measurement

205a
205b

GradedCrushed Aggregate Crack-Relief Layer Asphaltic Open-Graded PlantMix CrackRelief Layer

CM

CM

ZU3-J

ITEM 206
2{J6.1

WATER BOUND MACADAM BASE


DESCRIPTION This work shall consistof furnishing and placingone or more coursesof clean crushed stone base mechanically interlockedby rolling,and voids thereof filled with screeningand binding materialwith the assistanceof water, laid on a preparedsubgrade,sub base, or existingpavementin conformity withthe lines,gradesand cross-sections shownon the drawings. Unlessotherwise directedby the Engineer this item of work may be applied to road structure shoulders. or

206.2

MATERIAL REOU REMF,NTS I Coarse aggregateseither crushed or broken stone shall conform to the qualityrequirements specified as hereunder, exceptthat no CBR testingwill be required. The gradation curveof the coarseaggregate shallbe withinthe enveloplimitsgivenbelow:Percent Passins bv weisht SieveDesignation mm Inch ClassA

Class B

ClassC

102 89 76 63.5 37.5 25 19 12.5

(4") (3.112:) (3") (2.1tz',) (2") (1.1t2") ' ( 1) (3t4") (1t2")

100 9 0- 1 0 0 25-60 100 9 0- 1 0 0 25-75


u - tc

o-rs
0-5

ols

100 9 0- 1 0 0 35-70 0-15


ntr

(fillermaterialor screenings) Fine aggregate shall consistof cruShed stone screenings any otherfine materialapprovedby the Engineer. shall be or lt free from clay lumps, dirt and other objectionable material. The fine aggregate shallbe of the following gradation.
SieveDesignation mm Inch

PercentPassi

hr

9.5 4.35 0.15

3t8 No.4 No. 100

100 85-I 00 10-30

The materialpassingNo. 40 sieveshall have a liquidLimitof not more than twentyfive (25) and a Plasticity Indexof not morethan six (6).

206-1

206.2.1

Physical Requirements physicalrequirements coarseaggregates water bound The additional of for macadam satisfy following will the limits:a. b. c. LossAngelesAbrasion Value Max 45oh Flakiness Index Max 15o/o The loss when subject to five cycles of the Sodium Sulphate Soundness (AASHTO test T-104)shall lessthantwelve(12). be

206.2.2

Bindins Material Bindingmaterial preventravelingof water bound macadamshall consist to of a fine grainedmaterialpassing'100percent through425 micronsieveand possessing value of four to Rine(4-9)when the weter Bouad Macadam P.l (WBM) is to be used as a surfacing course,and upto 6 when WBM is being adoptedas sub-base/base coursewith bituminous surfacing. tf lime stone formationsare availablenearby, lime stones dust or as directed by the Engineer, may be usedfullyemployed this purpose. for

206.3 206.3.1

CONSTRUCTION REOUIREMENTS Equinment Any combination machinesor equipmentthat will produce the results of meeting thesespecifications may be usedwith the approval the Engineer. of These include mechanical spreaders, water sprinklers and rollers/compactors.

206.3.2

StructurePreparation Preparation surfacefor water boundmacadam, of shall be carriedout in the samemanner for aggregate as basecourse item202.3.1. Where the existingroad surfaceis blacktopped,50 mm x 50 mm furrows shallbe cut in the existingsurfaceat one (1) meterintervals fortyfive (45) at degree to the centre line of the carriage-way before proceedingwith the layingof coarseaggregates. Before startingwith wBM construction, necessaryarrangements shall be madefor the lateralconfinement aggregates.one methodis to construct of side shoulders advanceto a thicknesscorresponding the compacted in to layerof the wBM course. After shoulders ready,thereinsideedgesmay are be trimmed verticaland the includedarea cleanedof all spilled material therebysettingthe stage for spreadof coarseaggregates.The practiceof constructing wBM in a trench sectionexcavatedin the finishedformation must be avoided.

206-2

206.3.3

and Comnaction Spreadinq surfaceto the and spreadon the prepared Crushedstoneshallbe deposited proper depth so that the compacted layer will not exceed two and a half size. Each layershallbe (2.112) of timesthe thickness maximumaggregate inspectedthoroughlybefore rolling to detect high or low spots. Crushed stones shall be added or shifted to provide a true surface. The course shall be lightlyrolled aggregatelayer,after being laid to proper thickness, gradeand levelof the stones. the sufficient onlyto establish required Spreading of the coarse aggregates shall be followed by rolling with a smooth wheel rollerweighingat least 10 tons. Rollingshall begin at the lower edge of the shoulders to lock the stones firmly at the edge, then progressgradually towardsthe centre line. Rollingshall continue until the aggregateis well keyedand does not creep aheadof the roller.

n" shall coarslatgregates itoi"a in neipi di;;iiy ontnearei In nocase,


where these are to be laid nor shall the haulingover a partlycompleted base be permitted,however dumpers shall be allowed at the construction quickly afterdumping. will area wherethe material be spreaded over the shall be applieduniformly rolling, screenings dry Following initial the while screenings are being applied. surface. Dry rollingshall be continued or The surfaceshallbe sweptwith mechanical hand broomsto aid spreading of the screenings. the are in When the interstices the coarseaggregate filledwith screenings, surface shall be sprinkled with water until it is saturated. The rolling, untila grout screenings shallcontinue of and application additional sprinkling grout in front of the is formed that fills all the voids and forms a wave of roller. When more than one layer is requiredto completethe Macadam base course to the thickness shown on the drawings, each layer shall be as constructed beforeprescribed.

206.3.4

ControlTestinq Construction of with the requirements ltem 206.2 will be made as Tests for compliance of and to the satisfaction the Engineer. as deemednecessary often

206.3.s

Maintenance in condition The completed base courseshall be maintained an acceptable is subsequent treatment applied. untilthenecessary

206-3

206.4

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

206.4.r

Measurement The quantity of water Bound Macadam Base to be paid for shall be measuredby the theoretical volumein place,as shown on the Drawings or as directed and approved for construction by the Engineer, placed and accepted in the completed waterbound Macadam Base course. No allowancewill be given for materialsplaced outside the theoretical limits shown on the cross-sections.

206.4.2

Pavment The acceptedquantitiesmeasuredas providedabove shall be paid for at the contract unit price per cubic meter of water Bound Macadam Base, for the pay items listedbelowand shown in the Bill of euantities,which price and payment shall constitutefull compensationfor furnishing all materials, hauling,placing,watering,rolling,labour,equipment, tools and incidentals necessaryto completethis item.

Payltem No. 206a 206b 206c

Description

Unitof Measurement

Water BoundMacadamBase with CoarseAgg: ClassA Water BoundMacadamBase with CoarseAgg: ClassB Water BoundMacadamBase with CoarseAgg: ClassC

CM
CM

CM

ITEM 207
207.1

DEEP PATCHING
DESCRIPTION This work shall be carried out in patchesof roads where the existing road base materialhas moved and is lying in loose condition.Requirementunder this item is to removethe existingroad base and to strengthenit to take new layerof aggregateor water boundmacadambase.

207.2

MATERIAL RT,OUIREMENTS Freshaggregatebase or water boundmacadambase may be requiredto be for added to existingroad base. Specification such materialshall conformto of materialrequircments item 202.2or 206.2,

207.3

CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS Patchesof roads in which surface courseshave broken and road base has moved, the materialwhich has lost its compactionshall be removed. Next layer shall be watered and compacted,thereby the removed materialshall be placed back duly screened to remove plastic contamination,by hand pickingand passingthough sieve No. 4. after properlywateringand mixing. Materialwill be recompactedin layers not exceedingfifteen (15) cms thick with approved equipments. Additional material will be added, if needed particularly sieveNo. 4. fines passing non-plastic

207.4 207.4.1

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT Measurement The quantityof deep patchingto be paid for shall be measured in square meter of the area demarcatedor approvedby the Engineer.The minimum area will be taken as 0.5 square meters irrespectiveof the size of the pot hole.

207.4.2

Payment The acceptedquantitiesmeasuredas providedabove shall be paid for at the contractunit price per square meter of deep patching,which price payment shall constitutefull compensationfor furnishing all materials, hauling, placing, tools and incidentals necessary labour, equipment, watering, rolling, to complete item: the

Payltem No.
207a 207b

Description

Unitof Measurement
SM SM

Deep Patching (0-15cm) Deep Patching (15-30 cm)

207-1

ITEM 208

REINSTATEMENT OF ROAD SURFACE

208.1

DESCRIPTION This work shall consist of reinstatementof worn out road surface with a material approved the Engineer.Pot holes,ditchesand depressions by shall be filled with the approved materialsin layers in conformitywith lines, grades,sections and dimensions, directedby the Engineer. as

208.2 The material used underthis item shall conformto the materialrequirement of differqnt B,O.Q.itemsselected use bylhe Engineer. for

208.3

CONSTRUCTIONREOUIRf,MENTS The contractorshall remove loose materialfrom the pot holes or from road depressions and shall also reshapethe holes and depression removing by firm material directedby the Engineer as and disposeall materialaccoiding to the instructionof the Engineer. The surface thus exposed shall be compactedin accordance with applicable requirement, reinstatement for of surfacethe Engineer shallselectitem of work as mentioned here under:

1) 2) 3) 4)
A\

subbase. Granular Aggregate basecourse. Water bound macadam. Asphalt basecourse. Surface treatment.

The Engineermay select one, or more than one of the items mentioned above to reinstatethe pot hole or depressionsin the road surface according to size and depthof the holeor depression.

208.4 208.4.1

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT Measurement The quantities be paid for shall be the number of square meter of pot to holes or road depressions, reinstatedin accordance with the requirementof thisitem. The material used for reinstatement the pot hole or road depression of shall be measured cubicmeteror tonesas applicable in under. item used. the

208.4.2

Pavment as measured, providedabove shall be paid for at The acceptedquantities the contractunit price per square meter of reinstatedsurface,as for the pay which price shall item listed below and as shown on the bill of quantities full compensation for excavation and disposal of material, constitute watering, rolling, labour, equipment,tools, and incidentalnecessaryto this item. complete base course,water used such as subbase,aggregate the material However or asphaltic base course shall be paid at the rates bound Macadam to applicable the item.

Pay ltem No.

Description

Unitof Measurement
SM

208

of Reinstatement RoadSurface

ITEM 209
209.1

SCARIFICATION OF EXISTING ROAD/BREAI<ING OF ROAD PAVEMENT STRUCTURE


DESCRIPTION Thisitemshallconsist scarification existing of of roadsurface breaking or of existing roadpavement structure ensurebondage new layerwith the to of existing roadpavement to ensure and drainage waterbelow surface of the of freshly aggregate laid base.The surface whichthe basematerial to be on is constructed be approved accepted the Engineer shall priorto placing and by the crushed stonebaseaggregate.

209.2

CONSTRUCTION REOUIREMENTS The methodof scarification road surface or breakingof pavement of structureshall propose-by the Contiacloi epprotedby the Engineer, b'e and in accordance therequirements with under conditions. site pavement Afterthe existing structure beenbroken the material has off, shall be removedand disposed outsidethe right of way, according the off to satisfaction the Engineer. of The surfaceobtainedafter scarification or pavement breaking existing the shallbe compacted the density prescribed to underitem 108.3.1. Payment suchcompaction of shallbe included the in price item209. contract for

209.3 209.3.r

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT Measurement Thequantity roadpavement for structure broken removed, be paidfor and to shall be measurement Cu. meter to a depth as shown in the in drawings/cross sectionsor as specified the Engineer by and in the area earmarked the Engineer suchpurpose. by for The quantity road pavement for struclure scarified, be paidfor shall be to measured Sq. meter as shown in the drawings/cross in sectionsor as specified the Engineer by and in the area earmarked the Engineer by for suchpurpose.

209.3.2

Payment

The quantities measured as aboveshallbe paidfor at the contract price unit per Cu. meterof breaking roadpavement of structure per Sq. meterof and scarification existing of roadpavement structure, carrying the works for out mentioned aboveincluding cost of labour, equipment, toolsand incidental necessary complete to theseitems. Payltem No. 209a 209b Description Unitof Measurement

Breaking Existing of RoadPavement Structure. Scarification Existinq of RoadPavement

CM SM

zfrp':1

IT[,i{ 210
2t0.1

PAVEMENT WIDENING
DESCRIPTION This work shall consist of the widening of the existing pavement and and with the specifications in work in accordance of finishing the completed with the lines,grades,thicknessof each pavementcomponent conformity shown on the plans or as directed by the and typical cross-sections Engineer.

210.2

MATERIALS Widening"shall conformto the of for Materials the construction "Pavement specifiedin relevantitems of Subbaseand Base course in requirements these specifications.

210.3

TRENCHING

The contractorshall excavate along the edge of the existing pavementfor or on the full depth and width as indicated the Drawings as directedby the with rollersand/or shall be compacted Engineer. The bottomof the trench by the Engineerto minimum ninetyfive (95) % of the tampers approved as maximumdry density per AASHTOT-191 method. lf the plansdo not call the for a specifictype of compaction, subgrade,subbaseor base shall be compacted by rolling with an approved type trench roller until the entire surface is smooth, firm and at the designated elevation. Adequate damageto the of provisions shallbe madefor drainage the trenchto prevent subgrade. Prior to placing any widening material,the trench shall be cleanedof all loose material. The edge of the existingpavementshall be before thoroughly cleaned. The trench must be approvedby the Engineer, to layersshall be compacted placingany widening material. All subsequent the degreeas shown under relevantitem of these specifications 210.4 SPECIAL PROVISIONSFOR HANDLING TRAFFIC on shall be permitted onlyone (1) side of the pavement Wideningoperations at a time and excavationof trenches shall be permittedonly sufficientlyin advance of other operations to ensure a continuityof the operations of placing and rolling. widening material, excavating, day and ntgnt. shall be placedalongopen trenches barricades Reflectorized and lights Lightingshall be placedat each barricadeat night. Barricades shall be approvedby the Engineer. The barricadesshall be placed at intervalsnot to exceed one hundred (100) meters or as directed by the Engineer. The Contractor shall make adequateprovisionto enabletrafficto cross open roads,streetsand privateentrances. trenchesat intersecting

214-1

Partial shoulderingshall be performed immediatelyafter completionof widening portions the Work in orderto eliminate hazard. of of the No separate payment will be made for handling traffic which will be considered subsidiary the item of "Pavement to Widening.',

2r0.5 210.5.1

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT Measurement "Pavement widening"shallbe measured the unit of cubicmeterand shall by includeall excavation, trimming,disposaland compaction subgradeand of subsequentlayersof subbaseand base course. The removalof edge kerb if exists,will not be paid for separatelybut wiil be considered subsidiary the itemof "Pavement to Widening,'. water, ordered by the Engineeror added with the consent of the Engineer, which is necessary to obtain satisfactory compaction of the foundation treatmentwill not be paid for separately, will be consideredsubsidiaryto but the item of "PavementWidening", No measurementwill be made of unauthorized areas or for extra width or thickness.

210.s.2

Pavment The amount of completed and accepted work, measured as provided above, will be paid for at the unit price bid in the Bill of euantities for "Pavement Widening,".which priceshall be full compensation furnishing for materials, such as subbase, base course and water etc., for all labour, equipment, tools, supplies, and all other items necessary for the proper completionof the Work

Pay ltem No.

Description

Unitof Measurement
CM

210

PavementWidening

210-2

ITEM 211
ztL.l

LIME STABILIZED AGGREGATE BASE COURSE


DESCRIPTION This work shall consist of performingall operationsin connectionwith AggregateBase Course"on the prepared of construction "Lime Stabilized in Subbase or Subgradesurface and all incidentals accordancewith the the linesand levelgrade,and typicalcrosswith in specifications conformity shownon the Plans. sections

zrt.2 2rr.2.l

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS
Coarse Aggregate

Coarse Aggregatesfor crushed Lime stabilizedBase Course shall be particles free composedof hard, tough, sound durablecrushedlimestone, and disintegrated material or other from thin and elongated, soft requirements. withthe following complying matters, objectionable Table-2fib CRUSHEDSTONE GRADING
SieveDesignation Inch mm Percent Passingbv Weight

37.5 25.O 12.5 4.75 0.425 0.075

1.1t2 1 1t2 No.4 No.40 No. 200

100 00 80-1 50-80 30-60 10-30 5-15

shallnotbe more passing mm (No.200Sieve) 0.075 of Thefraction material passing mm (No.40 Sieve). 0.425 than60%thefraction of in or of Crushing boulder rockshallbe regulated sucha way thatfraction No. 40 (0.425mm) sieveshallcontainat leastNinety retained aggregates (00) percent by weight of crushed particleshaving more than one faces. fractured mechanical by loss of crushedLime stone as determined AASHTO The Abrasion fortyfive(45)percent. shallnotexceed T96-74
2t1.2.2
Fine Aggregate

passingNo. 4 sieve shall consistof The fractionof crushedaggregates or free stonescreenings of loam,organic othermatter.

211-1

The material passing 0.42s mm (No. 40) sieve when prepared in accordance with AASHTOr 146-49and tested by appropriate methodsshall conformwiththe following requirement. Liquid Limit Plasticity Index

25%Maximum. 6 Maximum.

The calciumsulphate contentof the fractionretained sieveNo. 4 shallnot on exceedten (10) percent weight. by

211.3 zlt.3.l

CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS Equipment All equipment, toolsand machines used in the performance the work shall of be in goodworkingcondition and maintained allthe times. Blade graders,if used for spreading,the materialshall have adjustable bladesfor slopes. All sprinkling equipment shall be suitable applying for water uniformly and at controlledquantities variablewidth of surface. to Transport vehicles plantmix material carrying shallhave a capacity suitedto the outputof mixingplantand the site condition. Mixing plant shall be of approvedtype, coordinatedand operated so as to produce a mixturewithin requiredspecification limit and shall have sufficient capacity.

211.3.2

Construction Grade and alignment controlstakes shall be furnished, and maintained set by the contractorin order that work shall conform to the lines, grade and cross-section shownon the drawings. Materialshallbe placedand spreadevenlyusing mechanical spreader. The spreadershall be adjustable that width and thicknessof the spreadercan so be set to any dimensionrequired by the drawingsand for uniform and completecoverage. Aggregate shall be spread to loose thickness necessary to obtain the requiredcompactedthicknessof the layer. lmmediatelyafter spreadingand shaping operation,the mixture shall be thoroughlycompactedwith approved rollers.water shall be applied to the materials duringthe rollingoperation such amountas may be required in to obtain the specifieddensity. ln all the places not accessibieto the rolling equipment, the material shall be compacted thoroughly with approved mechanicalor hand tampers to density comparableto inat obtaihbd by

211-2

rolling.The surfaceof the final layer shall be finishedby bladingand the addition of water, until the surface is smooth and free from waves and irregularitiesand is true to grade and cross-section.Where the thickness twelve and half (12.5) centimeters,it shall be compacted in two exc-eeds layers of equal thickness except that if vibratory roller is used for t'he compaction, layerthicknessmay be increasedto maximumof twentyfive compactionis achieved. (25) centimetersprovidedthat satisfactory Each layer shall be compacteduntil the entire depth of course is at least 95% of density at optimum moisture content as determinedby AASHTO T 180-74. Compactionshall be completed as soon as possible after the has beenspread. material

2tr.3.3

Finish Thickness'and Completed oar" corr." ,n"tt o" testeJ ior tne required thickness and smoothness before acceptance.Any areas of the completed base course having compactedthicknessless than the thickness shown on the drawing, as or waies and irregularities specifiedin the relevant,"Table for Allowable Tolerances", in these specificationsShall be corrected by scarifying the and finishingas surface,addingapprovedmaterial,reshaping,recompacting patchingof an area without specifiedand is approvedby the Engineer.Skin scarifyingthe surfaceto permit proper bondingof added materialwill not be permitted.

2r1.3.4

Maintenance The completedbase course shall be maintainedin an acceptablecondition at all times until prime coat is applied. When the base course is to carry traffic for an indefinite length of time before receiving the surfacing or pavement,the contractorshall maintain the surface until final acceptance bnd shall preventravelingby wetting,blading,rollingand the additionof fines as may be requiredto keep the base tightlybound and leave.aslight excess of maierial over the entire surface,which must be removed and the finish of restoredbeforethe application prime coat.

211.4 2tt.4.r

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT Measurement The unit of measurementfor payment shall be in cubic meter of the completedand acceptedcrushed lime stone base course as measured in place. Measurementshall not include any area in excess of that shown on ihe drawings except the area authorized in writing by the Engineer. of Measurement lime used shall be the numberof metricTon consumedto stabilize base course. This quantity of lime used shall not exceed the in established the laboratory. theoreticalpercentage

211-3

2It.4.2

Pavment quantities crushedlimestone Measured of basecoursedetermined above as shall be paid for at the contractunit price per cubic meterfor particular item listedbelowand shownon the bill of quantities, which paymentshall be full compensation for furnishingall labour, material,tool, plant, equipment; handling,mixing, manipulating, placing,shaping, compacting'inituoing necessarywater for compaction,rolling, finishing;correcting unsuitable areas and unsatisfactory material; maintenanceincluding protectionof preparedbase courseand all incidentals necessary completion work for of exceptlime usedwhichshallbe paidseparately measured as above.

Pay ltem No.

Description

Unit of Measurement

211a

LimeStabilized Aggregate BaseCourse Lime

CM, Ton.

211b

211-4

ITEM 212
212.1

BITUMEN STABILIZED SUB-BASEOR BASE


DESCRIPTION This work shall consist of performingall operation in connectionwith in of construction bitumen stabilizedsubbaseor base and all incidentals and typicalcross-section withthe linesand level,grade,thickness conformity or shownon the drawings as directedby the Engineer.

2t2.2

MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS shall complywith any all plantis used for blending, ingredients lf stationary of the gradingcurve given in Table 1 whereasfor mix in place method,in as requirement per Table 2 for situ sand and gravelshall meet the gradation Base Gourse: Subbaseor bitumen stabilized on retained 4.75 mm (No. 4) sieveshall consistof tough, Coarseaggregate stone,organicmatterand free from decomposed hard and durableparticles substances. otherdeleterious Crushing of material shall be regulatedsuch that material retained on with at 4.7Smm(NO.4) sieve shall have 50% by weightof total aggregates fracturedfaces in case of bitumen stabilized least two (2) mechanically base, materialretainedon No. 4 subbasewhere as for bitumenstabilized with sieveshallhaveat leastNinety(90) percentby weightof total aggregate faces. fractured two (2) mechanically of retained sieve No. 4 shall have a percentage wear by Los on Aggregate Test as determinedby AASHTO T-96 not more than forty Angles Abrasion five (45) percent in case of base course material and fifty (50) percent in material. case of sub-base passing 0.075mm(No. 200) sieveshallnot be greaterthan 2/3 rd of Fraction the fractionpassingthe 0.425mm (No. 40) sieve. The fraction passing 0.425 mm (No. a0) shall have a liquid limit not greater than 25% and plasticity lndexnot greaterthat 6. drying,bitumen contain moisturethus necessitating lf mineralaggregates material shallbe of such naturethat it will not foam when heatedto hundred as and shall conformwith requirements and eighty(180)degreecentigrade shownin Table301.2. In dry areas,where natural moisturecontentof mineralaggregateis low requirements. with the following bitumenbindershallbe cut back conforming of Cut back shall meet the requirement MSHTO M 81-70 and M 82-73 for rapid and medium curing type respectively lt shall comply with the of requirements AASHTOT 49-74,T 50-69,T 78-74for the selectedgrade Alternatively bituminous the to suitthe cutbackas approvedby the Engineer. binder shall be asphalticcement of 80/100 penetrationin summer and in 1201150 winter;bitumenemulsionof 80/100penetration summer and in emulsionshall comply with in 150/180penetration winter. The bituminous with of the requirements AASHTO M 100-70and be tested in accordance AASHTOT 59-74, 21L1

Bitumen-Aggregatemixture for the grade of bitumen selected shall be ascertained trial mixesusingMarshal by Methodto determine amountby the weightof dry material, and using eitherheated or unheated aggregates as appropriate. TENTATIVE CRITERIAFORBITUMEN-AGGREGATE SUBBASE BASE / MATERTAL
Characteristic Subbase Base

MarshalStability (Min) (Min) Flow

250 Kg 2mm

400 Kg 2mm

TABLEJ SELECTED GRANULAR SUBBASE /BASEMATERIAL-GRADING.


SieveDesisnation mm Inch Percent Passingby weight Type-A Type-B Type-C

75 50 25 9.5 4.75 2.0 0.425 0.075

3 inch 2 inch 1 inch 118 inch No.4 N o .1 0 No.40 No.200

100 90 -100 55-90 35-65 25-55 20-40 10-25 3-10

100 70-100 50-80 40-65 30-50 15-25 3-1 0

't*
65-95 50-80 40-65 20-35 3-10

Tahle-J SAND - GRAVEL SUB BASE MATERIAL - GRADING


Sieve Designation Inch I

mm

Percent Passins bv Weisht

37.5 25.0 12.5 4.75 o.425 0.075

1.112 1 112 No.4 No.40 No. 200

Inch. lnch. Inch.

100 80-1 00 50-80 30-60 10-30 5-1 5

passing Fineaggregate 4.75mm (No.4 sieve)shallconsist sharp of natural sand, freefromorganic other or objectionable substances.

212.2

2t2.3

CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS of tools, machinesused in the performance work shall be in All equipment, and and be subjectto the approvalof the Engineer, good workingcondition at workingcondition all times. in shallbe maintained satisfactory bladefor slopesand shall be Bladegraderif used shall have an adjustable self propelled.

212.3.r

Mix in PlaceMethodof Construction may be adoptedwhere the use of low Mix in place methodof construction or vlscositybrnder CutbasK Bilumenemqisiqnarq foqnd suitqble, i,e. set controlstakesshall be furnished, and maintained Grade and alignment by the contractorin order that work shall conformto the line, grade and The stakesshallbe set in rowson and shownon the drawings. cross-section pavement and spacedso that stringline may be parallel the centerlineof to them. stretchedbetween spreaderor spreader All materialshall be placedevenlyusing mechanical box operated with a mechanismwhich levels off the surface to an even depth. on Mixingshall be accomplished one or more passesof the mixerthrough materialand shall be continueduntil the resultingmixture is entirely the uniform and of proper moisturecontent. Moisture content, if less than which shall be suitable equipment, required, shall be adjustedby sprinkling amount to variabledepth of and at controlled for applyingwater uniformly layer. material shall be correctedby removingand replacing Areas of segregated with satisfactory material or by re-mixing. When necessary to meet the approvedmaterialshall be spread in of requirement specified,additional shallbe and the added material such amountsas are foundto be necessary density. to uniformly spreadaddingwaterif required obtainthe specified

212.3.2

StationaryMixing Plant Method with plant methodof construction be used where stabilization will Stationary grade80/100is necessary. asphaltcementbinderof penetration and operatedso as to The mixing plant shall be designed,coordinated and shall have sufficient producemixturewithin requiredJob-Mix-Formula The plantshallbe weighbatchtype. capacity. plantmix material shall have a capacity suitedto carrying Transport vehicles the output of mixing plant and the site condition and be capable of Segregation material of shallbe avoided. discharging cleanly.

212.3

2t2.3.3

Compaction

lmmediately afterspreading, shapingto required level,crownand grade,the mixture shall be thoroughlycompactedwith rubber or pneumatictyred rollers. compaction shall continue until the entire depth and width of subbase/Base uniformly is compacted.Rollingshall begin at the low side and progresstowardsthe higher side overlappingeach precedingtrip until entire surface has been rolled. Alternatetrip of roller shall be of slighfly different length. Roller shall be in good working condition,capable of reversing withoutbacklash and shallbe operated skilledoperator. by compactionshallbe checkedon stabilizedlayerin accordance with ASTMD 915-61 (1973).The bulk densityof the mixture shail not be tess than ninetyeight (98) % of the laboratory bulk density.Deficient pavementshall be removedand replaced with satisfactory material.

2r2.3.4

Tolerance Tolerancein the compactedlayer shall be as specifiedin the relevant, "Tablefor Allowable Tolerances" thesespecifications. in

212.3.s

Curingand Maintenance After compaction,the stabilized subbase/Base shall be protected against damage and maintained an acceptable in condition all times prior io the at construction subsequent of courses. No vehicular trafficshall be allowedto pass on the stabilized surfacefor a minimumperiodof two (2) days.

212.3.6

WeatherLimitations Layingof bitumenstabilized base/subbase shallbe avoided when air temp is fo_ur degreescentigrade belowor when whetheris rainyor foggy.placing or of mixture shallalso be avoidedwhen surfaceis wet or on any surfacewhich is frozen or coveredwith ice or snow.

212.4 212.4.r

MEASUREMENTOFPAYMENT Measurement The unit of measurementfor payment shall be cubic meter for the compacted and accepted bitumen stabilized subbase/basecourse as measuredin place.Measurement shallnot includeany area exceptthe area authorized writingby the Engineer.Measurement bitumenbinderused in of shall be the numberof metricTon usedto stabilize sub base or basecourse. The quantityof bitumenused shall not exceed the theoretical percentage established the laboratory. in

212-4

212.4.2

Payment as determined aboveshallbe quantity stabilized Subbase/Base of Measured items listed price per cubic meter for particular paid for at the contractunit and shown on the bill of quantities,which payment shall be full below compensationfor furnishingof labour, material, tool, plant, equipment, placing, shaping, compacting,rolling, handling, mixing, manrpulating, finishing, correcting unsuitable areas and unsatisfactory material, maintenance including protection of stabilized Subbase/Baseand all of for necessary the completion work exceptbitumenconsumed incidentals paidseparately measured above. as whichshallbe

Pay ltem No.

Description

Unit of Measurement

212a 212b 212c

Stabilized Bitumen Subbase. Bitumen Stabilized BaseCourse. Bitumen Binder.

CM

CM Ton

212-5

ITEM 2T3

COLD RECYCLING OF ROAD PAVEMENT STRUCTURE/S OIL STABILIZATION.

213.1

DESCRIPTION This item shail consist of breaking, removar, mixing, reraying and compactionof rayers of surface, base and subbase coirs" in a singre operation ln this operation, addition water or binderwill also be requi6d of to add strength the mix. to

2t3.2

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS No fresh materialis to be used as far as quarry materialsare coneerned. Howeverin order to achreveproper strengthof ihe relayed materiat; water, cement or bitumen binder may be requiredto be adled. specification requirements theseingredients of shallbe same as described under relative items of work. cement and bitumenbinderof followingnomenclature shall be used. i) ii) porflandcement(Type_l) Ordinary Emutsified asphatt (RS-1, RS_2, SS_1, SS-1h)

213.3 213.3.r

CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS Equipment Equipment utilized this item of work shail ensurefollowingactivities for in a singleoperation:
t)

Breaking layersin full depthin singleoperation. of Pulverizingand mixing of different types of materials to give homogeneous mix. Mixingof wateror bitumenbinderin the total mass. Layingof treated materialin smooth layer,keepingthe grade and lineas per design.

ii)

iii) iv)

213.3.2

Cold Recvclinsof Asphalt a. Milling Process This work shall be carried out by specialized equipment designed to break

and pulverize asphaltic the layerin a manner that'maximu,ii.e of broken material reduces basic to sizeof aggregates. Asphaltic material lumps shall be reduced a maximum of fifteen mm. to size (15) 213_1

b. Additives Asphalt)shall be added to the mix through a Bitumenbinder (Emulsified the and measuring unit for selecting controlled electronically computerised, shall be added with pump binderand additives reouiredamount. Bitumen by of system. Quantity bitumenbindershallbe controlled and spray/injection programmable micro processorswith respect to forward speed, milling of widthand density material. milling depth, c. Mixing and Lavins shall be mixedin a forcedmixer to make the and additives Milledmaterials homogeneous. Materialthus preparedshall be relayed mass completely pavingscreeds. Paving throgghpav]ngblgckhavlnglamqng and vibrating and shapingthe to piovidd initialcbmpaetion sCieedsshould be designed gradeand profile' givethe required to surface d. Compaction Initial compactionshall be providedwith paving screeds, however final rolling equipment compaction shall be carried out with conVentional the considering type of materialand thicknessof approvedby the Engineer shall be checkedafter completion final compaction layer. However recycled by of iolling as determined AASHTO T-230 methodand shall not be less density. of than ninetyseven(97) percent the Marshall e. General in Totalwidthof roadasphaltshallbe recycled a numberof strips,depending and widthof road. Howeverall longitudinal equipment on width of recycling jointsshallbe properly workedup to ensuresmoothridingquality. and lateral 2t3.4 SOIL STABILIZATION a. Milling Process equipment designedto break This work shall be carriedout by specialized layersand base and subbasecoursesto a depth of asphaltic and pulverize maximumthree hundred(300) mm in a singleoperation. Breakingand to of pulverizing shal!ensurereduction bindingmaterial reduceto a size of on or bO mm (maximum) to a smallersize depending the thicknessof layer. relayed the In case cementis to be used for improving strengthof relayedmix, the and spread over the pavementstructurebefore same shall be calculated starts. milling

213-2

b. Additives water shall be added to the mix through a computerized, electronically controlled unit for selecting and measuring requiredamount,water shall the be added with pump and spray/injection system. Quantityof water shall be controlledby programmable micro processorwith respectto forward speed, millingdepth,milling widthand densityof materials. c. Mixine and Layine Milledmaterials and additives shall be mixed in a forced mixerto make the mass completely homogeneous. Materialthus preparedshall be relayed through paving block havingtamping and vibratingpaving screed. paving screedsshould be designqd!o provideinltialqompaetion and shapingthe atrftde to gite the iequiieOgrade and profite. d. Compaction Initial compactionshall be providedwith paving screeds, however final compaction shall be carried out with conventionalrolling equipment approvedby the Engineer considering type ol materialand thicknessof the recycledlayer. However final compaction shall be checkedafter completion of rollingas determined AASHTO r-230 method and shall not be less by than NinetyFive (95)percentof the modified proctordensity. e. General Totalwidthof roadasphaltshallbe recycled a numberof strips,depending in on width of recycling equipment and width of road. Howeverall longitudinal jointsshallbe properly and lateral workedup to ensuresmoothridingquality. 213.5 213.5.1 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT Measurement The quantityof cold recyclingor soil stabilization be paid for shall be to measuredby the theoretical volume recycledas shown on the drawingsor as directedby the Engineer, completedin place as per procedure detailed above. No allowanceshall be given to material laid outside approved theoretical limits. Measurement bitumen binder shall be made in tons deliveredto the for equipment work minusthe balance in the equipment. for left Measurement cement shall be made equal to the number of tons of for cementdelivered and laidoverthe pavement mannerdescribed in above.

213_3

2r3.5.2

Payment The acceptedquantities measuredas providedabove, shall be paid for at the contractunit price for each of the particularpay item listed below,which price and payment shall constitute full compensation for furnishing all materials, labour, equipments, toolsand incidentals complete item. to the

Pay ltem No.

Description

Unit of Measurement

213a zl3n 213c


213d

Coldrecycling Asphaltic of layer SoilSta6iii2ation (Asphaltic Bitumen Binder Emulsion)

CM

CM
Ton

CementBinder(O.P.C- Type-l) Ton

213-4

TTEIM2I4
2t4.1

ASPHALTIC CONCRETEBINDER COURSE


DESCRIPTION This work shall consist of furnishingand mixing aggregatesand asphalt binderat a centralmixingplant,transporting, spreading and compacting the mixtureon a preparedbase in accordance with these specifications to and the lines,gradesand typicalpavementsectionsshown on the Drawingsor as directed the Engineer. by

214.2 214.2.1

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS.
Aggregates.

coarse and fine aggregates shallbe clean,hard,tough,sound particles fr"ee from decomposed material, vegetable matter and other deleterious substances,and be of uniform quality,geology and petrology.Water borne materialsuch as river bed gravel,if used, shall also conformto the above criteria. Coarse aggregate,which is material retainedon the No. 4 sieve, shall consistof crushedrock, crushedgravelor a mixtureof naturaland crushed gravel.The aggregate shall containnot more than 8% by weight of flats/or particles elongated (ratiomaximumto minimum5:1) and shallcontain100% angularmaterial,such that all faces of each piece are fracturedfaces in cuboid shape. Fine aggregate, which is materialpassingthe No. 4 sieve shall consist of 100%crushedmaterialfrom rock or boulder. natural No sand will be allowed in the mix. when the combined gradingof the coarseand fine aggregates deficient is in materialpassingthe No. 200 sieve,additional filler materialshall be added. The filler materialshall consist of finely dividedrock crust, hydratedlime, hydraulic cementor other suitablemineralmatterand shall conformto the gradation: following
US Standard Percent Passingby Weisht

---!&ye_No.30 No.50 No.200

100 95-'100 70-1 00

TheCoarse fineaggregates meetthefollowing and shall requirements: a) The percentage wear by the LosAngles of Abrasion (AASHTO test T 96)shall be more not than40%. b) The losswhensubject fivecycles the sodiumsulphate to of soundness test(AASHTO 140)shallbe lessthan12%. T
214-1

(AASHTOT-176) determinedafter all processing c) The Sand Equivalent for addition asphaltcementshouldnot be lessthan45. of except d) All aggregatesshall have a liquid limit of not more than 25% and a by Indexof not more than 4 as determined AASHTOT-89 and Plasticity T-90. retainedon the 9.5 mm (3/8 inch) sieve shall e) The portionof aggregate not contain more than 15 percent by weight of flat and/or elongated =2.5:1). particles dimensions (ratioof maximumto minimum 214.2.2 AsphalticMaterial to Asphalticbinderto be mixed with the aggregate produceasphalticbase grade40-50,or 60-70 or 80-100,as shall be as asphaltcementpenetration of it Generally will meet the requirement AASHTO by specified the Engineer. M-20. 2t4.2.3 Binder CourseMixture. AsphaltConcrete concretepavingmixturefor bindercourse of The composition the asphaltic table: shallconformto classshownin the following
Table No. I Combined Aggregate Grading Requirements Sieve Designation Inch mm Percent Passingby Weisht

25 19 9.5 4.75 2.38 0.30 0.075

4 I

3t4 3/B No.4 No.8 No.50 No.200

100 90-1 00 56-80 35-65 23-49 5-19 2-8


3.5 (minimum)

Asphalt Content Weight Percent of total mix.

coursemixture shallmeetthe following concrete binder The asphalt Criteria: MarshalTest number blowseachend of Compaction,
of Specimen (Minimum) Stability mm (0.01") Flow,0.25 Percentair voidsin mix. voidsin mineral aggregate Percent 75 1000Kg. 8-14 4-8 according to article 5.3, MS-2, (Asphalt InstituteUSA) edition 1993 25% (Max.) 1-1.5 (applicableto oC. hot climate(> 40

Lossof stability ratio Filler/Bitumen

214-2

214.2.4

Combined Ageregates Gradation. Retained 4 No. PassingNo. 4 to No. 100 sieves Passing 200 No.
Asphalt Content. Weight percent of total mix.

r ; ;

7.0% 4.0% 1.0%

0.3%

shoulda change sources materials madea new Job Mix Formula of of be shallbe established before new material used.when unsatisfactory the is results other or conditions madeit necessary,newJob MixFormula be a will reouired.
214.2.5 Job-lVlix l'ormula. At least one week prior to production, Job-Mix Formula (JMF) for the a asphaltic concrete course mixture or mixtures to be used ror tne project, jointlyby the Engineer shallbe established and the Contractor. The JMF shallbe established Marshal by Method.of Mix Designaccording to prescribed the AsphaltInstitute the procedure in ManualserJesNo. 2 (MS2), May 1992Edition. The JMF, with the allowabletolerances, shall be within the master range specifiedin Table No. 1. Each JMF shall indicatea single percentage of aggregatepassing each requiredsieve size and a single percentageof bitumen be addedto the aggregates. to After the JMF is established,all mixtures furnished for the project represented samplestaken from the asphaltplantduringoperation, by shall conform thereto with the tolerances as per clause zlq.z.q of these specifications. 214.3 CONSTRUCTION REOUIREMENTS. construction requirementsfor this item shall conform with the same construction requirements specifiedfor Asphalticconcrete Base course PlantMix underltem 203.3,exceptas modified the following in sub-items.

214.3.r

PreDaration BaseCourseSurface. of Before spreadingmaterialsthe surface of the previously constructed and acceptedbase courseon which the mix is to be placedshall be conditioned by application a tack/orprimecoat,as directed the Engineer of by

2r1.3.2

Pavement Thickness Tolerances. and The asphaltconcretebindercourseshall be compacted the desiredlevel to and crossslopeas shownon the drawings as directedby the Engineer. or

214-3

thicknessof the bindercourse shall be + 10 in The tolerances compacted percent from the desired thickness shown on the drawings. For of determination the thickness,one (1) core per hundredmeters of each by is so lanewill be taken.lf the thickness determined deficient more than + shalldecidewhetherto acceptthe deficitthickness the 10 percent, Engineer or to directreconstruction. usingat 3The surface of the bindercourseshallbe testedby the Engineer locations.The variationof the surface from meter straightedge at selected betweenany two contacts,longitudinal the testingedge of the straightedge The cross with the surfaceshall at no point + 5.0 millimeters. or transverse and the level at fall (camber)shall be within+ 0.2 percentof that specified, the exceeding All any pointshall be withindrawings. humps or depressions works and shall be correctedby removingthe defective tolerance specified or by it replacing with new material, overlaying, by other means satisfactory to the Engineer. 2t4.4 2t4.4.r MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT. Measurement bindercourseshall be measuredper cubic meter of The quantities asphaltic basis. of The quantity asphalticmaterialused is includedin the asphaltconcrete separately. mixtureand will not be measured of on wastedor remaining hand after completion of Quantities liquidasphalt, or the work,shallnot be measured paidfor. 214.4.2 Pavment The quantitiesdetermined,as providedabove, shall be paid for at the contract unit price respectivelyfor each of the particular pay item listed which pricesand paymentshall belowand shown in the Bill of Quantities, for all the costs necessaryfor the proper constitutefull compensation in of completion the work prescribed this item:

Pay ltem No.

Description

Unitof Measurement
CM

214

Concrete Asphaltic Binder Course.

214-4

ITEM 215
215.1

GEOTEXTILES
DESCRIPTION The work covered by this section shall consist in furnishingall material, labour,equipment and placing Geotextiles prepared of on surfices complete in accordance with the specifications for the work items involved. in thicknesses and to the dimensions shown on the typicalcross-sections of applicabledrawingsor as directedby the Engineer.

2r5.2

GEOTEXTILE FUNCTIONS where indicated the drawings directedby the Engineer, on or Geotextile will be placedto performone or more of the followingfunctions. . one road foundationfor the purpose of separation between road fill malerial and soft underlyingsoils in order to eliminate the need for removalof poor subsoilmaterialand quick and effectivedrainageof soil_ fill interface. For subgrade stabilizationand increasing soil shear strength by providing bonding mechanism the Geotextile soil system. of As a filter for all drainagesystems where a danger of clogging by fine particles of adjacent soil is possible. The geotextile wilf relain tne particles from passing whilst allowing the seepage water to' pass through. As a filter elementfor all bodiesof water where the soil can be erodedby current,wave actionor changingwater levels. For.permanent proteclion synthetic of sealingsystems(Geomembranes) againstmechanical damageduring installation and afier completion o'f construction.

215.3 215.3.r

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS Composition Environmental and Behaviour I|" l?* materialof geotextileshalt be UttraViolet stabilizedpolypropylene. The fibers shall consist of continuousfilaments of approximaiely micron 40 diameter and mechanically bondedby needling. The geotextile material shall be resistant acid and alkalinemedia in the pH raige2 to 13, resistant to to lime, cement and concrete, resistant all naturally to occurringbacteriaand fungi. A prolongedout side exposureof several mohths shall-haveno effect on the propertiesof Geotextile.

215-1

2r5.3.2

and HvdraulicProperties Mechanical . . . To ensure free drainage, the geotextile shall have high water permeabilitY. for capability almostalltypesof soils. shallofferhigh retention Geotextile evenwith low behaviour shallhave optimumstress-strain The geotextile damage. againstinstallation unitweightfor high resistance

215.4 2I5.4.1

CTION REQUIREMENTS CONSTRU PreDaration The surface shall be fairly leveledbefore placementof Geotextile.lt is to be ensured that there are no protrudingStones which may damage the TaDnc. oeotextrle

215.4.2

Placement Geotextile surfacein a on shallbe rolledout directly top of the prepared The Geotextile lt by manneras recommended the manufacturer. shall be over lappedat the by or edgesas shownon the drawings as recommended the manufacturer.

215.4.3

of Placement fill Traffic shall be appliedby overheadplacement. The first layerof fill material shall be on the geotextileitself shall be avoided.Necessaryprecautions shallnot be damagedduringplacement' to observed ensurethat geotextile

2t5.4.4

Spreading Spreading of fill material shall be done with suitable equipment and must not be dqmagedby high axle load pioceOure ensuringthat geotextile on traveling sharpfill over the geotextile' equipment stressesof spreading

215.4.5

Compaction shall be suited to subgrade/fill The compacting method (Static/Dynamic) material.

215.4.6

Panels Jointilg of Geotextile weldingor sewingas shown joint shallbe achieved overlapping, by A tension by or on drawings approved the Engineer. i) Overlanning width shall not be less 30 cm on even surfaceand 50 cm on Overlapprng the geotextileduring backfill In uneven'surface. order to avoid displacing the panel must be placedunderneath over end paneljoints,the connecting rolledout geotextile. end cf the previously

u5a

ii) Weldins welding widthshallnot be lessthan 1o cm. A wide pattern gas torch shallbe used at a low temperature and about20 cm from the geotextile. The welded geotextile sectionshallbe continuously pressed down by walkingon it during placement. iii) Sewine The stitching methodshall be singlethread,doublethreador butterfly type suitable to geotextilethread type and strength. The thread shall be sufficiently tightened and stitchdensityshallbe threeto six stitches per inch. 215.5 GEOTEXTILE FUNCTION FOR REPAVING This section deals geotextilesplaced between old pavement and new asphaltoverlay, alongwith suitable tack coat of bitumen. where indicated on drawingsor directed by the Engineer,geotextilewill be plaeedto perform one or moreof the following functions. . To ensure proper adhesion between old pavementand new asphalt overlay & thus reducing the over all flexural tensile stresses and increasing of road surface. life As a cut off layer for the prevention of propagationof cracks in the pavement. As water barrier,even under high pressureto stop reflectivecracking in the pavements.

. .

215.5.1

Construction Requirements . . . . Removalof dirt, dust and vegetation from wearingsurfaceand cracks. Fillingpotholes and larger cracks (>Smm)with hot mix or an adequate filler. Removal sharpor craggyedgeson surface. of On badlydamagedroads,a levelcourseof approx.1,5 cm shallbe laid to avoid the labour intensiveand time consumingoperation of crack filling.

215.5.2

Applvins the tack coat Depending the condition the old surface,a calculated on of amount of tack coat (Q$ of 1.1 kglm2active binder is to be sprayed evenly on the -approx. prepared surfacebeforelayinggeotextile, makingsurethat:_ o The bitumenis appliedbeyondthe width of the geotextile by about 5 cm on eitherside. ' The spraying temperature pure bitumenis kept between150 oC and for 170oC achievea coatingas even as possible. to

215-3

to the When usingbitumenemulsion, coatingamountis adjusted contain amountof bitumen. average the required
a

felt to is The coating onlyapplied areaswherethe paving is to be laid. pre-spray agentis appliedon top of the pavingfelt. No additional for Where only sections the road are coveredwith the pavingfelts,their must be gritted. surfaces

215.5.3

Laying Geotextile that; takinginto account shallbe laidby hand or machine Geotextile . . . . . When using pure bitumen as tack coat, Geotextile may be [aid aftercoating. immediately When using bitumenemulsions,Geotextileshall not be laid until the has cured. emulsion Wrinklesshallbe avoided. and across overlap by 5-10 cm, an additionalpure Edges lengthways seams' bitumenbinderoi 0.9 tg/mt shallbe appliedon the overlapping to is overlapping to be carriedout with reference the direction Transverse the asphaltfinisherwill proceedi.e. underthe previousone so in which that the felt does not shift out of place when the asphaltconcreteis applied. When one half of the road is made (leavingthe other open to traffic), at to felt least 25cm of the lengthways edge shall remainuncovered allow the when laying otherhalf of the road. overlapping During short time stoppages of constructionwork, the road under shall be opened only to slow traffic without detrimentto construction Geotextile. Rain water on the Geotextilesurfaceshall be allowedto evaporatebefore a applying top layer.

. 2t5.5.4

surface Applyingthe asphaltconcrete after laying The asphaltconcretesurfacingshall be appliedimmediately pointsinto takingthe following preferably crawlertype finisher, by Geotextile consideration. 145oCand 165oC between mix shallhave a temperature The material To avoid types of the finisher or truck stickingto the felt (which can happenin hot climatesor where too much tack coat has been applied)' of in some of the mix can be spreadmanually the pathway the vehicles.

215-4

215.6

GEOTEXTILE TESTING Geotextilestesting shall be in accordancewith following standard test methods. . Weight ASTM D-3776 . Thickness tso 9863 . CBR Puncture Resistance Test BS 6906/4 . StripTensileTest ASTM D-4595 . Grab TensileTest ASTM D-1682 . Tear Strength Test ASTM D-1117 . Penetration Resistance Test (DropTest) NT Build243 . VerticalPermeability BSE90613 . PoreSize E DtN 60500/6 Based on the requiredfunctionsand the type of stresses,the contractor shall proposethe type of Geotextile. The contractorshall furnishtechnical literature and Manufacturer's Certificate of Guarantee for the type of geotextile material approval Engineer for priorto delivering material of the to the site.The certificate shall note compliance the specifications shall to and state the resultsof the tests performed the material,as requiredby the on specifications. Contractor The shall,when directedby the Engineer, havethe Geotextile material testedfor conformance the applicable to specifications at an approved testing laboratory. All costs connected with certificate of Guaranteeand any subsequent qualitytestingshall be at the contractor's expense.

215.7

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT Measurement The quantityof Geotextilemeasuredto be paid shall be the number of square meters of work completedin accordance with requirement this of item and the limiting dimensions shallnot exceedthan thoseshownon the drawings fixed by the Engineer. or Measurement shall only be made of area covered withoutconsidering overlap. any

215.7.1

215-5

215.7.2

Pavment The accepted quantity measured as provided above sfrall be paid at the contract unit price per square meter of Geotextilelaid for the pay item as listed below in the BOQ which price and payment shall constitutefull labour,equipmentand placingof for all compensation furnishing materials, geotextile.

Pay ltem No.

Description

Unit of Measurement

215

Providing and Placing of Geotextile, type------

S.M.

215-6

TTEM216

SOLING STONE

216.1

DESCRIPTION This item shall consistof layingof solingstone, handpacked a surface on (subgrade)preparedearlier and all interstices filled with sand or similar approvedmaterials provideproper bondingof all the stones with each to other.

216.2

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS Thematerialfor solingshAllbe iouhd and d0iableioCk,pioperlyshapedor bouldersof maximumsize 15-20cm. The filler materialtofill the interstices shall be coarse sand or rock dust or any other materialapprovedby the Engineer.Materialshall be cohesionless and clean to allow its free flow down to the bottomof solingarea.

216.3 216.3.1

CONSTRUCTION QUIREMENT Rf, The subgradeto receivethe soilingstone shall be preparedunder relative item of the work. Placinsof SolineStone The solingstoneshall be placedfrom outer edges of the road and finishing at the crown of the road in such a way that all stones are properly handpacked and keyedwith the surrounding stones.lt shallbe ensuredthat the maximumdimension kept in verticalposition is ensuring variation the of the size of the stone does not exceed+ 1" of soecified thicknessof solino stone: The filler material shall be dry and in free flow condition when placedover the soling stone. The filler materialshall be kept addingwhile the soling stones are rolledunder a 6 tons roller.The additionof filler materialshall continue the area does not absorbmore material till and it is ensuredthat all interstices are fully filled.The area will than be watered and kept under rolling achieve smoothsurface. to a

2t6.3.2

216.3 216.3.1

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT Measurement The areato be measured shallbe boundby the linesshownon the drawings whereasthe normalthickness shall be that which is described BOQ. The in measurement shallbe madein CM.

216-1

216.3.2

Pavment The quantities determined as provided above shall be paid for at the contract unit price for cubic meter which price and payment shall be full compensation all cost of materials, for manpowerand equipments involved in the propercompletion work. of Pay ltem No. 216

Description

Unitof Measurement
CM

Layingof SolingStone

216-2

rl-Ev.{2t7
217.1

INTERLOCKING CONCRETE PAVING BLOCKS


DESCRIPTION The work shall consistof precastconcretepaving blocks intendedfor the construction low speedroads,parking of areas,lay byes,industrial and other paved surfacessubjectedto all categories static and vehicularloading of and pedestriantraffic. Paving blocks covered by these Specificationsare designed to form a structural element and the surfacing of pavements, havingthe blockto blockjointsfilled,so as to developfrictional interlock and placed in conformity with the lines, grades,thicknesses and typicalcrosssectionshownon the drawings as directed the Engineer. or by

217.2

MAT4RIAL REOUIREMENTS For execution this item provisions of made in BS 6717 shall be applicable. Detailed requirement materials of and construction shallbe as under:

217.2.1

Bindersand Binder Constituents Pavingblocksshall be made using one or more of the followingbindersor binder constituentscomplying with the requirementsof the relevant standards:

Ordinary Portland Cement Portland Blastfurnace Cement Portland Pulverized ashCement Fuel Pulverized ash fuel granulated furnace Ground Blast slag

B S1 2 B S 1 4 6: P a r l 2 BS6588 BS3892: Part1 BS6699

Wherepulverized ash is used,the proportions properties the fuel and of combination Portland with Cement shallcomply withBS6588. granulated Whereground blastfurnace is used,the proportions slag and properties the combination Portland of with Cement shallcomply with BS 146:Part2.
217.2.2 Aggregates Pavingblocksshall be made usingone or more of the following aggregates complying withthe relevant standards: Natural (Crushed Aggregates or Uncrushed) Air Cooledblastfurnace slao Pulverized fuel ash Groundgranulated blastfurnace slag

grading BSBB2 1983(except : requirementsclause in 5) BS 1047:1083 (except grading requirements4.8) in BS 3892: Part-1 Part-2 or BS6699

217-1

217.2.2.1

Material (FineAssresatel Acid Soluble (material in When testedas described BS 812 : Part 119,the fine aggregate more than with BS 410) shall contain.not paising a 5 mm sieve complying or in lSy" Oi mass of acid solublemaierialeither in the fractionretainedon, the fractionpassing,a 600 p m sieve.

217.2.3

Water with the The water shall be of drinking quality or in accordance 3148 : 1980' A of recommendations appendix of BS

217.2.4

ADMXTURES AND PIGMENTS proprietaryaccelerating, retardingand water reducing agents shall comply wlth BS 5075 : Part 1, shallcomplywith BS 1014. Pigments shallcomplywith BS 3587 Calciumchloride

t111<

FINISHES and the The finishshouldbe agreedbetween manufacturer the Engineer' concrete describedas "naturalcolout''shall containno pigment. pavingblocksthe surfacelayer shall.beformedas an integral In composite parl of ine ntobf and shallbe not lessthan 5 mm thick'

2t7.2.6

BINDER CONTENT The cement content of the compactedconcrete shall be not less than 380 pavingblocks made with binderconstituents durability, fglm5. For equivalent than oiner tnan ordinaryPortlandc'ementshall have a higher binder-content PortlandCement. The paving blocks mide in a similar way using only Enginler wilt decidethe additionalbindercontent.The compressivestrength binderneeded. tesi will be the onlyguideto the amountof additional

217.2.7 2t7.2.7.1

SIZES AND TOLERANCES Sizes mm' Paving blocks shall have a work size thicknessof not less than 60 size lengthof 200 mm and a with a work fype-F blocksshall be rectangular work sizewidth of 100 mm. Type-S blocks shall be of any shape fittingwithin a2g5mmSquarecoordinatingSpaceandsha||haveaworksizewidthnot lessthan B0 mm. are work sizethicknesses 60 mm, 65 mm, 80 mm & 100 mm' The preferred A chamferaroundthe wearingsurfacewith a work size not exceeding7 mm in width or depth shall be permitted. All arisesshallbe of uniformshape'

217-2

217.2.7.2

Tolerances The maximumdimensional deviations from the statedwork sizesfor paving blocksshall be as follows: length width thickness

1 2mm t 2mm + 3mm

where a pavingblockincludes profiled sides,the profileshallnot deviate fromthe manufacturer's specification morethan2 mm. by
2r7.2.8 COMPRESSTVE STRENGTH The compressivestrengthof pavingblocks shall be not less than 49 N/mm2 and the crushingstrengthof any individual block shall be not less than 40 N/mm', 217.2.9 SAMPLING The following sampling procedure shall be used for the compressrve strength test. a) Beforelayingpavingblocks,divideeach designated section, comprising not more than 5000 blocks,in a consignment into eight approximately equalgroups,clearlymark all samplesat the time of sampling such i in way that the designated sectionor part thereof and the consignment represented the sampleare clearlydefined. by Take two (2) blocksfrom each group. b) Dispatchthe sample to the test laboratory,taking precautionsto avoid damage to the paving blocks in transit. Each sample shall be accompaniedby a certificatefrom the person responsible taking the for sample,statingthat samplingwas carriedout in accordance witn tnis Partof BS 6717. c) Protectthe paving blocks from damage and contamination until they have been tested.carry out any tests as soon as possibleafter the samplehas beentaken. 217.2.10 MARIqNG The followingparticulars relating pavingblocksmade in accordance to with this standard shall be indicated clearly on the delivery note invoice, manufacturer'sor supplier's certificateor brochure suiplied with the consignment blocks: of a) The name, trade mark or other means of identification of the manufacturer. b) The number and date of this Britishstandard, i.e. BS 6717 : part 1 : 1986*;or latestrevision.

217-3

217.3 217.3.1

CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS Blocks Layine the Concrete The total area to be coveredwith pavingblock shall be preparedby: a) Compaction subgrade of b) Layingof subbasein a thickness specified c) Layingof crushedaggregate base or lean concretein thicknessas per typicalsection

217.3.2

Tolerance Toleranceof these layers shall be as per applicablerequirement each of item of this specifications. Payment each of the aboveitem shallbe made underthe relative for item of work. The total area will therebybe dividewith nylon strings into sectorsof not more than 1.5 squaremeters.This shall be done to controlthe alignment of paving blocks and to avoid multiplication deviationin sizes of paving of blocks.

217.4 217.4.r

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT Measurement The area to be measured shall be boundby linesshown on the drawings or as directedby the Engineer.Unit of measurement shall be square meter plane. measured horizontal in

2t7.4.2

Pavment The qualitydetermined provided as aboveshall be paid for the unit priceof contractfor each square meter of paving block installedincludingsand cushion and sand filling in joints and all other work relatedfor installing paving blocks. Cost shall includeall labour,materialsand equipmentfor propercompletionof work.

Pay ltem No.

Description

Unitof Measurement
SM

217a 217b 217c

Installation paving of blocks 60 mmthick Installation paving of blocks 80 mmthick lnstallation paving of blocks 100mmthick
217-4

SM

SM

SURFACECOURSES ANI) PAVEMENT

SURFAGEGOURSESAND PAVEMENT
TTEM 3OO
GENERAL

for and procedures executionof This sectiondescribesthe requirements to surfacecoursesand pavements.The materials be used shall conformto and testing proceduresas per AmericanAssociationof State specifications Official (AASHTO)or the American Societyfor Highwayand Transportation (ASTM)as indicated their latesteditions.Samplesof in Testingand Material approvals shall be utilized for testsand theirsubsequent materials laboratory directed the Engineer. by unlessotherwise to according thesereferences Matefialsw!!qh dq 1ot confolm !o lhe requirementsof these specifications wnetneiin titae or not. ihef straifbe removedimmediately will be rejected from the site of the work at the expense of contractor. While a are and subgrade/subbase pavingoperations in progress, detourshall be and provided vehicular for flow in order to avoid any publicinconvenience thoroughlybe maintainedtill completionof that particularsection of the project or as a whole. In order to expedite the passage of public traffic shall installroad signs,warning throughor aroundthe work, the contractor and for and other facilities the safety,convenience lights,flares,barricades direction of public traffic. Also where directed by the Engineer, the flagmenwhosesole dutiesshallconsistof competent shallfurnish contractor the movementof publictrafficthroughor around the work. The directing flaresbarricades of lights, and installation such road-signs, cost of furnishing in work item. Shouldthe shallbe included the respective and otherfacilities, pointout the inadequacy warningand protective measures, and of Engineer measures,such actionon the part of the Engineershall requireadditional for not relievethe contractorfrom responsibility publicsafety or abrogatehis to obligation furnishand payfor theseservices.

300-1

ITEM 301

ASPHALTIC MATERIALS
ASPHALT CEMENT Asphaltcement shallbe an oil asphalt,or a mixtureof refinedliquidasphalt and refinedsolidasphalt,prepared from crude asphaltic petroleum. lt shall be free from admixture with any residuesobtainedby the artificial distillation of coal, coal tar, or paraffin and shall be homogeneous and free from water. No emulsification shalloccurwhen a thirty(30) gram sampleis boiledfor two (2) hourswith two hundred and fifty(250)cubiccentimeters distilled of water in a five hundred(500)cubic centimeters Edenmeyer flask equipped with a refluxcondenser. Asphalt cement shall be classifiedby penetrationand when tested in accordancewith the standardmethods of tests of the AASHTO,the grades of asphaltsshallconformto the requirements setforth in Table got-2. rne grade of asphaltto be used shall be in accordance with these specifications or the SpecialProvisions as directedby the Engineer. or

30r.t

301.2

EI{VIRONMENTAL FACTORS In areas where highlyfrost susceptible soils and severe low temperature conditionsare encountered, may be necessaryto removeand replacesoils it susceptibleto frost heave or take other precautionsprior to pavement construction. extremely climates, In hot asphaltmixesshouldbe designed to resistruttingand maintain stiffness hightemperatures. at Becauseasphaltmixtures are influenced temperature, is recommended by it that different asphaltgradesbe used where different temperature conditions prevail. Table below gives recommended asphalt grades for various temperature conditions.
SELECTING ASPHALT GRADE

Temperature Condition
Cold,mean annualair temperature < 7 degreeC (45 degreeF) Warm, mean annualair temperature between7 deg.C (45 deg.Fj and 24 def.C (75 def. F) Hot, mean annualair temperature > 24 deg.C(75 deg. F)

alt Grade+

AC-10 AR-4000 80 / 100pen AC-20 AR-8000 60 / 70 pen. AC-40 AR-8000 40 / 50 pen.

* Bothmedium (MS)and slowsetting setting (ss) emulsified asphalts are used in emulsified asphalt base mixes.Theycan be eitherof two types: cationic(ASTMD 2397 or AASHTo M 208) or anionic(ASTMDg77 or AASHTO 140).selecting M one of the two shaildepends the type of on aggregate usedfor better affinity.

on. asphaltis selectedprimarily the.basisof its ability The gradeof emulsified and coat-in"-'"ggr"gate.]h1g is determinedby coating to satisfactorily faclors important in the ;i"bitiit Gst (nsrrv D z4i,,'nns'Hro T 59). other weather at the job site, anticipated at selectionare the water availability the piocessto be used,and the curingrate. the time of construction, mixing 301.3 CUT.BACKASPHALT Liquidaspha|ts(cutback)sha||consistofmateria|sconformingtothe ';assifiiationi. Wn"n tested in accordance with the standard t"ff-"*irg shall conform methodsof tests of the AASHTO,the gradesof liquidasphalt in specified the Table 301-3and 301-4' to the requirements consistof asphalt by Medium curing productsdesignated lettersMC, shall solvent, cemept fluxqd-orblendedwilh a kerosene uy destgnated tl9 lettersRC, shall consistof asphalt Rapidcuringproducts with a naphtha fluxedor blended o"f punutr"tion gradetiO-tOO, cementwith a solvent. 301.4 EMULSIFIED ASPHALT base uniformly Asphalticemulsionsshall be composed of a bituminous agent..They shall be or -setting with water and an emulsifying stabilizing emulsified or Slow Setting, and shall classified according to ut" as Ra[lO in Table301-5' specified contormto the requirements RS-l type emulsionshall be base used in manufacturing The bituminous by the as i"*ent, Grade 120-150or Grade 2OO-aOO, designated ".pnaii Engineer. shall be ssl type em.ulsion The bituminousbase used in manufacturing or Grade 12b-150, as designatedby the ;;tnan, CraOe 60-70 ilng Engineer.

301-2

APPLICATION TEMPERATURES TABLE 301-I


Application Temperature Range. oC

Asphalt Type / Grade a) AsphaltCement (Allgrades)

Mixing Temp

As requiredto achieve viscosity 75-150secs. of Saybolt-Furol as required or to achievea Kinematic Viscosity 150-300 of centistokes.

Spraying Temperature RoadMixes


160 (Max)

b.

Emulsified Asphatts

ffi
RS-2 MS-1 MS-2 MS-2h HFMS-1 HFMS-2 HFMS-24 SS-1 SS-1h CRS-1 CRS-2 CMS-2

10-70 10-70 10-70 10-70 10-70 10-70 10-70 10-70 10-70 10-70 10-70 10-70

20-70 20-70
2i-7i

20-70 20-70 20-70 20-70 20-70 20-70 10-70 10-70 10:70

cMS-2h
CSS-1

css-1h
c)

Cutback Asphatts (RC, MC, SC)

70 250 800 3000

55-80 75-100
80-1 5 1

20 min. 40 min.
55 min.

301-3

TABLE 301-2 REQUIREMENTSFOR ASPHALT CEMENT (AASHTO M-20)


40-50
Min. Max.

60-70
Min. Max.

80 - 100
Min. Max.

120
Min

150
Max

at77oF (25"C) 100 Penetration g 5 Sec. Flashpoint,Cleveland Open cup,oF("c) oF at Ductility 77 (25 "C)5 cm p e rm r n . c m . , in lene Solubility trichloroethy percent. Thin-film oventest, 118in.(3.2 mm),325 "r ltOe "C; 5 hr percent. Losson heating,

40 450 (232)

50

60 450 (232) '100

70

80 450 (232 ) 100


oo

100

120 425 (218)

150

100

100

99

99

0.80
percent of Penetration, residue, of original. ouciitity residueat77 of oC; 5 cm. per min.,cm. oF (25 58 54

0.80 50
75

1.0
46

1.3

50

75

100

301-a

TABLE 301-3 REOUIREMENTS F'ORMEDIUM-CURING TYPE ASPHALTS (AASHTO M-82) MC-70


Min. Max

MC - 2s0
Min. Max

MC - 800
Min. Max

\A/rtor

nornonf

0.2
oo

0.2
66

0.2

p ( o C F l a s h o i n t t a g . p e nc u p ) ,D e g r e e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KinematicViscosityat 60oC(140"F)(See Note


1\ Centistnkes

70

140

250

500

800

1600

Distillation test: percentage volume of total distillate Distillate, by at 360oc(680"F)


^t 22qoc. (a?7otr\ 0F) A l 2600C /500 at 315 0C /600 oF'l

0 20 65
55

20 60 90

0 15 60
ol

't0 55 87
n

45 75

35 80

oC (680 Residue from distillationat 360 "F) of Volumepercentage sampleby difference...... from distillation: Testson residue

p e n e t r a t i o1 0 0 g .5 s e c . , t 2 5 o C( 7 7 " F ) . . . . . . . . . 120 n, , a 5 Ductility, cm/min,cm (see note2)

250

120 100 99.0

250

120 , 2 5 0 100 99.0

100

ne 9 S o l u b i l i i n T r i c h l o r o e t h y l ep e r,c e n t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 . 0 ty

Note:

'1,

As an alternate, SayboltFurolvicosities may be specified following: as GradeMC-70 FurolViscosity 50oC(122"F)at GradeMC-250FurolViscosity 60oC(140"F) at 60 to 120 Sec. 125to 250 Sec.

(180"F)- 100 to 200 Sec. GradeMC-800FurolViscosity 82.2oC at 2. lf penetration residueis morethan 200 and its ductility 25oC(77'F) of at is lessthan 100 cm., the materialwill acceptable its ductility 15.5 be if at oF; "C 100 is morethan 100 cm.

301-b

TABLE 301-4 FOR IL{PID-CURING TYPE ASPHALTS (AASHTO M-81) ITEQUIREMENTS


RC-70 Min. Max

RC - 250
Min. Max

RC - 800
Min. Max

Water,percent....... C p ( o F l a s h o i n t t a g . p e nc u p ) ,D e g r e e . . . . . . . . . . . . KinematicViscosityat 60oG (140"F)(See Note


1\ Cantielnkcq
7n

0.2 27 140

0.2
27

0.2

lsb

500

800 1 6 0 0

test: Distillation percentage volume of total distillate by Distillate, at 360oC(6Bo"F) at 1go"c (37:4"F)
tt 2)60(. t4?70tr\ af rAnoc /qnootr\ at 21F'on /Ann otr\

'10 50 70 85 55 35 60 80 65
15 45 75 75

oC (680 "F) Residue from distillationat 360 of Volumepercentage sampleby difference...... from distillation: Tests on residue oF).. . ... penetration, 100g: 5 Sec.,at 25"C (77 of 5 Ductility, cm/min, 25oC (77"F) cm ............ percent in Solubility Trichloroethylene,

BO 100 99.0

120

BO 100 99.0

120

80 100 99.0

120

Note:

as may be specified following: SayboltFurolvicosities As an alternate, at GradeRC-70 FurolViscosity 50oC(122"F) at GradeRC-250 FurolViscosity 60oC('140"F) 60 to 120 Sec. 125to 250 Sec.

(180"F) 100 to 200 Sec. at GradeRC-800 FurolViscosily 82.2oC

301-c

TABLE 3OI-5

Trrna

Rapid-Settine RS-I Min. Max. Min. RS-2 Max. Min. SS-I

Slow-Settins NIax. SS.lh Min. Ma

Test on Emulsions: Viscosity, Saybott Furotat T7"F(ZSoF). Sec............. Viscosity, Saybott Furolat 122oF(50"C)Sec.......... Settlement5days, percent (a) . . . ...,. Storage stability 1 day (b)............., test Demulsibility, m1. 0.02 NCaCl2 35 percent Cementmixing test,percent ........... . Sievetest,percent....... Residue distillation, by percent..... Test on Residue from Distillation Test penetration 55 0.10
n 4n

2A

100

20 75 400

100
6

20

10( 5 1 2.0 0.1(

4
I

1 2.0 0.10
57

60

60

63 200 100 40 97.5 200 '100 40 97"5


200

"F(2s"c;toog. sec. 5

100 40 97.5

4A 40 97.5

on

Ductility, 77"F (25oC),5 cm/min.cm Solubility trichloroethylene, in percent

Suggested

Surface treatment, Surfacetreatment& penetration penetration macadam and tack macadam coat

Plantor road mixturewith gradedand f t e aggregates, substantial a quantity wh :h of passes a No. B (2.3mm) sieve and a portion of which may pass a No. 2 )0 (0.075mm) sieve;slurrysealtreatments

a) b) c)

The test requirement settlement for may be waivedwhen the emulsified asphaltis used in less than 5 days time; or the Engineer require that the settlement test be run from the time the sampleis received untilit is used,if the elapsed timeis lessthan 5 daysl The 24-hr. (1 day) storagestabilitytest may be used insteadof the 5 days setflementtest. The demulsibility shallbe nnade test within30 daysfrom date of shipment. 301-d

'Pt

ITEM 302 302.I

BITUMINOUS PRIME COAT


DESCRIPTION material This work shall consistof furnishingall plant, labour,equipment, a in.applying liquid asphaltprime coat on a all and performing operations previouslyprepared and untreated;earth sub grade, waterboundbase and as base course,tops of roadwayshoulders, course,crushedaggregate and plans in strict accordancewith the specification otherwiseshown on the withthe linesshownon the drawings' in conformity

302.2

MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS

of Asphaltic materialshall conform to the requirements the item 301 'Asphaltic MateTialS"; whichever is Asphalt, eitheaentbaek or Emulsified
in specified the Billof Quantities. 302.3 REQUIREMENTS CONSTRUCTION Prime coat shall be appliedwhen the surfaceto be treatedis dry: exceptthat moist. The asphaltis used,the surfacemay be reasonably when emulsified prohibited weather is foggy or rainy,or when the when the is application is temperature below fifteen (15) degree C unless otheruvise atmospheric of by the Engineer.Priorto the application the primecoat,all loose directed from the surfaceand the same shall be cleaned shallbe removed materials by means of approved mechanicalsweepers or blowers and/or hand No brooms,untilit is as free from dust as is deemedpracticable. trafficshall be pefmitted on the surface after it has been prepared to receive the of material. Priorto the application prime coat on bridgedecks bituminous pavdments, surfacesshall be cleanedof all loosematerial the and concrete joints shall be cleanedand as describedin Section302.3. All expansion materialas directed by the Engineer.Areas to be filled with bituminous as primedwill be classified under: (i) The top of earth surface or water bound base courses from a outsidethe edge of the pavement pointtwenty(20) centimeters line to 20 cms outside the line on the oppositeside of the roadway. of from the inter-section embankment The top of the shoulders line. to of subgrade the edge of the pavement slopeand top The bridgewearingsurfacefrom curb to curb and end to end of bridge wearingsurface. Other surfaces as shown on the plans or ordered by the Engineer.

(ii) (iii)

(iv)

for shallbe kept undisturbed at least24 hours,so that the Primedsurface material travelsbeneathand leavesthe top surfacein nonbituminous shallstarton a tackycondition. operations No tackycondition. asphaltic

302.3.r

Equipment The liquid asphalticmaterial shall be sprayed by means of a pressure distributorof not less than 1000 litre capacity,mounted on pneumatictyres of suchwidthand numberthat the load produced the road surfacewill not on exceed hundred(100) Kg per cm width of tyre. lt shall be of recognized manufacturer. The tank shall have a heating device able to heat a complete charge of asphalticliquid up to one hundredeighty (180) degree C. The heating deviceshall be so that overheating not occur. consequenfly, flamei will the must not touch directlyon the castingof the tank containing ine asphaltic liquidor gasestherefrom.The contractorwill be responsible any fire or for accidentresulting from heatingof bituminous materials.The liquidshall be circulatedor stirredduringlhe heating. The tank shall be insulatedin sueh a way that the drop in temperature when the tank is filledand not heated,will be less than two (2) degree c per hour. A thermometershall be fixed to the tank in orderto be able to controlcontinuously temperature the liquid. the of The thermometer shallbe placedin such a way that the highesttemperature in the tank is measured. The tank shall be furnishedwitn a device that indicates contents. The pipesfor fillingthe tank shall be furnished the with an easilyinterchangeable filter. The distributor shall be able to vary the spraywidth of the asphaltic liquidin steps of maximum 10 cm, to a total width of four (4) M. The sprayingbar shall have nozzlesfrom which the liquid is sprayedfan-shapedon the road surface equally distributed overthe totalspraying width. The distributor shallhavea pumpfor spraying liquiddrivenby a separate the motor,or the speed of the pump shall be synchronized with the speed of the distributor. The pump shall be furnishedwith an indicatorshowing the performance litresper minute. At the suctionside the pump shall hive a in filtereasilyexchangeable. thermometer A shall be fixed,which indicates the temperature the liquidimmediately of beforeit leavesthe sprayingbar. The distributor shall be furnished with a tachometer indicating speed in the meter per minute. The tachometer shall be visiblefrom the driver'sseat. The functionof the distributor shall be so exact that the deviation from the prescribed quantity be spread on any squaremeterdoes not exceed10% to The distributor shall be equippedwith a devicefor hand sprayingof the bituminous liquid, coverany irregular to area or covering area improperly the sprayed.

302.3.2 lmmediately beforeapplyingprime coat, the full area of surfaceto be treated shall be swept with a power broomto removeall dirt and other objectionable material. required the Engineer, surfaceshall be made moist but lf by the not saturated. Asphaltic Materialsshall be appliedat

302-2

pressure operated distributors statedin ltem 301 by approved temperature and and The workmen. spraynozzles spraybarsshallbe adjusted by skilled shall distribution. Spraying so frequently checked as to ensureuniform of or uponany clogging interference any nozzleand ceaseimmediately is spraying resumed. measures takenbefore remedial (cut shall material back/emulsified) be as of The ratefor application asphaltic unoer:TYPE OF SURFACE LITRES PER SOUARE METER
Minimum Maximum

Subbase, 1. Subgrade, Water boundbaseco,,rses, stonebasecourse. and Crushed WearingSurfaces, 2. Bridge, ConcretePavement

0.65

1.75

0.15

0.4

from by determined the However, exactrateshallbe specified the Engineer field trials. by and by shallbe determined the Engineer performed the Thetestmethods of in Contractor thepresence Engineer. and of 24 for be coatshall leftundisturbed a period at least hours, Theprime and so to not be opened trafficuntilit has penetrated curedsufficiently shall that it will not be pickedup by the wheelsof passingvehicles. The the shall maintain prime coat until the next courseis applied. Contractor is of material not in Care shallbe takenthat the application bituminous with sand or amounts, excessshallbe blotted any excessof the specified to shallbe sprayed All treatment. areasinaccessible the distributor similar for from using device handspraying thedistributor. tnanually the shall and to of The surface structures treesadjacent the areabeingtreated theirbeing spattered marred. or in as be protected suchmanner to prevent shall be for detouris available traffic,operations Where no convenient shall width at a time. The Contractog the roadway to confined one-hdlf proper withoutdamage provide may proceed control that vehicles so traffic of on area. Workshallnot be started the portion the roadnot to the primed coveredhas application until the surfacepreviously coveredby previous for driedandis ready traffic.
302.4 302.4.r

ANDPAYMENT MEASUREMENT
Measurement

by meter actually as covered prime shall Theunitof measurement be square or No with coat in accordance thesespecifications. measurement payment specified, herein, shown outside limits, the willbe madefor the areasprimed or by on theplans designated the Engineer. 302-3

Blotting materialwill be measured payment not for and shallbe considered subsidiary theprime to coat.
302.4.2 Pavment The paymentfor area primed measuredas stated above, shall be made for the contractunit price per sM, which paymentshall be full compensation for furnishingall labour, material,tools, equipment and incidentalsand for performingalt the work involvedin applyingprime coat, completein place in accordance with these specifications:

Pay ltem No.

Description

Unitof Measurement
SM

302

Bituminous Prime Coat.

3024

ITEM 303

BITUMINOUS TACK COAT

303.1

DESCRIPTION all The work coveredby this sectionshallconsistin furnishing plant,labour, equipment and ap'plyingasphaltic material on a previously prepared with the in all to layer,in addition performing operations connection asphaltic applicationof a Bituminoustack coat, complete in accordancewith these specificationsand to the width shown on the typical cross- sections of drawings. applicable

303.2

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS of Asahlltic mateiiatshallconformto the requiiement$ item 301, "Asphaltic or asphalt, cut back asphaltas calledfor in the Bill for emulsified Materials" of Quantities.

303.3

REOUIREMENTS CONSTRUCTION lmmediatelybefore applyingthe tack coat, all loose material, cjirt or other objectionablematerial,shall be removedfrom the surface to be treated by with hand brooms,as directed power brooms and/or blowers,supplemented by the Engineer.The tack coatshallbe appliedonlywhen the surfaceis dry, may be n'ladeon a reasonable asphalt,application hbweverfioremulsified of tack coat shall be avoided in case of foggy or moist surface. Application an rainyweather. Priorto the application, inspectionof the preparedsurface 'Engineerto determine its fitness to receive the made by the will be binderand no tack coatwill be applieduntilthe surfacehas been Bituminous approved.

303.3.r

Equipment under.ltem302.3.1 shall conformin all respectto the provision Equipment and'shall be subject to the approvalof the Engineer in additionto the working conditionat all times. A maintenanceof the same in a satisfactory to a bitumen pressure distributoror other hand power spray attachment gauge, bitumenpump,pressure operated havingan independently container for determiningthe temperatureof the asphalt tank contents thermometer and a hose connected to a hand power spray suitable for applying the tack coat in the amountsspecified all to be such as to meetthe Bituminous . shallbe furnished of approval the Engineer,

303.3.2

Applicationof AsphalticMaterial: at distributor, the shallbe appliedby meansof a pressure material Asphaltic particularmaterialbeing used. Rates temperaturestated in ltem 301 for the of of application cut back shall be within the range of 0.2-0.4 lihes per asphaltthe rate shall be withinthe rage of square meter and for emulsified - O.Olitre per square meter; the exact rate shall be specified by the O.b Engineer.

303-1

care shallbe takenthat the application asphaltic of materialis not in excess of the specifiedquantity;any excess asphaltshall be blotted by sand or similartreatment. All areas inaccessible the distributor to shall be treated manually using the device for hand spraying from the distributor. The surfacesof structuresand trees adjacentto the areas being treated shall be protectedin such a manner as to preventtheir beingspatteredor marred. where no convenient detour is available for traffic, operations shall be confined to one-half the roadway width at a time. The contractor shall provide proper traffic control so that vehicles may proceed without damage to the treatedarea. work shall not be startedon the portionof the road not covered by previous application until the surface previously covered has dried and is readyfor paving. Traffic shall be kept off the tack coat at ail times. The tack coat shail be sprayedonly so far in advanceoflhe surfacecourse as will permit it to dry to a "tacky"condition. The contractor shall maintainthe tack coat until the next course has been placed. Any area that has become fouled, by traffic or otheruvise, shall be cleaned by contractor at his own cost before the next courseis applied. 303.4 303.4.1 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT Measurement The quantities Bituminous of Tack coat shall be measuredin square meter for the actualarea Tacked with asphalticmaterialon the preparedsurface in accordance with this specification. 303.4.2 Piyment The paymentof bituminousTack coat, measuredas stated above shall be paid for at the contract unit price per square meter,which paymentshall be full compensation furnishing labour,materials, for all tools, equipmentand incidentalsand for performingall the work involvedin applyingTack coat completein place, as shown on the Drawingsand in accordancewith these speiification.

Pay ltem No.

Description

Unitof Measurement
SM

303

Bituminous TackCoat.

ITEM 304

BITUMINOUSSURFACETREATMENTANDSEALCOAT./ PAD COAT


DESCRIPTION materialand of This work shallconsistof one or more applications asphaltic one.ormorecoversofaggregatesoranapplicationofaspha|ticmateriai and ir' *iinort ajgregates apptijO'in accordancewith these specifications or on the typicalcross-sections as tne contormit!-with lines and width shown bY established the Engineer.

304.1

304.2 304.2.1

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS Aggregate goqnq Aggregate shall csnsist of clean, dry, hard, durable,toUgh,Algqlql gravel of uniform quality,and free from dirt, clay crushed stone or crushed sources of anJ otner objectionable iratter. Aggregates from only the of would be used.The percentage wea" lt:/ properties adhesion established be more than fc':tv the Los AngelesAbrasiontest (AASHTOT-96) shall not (1990) (40). Aggregatecrushingvalue (ACV).whentested as per BS-812 five (5) cycles of sodium-sulfate inatt niie"ieed 25%. filnen subjectedto testingas determinedbyAASHTOT-104, it shall have a weight soundness in the loss of not greater than ten (10) percent. The moisture content to the lirrfqce of the bituminousmaterialshall not directly aggregateap-ptieO p"r"eni by weight plus one-half (112)the water absorption tnreb'1a1 shall free "iJ"""O of the aggregateat the time of dllivery to the Project. !n no case moisturebe drawingfrom the truck bed' Theportionofaggregateretainedontheg.5mm(3/8inch)sievesha||not of flat or contain more thln f-ifte"n (15) percent of particles by weight betweenthe maximumand the minimum or etongateO, both,that the'ratio lndex,testedunderBS-812(1990)part 2.5:1.Flakiness diminsionsexceeds 105,sha||be25(max)fornominalsizel8mmandl2mmand30(max)for nominalsize9mm. against The nominalsizes of aggregatesused for surfacetreatment;shown table304-1shallbe as under: SizeNo. 1 SizeNo.2 SizeNo .3 SizeNo. 4 Nominalsize .Nominalsize Nominalsize Nominalsize 18 mm 12 mm 9 mm 6 mm * Retained
o/o?ga

in are Thenominalsize Oefrned thetablebe


Specified Size NominalSize (mm)

PassLn_g_
Sieve (mm) 19
o/o?!e

1B
i2 I 6

12.5 9.5 6.3 304-1

100 100 100 100

Sieve(mm) 12.5 9.5 6.3


4.75

85
85

.
SIEVES.

B5 85 resPective rialwithinthe

For Material passing 3/8" Sieve,following Tableshallbe used:

304.2.2

AsphalticMaterial The asphaltic material shall conform to the requirementsof ltem 301 'Asphaltic Materials'. The type shall be one of the following,as ihown in the Bill of Quantities orderedby the Engineer. or sprayingteriperaiureshall be as shownagainsteachtype.
able

atures

Asphalt Type / Grade a. AsphattUements AC-2.5 AC-5 AC-10

for Surface Treatments Spraying Temperature SurfaceTreatments 1 3 0m i n . '140 mn.


1 4 0m n . 1 4 5m i n .

AC-20
AC-40

AR-1000 AR-2000 AR-4000 AR-BOOO AR-16000 pen. 200-300 pen. 120-150


pen. 85-100 60-70pen.

1 5 0m i n .
1 5 5m i n .

1 4 0m i n . 1 4 5m i n . 145 in. m 1 3 0m i n . 130min. 1 4 0m i n .


1 4 5m i n .

40-50pen.
p. EmutstttedAsphalts

1 5 0m i n . 20-60 50-85 20-70 20-70

RS-1 RS-2 MS-1 MS-2 MS-2h HFMS-1 HFMS-2


FIFMS-2h

HFMS-2s SS-1 SS.1h CRS-1 CRS-2 CMS-2

50-85
50-85

cMS-2h
CSS-1 CSS-1h

3442.

Asphalt Type / Grade

Temperature Spraying SurfaceTreatments 30 min.


50 min. 75 min. 95 min.

Asphalts(RC, MC, SC) Cutback

30 (MConlv) 70 250 800 3000


304.3 REOUIREMENTS CONSTRUCTION

110 in. m

the At the time of the application, weathershall be warm and dry, and the shall not be done unlessthe road surfaceshall be clean and dry. Spraying is roadtemperature abovetwenty(20)degreeC for at leastone hour priorto shall not be and the lernperature of-spraying operations, the commencement the less than twenty (20) degree C duringthe spraying. Prior to applying materialsshall be removed dirl and other objectionable asphalticmaterial, from the surfaceand surfaceshall be primedas per item 302. lf so directed the surfaceshall be cleanedby power broomingor wire by the Engineer, are brushuntilall looseand foreignmaterials removed. 304.3.1 Equipment underltem 302.3.1. to Equipment shallconformin all respects the provisions trainedfor this specially shall be operatedby the manpower The equipment and traffic for safetyarrangement the workers,equipment work. Necessary shallbe ensuredduringthe operations. 3043.2 ofSurface Preparation raveling, shall and lrregularities surfacedamagee.g. potholes,depressions, be corrected prior to surface dressing.The Engineer shall also satisfy himself that fundamentalpavement defects e.g. base failure, drainage problemsetc. have been remediedbefore surface dressingis attempted. shall be cut out rich in bitumene.g. 'bleeding', Areas,which are excessively and patched. All patches, however, occasioned shall be thoroughly with crusherdust beforeopeningto trafficfor compacted, sealedand blinded commences. surfacedressing severaldays before priorto the application binderall dirt,dust are foreignmaterial of lmmediately air. and / or the use of compressed shall be removedby thoroughbrooming the mud or othersoilingmay be removedusingwaterand brushes, Adhering generaluse of waterto washthe roadshallnot be permitted. 304.3.3 Applicationof AsphalticMaterials asphalt shall be appliedby Asphalt cement, liquid asphaltand emulsified means of pressure distributormanual or automatic at the temperature specifiedfor the type and grade of asphalt being used. The rates of shallbe withinthe rangesgivenin Table304-1. application

304-3

v-v0t, poupads sa'uer urrilr^ rerrs oL* parrdde o]sale6ar66" aq aq ri lfli;ll


'asBInS

"ttt

Oql uotj po^oulel eq [eq:.abeJJrds lle-pue papto^e aq lleqs leuo]Br! ta^oc lo suorlecr;dde 'saprLla^

aq1ourddepa^o lo slaaLmol aroqpelou saop pue 'sllnsarocerns uena ue lrlun pabbelpuooJqpue pellor reqynl pue a1e6e:66e leuoryppe tllm paJanocaq lleqs ecefns aql uo smoqs laputq ajaqm acegdIuy 'palrqrqo:d oq saslnocleasaLll o1aoeuep-Joleualeu ranocall] lo ]uoruoceldsrp s]lnsoJ'r.lcrqM ur luerudrnbJ .ro ;o ecerd {ue 1o 6uru:n1 ,burddols,6urpe1s selnpacoJd paute}qo ,L{}oouls }o s! oce1.tnspalceduoc IgqOno:oq1 e lt}un ,iluo anurluoc lleqs 'railorpuocas e se pasn oq {etr suol (gj lq6te o1 (g) xrs uoa/\^loq 9utttgu -raors v 'Jalourluec e.renosT'6) burqbrervr Jailor poroaLr^ g:;' 1o ernsserd e ]cBluoculnuturrrJ 6uneq la1;o:a:Iycrleutnaud pelledold_1|asqym pa1lot e aq lleqs aceJJns paleojl eq1 'e1e6ar66e 10 ourpeerds aql Jaue{le1erpeutrl 'burr{elds (67) raye salnurur {1uaaq ssocxaur pouade Jo}palenocun }o uteuloJ aq11o uoryod lleqsJaputq 'lleqdsepaferds o1r1 {pneu eq1uo r;lcarrpOurnup uro4 ropeorosite6aio6e aLl} lesruBr{3aur pue )3ru1 oll} 10 seil1 eql luanerd ol se os ,oues spea:ds lr se pJe/v\)ceqa^orrJ l1eqs a1e6er66eaql ourfurec rcrut aqr .raeur6u3 gql fq peno.rddesuBaul raqlo r{ue ro repeards e1e6a.r66e'-lecruer..l3or! penorddeuB_rIloJJ acelns paleoJleql JaAopalnqulstpr{1uane {;ur.ro;run pue aq llBrls a1e6a.r66e ';eueleurcrlleqdseaq1 bur^lddereye ,(1a1erpeurul fup @ 'paunsal st uotlnqlJlsrp ololaq uo)el oq llBrls saJnseeut a^tlcalloc pue aEzou r{ue1o asueJola}ut 6ur66o;c to rue uodn r{lalerpaurur aseoclleqsuollnqutslp oqt 'parnsua uor}nqulsrp sr uJJoJrun }eq} polcaLlc pue pelsnlppos aq lleLls {e.rdseq11oiqotaLl pue rtJluenba4 lBq eq1 salzzoufelds eq11oa16ue eq1 'ebera^ocuonaun6ursnec-rqa:aLll leueleur snourunltqoq] ql!/v\ ;adxeol pamolleaq rolnqulstpoq) lleqs osec ou ul :le 'leHaletusnouttunltq uotlnqulslp LlJolun e aq.'il/'^ eio4 lql os .ublle-rJddE lo qcPo ]o pua oLll le Jolnqulsrpalll u! ual letJaleu snoutulnltq luotetJJns pue pelelnbal os oq lleqs letJaleu snoululnllqaql lo uotlnqulsl6 ,t-ervr palone4oLl]Jo acelns oq] uo leueleu snoutunltqdup 1oullm lustueqcout ro Jeqr{erdseql }eq1 paubrsep aq 11eqs os burpeards ueqnn')o1nqr,r}slp aqI 1ou 'JBoc Jonocaql ]o uotluole:lredu.rr ostmJoqlo ,fup ,dn ro 'llrrlcol pomolle oq ll$ leueleu snoutunltqlpql Jouueur las L{cns paaco:d ut suorleladolleLlssacuelsuncJtc lapun 'Ja^ocr;elerpauwr uec letJaleu ou leoc Ja^oc qlm papeol slcnJ] qctqM leLll uetll paosxo lou lleqs leuoleu.l snourunltq pee:ds10 q16ua1 oq|aceJJns 6urpuq100rus arnsseol apeur ;o B I|;nla.rec lleLlsspealds Jo suollcunf .:euueu pbno.rdde ut palca,,oc oq ue oq ller.1s satcuatct;op seale peddlys Auy 'peuedo st leq Ields aq1 Jo aurl aql 1e peads uorlecl;dde :edold le pleruo16urnou.r llBt.ls aq lolnqulstp aql 'acr^op burpeerdsaLll rxor1e1eba.r66e Iq paJa^oooq ol L.llptm eql oLll ueql arou rxo (0t) ual lseel le oq lleqs sletraleu snoutunltq1o pea.rds eq1

v'e'vOe

304.3.5

of Maintenance Traffic trafficfor this work on runningroadwill not be provided of Detouring highway for or peimitted,except when authorizedby the Engineer' All construction operations shall be coordinatedto result in the least practicabledelay of trattic. One way traffic shall be maintainedand traffic speeds restrictedto fifteen (15) Km per hour. The contractorshall provideflagmen,warning signs, bariicades, and a sufficient number of pilot cars to control traffic by when so directed the Engineer. sealingoperations thioughthe bituminous pilot cars shallbe usedto lead the trafficthroughthe areasof all distribution and sealingoperations. Pilot cars shall be light "Pick up" trucks or other with signsreading"PILOT and shallbe equipped vbhicles approved Two (2) signs CAR - DO NOT PASS"in both Englishand Urdu languages' shall be mountedon the vehicles so as to be clearly visible from both ahead Sf the One (1) flagman shall be stationedimmediately direetisns, applicationof the bituminousmaterial and one (1) flagman immediately behind the section being rolled. Suilable speed limit signs shall be and the signs shall move forwardwith the flagmanas the work displayed, progresses. All to No separatepaymentshall be made for conformance this paragraph. to subsidiary the item (s) given in the Bill of these items beihgconsidered Quantities.

304.3.6

Workins Period All work shall be so conductedthat the work of applyingasphalt and and of all rollingshall be completedduringthe time from sunrise aggregate to sunset and under favorableweather conditionsaS determinedby the Engineer.

304.3.7

work of Maintenance comPleted when directed by the Engineer, the contractor will be required to add bituminousmaterialor aggregateor both to the portionof road identifiedfor materialand bituminous additional such purposeon the project.Furnishing will aggregate not be and rollingof additional dragging spreading, furnishing, to work pertaining the as paidfor separately will be considered subsidiary but SurfaceTreatment"' item of "Bituminous relevant

304.3.8

Openingto Traffic and after-care to surfacedressing traffica,t There shallbe no delayin openinga completed to traffic any spillageof aggregatesshall a controlledspeed.Priorto opening shall be be removed and any binder drips or wind blown contamination waste. After 2-3 days under traffic,excess stone will be dusted with crusher removedby brushing.

304.3.9

Pad Coat To ensure chippingretentionwhen surface dressinga very hard surface, a by of of pad coat consisting application an initialbindersprayfollowed 6 mm. chipping will be applied.After stabilizingof pad coat under traffic, the will surface dressing be applied. appropriate

304.5

304.4 304.4.1

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT Measurement The quantity surfacetreatment be paidfor shall be measuredin square of to meterwithinthe theoretical in placeas shownon drawing. No allowance line will be given for materialplaced outsidethe theoreticallimits of finished surfacing whetherplacedfor, due to requirement contractor's of operations or placedout sidethe limitsdue to inadequate control.

304.4.2

Payment The aggregateand asphalticmaterialmeasuredas stated above shall be paid for at the contractunit price per square meter for a particularitem listed below and shown on the bill of quantities, which payment shall be full coqlpglsetion_Iq fuittrsflQg a!! labour, materiats, tooJs equipment and incidentalfor performingall the work in the constructionof bituminous surface treatment or seal coat complete in place and according to specification, primingof surface. including Pay ltem No. Description

Unitof Measurement
SM SM SM SM

304a 304b 304c 304d

Single Surface Treatment Double surface Treatment TripleSurface Treatment SealCoat PadCoat /

304-6

TABLE 304-1 of Ouantities Materialsfor BituminousSurfaceTreatments


Surface Treatment Aggregate SizeNo. Quantity Kg. /Sq.M Bituminous Material Quantity Litres / Sq.M

Type

Application

Type

1.19 Single Single


z

(a) (b) (a) (b) (a) (b) (a) (b) (a) (b) (c) (c)

12.5 1.63

First
Double Second

24.0 2.14 1.19

3
1

12.5

1.63 1.90 First Tripple


Second Third Seal Coat / Pad Coat with Aggregate Notes:-

24.0 2.14 1.19 12.5


6.5 4 1.63 0.68

2 3
4

0.5

(b) or cement, cut-back emulsified types (a) asphalt are material Bituminous cut-back emulsified. and cement, and(c)asphalt by by maybe varied the Engineer 115% material of Quantities bituminous on depending siteconditions.
iii)

priorto the surface for treatment the newly Primecoat shallbe applied pavement the rateas specified the item302.3.2. in at constructed

304-7

ITEM 305

ASPHALT CONCRETE WEARING COURSE- PLANT MIX

305.1

DESCRIPTION This work shall consist of furnishingaggregatesand asphalt binder at a central mixing plant, to a specified mixing temperature,transporting, spreading and compacting mixturein an approvedmanneron primedor the tacked base, subbase,subgrade,bridge deck or concrete pavementin accordancewith these specifications and in conformitywith the lines,grades and typical cross-sections shown in the drawings or as directed by the Engineer.

30s.2 305.2.1

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS Mineral Aggregates The Aggregatesshall consist of coarse aggregates, fine aggregatesand fillermaterial, required if and shall be clean,hard,tough,durableand sound particlesof uniformquality,geology,petrology and free from decomposed material, vegetable matter, soil, clay, lumps and other deleterious substances. Coarse aggregatewhich is the materialretained on an AASHTO No. 4 Sieve,shall consistofone hundred(100) % crushedrock orcrushed gravel having two (2) faces mechanically crushed. The type of source shall be uniform throughoutthe quarry location from where such a material is obtained.The coarseaggregates shallbe free from.anexcessof flat orland particles. elongated Fine aggregatewhich is the materialpassingfrom AASHTO No. 4 sieve, shalfconsistof 100o/o crushedmaterial from rock or boulder. Fineaggregate shallbe storedseparately, no natural and sandwill be allowed the mix. in grading the coarseand fine aggregates deficient when the combined of is in materialpassingthe AASHTo No. 200 sieve,mineralfillermaterial shall be added as approvedby the Engineer. The fillershall consistof finelydivided mineralmatter such as rock dust, hydratedlime, hydraulic, calcineddust cement or other suitablemineral matter free from lumps, balls or other deleterious material and shallconformto the following gradation:
SieveDesignation mm Inch

Percent

Weisht

0.600 0.300 0.075

No.30 No.50 No.200

100 95-1 00 70-100

requirements: shallmeetthe following The coarseand fine aggregates The percentof wear by the Los Angeles Abrasiontest (AASHTO a) T 96) shallnot be morethanthirty(30)' b) to The loss when subjected five cyclesof the SodiumSulphate test (AASHTOT 104) shall be less than twelve(12) Soundness DercenI. The Sand Equivalent(AASHTO 1 176) determinedafter all of processing exceptfor addition asphaltcementshallnot be less than45. shall have a liquid limit of not more than twenty All aggregates five (25) and a PlasticityIndex of not more than four (4) as by determined AASHTOT-89 and T-90. The portion of aggregates retained on the 9.5 mm (3/8 inch) sieve shall not containmore than 10 percent by weight of flat and/or elongated particles (ratio of maximum to minimum = dimension 2.5'.1\. Stripping test shall be performed on crush aggregatesas describedunder AASHTO-182and only that materialshall be the whichqualifies test. allowed g) The coarse aggregatesshall be checked if desired by the so for Engineer cationicand anionicbehaviour that their affinity to with the bitumen be usedis verified. Petrographicexaminationof the coarse aggregate shall be by if conducted so directed the Engineer.

c)

d)

e)

h)

The percentageof particleshavingcertain proportionsbetweentheir largest can (i.e.between the largestdistancethe particles and smallestdimensions planesthat will permitthe particle pass),shall to parallel two fill out between waY: in be determined the following passingNo. 4 all Form a sampleof coarseaggregates, particles quantity sieve are eliminated.The sample shall be of sufficient remain. that at least100 particles By means of a sliding caliper, the largest and smallest for as dimensions, definedabove,are determined each particle (withone decimal). calculated and its proportion iii two and a havingthe proportions The total weightsof particles and their half (2.5) or less and three (3) or less, are determined percentage relation the totalsampleare calculated. to in

305.2.2

AsphalticMaterial

base to Asphalticbinderto be mixedwith the aggregate produceasphaltic grade 40-50,60-70 or 80-100 as shall be asphaltcement penetration of it Generally will meet the requirement AASHTO by specified the Engineer. M-20.

30s.2.3

Asphalt Concrete Wearing Course Mixture

The compositionof the asphaltic concrete paving mixture for wearing course shall conform to Class A and/or Class B shown in the following table: Table 305-1 Asphalt Concrete Wearing Course Requirements

Mix Designation Thickness Compacted

ClassA 50-80mm

ClassB

mm 35-60

Combihed AEEregate Giadin$ ReqUiaemEffiS

SieveDesignation mm Inch

Percent Passingby Weight

25 19 12.5 9.5 4.75 2.38 1.18 0.075

1 3t4 1t2 3/8 No.4 No.8 N o .1 6 No. 200

100 90-1 00 56-70 35-50 23-35 5-12 2-8

100 75-90 60-80 40-60 20-40 5-15 3-8

AsphaltContent weight percent totalmix of

3 . 5( M i n . )

3 . 5( M i n)

The asphalt concrete wearing course mixture shall meet the following Test Criteria: Marshal Compaction, numberof blows each end of specimen Stability Flow,0.25mm (0.01inch) Percent voidsin mix air Percent voidsin mineralaggregates

75 1000 (Min) Kg 8-14 4-7 according table MS-2 to 5.3 (Asphalt Institute USA ), sixth addition, 1993. 20%(Max.)

Lossof Stability

305-3

305.2..{

Job-Mix.Formula At least one week prior to production, Job-Mix Formula (JMF) for the a asphaltic wearingcoursemixtureor mixtures be usedfor the project, to shall jointlyby the Engineer be established and the Contractor. The JMF shall be established MarshallMethodof Mix Designaccording by to the procedureprescribedin the Asphalt InstituteManual Series No. 2 (MS-2), sixthedition'1993 orthe latestEdition. The JMF, with the allowable tolerances, shall be within the master range specifiedin Table 305-1. Each JMF shall indicatea single percentage of passingeach requiredsieve and a singlepercentage bitumen aggregate of to be addedto the aggregates. The ratio of weightof filler (PassingNo. 200) to that of asphaltshall range between1 - 1.5 for hot climateareaswith temperature morethan 40 "C. After the JMF is established,all mixtures furnished for the project represented samplestaken from the asphaltplantduringoperation, by shall conformthereto withthe following rangesof tolerances: Combined aqgreqatesg radation Retair{ed 4 and larger No. Passing 4 to No. 100sieves No. Passing 200 No. Asphalt Content. Weightpercent total mix of + 0.3%

17.0% 14.0% 11.0%

In addition meeting to the requirements specified the preceding in items,the mixtureas established the JMF shall also satisfythe followingphysical by property: Loss of MarshallStability immersionof specimenin water at sixty (60) by degreeC. for twenty four (24) hoursas compared withthe stability measured afterimmersion waterat sixty(60) degreeC. for twenty(20) minutesshall in not exceedtwenty(20) percent. lf the mixture failsto meet this criterion, the JMF shallbe modified an anti-stripping or agentshallbe used. Shoulda changeof sourcesof materialsbe made a new.JobMix Formula shall be established beforethe new materialis used. When unsatisfactory resultsor otherconditions make it necessary, new Job Mix Formulawill be a required. 305.3 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS

Construction requirements this ltem shallconform for with the same as specified Asphaltic for Concrete BaseCourse PlantMix underltem 203.3, except modified thefollowing as in sub-items. 305-4

305.3.1

Preparationof BaseCourseSurface Before spreadingmaterials, the surfaceof the previously constructed and acceptedbase courseon whichthe mix is to be placedshallbe conditioned by application a tack coat, if directedby the Engineer of

305.3.2

Pavement Thickness Tolerances and The asphaltconcrete wearingcourseshall be compacted the desiredlevel to and crossslopeas shownon the drawingor as directedby the Engineer. The tolerancesin compactedthicknessof the wearing course shall be +3mm from the desired thickness shownon the drawings. For determination of thicknessone ('1)core per hundredmetersof each lane will be taken. lf the thickness determined deficient more than three (3) mm, but not so is by more than ten (10) mm, paymentwill be made at an adjustedprice as specified table-1 clause305.4.2.(2) this specification. in of , The surface of the wearingcourseshall be testedby the Engineer usinga 5 meters straightedge seiectedlocations. The variationof the surface at from the testing edge of the straightedge between any two contacts, longitudinal transverse or with the surfaceshall at no point exceedfive (5) millimeters. The cross fall (camber)shall be with + 0.2 percentof that specified,and the level at any point shall be within + three (3) mm of the level shown on the Drawings. All humps or depressionsexceedingthe specified toleranceshall be correctedby removingthe defectivework and replacing with new material, overlaying, by other meanssatisfactory it by or to the Engineer.

305.3.3

Acceptance Sampling and Testing Acceptance of sampling and testing for this ltem with respect to materials and construction requirements, specifiedherein,shall be in accordance not with the relevant, "Tablesfor Samplingand Testing Frequency,' these in specifications.

30s.4 305.4.1

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT Measurement The quantities Asphaltic of wearingcourseshall be measuredby volumein CM. laid and compactedin place. Measurements shall be based on the dimehsion shownon plansor as othenvise as directedor authorized the by Engineer.A toleranceof + three (3) mm shall be allowed in comiiacted thickness wearingcourse.However, of any asphaltin excessof 3 mm shall not be paid and any layerdeficient more than 3 mm but not exceeding by 10 mm shallbe paidas per clause305.4.2 of this specification. (2) The quantityof bitumenmaterialused is includedin the asphaltconcrete mixtureand will not be measured separately.

305-5

of Quantities Bitumenor asphalticconcretewasted or remainingon hand aftercompletion the work shallnot be measured paidfor. of or 305.4.2 Payment 1 ) The quantitydeterminedas providedabove shall be paid for at the pay items listed for contractunit price respectively each of the particular below and shown in the Bill of Quantities which prices and payment , shall constitutefull compensation all the costs necessaryfor the for propercompletion the work prescribed this item.Asphaltadditive of in or antistripping agent, if allowedand used to meet with JMF requirement payment shall not be paid directly, shall be deemedto be includedin the pay respective itemsof Asphaltic wearingcourse.

2\ Ptiaat edil5tmeRt. lf the ttiidkneSS determined per Cla0Se eS 305.3.2of


this specification deficientby more than three (3) mm, but not more is than ten (10) mm, payment be madeat an adjustedpriceas specified will in table-1below:Table - 1
Deficiency in thickness as determined bY cores Proportional Rate of contract Price allowed.

0 . 0m m t o 3 . 0m m 3 . 1m m t o 5 . 0 m m 5 . 1m m t o 1 0 . 0 m m

100% s0%
8Oo/o

When wearingcourse is more than ten ('10)mm deficientin thickness, the contractor shall removesuch deficient areas and replacethem with wearingcourse of an approvedqualityand thicknessor the contractor may opt to place an additional layerof wearingcourse asphalt,grading with a minimum thicknessof 35 mm. The contractorwill receive no compensation the aboveadditional for work. Alternately, Contractor the may chooseto overlaythe area in a thickness of 30 mm (min.)with smoothtransition approvedby the Engineer as on eithersidewith no extracompensation. Pay ltem No.

Description

Unitof Measurement

305a 305b

Asphaltic Concrete for WearingCourse(Class-A) Asphaltic Concrete for WearingCourse(ClassB)

CM CM

305=&

ITEM 306

SHOULDER TREATMENT

306.1

DESCRIPTION This work shall consist of constructing shoulders of the types specified hereinafterin accordancewith the specificationsand in coniormity to the lines, grades thicknessand typicalcross-sections shown on the pl"ns or established the Engineer. by

306.1.1

Definitionof Shoulders That portion of the completed road construction which lies above the 9.!9vati91 the sybgrade or sub-baseand whlch e{eqds frsm the edge of 9f the wearingcourseto the pointof inter-section tne emojntment slopes with on eitherside of the road centerline.

306.2 306.2.1

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS Earth Shoulders The materialused for "Earth Shoulders" shall consistof suitablematerials from roadwayor structuralexcavationsupplementedby additionalsuitable material from borrowexcavation as designated the plansand shall be or on obtainedfrom sourcesapprovedby the Engineer.

306.2.2

Aseregate Shoulders Material used for'Aggregateshoulders"shall be of classdesignated the on plans and shall conform to all the requirements item 201, of "Granular subbase",item 202,'AggregateBase course" or item 206, 'water Bound MacadamBase".

306.2.3

SoiICement Stabilized Shoulders Materialfor soil cement shouldersshall conform to all the requirementsof item 204,"SoilGementStabilized Subbaseor Base',.

306.2.4

AsphalticMaterials Materials for surface treatment of shoulders shall be liquid asphalts, emulsifiedasphaltsor asphaltcement as specifiedor shown on the driwings and in the Bill of Quantities. Asphaltic materials shall conform to all the requirements item 301 for the type specified. of

306-1

306.3 306.3.1

CONSTRUCTION REOUIREMENTS General after All shouldersshall be formed and compactedas soon as practicable the asphalt paving on the traffic lanes is completed,howeverin the case of prior shouldering operation shall not be initiated cementconcretesurfacing, approval. to Engineer's

306.3.2

and delineation Shouldering On projectsthat carry trafficthrough construction, the contractorshall begin shouldering the secondday of the layingof the final roadwaysurfacing on layer, qless wqqlhe1cq[ditions prevent lhis qpeqqtion. wlrch case the !1 shoulderingshall begin as soon as the weather does permii. tt tne within a redsonable contractor fails to beginthe shouldering time after the last layer has been laid, whetherthe projecthas a flow of trafficthrough construction not, the Engineermay order the contractor cease paving or to shall be a continuous work has begun. The shouldering untilthe shoulder from that time on untilcompletion, with the weatherbeingthe only operation delaying factor. The Contractor by shall,on roadsundertrafficor as directed the Engineer, delineate the edge of pavementas soon as the surfacingis untilthe shoulders begunand maintain the delineation are completed.The delineatorsshall be approvedprior to use and shall be placedat the edge of the surfacing approximately hundred(100) meter intervals.The cost at one will subsidiary other items in the Bill of of this delineation be considered to and Quantities will not be paidfor directly.

306.3.3

Earth Shoulders Earth shouldersshall be constructedin accordancewith the applicable paragraphs underltem 108.

306.3.4

Ageregate Shoulders Aggregate shoulders shall be constructgd in accordance with the of requirements ltem 201,202 or 206 whichever shownon the drawings. is

306.3.5

SoiICementStabilized Shoulders Soil cement stabilized shouldersshall be constructedin accordance with the requirements item204. of

306.3.6

AsphalticTreatmentof Shoulders The asphaltic treatment of the prepared shoulders shall be either a bituminoussurfacetreatmentor seal coat or a layer of asphalticconcreteas shown on the plans or in the Bill of Quantities. Detailed construction proceduresfor the particular treatmentspecifiedare outlinedunder item 203, 304,or 305.

3U6-2

306.4

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT The quantities shouldermaterials for and treatmentshall be measuredand paidfor as specified pay underthe pafiicular items in the work listedbelow. The quantities different itemsof work as mentioned of belowshall be added itemsof the billof ouantities. to relative Pay ltem No. 108 a

Description

Unit of Measurement

Formation Embankment of from Roadway Excavation in Commo4Materiq! CM Formation Embankment of from Borrow Excavation in CommonMaterial

108c

CM

108 d

Formation EmbanKment of from structural Excavatron in CommonMaterial. CM Granular Sub Base. Aggregate Base. Asphaltic Base- PlantMix. Class...... CementStabilized Subbase CementStabilized Base Cementcontent LiquidAsphaltfor curingseal,type_ Emulsified Asphaltfor curingseal,type_ Waterbound MacadamBase. CM CM

201 202 203

CM CM CM Ton

204a 2O4b 204c 204d

Ton

204e

Ton CM

206 304

Bituminous Surface Treatment and SealCoat. SM AsphaltConcrete Wearing CoursePlantMix.Class....

305

CM

306-3

ITEM 307

BIT

- MAC

307.1

DESCRIPTION This item shall consist of furnishingand mixing aggregateswith asphalt on compacting an approved binderat site in mobilemixingplant,spreading, pr:imedsubgrade,subbase or base course, for potholes repair, leveling and in course and wearing course in accordancewith the specification shown grade,thicknessand typicalcross-section with the lines, conformity or as directedby the Engineerincludingsealing of cold on the Drawings slurry. surfacecrackswith sand-bitumen bituminous

30'7.2 307.2.1

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS Mineral Aggregate Mineral aggregatesfor BIT-MAC Constructionshall consist of coarse to all and fillermaterial, conforming the following fine aggregates, aggregate requirements:speciftcation which is the materialretainedon No. 4 Sieve Coarseaggregate and Passing 25.4 mm sieve, shall consist rf crushed rock crushed boulder,or crushed gravel. lt shall be clean, hard, tough, sound, durable,free from decomposedstones, organic matter, shales, clay lumps or other deleterioussubstances. Rock or boulders from which coarse aggregates shall be obtained, must be of uniform quality throughout the quarry location. b. which is the materialpassingNo. 4 sieve shall Fine aggregates consistof crushedsand. When combined gradationof coarse and fine aggregatesis in deficient materialpassingNo. 200 sieve,mineraltillershall be shallconsistof finelydividedrock dust added. The fillermaterial cement. At the time lime or hydraulic from soundrock, hydrated free from lumps. dry of use it shallbe sufficiently to flow freely, prompt Aggregate shouldbe storedon hard clean surfaceso as to facilitate inspectionand control. Private propertyshall not be used for storage purposes withoutwrittenconsentof the owneror lesseeand paymentto him Materialshall be stored in such a way as to if by contractor, necessary. preventsegregation and coningto ensurepropercontrolof gradation. The shall and removingaggregates equipment and methodsused for stockpiling of be such that no degradation aggregatewill result and no appreciable into the aggregate. When amount of foreignmaterialwill be incorporated they a containing wide range of sizes are to be incorporated, aggregates MineralFillermust to separately preventintermingling. must be stockpiled cakingand hardening. to from moisture eliminate be protected

307-1

307.2.2

BituminousBinder Asphalticbinderused shall conformto standardspecification petroleum of asphalthavinggrades60-70 or 80-100 penetration.Generallv will meet it the requirement AASHTOM-20,Table301-2. of

307.2.3

DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS optimum Gradingc-urves. differenttypes of hot mix asphalticdesign for relatedto quantumof repairwork and maximumsize of aggregates, given-in Table 307.2-A, must be carefully selectedconsidering averagethicknessof patches. Designsheet undertable No. 307.2,AshowingDense GradedMix used for leveling courses and potholes should use litfle asphalt content of such qllaltity tq prcvenl!-leedlngthrough subsequent wearing course or surface treatment. Designsheetundertable No. 307.2.8.is suitable open graded for wearingcoursehavingroughsurfacetexturewith good skid resistance thus havingminimumbleeding tendency.

307.3 307.3.1

CONSTRUCTION REOUIREMENTS Mixing Requirement Asphalt cement shall be heated to a max. temperatureof 163 degrees centigrade the time of mixing. Asphaltcementheatedabove 163 delrees at centigradeshall be rejected. Temperatureof asphalt shall be checked frequently. Each aggregate ingredient shall be heaiedto temperature 150160 degreescentigrade at leastsix'(6) minutesbeforemixingof asphalt for cement to ensurecompletedryingof aggregates. The range of heatingof aggregatesshall be strictlyfollowed,to ensure propercoatingof aggregates. Fine aggregatesshall be introducedinto the dryer (mixer) rirst rot-towiony the coarseaggregates assurepropermixing. euantityof aggregates to fed dryer (mixer) must be accuratelycontrolledby suitablemeis-uringdevice !o (lron box) having predetermined volume of one (1) cubic fooi or as instructed Engineer. by Both bitumenand aggregates must be heatedbeforethey are combinedin the mixerdrum. Mixing temperature shouldbe keptwithinthe rangeof 140170 degreescentigrade. To achieve uniform mixing and proper coating, aggregatesand asphalt cement must be thoroughly mixed for a minimum durationof ninety (90) seconds. Mixing time shall be prolongedto hundred (100) seconds if coating of aggregates not proper. After one hundredand iwenty (120) is secondsif it is still not possibleto get good coating,the aggregate diin6 time must be increased.

307-2

TABLE 307.2-A

Lr.I.Lc-ArD-p9:]EQl'!s'lBe-llrro onbrcnsnrnrs nonlrr'lsn cn'loso uor vux' non.r'.r]T --f-PENETRATIoN GRADE. 60-70oR 80-100 BTNDER AsPTTALT
A GREGATEIN
MIX

ro rrucxxnsswnlr
REMARKS

FILLER

FINE AGG.

COARSE AGGREGATES

BITUMEN USED.

)ve Sir Size lnch (mm) Soe,ificationRanqe : Allo red % Passinq % b 'Weight Qtv. bv Prooortion. Ranqe Spe :ification Allo ued% Passinq % b 'Weiqht Qty by Proportion.

200 (0.075) 4-12


5 l"/o

No.8 (2.36) 43-56 48

No.4 (4.75) 55-75 65 43%

3/8" (e.5)
00 90-1

1t2" (12.5)

314"

( 1s)

t1" (25)

Layer 4% byWt. Minimum mm Mix. Thickness:-20 of Aggr.max size : 9 mm Rateof Aggr. Appl.:-50 Kg/SM

100
87-1 00 100 4% by Wt of Mix.

3-11
R

30-45 36
46%

46-60 54

72-87

80
54% 4

MinimumLayer 30mm Thickness: Size:-12mm Aggregate Rate Aggr. of 70Kg/SM. Appl.:MinimumLayer 50mm Thickness:Down 20mm Aggr.size:Aggr. Rate of A p p l .1 1 5K g i S M . :

o/o Allc rrted Passinq % t r Weiqht Qty bv Proportion.

Ranqe Sor ;ification

4-11
a

32-46

46-60
CJ

65-80
7'r,

75-88

90-100

38
46%
2

B2
54% 4

'100

by 3.5% Wt, of Mix.

Ranqe Sp( cification o/o Allc rued Passinq % J y Weiqht Qtl bv Proportion.

4-12 8 46%
2

24-37 30

34-47

40

49-61 54 54%
4

57-70 oz

70-87 76

88-1 00

100

3.5%by Wt. of Mix.

Layer Minimum Thickness:-50mm


Down 20mm size:Aggr. Rate of Aggr. 150 Appl.: Kg/SM.

307-2(A)

TABLE 307.2-8

DESIGNSH

HOT NDER 60FILLER FINE AGG.

RW

PENET
COARSEAGGREGATES

EAN ION

THI DE.
BITTJMEN USIiD.

W IT

AGGREGATE IN MIX

REMARKS

SieveSize Inch (mm) Specification Ranqe Allowed% Passinq


% Dy wetght Qty. by Proportion.

200 (0.075) 2-10


o

N o .8 (2.36)

NO.4

3tE"

(4.751 40-50
43 64%
z

(e.5) 88-1 0o
100

112" (12.51

3t4" (1e)

1" (251

4% by WL of Mix.

24-37
36%
1

Minimum Layer Thickness: 20mm Aggregate Max. Size-9 mm Rate of Aggr. Appl.:50 Kg/SM.
rvlililtttultt Lclyul

Specification Ranoe Allowed% Passino % bv Weioht Qty. by Proportion.

1-9
o

14-28
z3

32-45 37

57-70
A?

75-100

31% 1

100

69%
z

3.5%by Wt. of Mix.

Thickness:30mm AggregateSize:-|2n 1m Rateof Aggr. Appl.:70Kg/SM. Minimum Layer Thickness:50mm Aggr. size20mm Dow Rate of Aggr. Appl.:'110 /SM. Kg MinimumLayer Thickness:60mm Aggr. size- 25mm VN Dov Rate of Aggr. Appl.:-135 Kg/SM.

Specification Ranoe Allowed% Passinq % by Weiqht Qtv. bv Prooortion. Specification Ranoe Allowed% Passinq % bv Weiqht Qty. by Proportion.

1-10
o 260/o

14-28

20
1

25-40 32

45-57
5tl

58-70

87-100

65
74%
J

100

3.5%by Wt. of Mix

2-10
o

12-25
41 II

20-35
26

36-51 41
770h

45-60

65-81

23%
1

52

72

82-100 100

3.5% y b Wt. of Mix.

307-2 (B)

301.3.2

holes DeepPatches/Pot under ltem 207, The surfacesof base coursethus preparedas mentioned or as be primedto receiveBit Mac in a thickness per drawings as shall carefully to avoid directed by the Engineer, Bit Mac shall be spread suitedto the size of shall be done with equipment Compaciion segregation. is. recommendedfor small patches. plate compactor -whereas J"d A vibratory' roller may be more practicalfor larger areas. straight edge or of shall be used to check ridingqualityand the alignment the stringlrne patch.

307.3.3

Course Leveling pavement All local depressionscorrugatedsurface, ripples across the courseis placed. Cleanthe area free of beforeleveling shouldbe rectified dust or other loose materialwith mechallca! btoollr-or co{npressedair' Apply light tacK coat, 0.2 to 0.7 litres per square mefel ol Ae 801100 pln&r"ton grade. After dryingdensegradedhot Bit-Macshall be spreadin be in iayer not m6re than seven (7) centimeters thickness. Spread shall and with steel.wheeled and compact to done carefully preventsegregation tyied roller.for smail pot holes hand tempersshall be allowed' fneumatic course. to use stringline checkthe ridingqualityof the leveling

307.3.,1 307.3.4.1

WearingSurface Mini Mixine Plant of usedfor preparation Bitmixerequipment Localmade bitumen4ggregate capacity,capableof condition,of sufficient in good-riroriing Mac shall be to beingoperated producea uniformblendwiththe giveningredients.

of 30'7.3.4.2 Preparation aggregates Aggregatesshall be stored and handledas discussedunder item 307.2, Requirement. Material 301.3.4.3 HaulineEquiDment in Bit-Macmixed materialshall be delivered tight, clean and smooth metal to method as convenient the contractorand or bed hand trolleys, any Engineer by approved the Surlace Pavernent or of 307.3."1.4 Preparation Base Existing surface of base or existing pavementupon whrch Bit-Mac mix is to be air olacedshall be cleanedby means of compressed to removedust or as bY approved the Engineer.

307-3

Primingshalr be done in a manneras describedin item 302. The rate of application prime coat shail be 0.g-1.5ritresp"r of rqu"r"rnut"r. Tack coat shall be done in a manneras described item 303. The in rate of apprication of tack coat shail be 0..2-0.4 litres per square meter. when surface of existingpavement org base is irregurar, shail it ne orougntto uniform 9f grade and cross-section revering by cou-rse describeJ;bJ; as sand bitumensrurryto searthe cracks in crod bituminous surfaceshail be injectedby pressurepumps with nozzres fiiled at the end insteaoof spray pipe in conventional harristrolley. 307.3.4.5 Spreading and Finishing Bit-Macmrxtureshail..be pracedon approvedsurface,struck off to required manuaily with rakes or hand toors by experienced :ggtign foreman, distributedover the entire width or"partial width as r"qirir"o., Al[ mixtures shall be spreadat temperatures ressthan one not rrunoiedand forty (1a0) degreescentigrade.Mixture shallnot be placedon any wet surfaceor when the atmospheric temperature berow is five (s) degreectntrgiale or when the .weatheris foggyor rainy. 307.3.4.6 Compaction Rollershallbe steerwheer, pneumatic or tyred. The roiler(s) shailbe in good working condition,capabreof reversingwithout backrash, capabreto operatedat speeds slow enough to avbid displacement git_lvac. be of The numbe.r and weightof rollerssnitt oe sufficient compactine io mixture wnite it is stillin workabre condition obtaincompaction rngineei,ssatisfaction. to to equipmentwhich resultsin excessivecrushing lhe..us9.of ;;;;;,;i shallnot be permitted. "f After spreading and strikeoff as soon as the mix condition permitthe roiling to be performedwithout excessiveshoving or tearing, the Bit-Mac mixture shalrbe thoroughry and uniformry compact6d.Roilinj wiri-noi'b"proronged to avoidappearance cracks. Roiling be oone of wiil tJnjituJ;;iiy, beginning at the rower side of.the,spreadand-proceeding towaid. in" r,ign"r side, overlapping successivetrips by at least one hilf (112) the width of rear wheelsof roller. Roller shall be operatedat speed srow enougn to avoid dispracement of mixture. To preventadhesion mixture rolrers, of to the wheelsof roilers sharl be kept properlymoist with water, but avoidingexcess *"t"r.-norring shall be continued untilall rollermarkshavebeenetiminated. Along forms, curbs, headers,wails and other praces not accessibre the to roller,the mixtureshail be thoroughry compacted with hot hand tampersor mechanical tampers. Any mixturethat has becomecordenough,mixed with dirt or is defective in any way shall be replacedwith fresh hothixture and compactedto conform the requirement.

347-4

3Q7.4 307.4.r

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT Measurement Unless otherwiseshown on the plans or as directed by the Engineer, quantity BIT-MACshall be measured theoretical by of volumeof compacted mix, in place, in cubic meters. Measurementwill be based on the dimensions as shown on plans or as directed by the Engineer. No measurement will be made for unauthorized areas or for extra thickness than specified.Minimumquantity pot holeshall be 0.05 cubicmeters. for

307.4.2

Pavment T[q aqqepted qua4lttieq lle3surgq aloyQ shall be parq fql et the qqn!1qgt unit price per cubic metersof BIT-MACfor the Pay ltem listed belowand shown in the Bill of Quantities, which priceand paymentshall constitute full for compensation slurryseal,primingand tack coat,furnishing materials, all hauling,placing,rolling,labour,equipment, tools and incidentals necessary to complete item. the

Pay ltem No.

Description

Unitof Measurement

302a 307b

DenseGradedHot BIT-MAC. Open GradedHot BIT-MAC.

CM

CM

307-5

ITEM 308

HOT RECYCLING OF ASPHALT CONCRETE

308.1

DESCRIPTION This item shall consist of heating and removal of the existing asphalt concrete layerto a designated depth,addinga calculated quantity asphalt of binder, adding of freshly prepared asphalt concreteof specifiedquality, mixing, laying and compaction of properly mixed asphalt concrete in thickness and widthas per drawings as directed the Engineer. or by

308.2

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS Materialspecifications coarse and fine aggregates for and asphalt oinoer shall correspond the specification to requirements elaborated under items 203, 300 and 305 respectively.

308.3 308.3.r

CONSTRUCTION REOUIREMENTS Heatingthe ExistingPavement Asphalt pavementshall be heated and softenedby preheaters in built or gas firedheaters, temperatures infrared to between140-170 degreesc.

308.3.2

Scarifving AsphaltCourse Rotatingshaft scarifiers fitted with carbide bits shatlremove asphalticcourse to a depthas specified drawings as directedby the Engineer.scarifiers in or shall be controlled electronic by devicesto ensureremovalof materials a to specified depthand grade.

308.3.3

Mixins of Reclaimed Material Formulafor the admixturewill be based on materialanalysisof existing pavementby bitumenextraction and sieve analysis. Materialto be added may be asphalt binder or aggregate,which will be calculatedto ensure preparation proper of final mix.

308.3.4

Addition of FreshAsohaltConcrete Freshasphaltconcrete specified of designprepared per ltem 203 or 305 as shallbe addedin proportion be established per requirement line and to as of gradesor as directedby the Engineer. This shall be done in conventional way throughdumper-hopper arrangement. Fresh materialshall be carried by drag-slat conveyor into a second mixer. Exact mixing ratio will be achievedby calibrating speed of the electronically the adjustable drag-slat conveyorto the fonruard advancespeed of the remixer. A second mixer shall ensurehomogeneity reclaimed of and fresh asphalt. Engineer shallestablish the ratio of fresh and existingasphalt premix to be relayed, before starting this operation.This ratioshall dependupon the qualityof existingasphafiil concrete.

308-1

308.3.s

Layine and Compaction compactionof mixed asphaltshall be effectedby Laying and preliminary equipment.Screedsshall be screedsof the recycling tampingand vibrating by able to lay the mix true to the levelsand gradesrequired the drawingsor as directed by the Engineer. Compaction shall be carried out by equipmentto achieve ninety seven (97) percentcompaction conventional achievedby the mixedasphaltas compaction with respectto the laboratory method. oer Marshall

308.4

GENERAL REOUIREMENTS controlshall or property for essential workmanship quality Any otherphysical jointly. Physicalproperties the of be fixed by the Engineerand contractor of to the applicablerequirements such fresh m?terial shall correspond in ingredients this specifications.

308.s 308.5.r

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT Measurement The quantityof recycledasphalt shall be measured in cubic meters of such after mixingof otheringredients removedand relayed asphaltconcrete . binderor freshwearingcourseasphalt as asphaltic and paymentof fresh wearing course asphalt or asphaltic Measurement binder shall be made in tons and paid under applicableitem of work separately.

308.5.2

Payment as The quantitymeasured providedabove shall be paid at the contractunit in laid price per cubicmeteras shownin B.O.Q.,acceptably and compacted for place, which paymentshall be deemed to includefull compensation necessary tools and incidentals Labour,equipments, all furnishing materials, the to comolete item. binderor fresh asphaltwearingcourseshall be made Paymentfor asphaltic item of work as given below: underrelative separately Pay ltem No. Description Unit of Measurement

308a 308b 308c

Concrete Recycling Asphalt of (0-60 Thick) CM mm Binder Grade Bitumen (40-50, 60-70, Bo-100) Asphalt Course Wearing -304-2 Ton Ton

TTEM 309

COLD MILLING

309.1

Df,SCRIPTION This work shall consistof milling(cutting) concreteor asphaltic of layerto a designated level and width by means of specialized Equipment, removalof cut materialand disposalas per special provisionor as directedby the Engineer.

309.2

CONSTRUCTION REOUIREMENTS specialized equipment be used for this item of work shall be qapablgof to following operations:
i)

Milling drumshallbe capable levetand gradeadjustments of and it shall have variablespeed provisionto ensure production of smoothor roughmilledsurface. Level and grade control shall be ensured through electronic sensors, capableof givingan accuracy t two (2) mm. of pclaper bars and belt conveyor systemshall ensurepickingand loading milledmaterial a truck. of in

ii)

iii)

309.2.1

Construction Procedure Area shall be earmarked with respect depthof milling, to which shall be split in stripslooking the widthof milling to drum and widthoiarea to be milled. Milling machine shallbe adjusted cut to required to depth. Milling drumshall be correlated sky or-stringline to arrangement ensuremillingiccordingto to required gradeand profile. Millingshall proceedfrom one edge of the road, strip by strip in a manner that may ensureresulting surfaceevenand level. Milledmaterialshall be removedand disposedas per special provisionor as directed the Engineer. by Milled surface shall be cleaned by wire brushes or compressedair for subsequent operation.

309_1

309.3 309.3.1

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT Measurement of The quantity cold millingto be paid shall be measuredby the numberof square meters of area milled and cleaned as described above, as per drawingsor as directedby the Engineer. No allowancewill be given for millingout side the approvedlimit. Any such area milledbeyondapproved at by limits,shallbe reinstated the Contractor his own expense.

309.3.2

Pavment

The accepted quantity measured as -.provded-abave shall be paid al lhe for unit priceper squaremeterof cold milling the pay itemsas listed contract below and in the B.O.Q., which price and payment shall constitutefull to necessary complete and incidentals for compensation labour,equipment the item.

Pay ltem No.

Description

Unit of Measurement

3 0 9a 309 b 309 c

C o l dM i l l i n g , . 3 0 m m 0 0 ColdMilling, - 50 mm 0 ColdMilling, - 70 mm

SM SM SM

_309

ITEM 310 310.1

CONCRETE PAVEMEN:IS
DESCRIPTION This work shall consist of a pavement composed of porfland cement concrete with or without reinforcement as specified constructed on a preparedsubgradeor base course in accordance with these specifications and in conformity withthe lines,grades,thickness and typicalcross_sections shown on the plans. Both plain and reinforcedconcrete shall include deformedbars for contraction joints and dowel bars for expansion joints or as shownon the Drawings.

310.2 310.2:1

MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
LOnCrete

310.2.2

concrete materials shall conformto the requirements indicated item 401 in and as specified hereinafter. additionto it the contractor In shall advisethe Engineerimmediately after the award of the contractof the source of all materialsto be used in proportioning concretefor the work. lf the contractor later proposesto obtain materialsfrom a differentsource,he shall notify the Engineer leastthirty(30)days beforesuch materials to be used. at are ReinforcingSteel concrete reinforcement shall conform to item 404 or as indicatedon the Drawings. lf required, steel fabric for reinforcementof concrete shall conformto AASHTOM 55-73.lt must be supplied sheets. in

310.2.3

Polvthene Sheetins Polytiene sheetingfor placingimmediately below concreteslabs shall be 0.065mmthick or havinga minimumweignt of fifty (50f grams per square 'oi meter (whicheveris greater) made from polythene other approved hydrocarbon thermoplastic resin(produced the polymerization eihylene by of under high pressureand density) and given an inti-static treatment to reduce dust attractionand reduce friction.The sheeting shall have the minimummechanical properties shownin tableas under:

Properties

Machine Direction

Transverse Direction.

TensileStrength MethodASTM D882-73Kgf/SM Elongation Break9,o at Tear Strength Elmendorf Method ASTM DOB9-62 974)-Kgtcl'n2 (1

140 150 390

105 500 310

310.2.1

Joint Filler Joint filler shall consistof cane or other suitablelong fibres of a cellular with asphalt.The asphaltcontentof the joint natureuniformlyimpregnated will not thirtyand fifty per cent. The joint material materialshall be between and is to be of such a character as deteriorate underany weatherconditions twisting, bendingor deformedor brokenby moderate not to be permanently Stripsof the joint fillerwhich do not conformto the other ordinaryhandling. withinthe tolerance two (2) mm for thickness and + specified dimensions 1 (12) mm for depth are to be rejected. damagedstrips are to be All twelve rejected too.

310.2.s

Joint Sealing Compound admFoUndiS to be as BS 2499(1973\typo A1 or A2, or aS Joint SCalinE approved the Engineer. by is The compoundis to be impermeable, to withstandall weatherconditions to withoutcracking, spalling or and is to be capableof adhering the concrete disintegrating will not requirean impracticable and conditionof drynessor cleanliness the concrete of slabs. Where recommendedby the manufacturer the sealing compound,a of primersuppliedby him is to be usedto improveadhesion.

3t0.2.6

DoweiBars Dowel bars shall be cut from mild steel bars and will be approvedby the attention directed the requirement is Engineer.The Contractor's to that one joints,shall end of each dowel bar in all joints,except bondedconstruction likelyto interfere with its be sawn and not shearedso that no irregularities slidingactionin the concrete shall occur.The minimumlengthof the dowel bars spaced at one meter centreto centre or as shown on the drawings, shallbe thirtyfive (35) times the diameterof the bar used unlessotheruuise specified as directed the Engineer. or by

310.2.7

Expansion Caps joints shall consistof pressed Expansion caps for dowel bars in expansion joint fillerboard metalsleevesplugged one end by punching specified at the of a wad of cotton waste of similarcompressibility and sealed at the end againstentry of mortar.The tube shall have an internaldiameterpermitting slidingon the dowelbar but closeenoughto prevententryof mortar.

uo-2

3r0.2.8

Darkenins Agent Darkening agent for the top course of concretepavementsif orderedand specified shall be a carbon black; either as an aqueous dispersion containing least 25% of solids,to be addedto the mixingwater, or as a at powder to be .addedto aggregateand cement.. shall be self-dispersing lt approvedby the Engineeras non-deleterious as giving a grey colour and and shall be addedat the rate of 01% by weightof the mixedconcreteif it is aqueous dispersion. The minimumquantity self-dispersing powder.shall of be 0.025%by weightof the concrete aggregate. The darkening agent shall be free from sulphurtrioxideand from any other matterdeleterious concrete. to

370.2;9

CrackInducine Battens crack inducingbattensshall be of wood or of any other suitablematerial proposedby the Contractorat the time of tenderingand approved of at the awardof the contractor approvedby the Engineer his discretion at afterthe award of the contract. Battensof highlyabsorbent wood or other.material shall be of cross-sectional dimensions shown on the Drawings, and treated to prevent adhesion between them and the concrete.

310.2.10

and Sampling Testins All materialsshall be approvedby the Engineerprior to use in the work. Additionalsamples will be taken and tested by the Employerduring the progress the work to check on the qualityof the materialsbeingsupplied of and/orplacedby the contractor.The resultsof these tests will be available for the contractor'suse, howeverthey are not intendedfor construction control purpose.The contractorshould set up his own test facilitiesor arrangethe same from a prrvate laboratory, assurethat his materials to and workmanship complywiththe specification.

310.3 310.3.1

CONSTRUCTIONREQUIREMENTS Pavement Base The base upon which the concrete pavement is laid shall be leveled compacted and true to the grades and cross-sections shown'on the plans and shalLbeso maintained, provided as undersuch other items throughout the periodof placingconcrete pavement. To ensurethe proper depth and section,a scratchtemplatetrue to depth and sectionand restingon accurately sideformsshallbe movedover the set surfaceimmediately beforeplacingconcrete, and any irregularities shall be immediately corrected. High spots sball be planeddown and the contractor shall have the optionof eitherfillinglow spots to the proper elevation with approvedmaterial,which shall be watered compactedand struck off to the requiredgrade or of placing additionalconcrete. No measurement or payment will be made for such additionalconcrete.

3TO3

Until the subgradehas been checkedand approved,no materialshall be on theieon . Storingor stock pilingof materials the subgradeand deposited placing of surfacingmaterialor laying of pavementon muddy or frozen will subgrade not be Permitted. 310.3.2 Forms Side forms shall be made of metalof an approvedsectionand construction devicesfor securesettingso that when in place,they provided with adequate shall withstandthe impact and vibrationof the compactingand finishing 1.5 not with settlement exceeding mm in three (3) metersform a equipment true planesurfaceon the top of the form and insideface shallnot vary more from a planesurface.The width of the bases of steel than six(6)millimeters forms shallbe not less than their heightexceptthat the forms havinga base not less that two-third(213) their helg[t and mqqtilg q]l olhgqrequlrements -of bays' hereinmay be usedfor manuallayingof non rectangular at of The depthshallbe equalto the thickness the pavement the edge or as shownon the plans.The forms sectionsshall be tightlyjoined by each joint free from play in any direction.These forms shall be stacked with steel Each sectionof stakes and shall be of a lengthapprovedby the Engineer. of shallhavestake pockefat each end and at intervals not more than forms (1:5)metersbetween ends. one and one-half Each sectionof forms shall be straightand free form bendsand warps at all times. Side forms for machineplacingShallhave roltedsectionsteel rails which and finishing shall be of adequatestiffnessto carry the laying,compaction machines. These machinesshall not run on folded sheet metal form tops' The top The forms faces of the forms are to be carefullycleanedand maintained. joints and with flange bracesextending outward shall be withouthorizontal the height of the forms. Each stack on the base not less than twothirds wedge. These pocket shall be equippedwith a positive non-detachable shallbe placedby usingat leastthreesteelpins of the size and length forms or by approved the Engineer as shownon the plans. They shallbe equipped with positivelockingdeviceswhich will permit neat tight joints and do not deform under impact vibrationby thryst. Pins for stackingforms in place as in shall be made of steelat leasttwo(2)centimeters diameter directedby use. in the Engineer caseof impractical Wooden forms may be used for curves havinga radius of less than fifty (50) well seasoned meters.They shallbe made of two and half (2.5)centimeters surfaced planks fastened together and shall be attached securely to a wooden base in width. All wooden forms shall be braced at least every with steel pins of the size and lengthhere in specified. centimeters sixty(60) to formsshallbe set out as chordsto convexedgesand as tangents Straight for concrete outside the concave edges, but payment will not be made curvededgesshownon the Drawings.

31e-4

Before placing forms the underlyingmaterial shall be excavatedto the requiredgrade, and shall be firm and compact.The forms shall have full bearingsupon the fbundation throughout their length and shall be placed with exactnessto the requiredgrade and alignmentof the edge of the finishedpavement. Forms shall be set to the requiredlines and grades well in advance of placingconcrete,preferably less than two hundred(200) meters.Forms not shall not be removedfor at least twelve (12) hours after the concretehas been placed.Formsshallbe carefully removedin a mannerto avoiddamage to the pavement.Underno circumstances the use of pry bars between will pavementwhich in the opinionof the forms and the pavement permitted. be the Engineeris damageddue to the carelessremoval of forms shall be repavedby the contractoras directedby the Engineerat the contractor's own expense. Formsshallbe thoroughly cleaned and oiledeachtime they are used. special forms or other supportingdevices meeting the approvalof the Engineershall be used to supportthe joint filler at transverse'controt ioints when concreteis to be placedon only one side of the filler."when pavement is placed adjoiningexistingconcretepavement upon which the finishing machinewill travel,any irregularities the old pavementshall be grorni in down to a true uniform surface of sufficient width to accommodate the wheelsof the finishing equipmbnt necessary obtainpropersmoothness if to of the pavement. 310.3.3 1. Composition (a)All concreteshall be proportioned weighingand shall conformto the by following strength and mix requirements

i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi)

Compressive Strength, daysminimum 28 Cement content, sacks Kg) (50 Watercement ratio. maximum Slump Entrained percent air, Nominal of aggregate size

250 kg/sq.cm. 7.5 (min.) 0.45 25-75 mm 3+0.6 1rlr" Max.

(b) At least 35 days prior to the start of paving operationsand afler approval of all materials be used in the concrete, contractor to the shallsubmitfor approval,the mix design he intends to use based on proportioned weights of cement, air entrainment agent, saturated surface drv aggregates and water.This mix designwill be testedby the Engineer and approvalwill not be grantedunlessthe averagetwenty eight (2g) days compressive strengthexceedsthe minimumstrengthrequi-remeni lt oy least 15 percent.Howeverthe Engineermay allow pavingoperation on the basis of seven (7) days strengthif he is satistieowitn-tnb resuttsof seven (7) days strength.

table is minimum.lf it is not c) The cement contentgiven rn the foregoing produce concrete of the compressive strength specified it sufficientto under compensation with out additional as shall be increased necessary the contract.
d) The compressivestrength of the concretewill be determined by testing

standard cylinders made from concrete taken from the mixer. The with will be in accordance making,cuiing and testingof the specimens AASHTOT23-73.

for whenthe sourceof any material the e) Duringthe courseof construction, in is any variation the qualityof the concreteis to be changed,or if there tests and necessaryadjustmentsin the materialsfurnished,additional strengths. to be made as required obtainthe specified mix shall 2. ConsistencY of The requiredconsistency the concretemixture shall be such that the properhandling and permitting uniformand plastic, will be cohesive, mixture finish.When depositedit shtlll not flow, but shall remain in a conicalpiie. There shall be minimum of segregationand surplus water during the process of handling and finishing.The slump shall be determinedby AASHTO f 1rc-74 except that during the course of constructioncontrol of concrete may be accomplishedby the ball penetrationas outlined in is AASHTO T1B3-72.Two and a half (2.5) centimeter ball penetration to equivalent a slumpof five (5) centimeters. considered The cement content shall be determinedby means of a yield test in with AASHTOT121-74. accordance 310.3.4 and Mixine Batchins and mixing shalleitherbe batcheddnd mixedat a centralbatching Concrete plantfor either mixing in field mixers at a centralbatching plantor batched adjacentto the forms for slabs,or mixedin a truck mixer.When cementis subpliedin bags, each batch of concreteshall containa whole numberof bagsof cement. i) Batchine Eq'UBrugB! and bulk cement for use in pavementshall be batchedby All aggregates weight by means of automaticdevices of approved type conformingto the reqiirements specifiedbelow:into three sizes,each the aggregates The batchingshall consistof dividing separate bin, of .placin$ the cement in another bin, and of stored in a as theseingredients hereinprovided. recombining

310-6

Material discharged from the severalbins shall be controlled gates or hy by mechanical conveyors. The means of withdrawal from the severalbins anil of discharge from the weigh box shall be so.interlocked that not more than one bin can discharge a time;that the orderof discharge at can be changed as desiredby the Engineer.; and that the weigh box cannotbe trippedrintil the requiredquantityfrom each of the several bins has been deposited therein. should a separate weighbox be usedfor edch size of aggregate, all bins may be operatedand discharged simultaneously. dischargeshall The be so regulatedthat the amount of materialdiscirargedinto thd weigh hppperfrom any bin, with weighingdevicesat rest,will be withintwo (z) ig of the weightcalledfor by the scatesetting the bin. for from the severalbins is controlled gates,eacn gate by Whgn the discharge gherllaqrlgmalcqlly-lockan open or partially in open position irntil the r,equired weight is dischargedinto the weigh box, after which the gate shall automatically closeand lock. scales utilised the batching in devicemay be of the springless type or of dial the multiple beamtype. lf they are the dialtype,the dial shall be of such size and so arrangedthat it may be easilyread from the ground.The automatic weighingdevice of the dial scale shall be so markedthat the numberof proportionirequiredmay be set on the dial at the same time and that proportions may be changed without delay. lf they are the multiple beamtype,the separate beamsshallbe automatically connected the hopper or weigh box in sequence.Multiplebeanr scales to shall be providedwith an indicatoroperatedby the main beam which will give positive visibleevidence over or underweight.The indicator of shall be so designedthat it will.be oTeratedduringthe adcitionof the last seventy kilograms The of hand shall be ai .91any_weighing. overtravet the indicator least one-thirdof the loadingtravel. Indicators shall be enclosed against moisture and dust. The beams or dial of automatic scales shall be so arranged that the weighing units will be in a conlpartmentthat may be toireo at the requirement the Engineer. of It is the intention this specification of that the deviceshall be automaticto the extent that the only manual operation required for combining the ingredients one batchshallbe a singleoperation a switchor a starter. for of All receptacles used for weighingmaterials, together with the scales of any kind used in batching materials, shall be so insulated against vibration the or movement the rest of the plant due to any operating of equipment, that the errorin.weighing the entireplantrunningwiil not eiceed two per cent of with any setting exceedone and a half per cent of any batch. nor

310-7

of materials the same sizegroup,but supplies aggregate of Shouldseparate plant,withdrawals at content,be available the batching of differentmoisture exclusivelyand the material therein shall be made from one supply beforestarting another. on exhausted completely The moisture content of the aggregate shall be such that no visible will take place during transportation of separation moistureand aggregate plantto the pointof mixing.Aggregates containing excess from the batching dry moistureshall be stockpiledprior to use until sufficiently to meet the aboverequirement. of Except where small quantities concreteonly ar6 to be used, when the Engineermay permit othenvise,the equipmentfor batchingof concrete requirements:to shallconform the following materials eonstructedon a firm The betching eqfiBmeff shall bo substantially. lt foundation, highenoughabovetrucksbeingloadedto functionpropedy. hopper. The bins shallhave a shallhavethree(3) binsand a weighing betweenthem of total capacity not less than 100 tons, and the partitions shallextend lessthanone(1)meterabovethe bins.The binsshallbe not equippedwith baffleboards so as to assist drainageof the aggregates and preventthe drainedout water from passingthroughthe outletgate. Al platformshall extendaroundthe weighinghopperfor easy means of adjusiment and weighing. inspection, with arrangements hoppershallhave a singlecompartment The weighing gate opening and with a discharge for readyremovalof excess material, parallel the portlonof receiving trucks.The amountof openingof the to dischargegate shall be readily controlled. Tftere shall be sufficient The clearance all pointsfor the weighinghopperto functionproperly. at dial type of standard weighingscale shall be of the beam or springless designand make, and shall be able to recordthe true weightwithintwo (2) kg at maximumload. The beam type shall have separatebeamsfor and each beam shall have an easilyoperated each size of aggregate, lockingdevice. A dial whichwill show the weightwhen the load is within forty five (45) kg of that requiredand an approvedsignal device shall be provided. The weighing scalesshallbe arranged readystandardization, with for and each scaleshall be furnisheda set of standardweightsincluding seven 25 kg, two 10 kg, two 5kg and two (2) kg weights. For batchersof capacityof hatf (112)cubic meter or less, the standardweight to be The tolerance these furnished to shall be as approvedby the Engineer. scalesshallbe withinthose listedin table 3 of the US national bureauof standardNBS handbook44. The standardweights shall be protected againstthe defacementand injury,and shall be easily to handle and attached.All parts of the weighing devices and appurtenance the of shall be substantially made and shall be maintained batching equipment in properoperating condition. in the opinionof the Engineer, lf any part or all of the weighingdevicesor other appurtenances not satisfactory, are in expense. they shallbe replaced satisfactory the Contractor's at

2 g 4t n - uQ v

In lieu of the automatic devices for controllingthe weighing of the aggregates and bulk cementas described the forgoingspecification in for batching equipment,the Contractormay be permitted to substitute manually controlleddevices, provided approval for such devices is granted the Engineer. by ii) Unloading HaulingEquipment and Aggregate shall be transported from the batchingplantto field paver mixers in batchboxes,vehiclebodiesor othercontainers adequatecapacity of and construction carrythe volumerequired, properly. to Paditionsseparatingbatches shall be adequate and effected to prevent spillingfrom one compartment anotherwhile transit or being dumped. to where cement is storedin bulk;the contractor shall use a suitablemelhod of handlingthe cement from weighinghopper to transporting containeror into the batch itself for transportation mixer, with chute, boot or other to approved device,to preventloss of cementand arranged providepositive to assurance of the actual presence in each batch of the entire cement specified. Loosecementshall be transported the mixerin waterproof to compartments carryingthe full amountof the cement requiredfor the batch or it may be carriedin compartments coveredby the aggregate. Batcheswhere cement is placedin contactwith the aggregates may be rejectedunlessmixedwithin one and a half hours of such contact. Cement in originallyshipping packages may be transported top of the aggregates, on each containing the numberof bags required the job mix. by Batchesshall be delivered mixerseparate to and intact.Each batchshallbe dumpedcleanlyinto the mixerwithoutloss of cement,and when more than one batchis carriedon the truck withoutspillingof materialfrom one batch compartment another. into iii) Batchingto CentralMixing Plant At a central mixing plant, batchesshall be discharged from the weighing, hopperintothe mixereitherdirectly gravity by elevating by or container, large enoughto containthe batch.The plantshallbe arranged ensurethat there to is no lossof cementduringtransfer frdrnthe weighing hopperto mixerdrum. iv) FieldMixins Equipment The concrete mixer shall be a batch mixer so designed as to ensure positive, uniformdistribution materials of throughout mass. The size and the type of mixer used on variousclassesof work shall be as specifiedbelow and shall be approvedby the Engineer. For all work, where the volume of concrete be placedjustifiesit, the mixershall have a capacityof not less to than one cubic meter, shall be of approvedmake and acceptableto the Engineer, and shallcomplywith the following requirements:-

3't0-9

Mixers shall have a locking device preventingthe mixture from being beforethe expiration the specifiedmixingtime; an automatic of discharged locking device preventing materials being placed in the mixer before gate is closed,a regulator that will maintain the rate of speedfor discharge which the mixer has been designed; signaldevicethat will functionwhen a water is added; a verticalwater tank with an automaticdevice that will measure and dischargethe requiredvolume of water; valves to prevent overflowinto the mixing chamberor on to the ground when the discharge valveis closedand intothe tank when open;and valvesand pipingin proper order to prevent any leakage.The automaticdevice for measuringand the discharging requiredvolume of water shall be arrangedto dischargea predetermined volume,to be easilyadjusted discharge largeror smaller to a volume,and to register volumedischarged the accurately a gaugeor dial on whichshallbe calibrated beforethe mixeris used and shall be kept properly calibrated. by-passvalve shall permitthe discharge all the water into a A of meastrriirg calibration. eafl fo-tllc pul.trtossof ThdmEsuTing oflhe volume of water requiredshall be done by means of adjustabledischargedevice onry. The loading skipof the mixershallbe substantially madeand shapedso that wet sand and othermaterials not remainin it when it is beingdischarged. will The mixer shall not be used when any of the devicesabove stated are not properly, when the bladesof the mixer have worn down to or functioning ninety (90) per cent of their originalwidth. The Contractorshall furnish a certifiedstatementfrom the manufacturer to their originalwidth. The as mixershallbe keptcleanand free from hardened mortar. v) Truck Mixers Truck mixersshall be used only when permitted the Engineerin writing. by Eachtransitmixershall have a watertight drum, suitablemountedand fitted with adequateblades capable of properlycombing the mixture.A batch priorto completion mixing meter and lockingdeviceto preventdischarge of on shall be provided each unft.Measuring with outsidetaps tanks,equipped and valvesto facilitatecheckingtheir calibration, shall be providedfor the mixing watgr. All water added to the mixer shall be passed through an approvedwater meter, located betweenthe water tank and mixer drum, equipped with indicating dials and totaliser, and capableof measuringand discharging specified amountof waterwithinan accuracyof one per cent. a The device shall provide means of readilyver,ifying amount of water the added to mixing shall be providedon each mixer. An inspectionopening shall be providedon each mixer, to permit ready determination the of consistency the concretebeing placedin the forms. When pick-upand of throwover bladesare worn down two (2) centimeter more in depth,they or shall be replacedwith new blades.The Contractor shall furnish a certified statement from the manufacturer to the original as depthof the blades. 310.3.5 PlacingConcrete a) General The mixer shall be operated outside of the forms at all times except at locations wherethe Engineer deemsit not feasible do so. to

310-10

When ordered by the Engineer,the subgrade shall be moistened as directed,prior to the placementof the subgradepaper such as polythene sheeting. Concretemixed in centralplant shall be transported withoutdelayfrom the mixingplantto the position layingand any concrete for which in the opinion of Engineerhas been mixed too long before reaching,the work will be rejected and shallbe removed from the site.The concrete shallbe deposited on the subgradein successive batchesfor the full width between forms and in a mannerwhich will requireas littlerehandling possible. as Spreading shall be done by an approvedmechanical spreaderin a mannerthat will prevent segregationand separatiqn of the materials.Necessary hand spreadingshall be done with shovels,not rakes. Workmen shall not be allowedto walk in the freshlymixedconcrete with bootsor shoescoatedwith earth or foreign substances. the amount of materialdepositedshall be sufficientlyin excess of that requiredto form {he pavementto the r.equired cross-section afterconsolidation order to providea roll of concreteahead in of the front screedof the finishing machinefor the full lengthof the screed. concreteshall be thoroughly consolidated againstand alongthe faces of all forms and along the full length and on both sides of ail expansionjoint assembliesby means of vibratorsinsertedin the concrete. Vibratorsshall not be permitted come in contactwith a joint assembly, to the grade or a side form. In no case shaflthe vibratorbe operatedlongerthan fifteen(15) seconds.concreteshall be deposited near to expansion as and contraction joints as possible withoutdisturbing them but shall not be dumpedfrom the dischargebucket or hopper on to a joint assembly.The hopper is well centeredon the joint assembly.Damage to joint assembliescaused by dumpedconcrete shall be repaired immediately directedby the Engineer as at Contractor'sexpense. Trucks delivering concrete shall not run on polythenesheetingnor shall they run on completedslabs until at least fourteen(14) daysafterplacing concrete. the should any concretematerialsfall on or be worked into the surface of completed slab,they shallbe removedimmediately methodsapproved by by the Engineer. Placementof concreteahead of the initialspreaderstrike off shall not be more than fifteen(15) minutesahead of final spreaderstrike-off. concrete lf is placedin one(1)layeronly,the placement concreteshall not be more of thantwenty(2O) minutes aheadof the spreader strikeoff. In orderto secureadequate compaction, concreteis io be spreadwith a the surchargeabovethe finishedlevel of the layer.Spreading, compacting and finishing operations to be completed are withoutdelay. The total time taken from the additionof the water to the mix until the completionof the surfacefinishingoperationsshall not exceed thirty (30) minuteswhen the shade or mix temperatureexceedstwenty seven (27) degreeC or forty (40) minuteswhen less than twentyseven (27) degreeC. The mixing and placing of the concreteshall progress o-nly such a rate at as to permit proper finishing,protectingand curing of the pavement.

310-11

The additivesshall be added to the concretemix so as to ensure more of settingtime. The top of the forms shall be kept free from accumulation concrete or foreign material. The Contractor shall not permit the of accumulation laitancealong the edge of a siab poured adjacentto one previouslyplaced. Any accumulation laitance shall be removed and of As replacedwith fresh concrete. soon as the side forms are removed,the by and any minor edges of the slab shallfirst be inspected the Engineer of honeycombedareasshallthen be filledin with mortarcomposed one part of of cement to two parts of fine aggregateunder the supervision the Engineer. b) WeatherConditions 401.3.6(l) of these duringhot/cold weather,requirements For concreting will specifications be followed. 310.3.6 Placing Reinforcemen( All pavement reinforcement shall be placed as shown on the plans. All marginal bars,dowelbars,and tie bars requiredby the plansshallbe held in proper position by sufficientnumber of metal bar supports or pins as lf approvedby the Engineer. the centerjoint is to be sawedin lieu of placing the metalcenterstrip,the tie bars may be installed mechanically means by of equipmentand methods approved by the Engineer.The satisfactory placementof the tie bars shall depend upon the abilityof the mechanical deviceto placethe tie bars in theirtrue position.. Engineer The may require, placement not obtainedby mechanical'means, the when satisfactory is that aheadof placing tie bars be installed the concreteand that they be securely stakedand tied if necessary hold them in their exact position. to The use of removable devices, supporting barsfrom the forms,will not be permitted. the Following placingof the concrete, the it.shallbe struckoff to conformto the cross sectionshown on the plans and to an elevationsuch that when the consolidated finished, concreteis properly and the surfaceof the pavement will be at the elevationshown on the plans. When reinforcedconcrete pavementis placedin two (2) layers,the entire width of the bottom layer shall be struck-off such lengthand depth that the sheet of fabric or bar to mat may be laidfull lengthon the concretein its final position withoutfurther manipulation. The reinforcement shall then be placed directlyupon the concreteafterwhichthe top layerof'the concreteshall be plabed, struckoff and screeded. Any positionof the bottom layer of the concretewhich has been placed more than thirty (30) minuteswith out being coveredwith the tpp layer shall be removedand replacedwith freshlymixed concreteat the expense.Plain concreteand bar reinforcedbridge approach contractor's pavement may be plaoed in'one(1) layer. Where two (2) layersof wire mesh reinforcement are required,as at bridge position approaches, bottomlayershallbe supported the required the in with bar chairs.Separators shall be used for the top layer if the strikeoff cannot be properlyused for the operation. Laps in adjustment sheets or mats of reinforcement shallbe as shownon the plans. Laps parallel the to

Jtv-lz

et-0 tt
'polaldLUoc suotlelado ale 6urqsrur;pue 0urlalcuoc orll JoUe uorllsod :adold :reql ut uteulat lllm steq lamoporl] pue lurol oql aJnsuao] Jauueu e ut pue alolouoc eqg6urce;d lor.rd o1 ece;dur pouolseJ polels A;e:nces lleqslurofaq1 Jo oq .sueld Japloq eq] llBr.ls lamop uo esealOssaoxaAuy otll uo polBerput uotlcaltpaLllut pualxelleqs pue leploq leMopaq] ul se eprlsol oal] oq lleLls spue peseet6or.ll 'lomopqceajo pue pesea:6aq1 uo paceld aq lleqs sue;deq1uo umor.ls suotsueultp lo anoalsdr;sy aq] 'acedsuorsuedxe eq1 urtllm aJoqM {ue pepriu:ed ;leqsolalcuoc1o sbnld op .eull1q6rel1s aq e [!oJJluauu6r;e le]uoztJoL1 ut sJe]aullllLu xts ueql oJot! o]enep oq] (g) 'qels aq] autpeluac aq] o1 1e;;e.red slamop lou lleqs slurofpeqsrutl atl ]o aLllpue qels luouaned aq1 outpaluac o] Jelnctpued:ad ri;qulasse oLl] sr ]o aLl] ]eL{l uorltsodB q3ns ut pallBlsuloq lleqs lurof aq1 ]o aurUa]uec pue sue;doLlluo paleubrsap edfi e Jo aq lleLls {lquasse lurofe:r1ua aq1 aql lo uoryod leql ol Ou;puoq ulol] olarcuoc aql luanald oLll ^q panoldde se luecuqnl to 'asee:6 preq Ll]rM paleoc Alqbnotoql uaLl]pue sueld eql uo umor1s suotlceJtp Lllyvl oq] ecueplocceut pelured oq lleqsleq lamopqcea Jo q16ue1 Jo Jleqeu6 'lurofaLllJo oulpoluac aLll eq16uole suJoJ luoutanedeql uoamlaqpoLlolalls llprlseurl 6uuls y oq 'le/'Aop 'laaur6u3 o1 'panoual aq

'luauuened aq1lo qldep:edo.rd ol pue uotlcassso:c pelrnbe.r aql otl] ol potltutJl {;elerncce aq lleL1s slulof uorsuedx31e epe.rbqns eq1 sru-!6Jrto-tffiE'ffi]E ^lenoualoloJaqdaap slalaurluac(g) enrl ueL{} ssol lou }uaulanedburlsrxe bunnes epeLuoq lleqs lurofnneu eq1 {q eq1 '1urof burlsrxo le lou st lenouol or.ll uotleutulalaql pue 'luauanednneu ue jo aql q]!Mlcouuoc o1 perrnbe: adfi Iue 1o lueuened burlsrxa le^oujeJ sr Jo Jl 'polpauroJ st IJoMa^tlcolop Jo asnes aLll otll lrlun )rom Jo uorsuedsns asnec oq lllM ':aeul6u3aL{} pautulJolap loJ Iq se 'Jouueurelqrssodlsaq all] ut pue lol palleo se slurof aq] ]onJlsuoc ol aJnlre3 drqsueul4rom lsaq aql qlyvt pue suolleorloads pue sueld aql Jo uo uMoqssltelapoLllr.lllM polonllsuoo lleqsslutof ocueplocce A;1cexa ur aq slurof 'olelcuo3all] qllM loelsaq] puoq rredu-r1 plnoc qctqMlsnl lotLl]lo esool pue 'olecs lllrrtosool 'eseelb Jo '1uted'po 'Ulp slunoule u.loJJ aat1oq lleqs ;ae1s Ourc:olurag Jo leluatuulop 'aue;daues aq] ut sloeqs pat] eq] Jo syed lle ploLl o1teq1a6o1 Jo peualsel (9;) ueeygaq lleqsluauaned eq1 a.gllBtlssleaqsluacefpeaql sleleulrluec aL{} :aqlrede; unururru eql 'sdeltol Jo aurpaluac }o lalleled:o :elncrpuadlad suorsueurp oqs lou op sueldaq111 seale :e;nbelr lo] lo seuelluauened ^ aq11o autpoluao lo sr.ltprm lensnunlo1 ldacxepapruredaq lou lltmlueulaned

r.f'0lc

Jointsfor pavementdesignedfor two (2) or less lanes of trafficshall be pieceor the connections assembled and installed one (1) continuous in between sectionsshall be made rigid and tight to prevent offsets in sectionsof the joints. The lengthof individual piecesof the expansion joint filler shall be not less than the width of one ('l) traffic lane of the pavement. The finishingmachineshall be operatedin a mannerthat will prevenr displacement the joint. lf for any reasonit is necessary straighten of to a joint,any depression causedby this operation shall immediately filled be with fresh concrete, respaded and brought to the original crown in advanceof the longitudinal finishers.Any fluid laitance mortarcaused or by this operation shallbe removedand replaced withfreshconcrete. As the finishing machineapproaches joint on the firsttrip,the excess the concreteshall be shoveledahead and the tamper and each screed,in turn, shall be lifted over the joint. On the second trip of the finishing machine, screedmay be operated the overthe joint. b) Contraction Joints jointsshall be of the type and dimensions Contraction and at the spacing joints shall be cut by means of shownon the plans. Sawed contraction an approvedconcrete saw. The joints shall not be sawed until the concrete has hardened to the extent that tearing and reveling is precluded.All joints shall be sawed duringthe initialcuring periodand the sawingshall begin beforethe pavementstartsshrinkingand before uncontrolled cracking takes place. Any procedurewhich results in prematureand uncontrolled cracking shall be revised immediatelyby adjusting sequenceof cuttingthe joints or the time intervalinvolved the betweenthe placingof the concreteor the removalof the curing media and the cuttingof the joints. In no case shall the pavementbe left overnight withouthavingthe joints sawed. The joints shall be sawed at the depth,spacing, and lines shownon the plans. Guidelines devices or approved the Engineer by shallbe provided ensurecuttingthe joint in a to straightline and perpendicular the centerline the pavement. The to of dust resulting from sawing shall be completely removedfrom the joint and adjacentareas by means of an air jet or a combination air and of water appliedunder pressureimmediately after the joint has been cut, and before filling with joint compound. When the plans specify that dowels be installedthrough contractionjoints,'the subgrade at the joints shall be accuratelytrimmed to the required cross contraction sectionand to the properdepth of the pavement. string line shall be A stretched between the pavement forms alongthe centerline of the joint. Each dowelshall be paintedand thoroughly coatedwith hard greaseor lubricant,in accordancewith the directionshown on the plans or as approvedby the Engineer, preventthe concretefrom bondingto that to portionof the dowel. The entire joint assemblyshall be of the type designated the plansand shall be installed such a position on in that the centerline the joint assemblyis perpendicular the centerline of the of to slab and the dowelslie parallel the slab surface and parallel to the to centerline the slab. The greased ends of the dowelsshall be placed of 310-14

on as in the direction indicated the plans and shall be free to slide in the dowel holder. Any excess hard grease on the dowel holder shall be removed. Joints c) Longitudinal joints shall be constructed conformance with the details in Longitudinal it strip is specified, shall steel shown on the plans.When the fabricated placewith an adequate numberof pins drivenintothe in be held rigidly subgradeto ensure that it will remain true to line and grade during and finishingoperations. On multiplelane pavenientwhere concreting jorntsare constructed the form line,an approved recessed at longituoinar form and tie bars will be required. The full depth fabricatedsteel strip When sawed will for designated otherlongitudinaljoints not be permitted. joints are specifiedor used, suitable guidelinesor devices shall be joint on the true lines as to furnished ensurecuttingthe longitudinal shall of shownon the plans. The sawing longitudinaljoints be performed cracking. Sawedjoints erraticor uncontrolled at a time that will preclude on shall be filledwith the type of joint compoundindicated the plans.The dust resultingfrom sawing shall be completelyremovedfrom the joint of and adjacentareas by meansof air jet or a combination air and water pressureimmediately after the joint has been cut and appliedunder beforefillingwithjoint compound. .Ioints d) Construction joint shall be made perpendicular the centerline of to A butt construction at the pavement the closeof each days work and also when the process concreteis stoppedfor a length of time such that, in the of depositing will have taken its initialset. This the opinionof the Engineer, concrete joint shall be formed by using a clean plank header having a nominal of a of thickness five (5) centimeters, width of not less than the thickness the pavementand a lengthof not less than the width of the pavement. and The headershall be cut true to the crown of the finishedpavement set and held in place in a plane at right angles to shall be accurately to and perpendicular the surfaceof the pavement. centerline with steel as approved The top surfaceof the headershall be protected by the Engineer.On the face along with the center of the header there piece of metal or wood the full lengthof shall be fasteneda trapezoidal (5) centimeterswide and at least twenty five (25) the header, five joint.The headershallhave drilled in millimeters depthto form a grooved Upon specified. the holes to accommodate dowelor tie bars hereinafter any surplusconcreterepaining upon the subgrade of resumption Wort< removedand fresh The headershallthen be carefully shall be removed. againstthe old in such a manneras to avoidinjuryto concretedeposited intothe The fresh concreteshallbe vibrated the edge of the old concrete. joint. groove a manner ensure interlocking an in to

310-15

joints Dowelbars or loadtransferdevicesshallbe used in all construction with the detailsshownon the plans.lf no such detailsare in accordance joint, and shown on the plans,tie bars as providedfor the longitudinal (45) centimeter placed acrossthe spaced at forty-five centers,shall be joint in a plane parallelto the surface of the pavementapproximately midway between the top and bottom surfaces of the pavement. The edges of the joint shall be grooved,edged,and sealedwith the material joints. and contraction usedfor sealingexpansion joint shall be placed within three (3) metefs of an No construction jotnt. expansion, or contraction, otherconstruction e) Sealine Joints a) Materials:Joints shall be sealed with material of the type on designated the plans. Hot PouredJoints:The joints shall be sawed as providedin sub and in item 310.3.7(b) covered provided sub item 310.3.7(c). as After the fourteen(14) or seventeen(17) day curing periodfor the pavementhas elapsed, the jute o6other protective covering cleaned shall be removedfrom the joint and the joint thoroughly of all loose scale, saw dust, dirt, laitance or other matter. Cleaning may be accomplished a compressed jet, air and with air water underpressure, wire brushesor in extremecasesthe joint shall, when directedby the Engineer,be resawedto ensure a completely cleanjoint. The joint surfacesand adjacentareas of the slab shallbe thoroughly clean. The hot pouredjoint materialshall be heated in a heatingunit within the range approvedby the Engineerto the temperature requiredas shown by tests. The joint shall be filled from the bottom of the saw cut to the surface of the pavement.Any joint with a depth greaterthan twenty five (25) millimeters shall be filled with a minimum of two (2) layers, each layer being equalin depth. approximately c) Cold PouredJoints:The jointsshallbe sawedas provided subin item 310.3.7(b) 310.3.7(c) cleanedof all loosesaw dust, & and laitance, dirt,otherforeignmatterand free water. The joints shall be filled immediately after cleaning. The nozzle used must be so designed from that the joint is filledcompletely bottom to top. The joint shall be filled so it is roundedon top about six (6) millimeters above the pavement surface. lmmediatelyafter the joints have been filled, they shall be covered with strip of nonabsorotive paper at least four (4) glassline heavycraftis centimeters wide. Eleven(11) kilogram or suitable.The paper shall remain on the joint until it weathers or wears off.

b)

310-16

fl Permanent HeaderBoard lmrnediately after the forms are removed from the ends of concrete pavementthat will be exposedto other than permanent type surfacing and temporary and permanent traffic,a headerboardhavingdimensioni of not less than eight rs) centimeters (nornirrar)by twenty (20) centimeters shall.be bolted securelyto the end of ttre pavementin a mannerto protect. gdoe of the pavementfrom damage.The header !!e boardshallextend.the roadway fulr width,but may be in tilo (z) sections. nt lhe time of ptacing concrete, six (6) (threefor each tane),thirteen the (13) millimeters twenty (20) centimeters by bolts shall be embeddedin the end of the pavementin a manner that will hold the header board securely. The headerboard shall be shapedto conformto the crown of the pavementand shall be installedflush with the concretepavement surface.The finishingand installing the'header board shall of be c.rnsidered subsidiary-worrpertiiniig to the other items in the Bill of Quantities will not be paidfor direcily. and The headerwiilnot be required concretebasecoursework. on 310.3.8 Consolidatins Finishins and After being spreadand struck-offas providedin sub-item310.3.5"placing concrete,"the concreteshall be furtherstruck-off and consolidated with an approved finishing machine to such an elevation that when finishing operatiorrs completed, surfacewill conformto the required are the gradeand crown.The finishingmachineshall operateover the entire'surface at least twice,the first time with the finishingmachinetamper ano notn screedsin operation. uniformroll.of concreteapproximatelyfifteen A (15) centimeters abovethe pavement gradeshall be maintained aheadof the front screedfor its entire length during the first trip over with the finishing macnine.' Excessive tampingor finishingresurting bringing in of mortar to the surfacewill not be permitted "n """"ii After the last pass of the finishing machine, a mechanicaltongitudinal finisher shall be operatedover the concrete surface.The forurard motion of the longitudinal finisher-shall so adjustedthat the screedwiil pass over be each portionof the surfaceat leasttwlce. The longitudinal finishershall be operatedin a mannerthat will preventexcessives[imping of the concreteat the form lines or the metal center strip or the loss of the crown of the pavement. necessary when orderedby the Engineer, lf or the finishershall be operated one direction in only or shall be operated from only the form to -."ttion the centerlinein order to ensure that the proper .ro.. of the pavementis obtained. The leadingedge of the screedshall clearthe forms upon completion each.transverse of pass in order to clear the pavement surfaceof any laitance thin mortar. or In general,the additionof superficial water to the surface of therconcreteto ass.ist finishing in operations not be permitted.tf the apptilaiion water will of to the surfaceis permittedby the Engineer,it shail oe apptieio as a fog spray by meansof approved sprayequipment.

310-17

As an alternativeto the longitudinal finisher,the contractormay use a machinecomposedof a cuttingand smoothingfloat, or floats,suspended from and guidedby a rigidframe. The frame shall be carriedby four (4) or morevisiblewheelsridingon, and constantly contactwith,the sideforms. in when directedby the Engineer, following one of the preceding methodsof longitudinal finishing, long-handled floats havingbladesnot less than one and one half (1.5) metersin lengthand fifteen(1s) centimeters widthshall in be used to smooth and fill in open{exturedareas in the pavement,Longhandled floatsshallnot be usedto floatthe entiresurfaceof the pavement in ileu of, or supplementing, one of the precedingmethods of longitudinal finishing. when the longitudinal finishing beencompleted, entiresurface has the shall be testedwith straightedges less than three (3) metersin length. not The straightedges shall be operatedparallelto the pavementcenterline starting at the center and progressingtoward the forms. Advance along the pavementshall be in successive stagesof not more than one half (l/2) the length of the straightedges. laitance,surpluswater, and inert material All shallbe removedfrom the surface. high placesshallbe workeddown and All all low placesfilledby combined operations floatsand straight of edges until no irregularlties exist.The propercrownof the pavement shallbe maintained throughout operations. the After floatingand straightening been completed, has the concreteshall be finishedby using a belt made of canvas,rubber,or other approvedbelting not less than fifteen (15) centimetersin width, nor less than sixty (60J centimeters longerthanthe widthof the pavement. This belt shallbe worked with a longitudinal crosswise and motion. care shall be exercised the use in of the beltto ensurethat the edgesof the belt do not dig intothe surfaceof the concreteor work the crownout of the pavement. Eithermachinebelting or hand belting be permitted. will As soon as all excessmoisturehas disappeared, and whilethe concreteis stillplasticenoughto make a granular surfacepossible, drag shallbe used a whichshallconsistof a seamless stripof damp burlapor cottonfabric,which shall produce a uniform surface of gritty texture after dragging it longitudinally alongthe full width of pavemlnt. For pavement(5) metersor more in width,the drag shall be such that a strip or burlapor fabricat least one and one half (1.5) meters wide is in contact with the full width of pavementsurfacewhilethe drag is used. The drag shall be maintained in such conditionthat the resultingsurface is of uniform appearanceand reasonablyfree from grooves over two (2) millimeters in depth, as determined the Engineer. by Dragsshall be maintained clean and free from encrusted mortar.Dragsthat cannotbe cleanedshall be discarded and new dragssubstituted. After dragging surfacewith burlap, the the concreteover the expansion joint fillershall be completelyremoved and the joint finished. The edgei of the concrete at expansionjoints. shall be finished with an edgerto the

310-18

radius shown on the plans. The exposededge of the pavementshall be finishedwith an edger to a radius of six (6) millimeters. Any tool marks appearingon the slab adjacent to the joints or edge of slab shall be eliminated draggingthe surface.In doingthis, the roundingof the corner by of the slab shallnot be disturbed. 310.3.8.1 HandFinishine Unless otheruuise specified,hand finishingmethodswill not be permitted excep_t underthe following conditions: i) In the event of breakdown the mechanical of equipment,hand methodsmay be usedto finishthe concrete alreadydeposited on the grade when the breakdown occurs, and no additional concreteshall be placeduntilsuch equipmentis repairedto the satisfaction the Engineer. of Narrowwidthsor areas of irregular dimensions where operation of mechanicalequipmentis impractical determinedby the as Engineer,may be finished approved by hand methods.

ii)

iii) Short lengthsof pavement, such as bridgeapproachpavement, where the operation mechanical of equipment impractical is may be'finished approved by handmethods. Concrete,as soon as placed, shall be struck-offand screeded.An approved portable screed shall be used. A second screed shall be providedfor striking off the bottom layer of concrete if reinforcementis used. The screedfor the surfaceshallbe at leastone (1) meter longerthan the maximum wiOtn ot the slab to be struck-off.lt shall be of approved design,sufficiently rigid to retainits shape,and be constructed eitherof metalor othersuitable material shodwith metal. consolidation shall be attainedby the use of a suitablevibratoror other approved equipment. In operation the screed shall be moved forward on the forms with a combinedlongitudinal transverse and shearing motion,movingalwaysin the directionin which the work is progressing and so manipulated that neither end is raisedfrom the sideforms duringthe striking process. off lf necessary, this shall be repeateduntilthe surfaceis of uniformtexture, true to grade and cross section,and free from porousareas. Afterthe concrete has beenstruck-off, shallbe furthersmoothed, it trued, and consolidated means of a longitudinal by float. The hand operated longitudinal float shall be not lessthan threeand one-half(3.5) metersin lengthand fifteen(15) centimeters width,properly in stiffened prevent to flexing and warping.The longitudinal float, operatedfrom foot bridges resting on the side forms and spanningbut not touching the

310-19

shall be workedwith a sawingmotion,while held in a floating concrete, from one and passinggradually poiition parallelto the road centerline, aheadalongthe centerline to side of the pavement the other,Movement advancesof not more than one shall be in successive of the pavement of the float. Any excesswater or soupy materialshall nalt ttizl the length be wastedoverthe side forms on each pass' floats having bladesnot the long-handled At the optionof the Engineer, meters in length and fifteen ('15) less than one and one rratt 1t.s; centimeters in width may be substituted for the hand operated float. longitudinal for All other operationsafter this substitution the mechanicalequipment described' in shallbe performed the mannerpreviously concreting operationshall be performedonly in daylight,under no at placedor finished night. shallconcretepavement circumstaices

3r0.3.9

Forms Removing provided, forms shall not be removedfrom freshlyplaced Unlessotherwise concreteuntil it has set for at least twelve (12) hours, except auxiliaryforms so in used temporarily widenedareas. Formsshall be removedcarefully as pavement. After the forms have been removed,the to avoiddamagbto the sides of tfre ltab sfrait be cured as specified for the surface. Major areas will be consideredas defectivework and shall be honeycombed expense, as directed by the and replaced at the Contractor's removed Engineer.Any area or section so removed shdll not be less than three (3) When it is r"i"ts in lengtnnor less than the full width of the lane involved. pavement,any remaining necessaryto remove and replace a sectionof to portionof the slab adjacent the jointsthat is less than three (3) metersin shallalso be removedand replaced. length,

Pavement and 310.3.r0 Protecting Curing of Concrete a) Initial Curins the finished, initial pavement progressively is As the surfaceof the newly-laid shallbe started. operations curingand protection and whilethe surfaceof concreteis operation the Upon completion finishing by approved moist,but no free water remains,a liquidcuringmembrane still pavement the at shallbe appliedto the exposedsurfaceof the the Engineer (3-213) squaremeters rate nol lessthan one (1) litreper threeand two-thirds are pressure distributors used.The curing of surfaceareawhen mechanical membrane, except on irregular areas, shall be applied by means of or pressuredistributors approvedhand mechanical approvedself-propelled means shall be provided for thoroughlymixingthe .piuyt. Satisfactory

310-20

curing membranecompoundbefore and during its use. The mechanical sprayingequipmentmay be either a full width spray bar equippedwith multiple nozzles or a traversingspray which travels from one edge of the pavement the other.In eithercase the path of adjacentnozzles passes to or of the traversing sprayshalloverlapa minimumof one-half (112) widthof the the spray patternso that all portionsof the surface shali receivedouble applications from adjacentnozzlesor passes.The pumping,pressureand distributionarrangementshall be correlatedwith the foruvard speed to provideadequate and uniformcoverage the pavement not lessthan the of at minimumrate required. lrregularareas to which the mechanical distributor cannotbe adaptedmay be covered with hand sprays. when hand spraysare used,the curing membraneshall be appliedin two (2) applications, each at a rate of not less than one (1) litre'per five (5) squaremetersof surfacearea so as to providea total rate of application'oi one (1)litre pertwo and one half (2-112) squaremetersof surfacearea.The path o! the spray on the secondapplication shall be at right anglesto the path of the spray on the first application. when hand ope-rated iprays are permitted,-the equipment supplying pressure the.spraynozzleshall the to be capableof supplying constant a and uniformpressure provide to uniformand adequate distributionof the curing membrane compound at the rate required.lf from any cause,such as rain-fallsoon aftei its application, the curing membrane is damaged, the contractor shall immediatelyapply anotherapplication curingmembrane the surfaceof the pavement. of to The rate of application the replacement for membraneshall be the same as for the original membrane. Unless othenruise directed by the Engineer, immediatelyfoilowing the application the curing membrane,an approvedshade-canvas of shill be placed. approximately thirty (30) centimeters above the pavementsurface. The shade-canvas shall be constructedof materialsand in a manner approvedby the Engineer. no case shall any portionof the shade-canvas In come in contactwiththe pavement. The initialcuringshallbe continued a for period of twenty four \24) hours from the time the curing membrane is applied. when forms are removed,whether during the initial or the final curing period, edgesof the pavement the shallreceivecuringmembrane the rate at of coverage specified the pavement for surface. The curingmembranemay be appliedto the verticaledgesof the pavement by means of hand sprays or by nozzles attached to the mechanical distributor, but the edges of the pavementshall be covered with curing membrane the ratespecified at withinthirty(30) minutesafterremovalof the forms. when cold-poured joint compoundis used, all joints shall be sawed during the initialcuringperiod.The shade-canvas may be moved at joint locations for short periodsof time to permitthe sawing.Beforebeingseiated, joints the shall be thoroughly cleanedof all loosesawdust, laitancel dirt,otherforeign matter, and free of water.As the methodof final curing is different

310-21

from that of the initial curing,the cleaningand sealing of joints shall be at performed the following removalof the shade-canvas the end immedlately of period and prior to the application the polyethylene of the initialcuring sheeting. joint compound used,the jointsshallbe sawed,cleaned, is When hot poured protective materialin the same time and filledwith jute or other acceptable joints. as sequence for cold-poured In no case shall any portionof the concretepavementbe exposedto the directrays of the sun for morethan one (1) hour. jointingoperations, curingmembraneshall be appliedto the joint Following surface. for area at the ratespecified the pavement b) Final Curine has of Upon completion the initialcuringperiodand after the shade-canvas jointingoperationhas been completed,the pavement been removed and shall be completely covered with White Opaque Polyethylene Film as sheetsshall be lappeda minimumof in specified AASHTOM 171.Adjoining shall be held in place in a manner The sheeting forty five (45) centimeters. by approved the Engineer. untilthe concretereachesan age of fourteen Finalcuringshallbe continued film ('14)days. During this period,the curing membraneand polyethylene protectedfrom damage from any cause. Any damage from one shall be at repairedby the Contractor his expense.No cause shall be immediately shall be allowedon the surface workmenand pedestrians, traffic,including of untilthe expiration the fourteen(14) daycuringperiod. of the pavement may When concreteis beingplacedduringthe time that the air temperature be expected to drop below fifteen (15) degrees C, a sufficient supply of burlap, straw, hay, or other suitable blanketingmaterial shall be provided a and maintain minimumtemperature alongthe work to protectthe concrete as fifteen(15) degreesC in the concrete measuredon the surfaceof the of pavement. An approved moisture barrier such as wet burlap or plastic sheetingshall be placed on the concreteprior to placing the blanketing for This type of cure shall be maintained a periodof seventytwo material. above,a final (72) hours as the initialcure.After the initialcure as specified for abovemay be used. The final cure shall be maintained cure as specified (14) days, thus making a seventeen(17) day curing a period of fourteen periodfor coldweatherconcreting.

310.3.11

ToleranCe Surface As soon as the concretehas hardenedsufficiently, the pavementsurface shall be tested with a three (3) meter straightedge or other specified devices. Areas showing high spots of more than three (3) mitlimeters, but not exceeding twelve (12) millimetersin three (3) meters between

310-22

any two contactpoints,shall be markedand immediately grounddown with an approvedgrindingtool to a toleranceof less than three.(3) mm as described above.where the departure from correctcross sectionexceeds twelve(12) millimeters, pavement the shall be removedand replaced byand at the expenseof the Contractor. Any area or sectionso removedshall be not less than three (3) meteis in lengthnor less than the full width of the lane involved. when it is necessary to removeand replacea sectionof pavement, any remaining portionof the slab adjacentto the joints that is tess than three (3) meters in length,shall also be removed and replaced the Contractor,s at expense. 310.3.12 Testsfor Thickness Pavement of and Degree of.Compaction i) Thickness Pavement of The Employer will not be liablefor paymentof any excess in thicknessof depthof pavement.Duringthe progress the work, the thicknessor depth of of pavementwill be determinedby the Engineerfrom cores cut from the concretepavement the contractor.The cost of guttingand recovering by all the cores describedin this clause and the followingparagraphshalf be deemedto be included the ratesand pricesfor porflandcement concrete in Pavement enteredby the Contractor the Billof euantities. in Unsatisfactory work shall be repaired,replaced,or will be paid for at an price,as follows: adjusted a) One 15cmdiametercore will be removedby the Contractor from each lane, at such locationsas the Engineermay direct, and shallrepresent morethan 1000SM of pavement not area.A lane shall be considered the pavementsurface betweenlongitudinal joints, a longitudinaljoint pavement or and edge. lf any core measurement deficient is more than 6.5 mm from the requiredthicknessa core measurement shall be taken at each 30m interval both directions in longitudinal from the first deficient core in the same lane, as definedherein,until the thicknessof the pavement foundto be not morethan 6.5 mm deficient is from the requiredthickness.Each deficientcore shall be considered as representing the'condition the same lane or longitudinal in section, as above defined, for a distance of 15m, in each direction longitudinally from the core. c) Sections pavement of whichare deficient thickness, in as determined cores, by an amount more than 1.3 cm shall be by removedand replacedwith pavementof the specified thickness at the expenseof the Contractor. The removaland replacement shall startat the determinedpoint of deficiency and proceed longitudinally hereinafterspecilied, until the pavement is as to be not more than 6.5 mm Ueficientfrom the required thickness.The old reinforcingsteel shall be left extended a sufficient distanceso as to allowthe new reinforcement steel to be lappedwith the old, the required distance be weldedto the to satisfaction the Engineer. of

b)

310-23

d)

The removal and replacementsof pavements shall extend is the transversely full width each lane in which such deficiency found. spot shall within two (2) meters of the deficiency All pavements be removed,except that When any joint is more than two (2) to shallthen be removed the nextjoint' all meters, pavements Sections of pavement which are deficient in thickness, as determined by measurement of cores in accordance with AASHTO T14il-49, by an amount more than 6'5 mm, but not i"norethan 1.3 cm, will be paid for at an adjusted price as in specified TableBelow: DEFICIENCY IN THICKNESSAS DETERMINED FROM CORES Proportional Part of Contract of Contract Price to be allowed. 95% 75%

e)

Thickness

3 00 mmto 6.5mm 6 . 5m mt o 1 3 m m

of ii) Degree .ComPaction to according the The coresthat have been cut from the concretepavement (i) above shall be examined by the Engineer's requirements of to Representative check the degree of compactionachievedthrough the of and to check the effectiveness the bond betweenthe top and bottom sla'b courseconcrete. Should any core reveal that any part of the slab has not been adequately concreteand should or honeycombed segregated compactedby revealing be bottomlayersof concrete suchthat a plane the the bond between top and cores shall be taken to check the present,then adOitional of weaknessis laid down to concretepavementaccording the procedure areas of defective the areas of concretepavementdeficientin (i) above for determining in compaction. Any areas of defectivepavementconcreteso found shall be replacedwith expense' OWn with this sectionat contractor's new concretein accordance the right to carry out crushingtests on any or all of reserves The Engineer with this clause,and shouldthese conirete cores taken in accordance the tests show that any area of pavementconcrete has failed to meet the then such areasof concreteshall of strengthrequiremenis the specificatibn, with new concrete,mixed, laid, compactedand and replaged be re-moved own expense' of to finished the requirements this sectionat contractor's

310-24

iii) Refillineof Holes Holes in the pavement. createdby the cuttingof cores shall be thoroughly coatedon the insidewith a neat cementgrout and shall then be filledilith concrete the same mix as shownin the pavement. The fillingshall be in of two-equal layersand each shall be rodded25 times to its full-depth.The surface shall be finishedflush and broomed. The surface shall be kept thoroughly for 72 hoursthereafter. wet 310.3.13 Replacement Defective of Concrete Any concrete not complyingwith the specification shall be cut out and replacedin accordance with the specification over the full width of the slab between longitudinal jointsand over a lengthextending construction between jointseach of a typeotherthan a warping two transverse foint. 310.3.14 Concrete Anchors Lug "concrete Lug Anchors" shall be constructedin accordance with the dimensionsand notes and at the locationsshown on the plans. unless otheruvise indicated on the plans, the class, composition,consistency, proportioning, batching, mixingand curingof the concreteused in concreie lug anchors shall conform to the sarne requirementsas the concrete pavement. Reinforcing steel,concreteand excavation lug anchorsshall for be subsidiary the Billof euantitiesitem "concreteLug Ancliors." to 310.4 310.4.1 MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT Measurement The unit of measurement for paymentshall be the cubic meters of the completed and accepted poriland cement concrete pavement, as measured in place.The numberof cubic metersof the completedporfland cement concrete pavementshall be determinedby the rengin measured along the centre line and upon the surfaceof the roao, times"ihe width as snownon the Drawingsplus the areas of any wideningon curves, turnouts and intersection, authorizedand measured-separateiy.Measurement of pavement thickness will be ensured by erecting shutters for screeding concrete required at level. The unit of measurement bridgeApproachslabs shall be the for square meters of the area actuallyconstructedin accordancewith the Drawings or as directed writingby the Engineer. in concrete Lug Anchorsshall be measuredby the linearmetersin prace, the measuringbeing made along the centerlineof the concrete lug anchor transverse the pavementcenterline. No measurement to will be made of unauthorized areasor for extrathickness.

310-25

310.1.2

Payment The number of cubic meters of Portland Cement Concrete Pavement, measuredas specifiedin sub-item310.4.1above , will be paid for , at the pricetenderedper cubicmeter in the Bill of Quantities, adjustedas specified which priceshallincludethe cost of constructing, in for deficiency thickness, as curing,protecting and cleaning the pavement above described; finishing, preparation subgradeto receivethe pavement; construction all of of the the joints of whatevertype; cutting of cores and fillingof holes, all materials, includingjoint filler and other material, equipment,labour and all else and all otherwork in connection therewith and incidental necessary therefor, and Drawings. Reinforcing there to in accordancewith the specification steel shall be measuredseparatelyunder relativeitems of work. ApproachSlabs,will be paidfor at the The numberof cubic metersof Bridge price tenderedper cubic meter in the Bill of Quantities, which price shall the the finishing, curing,protecting and cleaning include cost of constructing, of the slab as abovedescribed; surfacepreparation the sub-baseto receive the slab; the constructionof all joints of whatever type; all materials, joint filler and other joint material, labour and all else equipment, including therefor, and all otherwork in connection therewith and incidental necessary withthe Specification Drawings. and theretoin accordance

Pay ltem No.

Description

Unitof Measurement
CM

3 1 0a 3 1 0b 3 1 0c

Plain Concrete Pavement

Concrete PavementCM Reinforced Lug Concrete Anchors


M

310-26

ITENI 3I I

ASPHALT CONCRETE WEARING COURSE (PLANT MIX) WITH CELLULOSE FIBRE.


DESCRIPTION The work shallconsrst furnishing of aggregates, asphalt binder and cellulose fibre at a control asphaltbatching plant,'mixed a specified at temperarure, spreading and compacting mixture an approved the in manner primedor on tacked surface of base, subbase,bridge deck or concretepavement,in accordance with these specificationr a'io in conformity with lines, grades, typical cross-sections, shown on the drawings or as directed by the Engineer.

3l l.l

311.2 3lt.2.l

MATERIALS REQUIREMENTS VlineralAggregates


a ) Coarse Aggrcgates

coarse Aggregatesshall be crushed, non-absorptive stones and unless othenvisestipulated, shall conformto the followingqrialityrequirements of AASHTOM 283 for classA aggregates: 1. Los A.ngeles abrasion, AASHTOT 96 2. Flatand Elongated Parlicles, ASTM D 4791,Comparinq tenqth to (measured mate ial thickness on retained abovethe No. 4 sieve) 2.5:1 3. Sodiumsulfate soundness loss (5 cycles), AASHTOT 104 4. Particles. retained the No. 4 sieve on shallhave at least one fractured face, two fractured faces 5. Absorption, MSHTO T 85 6. Coarse and finedurabilitv index. AASHTOT 210 30% max.

15 oh max. 15 oh max.

1 0 0% m i n . 75 % min.
2 o/orfax. 40 o/omix.

Mixeswith relatively pure carbonate aggregates any aggregates or knownto polish shallnot be used. h) FineAggregates Fineaggregate shallconsist a blendof 100% crushed, of manufactured sancl. lt shallconform the quality to requirements MSHTo M 20. The sodiumsulfate of soundness loss in 5 cyclesshailnot exceed15 percent. addiiion, liquid ln the iimitshallnotexceed as determinecl AASHTO g9. 25 bv T
Jti-l

Aggregates c) Combined fractions courseand fine for the mixtureshall be of The severalaggregate sized, graded, and combined in such propotlions that the resulting to btendconforms Table-Abelow. comoosite Table A AASHTOT 27 &f 11) (Percentage WeightPassing Sieves, by Sieve Designation 3/4 in. 1t2 3/B No.4 N o .B No. 30 No. 50 No. 200 0.020mm PercentaqePassinq 1 0 0% 85-95 60-75 20-23 16-24 12-16 12-15 8-10 3*

lessthan

* To be controlled a combination aggregate mineral taken filler and of from samples. stockpile fromrepresentative

3rr.2.2

AsphaltCement a) AsphaltCementshallbe AC-20or similargradeand conformto AASHTO M 226. as to b) AsphaltCementshallbe mixedat a temperature required achievea kinematic viscosity of 150 to 300 centistokes.Typical plant mixing -325oF and at no time shallthemixing temperature is temperature 310o exceed325 "F.

31t.2.3

Mineral Filler a. Mineralfiller shouldconsistof finelydividedmineralmater such as rock At or limestone dust or other suitablematerial. the time of use it should free from agglomerations. dry be sufficiently to flow freelyand essentially index and have a plasticity Fillershould be free from organicimpurities than 4. Fillermaterialforthe mix shall meet the requirements not.greater ofAASHTOM 17. b. Commercialmineralfiller added to the mixture,shall be limitedto less than20ohof its weightsmallerin sizethan 0.02 mm.

31r.2.4

Fibre Cellulose is Dosageratesfor cellulose fibre is to be utilized. cellulose Fibrestabilizer, tolerances fibre dosageshall of 0.3 % by weightof the total mix. Allowable fibre weight.The selectedfibre shall meet the be +/- 10 % of the required properties in the described Table-Butilizing listedtest procedures.

311--2

Table B C E L L U L O S E I B R EP R O P E R T T E S F
1 ) SieveAnalysis
d.

Method - AlpineSieveAnalysis: A FibreLength: Passing No 100sieve MethodB - MeshScreenAnalysis; FibreLength: PassingNo. 20sieve No. 40 sieve No.140 ieve s 0.25"(Maximum) 85 oh(+l- lgo1"1 65 % (+l- 1go 1 30 % (+t- 10%) 1B% 1+1non-volatiles) 7.5 (+l--.9; 5.0 (+l- 1.9; (timesfibreweight)
<50

0.25"(maximum) 70 % (+1-19 o1"1

2) Ash-Content: 3) p H : 4) OilAbsorption: 5) Moisture Content.


l a) Method A - Alnine Sieve Analvsis

This test shall be performed usingas AlpineAir Jet sieve (Type200 LS). A representative gram sampleof fibre shall be sievedfor 14 minutesat a five controlled vacuurnof 22 inches(+/- 3) of water.The portionremaining the of screenshallbe weighted. b) Method B - Mesh ScreenAnalvsis be Thistestshall performed usingstandard No. 20,40,60,g0, 100 and 140 sieves,nylon brushesand a shaker.A representative gram sample of 10 fibreshallbe sieved,usinga shakerand two nylonbrusheson eacn screen. The amount retainedon each sieve shall be weighedand the percentage passingcalculated. Repeatability this methodis suspectand needsto be of verified. 2) Ash Content A representative gram sampleof fibreshallbe placedin a tarredcrucible 2-3 and heatedbetween1100oF not less than two hours.The crucibleand for ash shallbe cooled a desiccator reweiqhed. in and 3) pH Test Fivegramsof fibreshallbe addedto 100 ml of distilled water,stirredand let set for 30 minutes. The pH shall be determined with a probecalibrated with pH 7.0 buffer.

311-3

4) OilAbsorptionTest Five gramsof fibreshallbe accurately weighedand suspended an excess irt of mineralspiritsfor not less than five minutesto ensuretotal saturation. lt will then be placed in a screen mesh strainer(approximately square 0.5 millimeterhole size) and shaken on a wrist action shakerfor ten minutes (approximately- l14inchmotion 1 at24Oshakes/minute). shakenmass The shall be then transferredwithout touching, to a tarred container and weighed. Results shallbe reported the amount(number timesits own as of weight)the fibresare ableto absorb. 5) Moisture Content Ten gramsof fibre shallbe weighedand placedin a 250" forcedair oven for two hours.The sample will then be reweighedimmediately upon removal from the oven. 311.2.5 Desiqn Mix RequiremenE Design parameter shall be rn accordance with Hot Mix AsphaltDesign by MarshalMethodutilising AASHTOT - 245.

Sr. N o
t,

Test WM percent. Asphalt Content % (Kg). Stability VMAperbent. Flow 0.01 inch. Compaction No. of blowson each side of specrmen. Drain Down Test, percent.

Parameter 3-4 6 . 0m i n . 1 0 0 0m i n . 1 7m i n . 8-14


Er\

Desiqnation T-166, T-209, T-269 of total mix. Marshall Method MS-2 Marshall Method. MarshalMethod.

ii. iii

tv. vi.

vii.

0.3max.

The mix designtest property valuesand cures used to developthe job mix in accordancewith the Asphalt InstitutesManual Series No. 2 (MS-2). Acceptable deviations from variousvaluesof JMF shallbe as under: a. Agqregates Passing 4 and larger No. sieves Passing 8 to No. 100sieves No. PassingNo. 200 sieve b. AsphaltCement Percentby wt. in totalmix c. CelluloseFibre Percentby wt. in total mix. + 0 . 0 3% !5% !3% +1ok

!4.3%

311-4

3lr.3 311.3.r

CONSTRUCTIONREQUIREMENTS Nlixing Plant Plantsused for the preparation the mixtureshall conformto AASHTOM of 156and the following. a. HandlineFiller Adequatedry storageshall be provided the mineralfiller,and provisions for shallbe made for proportioning fillerintothe mixtureuniformly the and in the in desiredquantities. Mineralfiller a batchplantwill be addeddirectly intothe weigh hopper.In a drum plant mineralfiller will be added directlyinto the drum mixer.Specialattention directed providing is to appropriate equipment for accuratelyproportioning the relative large amounts of mineral filler for required mixture. b. Fibre Addition Adequatedry storageshalt be providedfor the fibre additive,and provisions shall be made for proportioning.fibre the mixtureuniformlyand in the into desiredquantities. c. BatchPlant Loosefibreor palletized fibreshallbe addedthrougha separateinletdirectly into the pugmill before adding bitumen in the mix. The additionof fibre should be timed to occur duringthe hot aggregatecharging. Adequatedry mixingtime is required ensureproperblending the aggregate to of and fibre Dry mixingtime shall be increased to 15 seconds.Wet mixing stabilizer. 5 time shall be increasedat least 5 secondsfor cellulosefibres to ensure blendling the asphaltcement. with d. Hot - Mixture Storage When the hot mixture is not to be hauled immediately the projectand to placed,suitablebins shall be provided. Such bins shall be eithersurge bins to balanceproduction capacity with haulingand placingcapacityor storage bins which are heated and insulated and which have a controlled atmosphere aroundthe mixture. The holdingtime shall be withinlimitations imposedby the Engineer, basedon laboratory tests of the storedmixture.In no casewill mixturebe kept in storageovernight.

311.3.2

HaulingEquiBment Hauling equipmentand paver shall be of . a type normally used for the transportand placement dense grade asphalthot mix. Truck beds shall of be coveredand insulated necessary, that he mixturemay be delivered if so on the road at a temoerature not lessthan 130 oC. of

311-5

311.3.3

Pavers Paversshall be a type normallyused for the placementof dense graded asphalt hot mix. They shall be self-contained, power-propelled units provided with an adjustable activated screed, heated and capable of coursedof asphaltplantmix materialin lane widths and finishing spreading and thickness shownon the plants. to typicalsection applicable the specified speeds consistent The paver shall be capableof being operatedat fonarard with satisfactoryplacementand compactionof the mixture.The paver shall texture. of a be capable striking smoothfinishof uniform

31r.3.4

of Conditionine Existinq-.rsgr:tac9 a. lmmediatelybefore placing the mixture,the existing surface shall be cleanedof loose or deleteriousmaterialby brooming or other approved means. (SS-1,SS-1 h, CSS-1,CSS-1h or b. A thintack coat of asphaltemulsion to similarmaterial) conforming AASHTOM 140 or M 208 shall be applied to ensure uniform and complete adherenceof the overlay.The asphalt emulsionused for this purposewill be dilutedwith an equal part of water 1 and be appliedat the rate of approximately. gal/squareyard. c. Where the existingsurface is distorted,a levelingcourse of hot asphalt prior to construction mix shall be requiredto restorepropercross-section of the overlay.

311.3.5

FacinsAnd Finishine oF. The The mixture shall be placed at a temperaturenot less than 290 shall be measuredin the truckjust priorto dumpinginto mixturetemperature the spreader. The mixture shall be spread and struck off to the establishedgrade and with asphaltpavers. elevation Facing speed will be adjusted so that sufficient time is allowed for and to providecontinuity. compactionoperations

311.3.6

Compaction lmmediately after the mixture has been spread and struck off, it shall be and compacted rolling. thoroughly uniformly by a. Due to the nature of mixture,the surface shall be rolled immediately. Rollingshall be accomplished with steel wheel roliers of a minimum weight of 10 tons. Rollingprocedures shall be adjustedto providethe specifiedpavementdensity.Rollersshall move at a uniform speed not to exceed 3 mph with the drive roll nearestthe paver. Rolling shall be continued untiland rollermarks are eliminated and the minimumdensity has been obtained.The Contractorshall monitor density during the processby use of nucleardensitygaugesto assurethat the compaction minimumrequired is compaction beingobtained.

3 11 - 6

b. To preventadhesion the mixtureto the rollers, shall be necessary of it to keep the wheels properlymoisturedwith water mixed with very small quantities detergent otherapproved of or material. c. The pavement shall be compacted to at least g4o/oof maximum theoretical density and at no morethan 6% air voids. d. Once sufficientin-placedensity has been achieved,rolling operating shouldcease,as over-rolling may cause migration asphdltcementand of pavement fillerto the compacted surface. 3t1.4 CONTROL OF ASPHALT MD(TURE The mixture furnished by the Contractor shall conform to the job-mix formula, within the allowable deviations from the target values. The allowabledeviations from the target values for the JMF of the aggregate shallbe +l- 4% for the 314",112" 3/8"sieve,+/- 3Yofor and the No. 4, No. 8, No. 30 and No. 50 sieve,and +/- 2o/o the No. 200 sieve.The allowable for deviationfrom the target value for the asphalt content shall be +/- 0.3 percent. 311.5 TRIAL / EXPERIMENTAL SECTIONS Test section (s), a minimum of 200 meter each, shall be constructed to examine the mixing plant process control, placement procedures,mix surface appearance,compaction patterns and to calibrate the nuclear densitydevice. 311.6 WeatherLimitations The mixture shall be placed only when the air temperature is four (4) degrees centigrade above and no asphaltshall be laid under foggy or or rainyweatheror over moistsurface. 311.7 311.7.1 MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT Measurement The quantities Asphaltic of wearingcourseshall be measuredby volume in CM. laid and compactedin place. Measurements shall be based on the dimension shownon plans or as otherurrise as directedor authorized the by Engineer.A toleranceof + three (3) mm shall be allowed in compacted thicknessof wearingcourse.However, any asphaltin excessof 3 mm shall not be paid and any layer deficientby more than 3 mm may be rejected unlessrectified overlaying by additional layer at no extra cost, approvedby the Engineer. The quantityof asphaltic materialused is includedin the asphaltconcrete mixtureand will not be measured separately. QuantitiesBitumen,wasted or remainingon hand after completion the of work, shallnot be measured paidfor. or

311-7

fibreshallbe measuredin Kg. and paidseparately' of The quantity cellulose


311.7.2

Payment as determined piovidedabove shall be paidfor at the contract The quantity pay items listedbelowand jrice respectively each'of the particular for unit full which prices and paymentshall constitute shown in tne bitt of Quantities, of for for all the costs necessary the propercompletion the compensation work prescribedin this item. Pay ltem No. 311 a Description

Unitof Measurement
SM

for Concrete Asphaltic WearingCourse(ClassA) fibre Cellulose

3 1 1b

SM

311-B

ITI]M 312

PROOF ROLI,ING

312.1

DESCRIPTION Theworkshallconsist conducting of proofrolling a specified by typeof roller to confirmthe adequacy compaciion ihe-underlying of for layersof an existingroad or naturalsurface.The proof rollingshall'be-carried in out accordance with these specifications in coriformation and with the lines shown the drawings as directed the Engineer. on or by

312.2

CONSTRUCTION REOUIREMENTS 1. The proofrollingis to be carriedout on any type of granular material, subgrade material asphaltic or layers tho ciie mai oe. However, as in case, the proof rolling is to be carried out on granularmaterial/ subgrade, the undulations all shall be removed irre contractor a oy as pre-requisite this item for which paymentshalt be deemed of to be included withinthisitem. 2- The equipment required compaction be any of the following for may or combination thereof: a. b" c. _ Combination vibratory roller min.10tonscapacity. Padfootvibratory roller min.10tonscapacity. g Pneumatic roller, wheeler 21 tonscapacity. _ type

312.3 312.3.1

MEASUREMENT ANDPAYMENT
Measurement

Proofrolling shallbe measured the unitof squaremeterin the areasas by designated the drawings directed the Engineer. on or by
312.3.2
Payment

Thequantity completed accepted of and work,measured provided as above will be paid at the unit price quotedby the contractor furnishing for all equipments,. Labour, and otheritemsnecessary the completion the for of work. Payltem No. 312 Description

Unitof Measurement SM

Proof Rolling

312-1

striln'I,cnu.r.s

STRUGTURES
ITEM 4OO

GENERAL
DESCRIPTION of This item containsa generaldescription the specificitems of work, the and methods of measurementand materials,constructioi requirements, payment for all concrete structures including bridges, culverts, piles' compositestructuresof concretesuch as barriersand steel, prestressed builtas girderand all brickand stone masonrystructures and posttensioned grade,dimension with the lines, and in conformity on indicated the drawings issued by the Engineer. Materials, in conjunctionwith ant instructions methodsappliedin the work shall and construction workmanship equipment, laid conformto the requirements down hereinand shall also followthe best This item shall practices with the approvalof Engineer. modernconstruction items featuresand incidental of certainstructural also includeconstruction common to all types of structuresor which may apply to which are either any of them.

,100.1

,100.2

CLEARING OF SITE of structures trees,bushes, shall clearthe sitesfor proposed The contractor stumpsand debris,in the manneroutlinedin section10'1"clearingand cost of which shalt be deemed to be included in the price bid for Grub'bing" the vari6us items. Special clearingof site such as removal of existing prices bridges,buildings,concretepavementetc., will be paid for at the items, but where no such prices are providedfor, all tendLredfor these shall be deemedto be included with the specialclearing costsin connection price tendered for various items of the structuresin the Bitl of in tlre Quantities. Removal or relocationof public or private utilities such as telephone, telegraphlines,power lines,sewer and water pipe lines,railwaytracksand theii appurtenances etc., shall be arranged by the Employer's n"pr"r"ntrtlu" with the concerned Government Agency/Agencies, AuionomousBodies,Utilitycompaniesinvolved.The Employershall bear such utilities. the costs of relocating

,100.3

ALIGNMENT AND GRADE which have superelevated curvesor the structures on The structures vertical curvesand those spans on which definite roadwaysbecauseof horizontal finished camber is necessaryin order to form a uniform grade line, all to regarding the elevationand alignment requirespecialcare and attentron of their railingand kerbs.

400-1

400.4

FOUNDATIONDATA Referto clause400(4).3(b)

400.5

FINAL CLEARING upon completion structure, contractor of the shall clean up the site, remove all temporarybuildings, false work, lumber,equipment and all other debris. The contractor shall level off all excavatedmaterialnot used for back fill around piers, bents, abutment, culvert, headwallsand on embankment slopes.Bridgedecksand side walks shall be left in cleanand workmanlike condition. specificpaymentfor clearingup shall be made but the cost No shallbe included otheritemsshownon the billof quantities. in

400.6

OPENING TO TRAFFIC Bridges or slab or box culverts h4ving decks constructed with porfland cement concrete shall remain closed to all traffic and contractor,s equipment subjectto the resultsof tests made of the concretebut not less than twenty eight (28) days after the placingof concrete. The above time of openingto traffic is applicable when temperatures are aboveten (10) degreec. when temperatures belowten are 1io1degreec, the time of openingto traffic shall be increasedat the discretion-ofthe Engineer. any event bridgesor culvertswith concretedecks shall not be In openedto trafficwithoutthe approvalof the Engineer.

400.7 400.7.1

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT Measurenlelt The quantities of various pay items which constitute the completed and acceptedstructuresshall be measuredfor payment accordingto the plans and specification the severalpay items appearing the Biil of euantities for in and in term of the prescribed units provided theleveral pay items.only for acceptedwork shall be includedfor paymentand the measuredquantity shall be basedon the dimension component shown on the plansor ai of as directed writingby the Engineer. in

400.7.2

Payment The quantitiesmeasuredas providedabove shall be paid for at the unit pricesbid for the severalpay items appearing the Bill of euantities in which paymentand priceb shall be full compensitionfor furnishinj, preparing, fabricating, transporting, placingancl erectingall materialtor ine complet,e structure, all labour,equipment, tool and all other items necessary for for the completionof work such payment shali constitutefull paymeni for completed structure and no allowance will be made roi cofferdam construction, form lumber, falsework and otherincidental expenses.

400-2

(A) ITEM ZIOO

BRTDGESAND CULVERTS
DESCRIJTION All steel and concretebridgesand concreteculverts shall be constructed as indicated the plans,in conformity oir with the lines,grades,dimensions and designshorvnon the plansarrdin accordance with the provision item 107 of "Structural Excavation and Backfill", item 401 "Concrete"", item 402 "False Work and Centering BridgeS", for item 403 "Form Work", item 404 "Steel Reinforcement", item 405 "Pre Cast ConcreteStructures", all other and and pay itemswhichare to constitute completeconstruction the structure, the of as directed the Engineer. by

,{00.A.1

;100.A.2

MATERIALS The materialsused shall be those prescribedfor several contractitems which are to constitute complete the structure.

400.A.3

CONSTRUC'TION REQUIREMENTS a. Clearing Site the The contractor shallclearthe site of the proposed structure trees,bushes, of stumps,and debrisin accordance with section101 "Clearing and Grubbing". Special clearingof site such as removal of existing buildings,concrete pavement shallbe paidfor at the pricestenderedfor these items,but where no such prices are providedfor, all costs in connection with this special clearing shallbe deemedto be included the pricetendered the various in for itemsof structures the tenderedBillof Quantities. in Removal or relocationof public or private utilitiessuch as telephoneor telegraphslines, power lines, underground cable lines, sewer and water supply lines,railwaytracks and their appurtenances etc. shall be arranged by the employerrepresentative with the specificgovernment agency,utility companies and person involved.The Employer shall bear the cost of relocating such utilities.

b. Foundation Data Foundation data includingthe locationof all boreholestogetherwith the records of ground conditionsencounteredhave been obtainedfrom soil investigationby test boring, test pits or other sources. lt is the Engineer's responsibility ensureby additional to investigations throughthe contractor at the very beginning construction of work that the foundation levelsgiven in the Drawings coincide with the localrequirements.

400(A)-1

c. Alignment and Grades All structural memberssuch as prefabricated girders,cast in situ deck slab, cast in situ superstructures, bridge rails including kerbs, wheel guards, safety fencing shall be so constructed and placed that finished vertical alignment gradeshallbe as shownon the Drawings. and Rails, sidewalks and Kerbs on the curved portion of structureshall be constructed, as far as possible after the completion of the entire superstructure slab. In such cases,the heightof rail, sidewalkand/orkerb may vary with respectto the grade line of the slab in order to producethe desiredappearance.

d. Erection Method Beforemovingany construction equipment the site, the contractor to shall submitfor approvalan outlineof the method he proposesto follow in the erection structure. of

e.Navigable Streams The channelof navigablestreamsshall be kept clear for safe passageof water. The contractorshall provideand maintainall necessarylight and signals in accordancewith the navigationauthority'srequirements. The contractor shall pay due regardto the hazardof the riverflow duringperiod of intenserainfall. nraterial All deposited the channelshall be removedto in the required depthand clearance linesat the contractor's expense.

f. Concreting. The concrete Bridgesor culverts of shallbe pouredand surfacefinished and curedas per requirements conforming item401.3 to

g. Final Clearing upon completion of structures,the contractorshall clean up the site conforming requirements item400.5 to in

It. PublicBodies/Service Authorities The Contractor's methodology shall meet all statutory requirements the of railway,irrigation ServiceAuthorities or and his ratesshallinclude all for costsof meeting these requirements.

400(A)-2

400.A.4

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT

400.A.4.1 Measuremdnt of The quantities variouspay itemsof Bridgesand culvertswhich constitute the completedand accepted structuresshall be measuredfor payment for to according the plansand specification the severalpay items appearing units providedfor the and in term of the prescribed in the Bill of Quantities severalpay items. Only acceptedwork shall be includedfor paymentand the measuredquantityshall be based on the dimensionof componentas shownon the plansor as directedin writingby the Engineer. -100.A..t.2
Pavment

The quantitiesmeasuredas providedabove shall be paid for at the unit which in pricesbid for the severalpay items appearing the Bill of Quantities for payment and prices shall be full compensation furnishing,preparing, placingand erectingall materialfor the complete transporting, fabricating, for for structure; all labour,equipment, tool and all other items necessary the completionof work. Such payment shall constitutefull payment for completed structure ancl no allowance will be made for cofferdam expenses. form lumber,falsework and otherincidental construction,

400(A)-3

ITEM 401
401.1

CONCRETE
DESCRIPTION This work consists furnishing of placing, curing,finishing including transport 'approved 'indof cement concrete made from typ6 of cem-ent,watei, fine coarse aggregates all in accordance with the requirementsin these speciflcations and conforming.tolhe lines, grades, bnd typical sections shown on the Drawingsor called for in the special provisiohsand to the approval the Engineer. of

40r.r.l

CLASSESOF CONCRETE The classes of concrete recognized in these specifications shall be designated: A,B,C,D1,D2,D3,Y Lean concrete.The class of concrete and to be used shall be as called for on the Drawingsor as directedoy tne Eng.ineer specified.,in speciar provisiors. Thlefoilowingrequirtfieiiii or the shallgovernunlessotherwise ihown on the Drawings. class 41 concrete shall be used everywhere, for non-reinforcedand reinforcedconcretestructures,, except as-noted below or directed-byth; Engineer. concrete placedunderwaier shail be class 42 with a minimum cement content of three hundredfifty (350) kg per cubic meter of concrete r,yith..q slump bgtyegl ten (10)and fiftebnlisy-cin. concreteptacedroi pitei shall be class43 with a minimumcement'cohtent four huhdreo of laoo) rg per cubicmeter. ClassB Concrete shallbe used onlywherespecified. class c concreteshallbe usedfor cribbing, as otherwise or directed the by Engineer specified the Specialprovisi6hs on tne Orawings. or in or class D1,D2 or D3, concreteshall be used for pre-stressed and posttensioned elements, indicated drawings. as on class Y concreteshall be used as a filler in steel grid bridgefloors,in thin reinforced sections, as othenvise or specified the-speciatFrovisions. in Lean concrete shall be used in thin layers underneath footinqsand when calledfor on the Drawings directedny tne Engineer. or The concreteof the variousclassesshall satisfy the requirements shown in Table401-1

IABLETI0LI
Po
Classof Concrete Min. Cement Kg/Cubic Meter

t Conc
Max. Size of Coarse Aggregate (mm) 28 days Compressive Strength(Min) (Cylinder) (Ke/Sq.cm.)

n
Conristency Maxlmum Consistency Permissible (Range in Slump) Water - Cement Vibrated Ratio (mm)

A1 A2 A3

B (D1 D2 D3 Lean Concrete

300 350 400 250 275 450 500 550 400 175

20 25 38 51 38 25 25 25 13 51
401-1

210 245 280 170 210 350 425 500 210 100

25-75 100-150 100-150 25-75 25-75 50-100 50-1 00 50-100 25-75

0.58 0.58 0.58 0.65 0.58 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.58

40t.\.2

TYPES OF CONCRETE WORIG Under Ground Concrete concrete pouredbelowNaturalsurface Levelwith or withoutshuttering and shoring. On Ground Concrete concretepouredby erecting formwork with necessary bracings ground. on Elevated Concrete concrete poured by erecting props, bracing and towers to support the formworkat higherlevels.

401.2 401.2.1

MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS PortlandCement cement remainingin bulk storageat the mill, prior to shipment,for more than six (6) monthsor cement stored in local storage by contractorfor more than three (3) months after shipment from the factory may be retested before use and shall be rejected if it fails to meet any of the speciflcation requirements. Portland cement shall conform to the requirements of the standard specifications for Portland cement, AASHTO Designation Mgs (ASTM Designationc150). The type of the cement to be used, unless otherwise shown on the Drawings,shall be type l.

r-127.

sampling of cement shall be in accordancewith AASHTO Designatioh

Millcertificates accompany shall delivery the material thework. of to cementshallbe delivered sufficient in quantities ensurethat thereis no to suspension the work of concreting any time. Differentbrand or of at different typesof cement fromthe samemill,or the samebrand typefrom or different mills shallnot be mixedor used alternately the same item of in construction unlessauthorized the Engineer, by after preparing new mix design. 40r.2.2
Fine Aggregate

The fine aggregateshall consist of sand, stone screenings; other or approvedinert materialswith similar characteristics, a l;ombination or thereof, having clean, hard, strong, sound, durable,uncr.rated grains -shale fr.ee from injurious amountof dust, lumps,soft or flaky particles, . alkali, organic matter, material reactive with alkalis the cement in loamor otherdeleterious substances, shall not containmore than three (3) and percent material of passing No.200 the sieveby washing morethanone nor percent claylumps one(1)percent shale.The.use beach of or of of sandis prohibited without written the consent theEngineer. of 401-2

The coarseaggregateshall be of uniformgradingwith maximumsizes as requiredfor the variousclassesof concreteas shown in Table 4O1-2and T-11 & T-27 shall when tested in accordancewith AASHTO Designation grading requirements. following meetthe TABLE 40T.2 GRADING OF COARSEAGGREGATES
Percentageby Weight Passing LaboratorySieves Designated Sizes t/r-in. No. 4 to t/o-in. No.4 to 1 - i n .t o N o .4 . 1 1l z - i n t o N o ,4 2 - i n .t o N o .4 11lz-in.3lq-in. 2 - i n .t o 1 - i n . 100 100
1nn ,1 nn
z12
a

i H a v i n qS q u a r eO p e n i n g s , n I n c h e s
111 1
tlo
3

N o .4

'100 30-1 0 0 40-70 0-15 00 1 0 0 90-1 00 95-1 35-70 35-70 5 00 20-55 0-1 90-1
J5-/U

20-55

0-10 0-10 0-5 0-5

25-60
10-30

00 95-1

00 95-1
1nn

10-30
0-5

00 90-1

0-1 5

0-5

Not morethan five 5 percentshallpassNo.8 sieve.

shall containnot more than one (1) percentby weight of Coarseaggregate passingthe No.200 sieve by washingand not more than five (5) material percentof soft fragments. It shall have an abrasionloss of not more than forty (40) percentat five with MSHTO T-96. when testedin accordance hundred(500)revolutions, with AASHTOT-104,for five cycle,the loss with When testedin accordance test shallbe not morethan 12 percent. soundness the sodiumsulphate Natural aggregatesshall be thoroughlywashed before use. Testing of underltem 401.3.9of these Specifications. is coarseaggregate specified where the concreteis to be reactive shall be non-alkalilsilica The aggregate pouredunderwateror exposedto humidconditions.In case the Contractor characteristics proposes use the aggregatehavingthe alkaline/siliceous to to with the intention use it with Blast FurnaceSlag Cement, he will under take to carryout the job with out any extracost and shall arrangeto conduct testsas directedby the Engineer. the necessary
101.2.1

Aggregate Combined The coarse and fine aggregate shall be combined in the proportions trial mixesfor each classof concrete. to according the approved

401-4

shall be free from any substance that For exposedwork, the fine aggregate will discolour concretesurface. the The fine aggregate shall be uniformlygraded and when tested in accordancewith AASHTO DesignationT-11 and T-27 shall meet the grading following requirements:
GRADING OF FINE AGC;REGATES

SieveDesignation 3/8 inch N o .4 N o .1 6 No.50 N o .1 0 0 No.200

Percentage Passingby Weight. 100 95-1 00 45-85 10-30 2-10 0-3

In case if fine aggregates fail under Fineness Modulus or Gradation qualifies these for howevermaterialpassingNo. 4 in combinedaggregate, requirements, then the material can be accepted. Fine aggregates shall be of such qualitythat mortar specimens,prepared with standardPortlandcement and tested in accordancewith AASHTO Designation T-71,shalldevelopa compressive strength 7 days of not less at developed a mortarprepared the same than 90 percent the strength of by in mannerwith the same cement6nd gradedsand havinga finenessmodulus if of 2.3 to 3.1. Naturalaggregates requiredshall be thoroughly and (T-176) washedbeforeuse. Sand equivalent shall be 75 min. uniformly For the purpose determining degreeof uniformity, finenessmodulus of the a determination shall be made upon representative samplessubmitted the by to from Contractor from such sourcesas he proposes use. Fine aggregate in any one sourcehavinga variation finenessmodulusof greaterthan 0.20 eitherway from the finenessmodulusof mix designsamplessubmittedby the Contractor may be rejectedtill new trial mixes are preparedand tested by the contractor. Testing of the aggregate is specified under ltem 401.3.9 of these specifications. 401.2.3 Aggregate Coarse The coarse aggregateshall consist of crushedor broken stone, gravel or with similarcharacteristics, a combination otherapprovedinert materials or free thereof,havingclean,hard, strong,sound,durableuncoatedparticles, or from injurious amount of soft, friable,thin elongated, laminatedpieces, alkali, organic or other deleterious matter and conforming to the requirements theseSpecifications. of

401-3

.101.2.5

Concrete Rubbleor Cyclopean Rubble or cyclopeanconcreteshall consist of tough, sound, and durable rock. The stone shall be free from coatings, seams, or flaws of any of character. In general,the percentage wear shall not exceed fifty (50) when tested in accordancewith the Standard Method of Testing for Abrasionof CoarseAggregateby the use of the "Los Angeles Machine", ASTM C535.

401.2.6

Storage qlment andAggreqates of upon arrivalon the site of the a) All cement shall be stored,immediately work, rn weather-proofbuilding, which will protect the cement from dampness. The floor shall be raisedfrom the ground. The buildings shall be placed in locationsapprovedby the Engineer. Provisions storage for shall be ample, and the shipments of cement as received shall be separately stored in such a manner as to provide easy access for and identification inspection each shipment. Storagebuildings of shallhave quantityof cement for at least thirty (30) days use. capacityof a sufficient Bulk cement,if used,shall be transferred elevatedair tight and weatherto proof bins. However,if approved,sacked cement on small jobs may be storedin the open, upon a raisedplatformprovidedthat ample wa+erproof coveringis ensured. Storedcementshall meet the test requirements any at time after storagewhen retestis ordered by the Engineer.At the time of use all cement shall be free flowingand free of lumps. Cement bags shall be weighedat randomto checkfor variation. to showing such Copiesof cementrecordsshall be furnished the Engineer detailas, the quantityused duringthe day run or at each part of the work. Cement held in storage for a period of over sixty (60) days, or cement which,for any reasonthe Engineer may suspectof beingdamaged, shallbe subjectto a retest beforebeing used in the work. b) The handlingand storingof concreteaggregatesshall be such as to preventsegregation the inclusion foreignmaterials.The Engineer or of may require that aggregates be stored on separate platforms at satisfactory locations. In orderto securegreateruniformity the concretemix, the Engineer of may requirethat the coarse aggregatebe separatedinto two or more sizes. Different shall be storedin separatebins or in separate sizes of aggregate stock pilesto preventthe materialat the edges of the pilesfrom becoming intermixed. lf aggregates are storedon the groundthe bottom layer of aggregate shall not be disturbed or used without.recleaning and as approved by the Engineer.

401-5

10L.2.1

Water and for mixingshall be subject The waterfor curing,for washingaggregates lt shallbe free from oil and shallcontainnot of to the approval the Engineer. nor morethan more than one thousand(1,000)partsper millionof chlorides three hundreds(1,300)partsper millionof sulfates(SO+). In one thousand that will cause a no case shall the water containan amount of impurities cementof more than twentyfive (25) changein the settingtime of Portland putceintnor a reduCtionin the compressivestrength of mortar at fourteen to the result it+; O"ys of more than five (5) percent when compared water. with distilled obtained ln non-reinforced concrete work, the water for curing, for washing and for mixingshall be free from oil and shall not containmore aggregates, nor more than one (2,000)parts per millionof chlorides ttrantwo thousands as sulfates soa. (1,500)partsper millionof five hundreds thousand water for curing concreteshall not In additionto the above requirements, of amountto cause discolouration the in containany impurities a sufficient produceetchingof the surface. or concrete when requiredby the Engineer,the quality of the mixing water shall be determinedby the StandardMethod of Test for Quality of Water to be used T of AASHTOMethods samplingand Testing,Designation: 26. in concrete,

401.2.8

Admixtures from the to shallonly be allowed be usedwith writtenpermission Admixtures or agents,water reducingagents,set retarders Engineer. lf air-entraining are'peimitted to be used, they shall not bb used in stringth accelerators greater dosages than those recommended by the manufacturer,or for each [ermitted by the Engineer,and shalt conformto the requirementF of the agenfs specifiedby the manufacturer'

,101.3

CONSTRUCTION REOUIREMENTS transport, handling and placing of concrete shall The manufacturing, given hereinafter. conformwith the requirements ordinaryPortlandcement shall be used for all Unlessotherwisespecified, type of cement types of concrete. When sulphateresistingcement or_other in on the Drawings/or BOQ or orderedby the ii'required,it will be specified Engineer.

.t01.3.1

of Proportioning Concrete by All concreteshall be proportioned wbighing,except as specifiedherein. coarse aggregates by The proportions weight of cement,fine aggregates, produce concrete of the required strength and and water necessary to shall be approvedby the Engineer. such approvalmay be consistency for may be required withdrawnat any time, and changesin the proportions and durability density,impermeability, purposeof iequiredworkability, the strength. 401-6

Based on the approvedmix proportions, contractorshall prepare lists the showingthe numberof kilogramsof the variousmaterialto be used in the batch size adopted. The requiredconsistency shall also be shown. such lists are subjectto approvalby the Engineer,and shall be posted at the mixer.The amount of water in the mix is the total amount of free water, including free waterheld by the aggregates. the No concrete shallbe placedin the works untilthe resultsof the twenty eight (28) days test indicatethat the design proporlions are satisfactory per as requirementsunder ltem 401.3.10 "Testing of compressive sirengih". Adjustment the proportions of shall be subjectlothe following provisions: a) Adjustment variationin workability lf it is found impossible obtain for to concrete of the workability with the proportions originally .desired approved, Engineer the shall make such changes aie necessary. as b) Adjustment new materials No changein the sourceor characterof for the materialshall be made withoutdue noticeto the Engineerand no new materialsshall be used until the Engineer has aicepted such materials and has approvednew proportions basedon triarmixes. The contractor'sattentionis drawn to the time requiredto prepare and test trial batchesand the contractorshall be responsible production trial for of batches at a sufficienilyearly date so that the progressof the work is not delayed. 401.3.2 Consistency concrete shall have a consistencysuch that it will be workable in the requiredposition. lt shall be of such a consistency that it will flow around reinforcement steel but individualparticlesof the toarse aggregatewhen isolatedshall show a coatingof mortarcontaining proportl6nate its amount of sand. The consistency concreteshall be deiermined be as dry as it of to is practicableto satisfy the requirementsfor transportationand placing of the concrete described as hereinafter. consistency of concrete shall be determined as specifiedin AASHTO T-119. The consistencyof concreteat the time of deliveryshall be as shownin Table 401.1or as designated the Engineer. by 401.3.3 Mixing Concrete a) Mixins General The concrete shallbe mixedonly in the quantityrequired immediate for use. Concrete that has developed initialset shallbe rejected. an concreteshallbe thoroughly mixedin a mixerof an approved size and type that will ensurea uniformdistribution the materials of throughout mass. the

401-7

operatedmixers. Mixingplant All concreteshall be mixed in mechanically and placingconcreteshould be arranged and equipmentfor transporting to with an ample auxiliaryinstallation provide a minimumsupply of concrete or of in case of breakdown machinery in case the normalsupplyof concrete to supply of concreteshall be sufficient should be disrupted.The auxiliary joint . up complete castingof a sebtion to a construction the Equipmenthaving componentsmade of aluminum or magnesiumalloys, which would have contacted with plastic concrete during mixing, shallnot be used. cementconcrete, of or transporting pumping Portland Concrete mixers shall be equipped with adequatewater storage and a controlling quantity the of measuring and automatically devicefor accurately water used. specified or shall be measuredby weighing,except as otherwise Materials where other methods are specificallyauthorizedby the Engineer.The and cement shall ensure apparatusprovidedfor weighingthe aggregates of accuratemeasurement each ingredient. devicesexceptthat for watershall be such that of The accuracy all weighing successivequantitiescan be measuredto within one (1) percentof the desired value. Cement in standard packages (bags) approved by the Engineer need not be weighed. The water measuringdevice shall be accurateto plus or minus half percent1 0.50%. All measuringdevicesshall devices of be subjectto the approval the Engineer. Scalesand measuring shall be tested at the expense of the Contractoras frequentlyas the to may deem necessary ensuretheir accuracy. Engineer of or shallbe isolated that vibration movement other so Weighingequipment do equipment not effectthe accuracyof reading.When the entire operating plant is running, the scale readingat cut-offshall not vary from the weight by more than one (1) percentfor cement,one and designated the Engineer or for half (1.lz) percent any size of aggregate, one (1) percentfor the total in aggregates any batch. the are by measurements authorized the Engineer, weight Wherevolumetric proportions. such In proportions volumetric to shallbe converted equivalent cases, suitableallowancesshall be made for variationsin the moisture condition of the aggregates,including the bulking effect in the fine of aggregates.Boxesor similarcontainers the exact volumerequiredshall by be filled and struckoff. Measurement wheel barrowvolumeswill not be permitted. b) Mixine at Site drum or the revolving blade type Concretemixersmay be of the revolving and the mixing drum or blades shall be operateduniformlyat the mixing by speed recommended the manufacturer. The pick-upand throw-over blades of mixer shalt be restoredor replacedwhen any part or sectionsis worn two and half (2.5) cms. or below than the original height of the design. Mixersand agitators, which have an accumulation manufacturer's shallnot be used. of hard concrete rnortar, or

aot-a

When bulk cement is used and volume of the batch is one cubic meter or more, the scale and weigh hopperfor Portlandcement shall be separate and distinct from the aggregate hopper or hoppers. The discharge mechanism of bulk cement weigh hopper shall be interlockedagainst openingbeforethe full amountof cementis in the hopper.The discharging againstopeningwhen the amountof mechanismshall also be interlocked cement in the hopper."js underweightby more than one percent or by of overweight morethan three(3) percent the amountspecified. When the aggregatescontainmore water than the quantitynecessary to produce a saturatedsurface-drycondition,representative samples shdll be for taken and the moisturecontentdetermined each kind of aggregate. of immediately The temperature mixedconcrete, beforeplacing, shallbe not more than thirty two (32) degreeC. Aggregatesand water shall be cooled as necessaryto produce concrete within this temperatures limit. lf ice is used to cool the concrete,dischargeof the mixer will not be permitteduntil all ice is melted. The batch shall be so charged into the mixer that some water will enter in advanceof cementand aggregates.All water shall be in the drum by the mixingtime. end of the firstquarterof the specified Cementshall be batchedandt,charged the mixer by meansthat will not into result in loss due to the effect of wind, or in accumulation cement on of surfaces of conveyorsor hoppers, or in other conditions which reduce or quantity of cementin the concretemlkture. vary the required The entire contentsof a batch mixer shall be removedfrom the drum before materials for a succeeding batch are placed therein. The materials a into composing batchexceptwater shall be deposited simultaneously the mixer. Allconcreteshall be mixedfor a periodof not less than one and half (1.112) minutesafter all materials, including water, are in the mixer. During the periodof mixing,the mixer shall operateat the speed for which it has been designed. with an automatic Mixersshall be operated timingdevicethat can be locked by the Engineer. The time device and dischargemechanismshall be so interlockedthat during normal operation no part of the batch will be untilthe specified mixingtime has elapsed. In case of failureof discharged will the timingdevice,the Contractor be permitted operatewhileit is being to repaired, provided he furnishes an approved timepiece equipped with withintwenty minuteand secondhands. lf the timingdeviceis not repaired 'four(24) hours, further use of the mixer will be prohibiteduntil repairs are made. The first batch of concrete material placed in the mixer shall contain of cement,sand,and water in excessto the requirement mix, to ensurethat the drum does not extract mortar from the mix changing its design When mixingis to stop for a period of one hour or more,the characteristics. shallbe thoroughly cleaned. mixer

401-9

c) PlantMixins from the weighing At centralmixing plant, batchesshall be discharged container or directly gravity by an elevating by into hopper the mixereither to to the largeenough contain batch. The plantshallbe arranged ensure hopper the to fromweighing during transfer thatthereis no lossof cement nor be lessthanfifty(50)second, timeshallneither mixer drum.Themixing (90)seconds. more thanninety if or accelerator retarderor water reducingadmixture, The plastisizer, by at required, shall be fed separately the rate recommended the by trials. or marrufacture, as established laboratory d) Transit Mixine shallbe of the by authorized the Engineer, unless otherwise Truckmixers, can and that type, revolving'drum watertight, so constructed the concrete be the distribution materials of throughout mass.All a mixed ensure uniform to measured and charged shallbe accurately for solidmaterials the concrete plant. intothe drumat the proportioning The truckmixershallbe equipped of with a deviceby whichthe quantity wateraddedcan be readilyverified. to watermay be addeddirectly the batch,in casethe concrete The mixing water. of five withintwenty (25)minutes adding batchis poured the shallnot exceed maximum size The maximum of batchin truckmixers in and ratedcapacity the mixeras statedby the manufacturer, stamped of for shallbe continued not lessthanfifiy metalon the mixer. Truckmixing water, in the drum. The are including (50)revolutions all ingredients, after shallnot lessthansix(6)rpm,normorethanten (10)rpm. be mixing speed Mixingshatl begin withinthirty (30) minutesafter the cementhas been is into but to added either the wateror aggregate, whencement charged a aggregateand when the water or surface-wet mixer drum containing to is temperature abovethirtytwo (32)degreeC, this limitshallbe reduced the of (15)minutes.The limitation time between introduction the in fifteen of and cement the aggregate the beginning the mixingmay be waived to is free the of when,in the judgment the Engineer, aggregate sufficiently effects the cement. on so frommoisture, thattherewill be no harmful
e) Partial Mixins at the CentralPlant When a truck mixer, or an agitatorprovidedwith adequatemixing blades, is plant mixer may be the usedfor transportation, mixingtime at the stationary reduced to thirty (30) seconds and the mixing completed in a truck The mixingtime in the truck mixeror agitatorequippedwith mixer/agitator. for mixingbladesshallbe as specified truck mixing. adequate ]|Iix O Stiff Concrete For mixingconcreteof zero slump to be laid by pavers,gravitymixer shall not be used.Only force mixer of movingbladesshall be allowedto ensure mix. homogenous

401-10

s) Hand Mixine Hand mixingof materials shallnot be allowedin any case.

40r.3.4

Hauling and Delivervof Mixed Concrete a) Hauling Mixedconcretemay be transported the deliverypointin truck'agitators to or truck mixers operatingat the speed designated by the manufacturer, provided the consistencyand workabilityof the mixed concrete upon discharge at the delivery point is suitable for adequate placementand consolidation place. in Truck agitators shall be loaded not to exceed the manufacturerlsrated capacity.They shallmaintain mixedconcretein a thoroughly the mixedand uniformmassduringhauling. Bodies of non-agitating hauling equipment shall be so constructedthat leakageof the concretemix, or any part thereof,will not occur at any time, and they shallbe self-cleaning duringdischarge. For zero slump concreteto be laid be paver, concretewill be allowedto be hauledin open trucks.Howeverconcretehauledin open{op vehiclesshall be protectedduringhaulingagainstrain, or exposureto the sun for more than twenty (20) minuteswhen the ambient temperature exceedstwenty five (2S)degree C. No additional watershall be incorporated the concrete into duringhaulingor after arrivalat the deliverypoint. The rate of dischargeof mixed concretefrom truck mixer agitatorsshall be controlledby the speed of rotationof the drum in the dischargedirection with the discharge gatefullyopen. when a truck mixer or agitatoris used for transporting concreteto the deliverypoint,discharge shall be completed withinone hour, or beforetwo hundredfifty (250)revolutions the drum or blades,whichever of comes first, after the introduction cement to the aggregates. Under conditions of contributingto quick stiffeningof the concrete,or when the temperatureof the concreteis thirty(30) degreec or above,a time less than one hour will be requiredexceptwhen retarderis used in which case it shall be one (1) hour. when non-agitating haulingequipmentis used for transporting concreteto the deliverypoint,discharge shall be completedwithin one hour after the additionof the cementto the aggregates. Under conditions contributing to quick stiffening the concrete, when the temperature the concreteis of or of thirty (30) degreec or above,the time betweenthe introduction cement of to the aggregates and discharge shallnot exceedfortyfive (45) minuteb.

401-11

b) Deliverv The organization supplying concrete shall have sufficient plantcapacityand transportation vehiclesto ensure continuous deliveryat the rate required. The rate of the deliveryof concreteduring concretingoperations shall be such as to providefor the proper handling,placing,and finishingof the concrete.The rate shallbe such that the intervalbetweenbatches shallnot exceed twenty (20) minutes. The methodsof deliveringand handlingthe concreteshall be such as will facilitate placingwith the minimumrehandling and withoutdamageto the structure the concrete. of c) RetemDering The concreteshall be mixed only in such quantitiesas are requiredfor immediateuse and any concretethat has developedinitialset shall not be used. Concretethat has partiallyhardenedshall not be retemperedor remixed. 401.3.5 Handlingand PlacineConcrete a) Generdl In preparation for the placing of concrete all sawdust, chips and other construction debrisand extraneous mattershall be removedfrom insidethe formwork, and struts,staysand bracesservingtemporarily holdthe forms to in correct shape and alignment,pendingthe placing of concreteat their locations,shall be removedwhen the concrete placing has reached an elevation rendering theirservices unnecessary.Thesetemporary members shall be entirelyremoved from the formsand not buriedin the concrete. No concreteshall be used that does not reach its final positionin the forms withinthe time stipulated aboveunderltem 4O1.3.4 "Hauling and Delivery of MixedConcrete". Concrete shall be placedso as to avoidsegregation the materials of and the displacement the reinforcement.The use of long troughs,chutes,and of pipesfor conveying concrete the forms shall be permitted to only on written authorization the Engineer.In any case the Engineer rejectthe use of of will equipmentfor concretetransportation that will allow segregation, loss of fines, or in any other way will have a deteriorating effect on the concrete quality. Open troughs and chutes shall be of metal or metal lined; where steep slopesare required, chutesshallbe equippedwith bafflesor be in short the lengthsthat reversethe direction movement. of All chutes,troughsand pipesshall be kept clean and free from coatingsof hardenedconcreteby thoroughly flushingwith water after each run; water usedfor flushingshallbe discharged clearoff the structure.

401-12

When placingoperations would involvedroppingthe concretemore than one and half (1.v2) meters, it shall be conveyedthrough sheet metal or otherapprovedpipes. As far as practicable, pipe shall be kept buriedin the the newly placedconcrete. After initialset of the concretethe forms shall not be jarred and no loadingof any kind shall be placed on the ends of projectingreinforcement bars. The concreteshall be placedas nearlyas possible its final positionand to the use of vibratorsfor extensiveshiftingof the mass of fresh concretewill not be permitted. b) Pneumatic Placing Pneumaticplacingof concretewill be permittedonly if authorizedby the Engineer. The equipmentshall be so arrangedthat no vibration will occur that mightdamagefreshlyplacedconcrete. Where concrete is conveyed and placed by pneumatic means, the equipment shall be suitablein kind and adequatein capacityfor the work. The machineshall be located as close as practicable the work. The to discharge linesshallbe horizontal inclined or upwards from the machine. At the conclusionof placingthe concrete,the entire equipmentshall be thoroughly cleaned. c) Pu{npine The placingof concreteby pumpingwill be permitted only if specified the in SpecialProvisions if arjthorized the Engineer.The equiprnent or by shall be so arrangedthat no vibrationwill occur that might damage freshly placed concrete. Where concreteis conveyedand placedby mechanically appliedpressure the equipmentshall be suitablein kind and adequatein capacityfor the work. The operation the pump shall be such that a continuous of streamof concrete withoutair pocketsis obtained.When pumpingis completed, the concrete remaining the pipeline, it is to be used,shall be ejectedin such in if a mannerthat there will be no contamination the concreteor separation of of the ingredients. After this operation,the entire equipment shall be thoroughly cleaned. d) PlacingConcrete UnderWater Concreteshall not be placedunder water exceptwhere inevitable which in case approvalmust be soughtfrom the Engineer and the work carriedout under his immediate supervision.In this case the methodof placingshall be as hereinafter specified. Concretedeposited underwater shall be classA concretewith a minimum cementcontent three hundredfifty(350)Kg per cubicmeterof concrete. cf

401-13

ten (10) and fifteen(15) between shallbe maintained The slumpof concrete p|acedin a.compactmass, it cm. To preventsegregation, sha||be careful|y bucket,or other in iir nn"f positionlby-means of a tremie,a bottom-dump disturbedafter being placed.water approvedmeans, and it shall not be surface' mustnot be allowedto flow pastthe freshconcrete 25 cm of A tremieshallconsistof a tube havinga diameter not less than with gasketswith a fitted in constructed sectionshavingflangedcouplings hopperatthetop.Thetremiesha||besupportedSoaSto.permitfree end over the entiretop surfaceof the work and of movement the discharge the flow of to lo ,. to permitrapid loweringwhen necessary retardor stop shall be closedat the start of work so as to end concrete.'The discharge preventwaterenteringthetubeandshallbecomp|ete|ysubmergedin of the concreteat all times;tie tremie tube shall be kept full to the bottom sha|l hopper. When a batchis dumpedintothe hopper,the f|ow of concrete it keeping in the end,but always the raising discharge by Oe'ihOuceC slightly completed' untilthe work.lS pfaceO.on"r"te.lhe flo* shallbe continuous bucket,the top of the when the concreteis placed with a bottom-dump doors shaltopen freely downwardand bucketshall be open. The bottom slowly outwardwhen tripped. The bucket shall be completelyfilled and lt shall not be dumped until it rests on the loweredto avoid backwash. and when discharged ,rrf""" upon which the concreteis to be deposited slowlyuntilwell abovethe concrete' withdrawn shallbe hard and may proceedwhen the concreteseal is sufficiently Dewatertng materialshall be removedfrom or strong. nii taitance other unsatisfactory chippingor other means, which will not the eiposed surfaceby scraprng, injurethe surfaceof the concrete. e) ComPaction thoroughly concrete, dunng and immediately after placing shall be_ under footingsand concrete deposited except lean concrete compacted, placed in under water. concrete in walls, beams, columns,etc. shall be more than thirty (30) centimeters.thick except as trorizontatlayers not provided. when less than a completelayel is placed in one hereinafter shall be in oput"tion,it shall be terminated a verticalbulkhead. Each layer initialset to placedand compactedbeforethe precedinglayer has taken avoid surfaces of separation br""L.t injury to the greel concrete and to avoid the betweenthe-layers. iach layer shall be compactedso. ?s. layer,which has not taken joini with a preceding of formation a construction set. an initial vibration.The concreteshall shall be done by mechanical The compaction of unlessspetiat authorization other methodsis given be vibratedinternally shall be of a type, design, or is providedherein. Vibrators ov fi.]" Engineer shall be of by approved the Engineer.Theiintensity vibration and frequency over a radius to iuctr as'visibly affecta mass of ioncretewith a 3 cm slump numberof shall providea sufficient of at leasthalf a meter. The Contractor afterit is placedin the compacteach batchimmediately to vibrators properly forms. Vibratorsshall be manipulatedso as to thoroughly 401-14

work the conirete aroundthe reinforcement and embedded fixtures and into the corners and angresof the torms ano shail be appriedat the point of placingand in the a-rea freshrypt""J"on"r"t". of The vibrators sha, be insertedinto and withdrawn tromirre srowry.The vibration shail be of sufficient durationand intensity "on"r"t" the to compact concretethoroughry but shail not be continued any'onepoint at to tre extentthat rocarized,areas of grout are formed. Appricaiionoi vibratorsshail be poinis uniformry spacedand not fartherapart than twice the radiusover"t 'not which the vibration is visibty effective. Vibration srrari be appried direcry to the reinforcement to sections layers or or of concrete that have hardened the to degreethat the concrete ceasesto o" pr*ti. undervibration.rt shailnot be used to make concrete frowin the forml over oistances great so as to cause segregation and vibrators shail not be used to transport rur '!' 'svv' r concreteneitherin u' vvr Er the forms nor in troughsor chutes. Vibration shall be supplemented such external by vibratoras is necessary to ensure smooth surfacesand dense concrete arong form surfacesand in cornersand locations impossible reachwith the no"*"ruior"i-r. to 401.3.6
a) General

The concrete in integrarpart of a structure shat be praced continuousry, the contracior and "r"l wiit'not arroweJio oe workon any such part unress sufficienfly "oi.ri"n"" for inspected approvJ mJteriat ano the concreteis at hand' and equipment are sufficient ?rd manpower to comprete partwithout the interruptionthepracing'or in the "on-"r"t". construction jointsshailbe ailowed onrywherespecified the prans on or otherwise approved. not detaireo the prans, rf oir or in the case of emergency, construction jointsshailbe praced directed. as shearKeys or inclined reinforcement be used*n!r" necessary strbtt to transmit shearor bondthetwosections together. wnen snearkeysor inclined reinforcement are notprovided, concrete the shailbe roughened directed. as Joints the in concrete to discontinuity workshail due of be avoided ;il; as possibre. suchjoints, whennecessary, be constructed shail to meetthe approvar of the Engineer. pracing concrete temporariry of rs discontinued, concrete Ih"n the the after fjp e.nouoh,to retain dr'ape,'shail creaned raitance it. be 9."-"*i,n.g of and otherobjectionabre materiar a sufficient'depthexpose to to soundconcrete. where a "feathered edge"mightoe prooiceoat a constru"tion ;oint, in the stoped surface a w-ng*uit, an top of insetformwork;;;i be usedto ". producean edge thicknes"oi not'ress than 15 centimeters the in succeeding rayer. work sha, not be discontinued;iil; fifty (50) th1lop of any face; untessprovision has been macre a :::9",,^": gf for coprng ressthan s0 centimeters thick,in which.;;, ; p"rrii"o by the Engineer, construction mayoe''maoe the joint at the ,nc"rrii" oicoping.

401-15

I t- tot 'suolsl^old lepads eLllulJo sueldotli uo uMotlsaq llBqs ubtsap,tq pe:tnbetaJoqA alaieuoc eql 'suolleJaplsuoc acuanbos6urceld 'sueds snonurluoc pue lapll6 ul JoJ 'sJoIBlleluozlJoq ^luonadn lqbno.rq pelrsodep lleqs s:eptt6 ul a}ol3uo3 oq aql lo q16ua; eql :o; r{;tuto;run llnJ 'spua aql piemol Jeluac oql uoJl butllom pue ueds eql ]o Jaluac oq] alalcuoo 'sueds alduts ro3 aq fq 1e Ouruur6eq palrsodep Ilqerelerd 1leqs (p sulunloJpuB'sq8IS'sJoprlc aut;punolb oLllJo acel pasodxaaql ul olqlsl^oq ll$ lutof ou leql aql o^oqe llervr6u6n olaqn 'slutofuol}cnJlsuo3 polecolos pue leluozuoL{ lleqs 'slqeploneun aq 'Iun slLl}louor.ll sP palsrulsuoc aq qcea ',alqrssod e 11 lleqs llerrnoulM 'qelslanooeqlOutroqcue sllemapls lo1 'asec sltll ul 'peceldsl qels do1aql aql ur uel aq lletls sr{a) aleudoldde u; pue paceldaq lleqssllPM ul olalcuoceq11q61eq aql arojaqlas ol pomollB aLll uollcrulsuoc ul xoq lo sJalau (Vtt't):apenb pue ouo uelll aloul spanlnc o] ]qbt:le pue leclyo^aq lleqs lo slxe er.ll selDue 'pesn sl uollcnilsuoc potllotll sltll uaLlM uorlcnrlsuocfuessecau slurof lo 'lrun crL{}rlouour se polcnr}suo3eq deu qels dol pue sllerdopls aq1 'lq6teq e aql ul ssalJo s;alaul (Vtt ) layenb pue ouo spa^lncxoq Jo uollcrulsuoc ul '1utoI uotlcrugsuoc 'olqlssodse .re1se 'luanald o1 se eq1 q6no:ql rale/\A uotle;ocladeql lo 'eseq pasleJ sueou r(qIlqe-relard pelcruisuoc s{a1 ;eurpn1r6uol Ua^lnc os }o olqellns 'asec lo, aql ol slle^opls eq1 Durpuoq opeul oq lleqs uotstnold. slql ul pelcnllsuoc sl ua^lnc aql lo lepuleulol aql alolaq las ol pa^Aolle '1e:auab u; pue peceld aq lleqs sya^lnc xoq Jo s6urloollo qels aseq aql 'Uanlnc eq] ]o stxe eq1o1selDue leclyon lq6tl le aq llellsslutoluot1cru]suoc 'Uallnc oql

sFrin5mBTr
'aut1 aq] punolO a^oqellenn butrur oql pa]ecolos pue le]uozlJot1 lo ocej pasodxaaql ul alqlslnaq lllMlutofou ]eq] '{;lectq1l;ouoru 6utmut slutofuol]cnJ]suoC alaqM s1;ean aq lleqsalqeproneun paq alelsuoo eqJ 'suolslnord palcru]suoc lleqs sllem uteUncpue a1e1d aq 'slleMy.ulnqe {Luoseu aLllJa}lV se }o uol}cnllsuoc lercadgur perllceds 'pauelssr alojcuocpasJolulal oJoJaq o] poMolle aql l9s 'leleua6 u1 pue paceld aq lleqs uotiepunolaq] Molaq alal3uoc ueal oq) Sire^lr-5n-BISlQ' 'alalcuosaLll ocelns oql leou puoq io 'loa]s outctolute: aq] lo outueelc laols alajcum aLll lealq lo elnfut o1 lou eull 6uunp 'pospJaxoaq lleqs aleC oloJcuoo lasun oql olut palppndeq 'panoulolaq lleqs sulo1 lo sacepns lou lleqslsnp pup sdttlclepou paPC eql pue laels butclolulol aql uodn paqselds lepotl Jo suollelnuncce {1e1etpeutuu1 lle aloJcuoo 6urceld Jo aouenulluocslp oql 6ur'no11o1

concrete in girder haunchesless than one (1) meter in height shall be placed at the same time as that in the girder stem, and the column or abutment tops shall be cut back to form seatsfor the haunches.whenever any haunch or fillet has a verticalheight of one (1) meter or more, ilre abutmentor columns,the haunch;and the girder shall be placed in three successive stages;first,to.lowerside of haunch;second,to the lower side of thb girder;and thirdto completion. For haunchedcontinuous girders,the girder stem (including haunch)shall be placedto the top of stem. where the size of the poui is such that it cannot be made in one continuousoperation,verticalconstruction joints shall preferablybe locatedwithin the area of contraflexure. concretein slab spansshall be placedin one continuous operation each for span unless otheruvise provided.The floors and girdersof through girder superstructures shall be placed in one continuous operation unless otherwisespecified,in which case a special shear anchorageshall be provided ensuremonolithic to actionbetweengirderand floor. concretein T-beamor deck girderspans may be placedon one continuous operationor may be placed in two separateoperations;each of which shall be continuous;first, to the top' of the girder stems and second. to completion. the latter case, the bond belween stem and slab shall be ln providedby suitableshear keys or by artificially roughening surfaceof the the top of the girderstem. In general,suitablekeys may be formed by the use of timberblocks approximately five (5) byten (10) cm in cross-settion and havinga lengthof ten (10) cms less than the wiotn orthe girderstem. These key blocksshall be spaced along the girderstems as riquired, but the spacingshall be not greaterthan thirty (30) cms centerto center.The blocks shall be removedas soon as the concretehas set sufficientto retain its shape. concretein box girdersmay be placedin two or three separateoperations. In either case the bottom slab shall be placed first. dond betweenthe bottom slab and stem shall be positiveand mechanical. lf the webs are from the top slab, bond betweenthe top slab and webs Pfaceoseparately shall be securedin the same manner as for T-beams. Requirements for shear keys for T-beamsshall also apply.to box girders,except that keys need not be deeperthan the depthto the top of bottomslab reiniorcement. concrete in columnsshall be placed in one continuous operation,unless othenvise directed. The concreteshall be allowedto set ai least 24 hours beforethe caps are placed. when friction collarsare usedto supportcap forms,the concrete columns of shallhave been pouredat leastseven(7) days earlier. Unless otheruise permitted, no concrete shall be placed in the superstructure until the column forms have been strippedsufficienfly to determinethe characterof the concretein the columns. The load ol the superstructure shall not be allowedto come upon the bents until the test cylindersrepresenting bents have obtainedthe minimumcompressive the strength in no case in lessthan seven (7) days. but

401-17

e) ConstructionJoints

joints shall be made only where shown on the Drawingsor Construction called for in the pouring schedule, unless otherwise approved by the joints,also in cases Engineer. lf not detailed the Drawings, on construction of emergency shall be placedto meet the approvalof the Engineer. Shear keys or reinforcement shall be used,unlessotheruvise specified, transmit to shearor to bondthe two sections together. Before depositing new concrete on or against concrete, which has hardened,the forms shall be retightened. The surface of the hardened concreteshall be roughened requiredby the Engineer, a mannerthat as in will not leave loose particles of aggregate or damage concrete at the surface.' lt shall be thoroughlycleaned of foreign matter and laitance. When directedby the Engineer,the surface of the hardenedconcretewhich will be in contactwith new concreteshall be washed with water to ensure an excessof mortarat the junctureof the hardened and the newlydeposited concrete, the cleanedand wateredsurfaces,including verticaland inclined surface, shall first be thoroughly covered with a coating of mortar of the same proportionof sand and cement as the class of concreteused against which the new concrete shall be placed before the grout or mortar has attainedits finalset. The placingof concrete shall be carriedout continuously from joint to joint. The face edges of all joints,which are exposed,to view shall be carefully finished true to lineand elevation. f) Rubbleor CicloneanConcrete Rubbleor cyclopean concreteshall consistof Class B concretecontaining large embeddedstones.The stone for this class of work shall be placed carefully as to avoid damageto the forms or to the partially adjacent so set concrete. Stratifiedstone shall be placed upon its natural bed. Stone shall be washed and saturatedwith water beforeplacing. The total volumeof the stoneshall not be greaterthan one third of the total volume of the portionof the work in which it is placed.For walls of piers greater than sixty (60) cms in thickness, stone of such size that one man can handle it, shall be used. Each stone shall be surrounded at least by fifteen(15) cms of concrete and no stoneshall be closerthan thirty(30)cms to any top surfacenor any closerthan fifteen(15) cms to any coping.For walls or piersgreater than one (1) meterin thickness, largerstone(50 Kg or more) may be used. Each stone shall be surrounded at leastthirty(30) by cms of concrete, and no stoneshall be closerthan sixty(60) cms to any top surfacenor closerthan twenty(20) cms to any coping. g) Concrete Exposed SeaWater to

provided, Unlessotherwise specifically concrete structures for exposed to sea water shallbe ClassA. The clear distance from the face of the concrete the nearest of reinforcement shallbe notlessthan10 to face steel cms.The concrete shallbe mixedfor a period not lessthan2 minutes of and the watercontent the mixture of shall be chrefully controlled and
401-18

6L-LjV 'ruioJtun paloosos ele0aJ66e Jo aq lleLls aql 'Duuelenn Iq e1e6e:66e ]ualuocJelemoq] ]eql papt^old os;eoc1o 6ur1oo3(rr

raleM ]",r1 p$il:fY::ll*::; aq] ]o aurl aL*]e acruorl aar,aq relrs

{q lo uorlrppe :o slloc a6ueqcxaleaq {q ra}em o}arcuoc bultttqC(l Jo :suotleltutl s^oqe aLllA olaq alalcuoc1o a.lnleledualeq1daal ol pasn eq IeLu 6urnnol;o1 eq1 'Ilr1enb uo ]oo1la {ue leluaul:lap.raqlo Ourcnpo.rlur }noq}marnge:edue1 Ll6lq lo slcal;a leluotxulop aleutulla o1 'fuo1ce1stles o] leul alecs aq seq aq qctqMuotpodoldur pue aleu e llnJpue s1selfuoletoqel^q umoLls 'Jaststlseld e xlu aLllut selelodlocur Jolselluocaql ssalun'6ur,ie1 atuu lo Jo aql le C ae:6ap (Zg)orrnl peecxa}ou lleLls r{ylq1 alaJOUoc elnletaduo}orll_ 1o reqlEaiAloH u! IJOA\(!!! 'a3epnsalolouoc aql Jo rlsem Moll 6ur6euepJoJepou a3elns Jo aql ol aOeutep sr alenbapessalunpaddolsaq luanaldot paprno:d uorlcelo:d a}alcuoo Ourceld ,ulelJo suo4tpuo3lapun aq} lleqsio oclaululoclou lleL{s 1o

f itssio-iETtriili!
'esuedxa s;olcelluoOeql 1epacelda.r pue panoujaloq lleqsolalcuocpaberuep {ue pue Isu s,Joleel}uo3 }e oq} aq lleqs iaqleam p;oc 6uunpto raqleamloq 6uunp paceldelercuoc,tuy 'suorlelado 6uunc pue 6urceld6uunp suot]tpuocleluauluoJtnua Jaqlo Jo laqleam ol anp a6etuepuol1 alaJcuoc lcalold ol papoause ualel aq lleqs suotlne3aJd

iffiuE$'1
;uorlrpuoJ uto{ IBluaruuoJrlutr aloJJuoJ uorlJeloJdt Jo .JoljeaJaq] s:noq (72) onnl,{luenas }seel le 1o por:ad e lo, pue luaulace;d6uunp alajcuosaLllr.ll!^]celuocut aq lou llellssltoslo leleM oullellv .la^allaleM ro punolb anoqe 'sLuc(gg) Iyll 1seel st alolcuoc aLllltlun lo uotlcasoLll Je ,alqtssod aq 1o uotla;duoclllun snonutluoo lleqs burcegd Ja^aJaqM utaJeq suotlecrlrcads Ll]lMocuepJocce 1 ace;d ol uale] aq lleqs elec lelcads ut 'sposJo Jalemautlelle olaqM lo uotlce oql ol pesodxaaq Aeu aleJcuoC ralBA\llB{lv ro slrosrlE)IIvol pesodxg alalruo3 (Q 'paqJnlstpun 'sulloJ ulolJ all] ual aq lleLls 'aoe1.lns .s{ep (Oe)IUtLltueq} soruocalor3uocaql se eq1 ssol }ou ;eur6r.ro 1o poued e Jo] olalcuoc aLll rlltn loeluoc ut atuo3 lou lleLlslolem eas slanal aseql uaenlag ':eaur6u3or.llIq pauruJalap lelem q6rq aureLlxo pue se ralemMol suaJlxo lo slanaluaer/Uaq pauloJ oq lleqs sluro[uorlcntlsuoc oN 'poprone eq lleqs slelcod lte pue palceduoc Ilq6noroql eq lleqs alalcuoo al11 '{lrpqeeruladult unultxeu }o a}alcuoc ecnpold o} se os pa1e1n6eL

iii) Reclaiming aggregate of from stock piles by the tunnel methodto avoid usingthe surfacelayerof the stockpile with shadeand wind protection of conveyor elevating batching plant. to iv) Night work provided that (i), (ii) and (iii) are proved inadequateor unsatisfactory their resultsand providing in also that the Engineer has no otherreasonfor refusing permission nightwork. for The Engineer shall have power to order the suspension of concrete production case of not taking precautionary in measuresby the contractor as mentioned above.Underno circumstances the Contractor entiiled will be to ieceive any additionalpaymentfor complyingwith the requirements of thisclause. iv. Work in Cold Weather Exceptby writtenapprovalof the Engineer, concreting operations shall not be continued when a descending temperature the shade and away air in from artificialheat falls below five (5) degree c, nor resumed until an ascendingair temperaturein the shade and away from artificialheat reaches two (2) degree c. In such cases, the mixing water and/or aggregates shall be heatedto not less than twenty one (2i) degree c nor more than sixtysix (66) degree c, priorto being placedin the mixer by an approved type of heating device so that the temperatureof the concrete shall not be less than ten ('10)degreec, nor more than twenty seven (27) degreec, at the time of placing. materials No containing frost shall be used. cement or fine aggregates containing lumpsor crustsof hardened materials shallnot be used. 401.3.7 Concrete Surface Finishing/Rendering O_General Concretesurface finishesshallbe classified follows: as BridgeDeckSurfaceFinish Sidewalk Surface Finish Ordinary SurfaceForm Finish Class1 SurfaceForm Finish The bridgedeck surfacefinish shall be given to the surfaceof the bottom slabsof all box type underpass structures. The requirements sidewalksurfacefinish apply to the surface of the for bottom slabs in box culverts,except that the acceptable variationfrom a three-meter straightedge shallbe 10 mm, and brooming shall be omitted. The ordinary surface form finish shall be the final finish applied to all surfacesafter removalof forms, unlessotherwise specified calledfor on or the drawings. The class 1 surfaceform finishshall be appliedonly wherespecified, as or requiredby the Engineer when the ordinarysurfacefinishdid not produce the required smooth,even surfaceof uniform textureand appearances. 441-20

Finish b) BridseDeckSurface A smooth ridingsurfaceof uniformtexture,true to the requiredgrade and cross-section,shall be obtained on all bridge roadway decks. The of may use hand tools, or finishingmachinesor a combination Contractor specifiedherein for finishingbridge both, conformingto the requirements roadwaydeck concrete. of Finishingof concreteplaced in bridge decks shall consist essentially and strikingoff the surface of the concrete as placed and compacting floatsthe surfaceso struck.off. with longitudinal floating until The placingof concretein bridgeroadwaydecks will not be permitted will be sufficient concrete of producing that the rate is the Engineer satisfied to complete the proposed placing and finishing operationswithin the finishingmachineoperatorsand concrete scheduletime, that experienced finishersare employedto finish the deck, that fogging equipmentand all are finishing toolsand equipment on hand at the site of the work necessary for condition use. Finishingmachinesshall be set up and in satisfactory duringthe by in sufficiently advanceof use to permitinspection the Engineer hoursbeforeeach Pour. daylight of and operation deck finishingmachinesshall be verified The adjustment by movingthe machineover the full lengthof the deck sectionto be placed and traversing the float completely across all end bulkheads before is placement concrete begun. of Unless adequate lightingfacilitiesare provided by the Contractor,the placingof concretein bridgedecks shall cease at such time that finishing hours. duringdaylight can be completed operations of Rails for the supportand operation finishingmachinesand headersfor strick-off devices shall be completely in place and firmly hand-operated lengthfor concreteplacementbeforeplacingof securedfor the scheduled shall extendbeyondbothends of the machines concrete. Railsfor finishing scheduledlength for concreteplacementto a sufficientdistancethat will perrnitthe float of the finishingmachineto fully clear the concreteto be and shallbe set to placed. Railsor headers for shallbe adjustable elevation settlement,camber,and deflection with allowancefor anticipated elevations, of false work, as requiredto obtain a bridge roadway deck true to the Rails or headersshall be of a type and requiredgrade and cross-section. that no springingor deflectionwill occur under the sftall be so installed equipment and shall be so locatedthat finishing weight of the finishing over the entirebridgeroadway rnay operatewithoutinterruption equipment deck to be finished. to as Railsor headersshall be adjusted necessary correctfor unanticipated operations. finishing whichmay occurduring or settlement deflection,

401-21

eventsoccur,whicir in the opinion or Shouldsettlement other unanticipated of the Engineerwould preventpouringof bridge deck conformingto the placing of deck concrete shall be requirements these specifications, of to discontinueduntil correctivemeasuressatisfactory the Engineer are provided.In the eventsatisfactory measures are not providedpriorto initial set of the concretein the effectedarea, the placingof concreteshall be discontinued and a bulkhead installedat a location determinedby the shall be removed. in All concrete placebeyondthe bulkhead Engineer. by bridgedeck concreteshall be Unlessotherwisepermitted the Engineer, parallel the bridgepier or bent io placedin a uniformheadingapproximately caps. The rate of placingconcreteshall be limitedto that which can be of finishedbeforethe beginning initialset exceptthat concretefor the deck surfaceshallnot be placedmorethanthree(3) metersaheadof strickoff. the After the concrete has been placed, compacted,and consolidated, surfaceof the concreteshall be carefullystruck off by means of a handoperated strick board operatingon headers,or by a finishing machine on operating rails. A uniformdeck sudace true to the requiredgrade and shallbe obtained. cross-section Following strike off, the surface of the concrete shall be floated longitudinally.In the event strike-offis performedby means of a handfloat boards for operated strike board, two (2) separate hand-operated longitudinal floatingshall be provided. The first float shall be placed in operationas soon as the conditionof the concrete will permit and the as secondfloat shallbe operated far back of the first float as the workability will of the concrete permit. with a finishingmachine,longitudinal In the eventthe strikeoff is performed floatingof the concreteshall be performedby means of a hand-operated woodenfloat. machine equipped with a longitudinal floatboardor a finishing shall have a length woodenfloaton the finishing machine The longitudinal of not less than two and half (2.5)metersnor more than three and half (3.5) floatingare to be performed meters. When both strikeoff and longitudinal one machine, with operator,shall be used for strike by finishingmachines, off and a second machine,with a second operator, shall be used for with the same floatingmay be performed longitudinal floating. Longitudinal finishingmachinethat is used for strikeoff provided that the lengthof deck '10metersand is unit being placedis not more than the strikeoff operation completedfor said deck unit beforethe conditionof the concreterequires that longitudinal floatingbe started. Finishingmachinesused for strike off havinga wheel base 1.8 metersor less shall be followed by 2 separate hand-operatedfloat boards for to longitudinal floating. All the provisions this ltem pertaining handin operated float boards shall apply to the 2 separate float boards for longitudinal floating.

401-22

Longitudinal floats,either hand-operated machine-operated, or shall be used with the long axis of the ffoat parallef the center line of the bridge to roadway. The float shall be operatedwith a combinedlongitudinal and transversemotion planing off the high areas and floating the material removedinto the low areas. Each pass of the float shall lap the previous pass by one-half the lengthof the float. Floatingshall be continueduntil a smoothridingsurfaceis obtained. In advance of curing operations,the surface of the concrete shall be texturedby brooming with a stiff bristled broomor by othersuitable devices, which will resultin uniformscouring.The operation shall be performed a at time and in a manner to produce a hardenedsurface havinq a uniform texture. Hand-operated float boards shall be from three and half (3.S)to five (5) meters long, ribbedand trussedas necessaryto providea rigid float and shallbe equipped withan adjustable handleat eachend. The floatshallbe wood, not less than two and half (2.5)cms thickand from ten (10) cm to twenty(20) cm wide. Adjusting screwsspacedas not to exceed60 cms on centersshall be providedbetweenthe float and the rib. The float board shallbe maintained free of twistand true at all times. Hand-operated float boards shall be operatedfrom transversefinishing bridges. The finishingbridges shall span completelythe roadway area beingfloated& a sufficient numberof finishingbridgesshall be providedto permit operation the floats without undue delay. Not less than two (2) of transversefinishingbridges shall be providedwhen hand-operated float boards are used. When a finishing machine usedfor longitudinal is floating, one finishingbridgeequivalent the transverse to finishingbridgespecified hereinshallbe furnished use by the Engineer. for All finishingbridges shall be of rigid construction and shall be free of excessive wobbleand springing when used by the operators longitudinal of floatsand shallbe easilymoved. lmmediatefollowingcompletionof the deck finishingoperations,the concrete the deck shall be cured as specified ltem 401.3.8"Curing in in Concrete" hereinafter. The finished surface of the concrete shall be tested by means of a straightedge three (3.0) meterslong. The surfaceshall not vary more than three (3) mm from the loweredge of the straightedge. high areas in the All hardened surfacein excessof three (3) mm as indicated testingshall be by removedby abrasivemeans. After grindingby abrasivemean has been performed, the surfaceof the concreteshall not be smooth or polished. Ground areas shall not be of uniformtexture and shall presentneat and patterns. approximately rectangular Where the concreteof the bridge deck is to be covered by bituminous surfacing, earth,or other cover,two and half 2.5 cms or more in thickness, the surfaceof the concreteshall not vary more than nine (9) mm from the loweredgeof the three(3) meterstraightedge.

401-23

vz-rjv
lsadsalslLllul aOPn[ pue 'suollsafadr!l laqlo puB suolFseldop olos or.l]aq lleqs loaulouf otll 'sa6lnqAllq6rsun aoll 'ecueleaddepue alnixal ullojlunlo sooe!ns uana Jo e ulrolse]bullnquluoc 6ulqstug ol ecnpoLd peunbe: Jo leuotllppe lunoue aLl] pue ul ut aq lllM)lom r,ulo1 pasn sleueleut JalceleLlc sullo; Outpltnq aleo ]o lo 'sa61nq pue suotssaldep Illq6tsun]o aa:] Jor.ilo aa:6op oq1 'suollJa;-ladut 'acueleadde se pue olnlxo] txloJtun sooelns uo1oecnpoldo1fuessecau Jo ocefns L sselC arnlcrulsall] lo socefns oLli6utqstut; ]slsuocllells t1slu4 ]o rlsruu uirod aJBJrnS ssBll (a I 'polcalleeln]3nJls otll ol1lJo suorl.tod Jo luauace;dal pue lenoual oql eltnbal pue anllcalop '}uaula3lo}ulal alarcuooaLllelelcap{eur aq lae}s aq} }o alll aql Labuepua aql }cajJe o} se re}celeqc Jo oJn}onjlsaq} 1o q16ual1s o1 io {11et:aleuJ 'laautOu3 oql eq1 uotutdo ul seloqlo slalcod lcol ,l 1o ]ualxoue qcns]o ale (c) 6utLn3,, g e L0t uall ul ,,sarn]3nJls ul slueualrnbalaql q]tMacueu.ltoluoc palnc aq lleqsJeUolA leeut6u3 aql pslllJaq lleqs se {q palcerrp leyou uMolqlte lo Jepoul pelced Jaq}let-llrm 'pues sped oml pue reqlg ]uaulac Ued auo ]o sle)cod pue suotsso.rdep posn lefol^ alal3uot eql jo ocepns aLl]LlllM lsrsuoclleqs seloq lloq lllj ol 'sllec aLl]olul papl^olosl qsnu pa^ouer oq lleqs s]loq Llcnsases qcltlMul ssaccelueueulad ssalunpo^ol.lalaq ]ou peeu slaplt6xoq jo slloc oq] olul leuoul tlllm palll] pue peuealcaq lleqs uotssardep slloq ulol 6utlceford panoulol aq lleLlg olalcuoo punos.unlaqlo aLlI Jo soloq 6ut1;nset otll pue slelcod lcot llv 'olaJcuoc io acelns eq] A olaq suc (9 2) lleq pue ottr] oM] ]seol 1e1o qldap e ol ponouralaq lleqslo]seJluoC Jo ecualuanuoc se Iue pue slloq Lulo] lle'ulolaq paptnoLd ldacx3 aql.rol paceld 1elar-u 'Pettnbal aq ]ou 'posolcuo ale Llclr''l^^ aq] lslap:rbxoq Jo sllocaq] se Llsns l|lMsurjJo le^ouat 'saoepns 'acejJns punolOlepun uO tlslugL sselC pollnqeq o] ale qslqM ro a}oj3uoc|1eo1parldde e se laqila sa3eJjns eq] o] {ro}eteda:dJo qslulJ leulj acefns fueurpl6 s{ennpalanei}[!olJ alqtst^uol]elnolocslp aq lleqs Llstut] 'aial3uoc aql pue surpls Outnouel 's1a1cod Jo a3elns )3ol lle Outltedel a3efns {:eutplg lo or,l]ul suotssa:dep saloq 6ur1111 1o ]slsuoolleqs Llslug (p ,\.IBtIIp.lo qsluldruroc aruJrns saqsluslq]o aor] oq 'abpa1qbtells e lalaur-oalLl]ropunuu (9) xls aq] lleqsocefns paqsluu pue $urLuoolq ocue^peut f;aletpauLut acepns aql uel{}aJou {len 1oulleLls }o '{:essecausl la}em pue cUeJ} aull aq }o acelns aLllol parpdde lleqs1t }! 'slulof uo uotsuedxe le pue sa6pe;1e oq aq] ol aslo^suell lleqsOuruuoolg lle pue 6ut1eo11 parlsluU e penorddeuV Luoolq Llllm pesn aq lleLls 6urOpa loo] 'pleoq a)llls e sueaul,iq go 1cnrlseq lleqs e Jo lroc ro uapooM qllMpoleolJ aq otl] olaJouoc pue palcedutoc lleqs 1tpaceldueaq seLlala:cuocaLlllaUV
I{sluld ecBJrns {lBAtepIS (J

sue;daql uo umoqsst OutuaPutn pue Ieanpeo;aql se aue;d aues aq) ol $o paqrnlstpun a:nlnJ uaqm l;ol 'sqJncoL1] abptrg socefns >1cap -rapun lcnrls aq lleqslle^ apls pue s6utltel

After completion the ordinarysurfacefinish,areas which do not exhibit of the requireosmooth,even surfacecif uniformtextureand appearance shall be sanded with power sanders or other approved abrasive means until smooth,even surfaces uniformtextureano appearance obtained. of are The use of power carborundumstones or disks'will be requiredto remove bulgesand otherimperfections. class '1surfacefinishshall not be applieduntil a uniformappearance can be obtained. class 1 surfacefinish may be requiredto be appliedas the finat finish for the following surfaces, unressotherwise directedby the Engineer: i) All form finish surfaces of bridge super-structures, except the under surfaces between girdersand the insidevertical surfaces r girders. of ii) All surfaces bridgepiers,columnsand abutments, of and retaining walls gb9y" finished ground and to at reast three tenth (0.3) meter berow finished ground. iii) All surfaces openspandrel of arch rings,spandrel columnsand abutment walls. iv) All surfacesof pedestrian undercrossings, exceptfloorsand surfacesto be coveredwith earth. v) surface above finished ground of culvert headwalls,endwalls and retaining walls. vi) sur^face insideof culvert barrels having a height of one and half (1.5) meters or more for a distanceinside the barrel at least equar to the heightof the culvert. vii)All surfaces railinqc of fl Surface RendeIinE All faces cl concrete whichare to come in contactwith back fill or pavement materials.shall be appriedtwo coats of hot bitumenof approvedquarity, beforeplacing any material aroundconcrete.
j101.3.8

qutrclslsrsIg
a) General All newly placed concrete shalr be cured in accordance with these specifications, unlessotherwise directed the Engineer. by b) Methodof Curine The curing method shail be one or more of the foilowingas described hereinafter.

441-25

Water Method Curing compound Method paper Method if required Reinforced Waterproof by the Engineer. Forms-in-Place Method SteamMethod Polyethytene Sheeting Method Water Method The concrete shallbe kept continuously by the application waterfor a wet of minimumperiodof seven(7) days afterthe concretehas been placed. cotton mats,burlaps, rugs,carpets, earthor sand blankets, or may be used as a curingmediumto retainthe moisture, entiresurfaceof the concrete the shall be kept damp by applyingwater with a nozzlethat so atomizesthe flow that a mist and not a sprayis formed,untilthe surfaceof the concrete is coveredwith the curingmedium. The moisturefrom the nozzleshall not be appliedunder pressure direcilyupon the concretein a quantitysufficient to cause a flow or wash the surface. At the expiration the curingperiodthe of concrete surfaceshallbe cleared all curingmediums. of when concretebridge decks and flat slabs are to be cured without the use of a moisture retaining medium, entiresurfaceof the bridgedeck or slab the shall be kept damp by the application water with an atomiiing nozzleas of specified the preceding in paragraph until the concretehas set, after which the entiresurfaceof the concrete shall be sprinkled continuously with water for a periodof not lessthan seven(7) days. CuringCompound Method surfaces exposed to the air may be cured by the applicationof an impervious membrane approved the Engineer. if by The membrane-forming compound used shall consist of a practically colourless liquid.The use of any membrane formingcompound that will alter the naturalcolourof the concrete imparta slippery or surface any wearrng to surfaceshall be prohibited. The compounoshaltbe appliedwith a pressure spray in such a manner as to cover the entire concretesurface with a uniformfilm, and shall be of such characterthat it will harden within 30 minutesafter application. The amountof compoundappliedshall be ample to seal the surfaceof the concretethoroughly.power operatedspraying equipment shall be equipped with an operationalpressure gauge and meansof controlling pressure. the The curingcompound shall be appliedto the concretefollowing surface the finishing operation immediately after the moisture sheen begins to disappearfrom the surface,but beforeany drying shrinkageor craze cracks begin to appear. In the event of any deray in tne ap[lication curing of

401-26

compound,which results in any drying or cracking of the surface, application water with an atomizingnozzle as specifiedunder "Water of Method", shall be started immediatelyand shall be continued until applicationof the compound which shall not be applied over any free standing watersurface. Should film of compound damaged the be from any causebeforethe expiration seven(7) days afterthe concreteis placedin of the case of structures, damagedportionshall be repairedimmediately the withadditional compound. curingcompounds shallnot hardsettlein storage. They shallnot be diluted or altered in any manner after manufacture. the time of use, the At compound shallbe in a thoroughly mixedcondition. the compound lf has not been used within one hundred twenty (120) days after the date of manufacture, Engrneer the may requireadditional testing before use to determine compliance requirements. to An anti-settling agent or combination anti-setiling of agents shall be incorporated the curing in compound prevent to caking. The curing compound shallbe packaged cleanbarrels steelcontainers in or or shallbe supplied from a suitable storage tank located the job-site. at onsite storageta,'ks shall have a permanentsystem designedto completely re-disperse any settledmaterialwithoutintroducing or any other foreign air substance. Containers shall be well sealedwith ring seals and lug type crimplids.The linings the containers of shallbe of a character will resist that the solvent the curing of compound. Eachcontainer shallbe labeled withthe manufacturer's name, specificationnumber, batch number, number of gallons, dateof manufacture, shallhavea labelwarning and and concerning flammability. labelshall also warn that the curingcompound The shall be well stirredbeforeuse. when the curing compoundis shippedin tanks or tanktrucks, shipping a invoice shallaccompany eachload.The invoice shall contain sameinformation that required'herein container the as for labels. Curing compound may be sampled the Engineer the sourceof supply by at and at thejob-site. ILeinlbrcetl Waterproof Parrer Method The exposedfinishedsurfacesof concreteshall be sprayed with water, using a nozzle that so atomizesthe flow that a mist and not a spray is formed,untilthe concrete has set, afterwhichthe waterproof papershall be placed. The paper shall remain in place for a period of not less than 72 nours. Reinforced paper shall complywith ASTM c 171 specifications. waterproof It shall be composed two sheetsof Kraftpapercemented of togetherwith a bituminous adhesiveand reinforced with fibre. The waterproofpaper shall be formedintosheetsof such widthas to providea complete cover of entire concrete surface.

401-27

All joints in the sheets shall be securelycementedtogetherin such a manner as to provide a waterproofjoint. The joint seams shall have lap minimum of ten (10)cm. The sheetsshall be securelyweighteddown by placinga bank of earth on to the edges of the sheetsor by othermeanssatisfactory the Engineer. Shouldany portionof the sheetsbe brokenor damagedwithinseventytwo (72) hours after being placed,the broken or damaged potlions shall be intoplace cemented withnew sheetsproperly repaired immediately qualities have been or Sectionsof sheets,which have lost their waterproof damagedto such an extentas to renderthem unfit for curingthe concrete shallnot be used. 1\llethod Forrns-in-Place the Formedsurfacesof concretemay be cured by retaining forms-in-place. in placefor a minimumperiodof seven (7) days The forms shall remain after the concrete has been placed, except that for members over five (5) period of the cms in leastdimension, formsshallbe in placefor a minimum five (5) days.Woodenforms shallbe kept wet by wateringduringthe curing period Method Stearn the After placingand vibrating, concreteshall be allowedto attainits initial and application During the placingof concrete set beforesteamis applied. shall be made to preventsurfacedryingby meansof a of steam, provision shall not coating of approvedmaterial.The optimum curing temperature exceedsixtyfive (65)degreeC. Method Polyethylene Sheeting shall be coveredwith white polyethylene The wet surfaceof fresh concrete possible withoutmarring the suface and shouldcover sheeting soon as as surfacesof the concrete.The edges of the sheetingshall be all exposed windrowof earth or any other means weightedsecurelywith a continuous to to satisfactory the Engineer providean air-tightcover.Adjoiningsheets shall overlapnot less than thirty(30) cms. and the laps shall be securely to weightedwith earlh, or any other means satisfactory the Engineerto providean air-tight cover. c) CuringStructures structures, other than highway All newly placedconcretefor cast-in-place bridge decks, shall be cured by the water method, the forms-in-place method, or, as permittedherein, by the curing compound method,all in (b),"Methods Curing". of in with accordance the requirements ltem401.3.8

4A1-28

The curingcompoundmethodmay be used on concretesurfaceswhich are to be buriedunderground, surfaces and where only ordinary surface Finish is to be appliedand on which a uniformcolouris not requireoano which will not be visiblefrom any publictraveled way. The top surfaceof highwaybridgedecks shall be cured by both the curing compoundmethod,and by the water method.The curing compound sharl be applied progressively during the deck finishingopurition immediately after finishingoperationsare completedon each lndividual portion of the deck. The water cure shalr be appriednot raterthan four (4) trours after completionof the deck finishingor, for portionsof the decKs on which finishing completed is after normalworkinghours,the water cure be applied not laterthan8.00a.m.the following morning. when deemed necessaryby the Engineerduring periodsof hot weather, water shall be applied to concrete surfaces being cured by the curing compound method o.1ov method, untir the Engineei -t.heforms-in-prace determines that a coolingeffectis no longerrequired. d) CuringPrecast Concrete Members Precastconcretemembersshail be cured for not ress than seven (7) days by the water method or by steam curing for a period in which go% of strength achieved, the optionof the contractor.steam curingfor precast at members shallconformto the following provisions: After placemenl the concrete, of membersshall be held for a minimumfour (4) hoursprecasting period. To prevent moisture ross on exposed surfaces during the presteaming period,membersshail be coveredimmediatery aftercast'ing in" orsurfaces shallbe keptwet by fog sprayor wet blankets. ""po."d Enclosures steam curingshall allow free circulation steam for of about the memberand shall be constructed containthe live steam with to a minimum moistureloss. The use of the tarpaulinsor similarflexiblecovers will be permitted,providedtirey are kept in good repair and secured in such a mannerto prevent loss of steamand moisture. the steam at jets shall be row pressureand in a saturated condition. steam at shall not impinge direcflyon the concrete,test cyrinders, Jets. or forms. Duringapplication the steam, the temperature of rise within the enclosure shall not exceed twenty (20) degree c per hour. The curing temperature throughout enctosure the shail noi exceedsixtyfive losy oegi;e c and shall be maintained a constantleveifor a sufficient at time n'"""J""iy to develop the requiredcompressive strength.contror cyrinders shail be covered to preventmoisture loss and shallbe placedin a location where temperature is representative the averagetemperature the enclosure. of of

401-29

Temperaturerecordingdevices that will provide an accurate continuous permanent recordof the curingtemperature shall be provided. minimum A of one temperature recording deviceper sixty(60) metersof continuous bed lengthwill be required checking for temperature. curing of precastconcrete will be considered completed after a termination of the steamcuringcycle. e) CuringPrecast Concrete Piles All newly placedconcreteprecastpiles, both conventionally reinforced and prestressed shall be cured by the "Water Method"as describedin ltem 401.3.8(b) except thatthe concrete shallbe keptundermoisture at least for fourteen(14) days. At the option of the Contractor steam curing may be used in whichcasethe steamcuringprovisions ltem 401.3.8(b) in "Quring PrecastConcreteMembers"shall apply exceptthat the concreteshall be kept wet for at least seven (7) days including the holdingand steaming period. ,t01.3.9 Testingof Aggreqates Samplesof fine and coarseaggregate be used shall be selectedby the to Engineer. shall be the responsibility the contractor designate lt of to the sourceor sourcesof aggregateand to obtainthe necessarysamplesand submit them for testing at least thirty (30) days before actual concreting operations to begin. are samplesof aggregates shall be obtainedand testedin accordance with the following standard AASHTOmethods:i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) x) xi) xii) xiii) xiv) Sampling aggregates Sieveanalysis Amountof materialpassing the No,200 sieve. Organic impurities MortarStrength Sodium sulphate soundness particles Friable Abrasion loss SpecificGravity Absorption. Production Plastic of Fines. Fineness Modulus SandEouivalent Potential Reactivity Carbonate of Rocksfor Concrete Aggregate (RockCylinder Method). Potential AlkaliReactivity Cement of -Aggregate Combinations (Morta-Bar Method). Potential Reactivity Aggregates of (Chemical Methods)

T-2 T-27 T-11 r-21 T-71 T-104 r-112 T-96 T-84 T-85 T-210 T-27 T-17 ASTMC 586 ASTM 227 C ASTMC 289

xv)

xvi)

401-30

No aggregate testingduringthe production concreteshall be sampled for of at the dischargegates of the bins feeding the weight hopper. The contractor,at his expense, shall provide safe and suitable faciiitiesfor obtaining samples.No concreting the work on the projectwill be permitted untilthe Engineer signifies writing approval, in his following performance the of the necessary tests,on all the materials involved makingconcrete. in
J 0 I . 3 .l 0

Testing Compressir-e of Strength concretecompressive strengthrequirements consistof a minimumstrength at the age of twentyeight(28) days and the minimum strength which must be attainedbefore various loads or stressesare appliedto the concrete. The various strengths required specified Table401-1. are in The compressive strength concrete be determined of will from test cylinders, which have been fabricated from concrete sampled and tested in accordance with AASHTOT 23 and AASHTOT 22 A set of six (6) cylinders shall be taken from each fifty (50) cubic metersof each class of concreteor fractionthereofplacedeach day, three (3) of the six (6) cylinders be testedafter seven (7) days and three (3) aftertwenty to eight(28)days. a) The minimumaverage days test resultof all samplestestedat any 28 timeshallbe the specified twentyeight(28)daysstrength. b) No individual samplestested after28 days shall show a test resultlower thaneighty five(85)percent the required of twenty eight(2g)days. concreterepresented any singletest cylinders by that failsto complywith the requirement under(b) abovewill be rejected unlessthe contractorat his expense,providesevidencethat the strengthand quality bf tre concrete placedin the work are acceptable. such evidenceconsistsof tests made lf on cores taken from the work, the cores shall be obtainedand tested in accordance with the specifications AASHTOT-24. of Testresults the coresshallmeetthe following of requirements:a) Average test resultof the coresshallbe lessthanthe minimum required twentyeight(28) days strength b) No individual core shall show a strengthless than Ninety five (95) percent the required of twentyeight(28)days strength. Shouldthe abovetest resultsfail to complywith the requirements, concrere of that particularpour shall be rejectedand removedas directed by the Engineer.Further more contractorshall redesign the concrete mix for approval the Engineer. of In case, seven (7) days strengthshows less than seventy(70) percentof the twentyeight(28) days strength case of type-lcement),Engineer (in may stop furtherwork on that particular portionof concrete, unlesstwenty eight (28)days strength givessatisfactory results. 401-31

for T ri:rl B:rtches Mix Productiotls of shallnot beginuntiltrialbatches the mix design of The placing concrete and testedand approved to be used have been producedby the Contractor shall be such that the average The trial mix proportions by the Engineer. shatlbe 20% higherthan the test of sirength five (5) consecutive cylinders shall test and no individual cylinder twentyeight(28)daysstrength speciiieci strength. be belowthe specified to When concrete compressivestrength is specified as a prerequisite or to applyingloadsor stresses a concretestructure member,test cylinders similarto those at the castingsite. The will be cured under conditions for such purposeswill be compressivestrengthof concrete determitred tests. on evaluated the basisof individual 10r."l -t01.1.1 AND PAYNIENT U J\{ENT N{I,],TSITE
l'1e:tsrtre urcnt

to of The quantity concrete be paidfor shallbe the numberof cubicmeters in complete placeand accepted. classes of of concrete the various to ic, of the In measuring uoiurne concrete Oe paid for, the dimensicn be exceptwhereothersoroered thoseshownon the Drawings shall-,.,e applied in by the Eng,,teer writing. shall be made for the volumeof concrete from the theoretical Deductiorrs pipes and conduits, etc., in case holes,weep holes, volumesof draining centimeters, 500 square areasexceed wheretheircross-sectional of usedin the construction any concrete shallnot include The measurement or falsework. cofferdams ten or scorings, chamfers squarecentimeters in The volumeinvolved fillets, the when measuring area or less shall be disregarded In cross-sectional to quantity concrete be Paidfor of underthis pipe culverts, etc., is not to be measured for Concrete railings, items. item,but underseparate
-10 l.-1.2

Pavrnetrt aboveshallbe paidfor at the as quantity measured provided The accepted for contractunit price respectively the pay items listed below that as per which prices and paymentshall be full shown in the Bill of Quantities compensationalso for such works as curing, surface finishing and/or jointsand any such work of formation construction as rendering required, the item exceptworksthat are paid to necessary complete and incidentals for underotherpay items

401-32

For all concretestructures portions, or thereof,no separatemeasurement or paymentshall be made for false work, centering,formwork or any other temporary work to complete the concrete structure or portion thereof, payment all such temporary for worksshallbe deemedto be includedin the pricepaid undervariousitemsof concrete contract work.

Pay ltem No. 401a

Description.

U n i to f Measurement

401b 401c

Concrete Class .. .. (i) UnderGround (ii On Ground ) (iii) Elevated Concrete ClassB Concrete ClassC (i) Underground (ii) On Ground (iii) Elevated (i) Concrete ClassD1 (ii) Concrete ClassD2 (iii) Concrete ClassD3 Concrete ClassY Lean Concrete Precast Concrete, Class......

CM CM CM
t- tvl

CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM

401d

401e 401f g 401

401-33

rTtM -r02
{ 0 2 .I

F'ALSEWOITKAND CENTERINC FOR BITIDGES.

pIsc'lUPTtoN This work shallconsist ihe desrgn, of suppiyand construction falsework of whichwill provide necessary the rigidity support to the roadsimposed, and produce structure, a finished the linesand gradesindicated the plans to on or as required the Engineer. by

J02.2

N,lATERIAL REOUIREMENTS Timberand lumberto be used for falsework shallbe of soundlumberand comply withthe requirement AASHTOM 168. in structuralsteelto be used for falsework shall complywith the requirements of standardspecifications Structural for steetAASFiTo M 1g3. Fieinforcrng steel if it is to be used for falseworkshall complywith the requirements of AASHTOM 3r - 82. concretewhen usedshallconform ltem'401 to of these specifications.

{02.3 {02.J.l

CONSTRUCTION REQUIREM ENTS False rvorhDesign Drawings and Detailed workingdrawings and backupcalculations the falsework of shallbe furnished the contractorto the Engineer. falsework by No construction shall start until the Engineerhas reviewed and approvedthe drawings. The contractorshall providesufficienttime for the Engineerto comptetethis review.such time shall be proportionate the complexity to of the falsework designand in no caseshallbe lessthanone (1) week. The contractormay revise the farseworkdrawingsat any time provided sufficient time is allowedfor the Engineer'srevieir before construction is startedon the revisedportions. Assumptions used in designof the falsework shall includebut not be limited to the following:i ) For designing falsework and centering, weightof 2,400 kg. per cubic a

meter shall be assumed for green concrete.Ail farsewoik shail be designed arrd ccnstructedto provide the necessary rigidity and to supportthe ii-ieci..r without appreciable setflementor bero-rmaiion. The Engineer may rcquire the contractor emproy to screwjacksor approved wedgesto jake up any settlement the formworkeitherbefore in or during the placirrg ,:j0ncrete. of

i i ) The entire superstructurecross-section,except rairing, shall be

con-qrdereci he placedat one time, exceptwhen in the o-pinion to of the Enoirper a podionof the roadis carriedby girderspreviousty cast and ir::i,,ii1q aitained cerlain a strenqth.

402-1

Z-ZOV laour6uf aql ^q Outlunn ou 'sueldlcelluoO aq ssalunuol1aloLllpeptulJad lllMuotletnap ur penordde 'uotlecol e io] sr orl] uo uAAoLls olarcuoc6utcegd alnpeLl3s aJoqM leql idacxe pue ecuenbes 6urceld a]olcuoo pasodotd 6unnoqs lurof uorlcnJ]suoo e uerberp 6urceld e:n1cn:1s:adns apnlout lleqs sOunnelpllomosleJ aqI 'sroquraur anticelold 6utlreL (ttt fuerodLual Jeal3sLuc(69) {yrql iseel }e aq lleqs slaquou lronnas;e3 Jo pue uotlcnl]suoc lo ctlqndo1luecefpe lano lenouloJ cqJer] lroMasleJ Jo sa6els lle 6uunp posn aq lleLls DutceLqelenbapy (tt '6uruuer1 dec :o llomaslej paroL{cue e ut labut.tlslotJa}xaLlsef (t {;arnces oq lleLtsueds aq] o] aq 6utnno11o1 paltultl tou lnq apnlcul eq] ol urnuirurLU :suorsrnord lleLls ptes alaLlm aql pelrnber suotlecol aLll]e u6tsap)JomasleJ are s6uruedo 'salctqa^ ol Aqlceduut palcefqns alqe]saq ll1ltn llomasleJ ]t {ue aptnold eLll ]eql arnsua o] papoau )lom aql lo] soJnlealleuotltppe to; aLll JolcerluoC 'ctgel] Dututeluteut peltnbelale sOutuedo llomosleJ lleLls aL.ll peor o1 luacefpe pue la^o lloMasle} Jo uol}cnj}suo3 lol araLlMs,{enn pue Llcns peu6rsap se (xt pue slutop aq aslejse poJaprsuoc lleqssbueqrono sqelsbutpoddns )JoA 'sasroJ {ue poddns aql Dursserlsard ^q pasnec speol palsnlpeelto peseoJoul eq aql 'possallsaLd o] sl alalsuoc aql Jl(lllA oq o1 pau0rsap lleqs IJoMasleJ 'suorlepueuluocal qsluln] lo esaql 6ur,ilra^elep JaLllo san6olelec 'reautbu3otl] ^q palsanbal suollepuaulLuooal Jl lleqs rojcerluo3aLll oLl] s,Jarnlcejnueui poacxa ]ou lleLlssacl^ap polnlcelnueullaLllo pue 'slalcerq's1ce[ pasnsuot]cagap Dutpeol 'suLunloc pue aql(!lA ulnlulxeul uo 'un6eqseq burceld ralJe lncco ,{eu qctqan aq) 'luaual]Ies panoldde {ue }calJocpue dn ale} o} Japlo ul s>1cef lqbrps 'polcalp uaqry1 6ulyoddns-1;as qcre uo paceld eq lleLls 6ur:eluac laLllolo 'sexoq aq] ropuaro] sraluac1o 6uuanno; lenpel6aq] Jo] saslnop pues 'sa6pamalqe]rns sueau Aq apeu oq lleqs suolsl^old sueld Jo qcLy (tn pal3nllsuoc ;;eqs6utLeluac aq 6uualuacpeno:ddeaq1o16urplocce Jo alll s6utnnetg uo paieclpul pa4lcads (n reque3 aL{} 'ern}onl}s pallstuU aq1 anrD o} }os aq lleqs >1lo,tnas;e3 lo alqemolle sanle^6ut:eeq poleulllsa sluaulel]]as llos speol oqi {llec o1 paubtsap Ourpaacxa lnol.l]tmuuaql uodn pesodt-ut aql aq lleqss6utlool )ro^ 1ro^aslel sbutnnelp asle;aq] uo lo]3elluoC ^q peleubrsap lleqs(I.rppue lenn) suorllpuoc pue sonle^Outleaq oq llos (^l llos asecou ul pue sepdaqllo1anle^Outleeq apdLadsuo](0;) ual peecxa oql lauueurpanoLdde uo seltd:aquutl pesnOurpeol oll] paecxe ]ou lleqs '6ut;td papoddns uo pue ue ur pa^oLUaJ 'uanup'pecedsaq lleqsqcrqan ')lo^ asle3 (lll '6utiooi e fuolce1st1esuo papunoiaq louues qslLl^ aq lleqs

The falsework drawingsshall show any pedestrian openings, which are required through falsework. the Anticipated total settlements falseworkand forms shall be indicatedby of the Contractor the falsework on drawings. Theseshouldinclude falsework footingsettlement and joint take-up. Anticipated settlements over two (2) permitted the Engineer. cms will not be allowedunlessotherwise by Deck slab forms between girders shall be constructedwith no allowancefor settlement relative the girders to Detailed calculations the Contractor by showingthe stresses. deflections, and camber necessaryto compensate for said deflections all load in supporting members shallbe included the worktng in drawings. After approving the Contractor's falseworkdeflection camber,the Engineer will furnish to the Contractor the amounts of camber necessary to compensate vedicalalignment anticipated for or structure deflection, this if is not shown on the drawings.The total camber used in constructing falsework shallbe the sum of the aforementioned cambers. 102.3.2 False rvorkConstruction Dran'ings and The falseworkshall be constructed conformto the falseworr drawings. to The materials usedin the falsework construction shallbe of the quantity and qualitynecessary withstand to the stressesimposed.The workmanship used in falsework construction shallbe of such qualitythat the falsework will supportthe loads imposed on it without excessivesettlementor take-up beyondthat shownon the falsework drawings. Falsework shall be foundedon footings, capableof supporting the loads imposed it. on When falsework supported piles,the pilesshall be drivento a bearing is on value, equal to the calculated pile toadingas shown on the falsework drawings. jacks or wedges shall be used in connection Suitable with falseworkto set gradeand to take up any excessive the formsto theirrequired settlement in the falsework eitherbeforeor duringthe placingof concrete. The Contractor shall provide tell-talesattachedto the soffit forms easily readable and in enoughsystematically-placed location determine total to the settlement the entire portion of the structurewhere concreteis being of placed. Shouldeventsoccur,including settlements that deviatemore than + 2 cms from thoseindicated the falsework on drawings, whichin the opinion the of Engineer would prevent obtaining a structure conforming to the requirements these specifications, of the placing of concrete shall. be discontinued untilcorrective measuresare provided entiresatisfaction to of the Engineer.In the event, satisfactory measures are not taken to correctness excessive of settlements, contractorshall not be relievedof the responsibility conforming the requirements thesespecifications. for to of 402-3

{02.3.3

Itemoving Falsc*'orlr Unlessotherwise shown on the drawings, permitted the Engineer, or by falseworksupporting any span of a simple span bridges shall not be releasedbefore 14 days after the last concrete,excludingconcreteabove the bridgedeck, has been placed.Falsework supporting any span of a continuous rigidframe bridgeshall not be releasedbefore 14 days after or the last concrete,excludingconcreteabove the bridge deck, has been placed in that span and in the adjacentportionsof each adjoiningspan wherefalsework to be released. is Falsework supporting deck overhangs and deck slab betweengirdersshall not be releaseduntil seven (7) days after the deck concrete has been placed. In additionto the above requirement, falseworkfor bridges shall be no releaseduntil the supportedconcretehas attaineda compressive strength of atleasteighty(80) percentof the required twentyeight (2g) days strength. Falsework cast-in-place for prestressed portionsof structuresshall not be released untilafterthe prestressing steelhas beentensioned. All falseworkmaterials shall be completely removed.Falseworkpilingshall be removedatleastsixty (60) cms belowthe surfaceof the originalground or stream bed. when falseworkpilingis driven within the limitsof ditch or channelexcavation areas, the falseworkpiling within such areas shall be removedto atleastsixty (60) cms, belowthe bottomand side slopesof said excavated areas. All debrisand refuseresulting from work shallbe removedand the premises left in a neat and presentable condition.

402.-l

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT For all concrete structures,prestressed concrete structuresor oortions thereof,no separatemeasurement paymentshall be made for falsework or supportingsuch structures.All falseworkcosts shall be consideredas included the contractpricespaid (cost/cMor LM of structural in members or lump-sum) for the various items of concrete work and no additional compensation be allowedthereof.. will

402-4

ITEM 403

FORMWORK

403.1

DESCRIPTION Theworkshall consist providing, of erecting removing and concrete formsof sufficientstrengthwith all necessarybracings,fasteners,etc. and in conformity the requirements with hereinafter specified.

403.2

MATERIALREOUIREMENTS Forms shall of wood,metal other be or approved materials shallbe built and mortar tightand of sufficient rigidity prevent to distortion to the pressure due of theconcrete otherloadsincident the construction and to operations.

403.3 403.3.r

CONSTRUCTION REOUIREMENTS Formwork Design Drawines and The contractorshall prepareworkingdrawings, backupcalculations and material datafor the formworkandshutters be submitted the Engineer to to for approval unless otherwise directed. The requirements designof formwork the sameas described for are under Item402.3.1 Falsework Design Drawings. and

403.3.2

Formwork Construction concreteforms shall be constructed and maintained as to prevent so warping and the opningof jointsdue to the shrinkage the lumberand of shallbe true to the dimensions, linesand gradesof the structure and with the sufficient strength, rigidity, shapeand surface smoothness to leave as the finished workstrueto the dimensions shownon drawings required or by the Engineer withthe surface and finishas specified. Forms exposed for surfaces shallpreferably linedwith metal,plywood, be or otherapproved material, maywiththe Engineer's or permission, madeof be dressedlumberof uniformthickness. Forms shall be filled at all sharp corners(Minimum (2) cms triangular two fillets) and shallbe givena levelor draftin the caseof all projections, suchas girdersand copings, ensure to easyremoval. Formfasteners consisting form bolts,clampsor otherdevicesshall be of used as necessary preventspreading the forms during concrete to of placement. use of ties consisting twisted The of wire loopsto holdformsin position not be permitted. will Metalties or anchorage withinthe formsshall be so constructed to permittheirremoval a depthof at leastfive(s) as to cmsfromthefacewithout injury theconcrete. to

403-1

the Fitting metalties shallbe of suchdesignthat,upontheirremoval, for possible size.The cavities shall that are leftwill be of the smallest cavities even,and be filledwith cementmortarand the surfaceleft sound,smooth, for maybe castintothe concrete lateruse Anchor devices in uniform colour. precast typesof The members. useof driven formsor for lifting in supporting will not be forms or form supportsto concrete for anchorages fastening permitted. of of The insidesurfaces formsshallbe cleaned all dirt,mortarand foreign coated with shallbe thoroughly which laterbe removed, will Forms, material. quality form oil or form oil priorto use.The form oil shallbe a commercial of the coating whichwill permit readyrelease the formsand otherapproved portions a of All surfaces similar of the will not discolour concrete. exposed or shall be formedwith the sameformingmaterial with structure concrete materialswhich producesimilar concretesurface textures,colour and appearance. with in shallnotbe deposited the formsuntilall workin connection Concrete required be to completed, materials all the constructing forms has been and for havebeenplaced the unitto be poured, in embedded the concrete and said has the Engineer inspected approved formsandmaterials. concretein forms shall be such as to prevent The rate of depositing permitted in of of deflections theformsor formpanels excess the deflections Maximum deflection allowed due to propsettlement by thesespecifications. with 3 is of is 5 mm and due to bending shutters 3 mm, whenmeasured edge. meterstraight enclosed or whichWillnot be completely surfaces, Formsfor all concrete permanentground surface, shall conform to the hidden below the hereinfor forms for exposedsurfaces.Interiorsurfacesof requirements to shall be considered be completely drainagestructures underground enclosed surfaces. placed Whenlumber for underwatershallbe watertight. Formwork concrete and and this is used, shallbe planed tongued grooved. and sq surfaces shallbe designed constructed concrete Formsfor exposed in excessively any doesnot undulate formed surface the concrete of thatthe or form fasteners, wales. studs,joists,form stiffeners, between direction eithertwo (2) mm or 11270 the centerto center of exceeding Undulations joists,formstiffeners, or formfasteners, waleswill between studs, distance Shouldany form or formingsystem,even to be considered be excessive. approvedfor use, producea concretesurfacewith though previously until modifications, its excessiveundulations, use shall be discontinued to satisfactory the Engineerhave been made. Portionsof concrete in with surfaceundulations excessof the limitshereinmay be structures by rejected the Engineer.

403-2

true to the line designateduntil the Forms shall be set and maintained hardened.Forms shall remain in place for periods, concreteis sufficiently When forms appearto be as which shall be determined, hereinspecified. way, either beforeor during the placingof concrete, in unsatisfactory any the Engineer will order the work stopped until the defects have been corrected. and surface smoothnessof The shape, strength,rigidity,watertightness, at reusedforms shall be maintained all times.Any warpedor bulgedlumber in must be resized before being reused. Forms that are unsatisfactory any respectshallnot be reused. wherethe bottomof the form is inaccessible, For narrowwalls and columns, the lower form boards shall be adjustableso that they may be removedfor beforeplacingthe concrete. immediately material cleaning extraneous out 403.3.3 of Removal Formwork of ln the determination the time for the removalof falseworkand forms, considerationshall be given to the location and chara;ter of the structure, the weather, and other conditionsinfluencingthe setting of the concrete, and the materials used in the mix. lf field operationsare not controlledby beam or cylindertests, the following periods,exclusiveof days when the temperatureis below five (5) degree C, for removal of forms and supportsshall be used as a minimum subject to the approval of the Engineer and to the requirements of ltem 402.3.3. Falsework. Removing

Arch Center Centering UnderBeams underFlatSlabs Supports FloorSlabs Surfaces VerticalWall Columns Sideof Beams Top SlabsR.C.Box Culverts

14 Days 14 Days 14 Days 14 Days 24 Hours 24 Hours 12 Hours 14 Days

girders, columns, othermembers or beams, Sideformsfor cast-in-place shallremainin placefor at deadload,bending wherethe formsdo not resist for Sideformsfor concrete the members. leastforty(40)hoursafterplacing precastmembersmay be removedthe next day after placingconcrete therein. cement, is cement usedor by the use of additional lf highearlystrength as maybe reduced directed. theseperiods of tests,the removal forms, are by \Men fieldoperations controlled cylinder (where of and and supports housing, the discontinuanceheating curing and is may beginwhen the concrete foundto have the required applicable) in provided no case shall supportsbe removed in strength, compressive the lessthanseven(7)daysafterplacing concrete. 403-3

All formsshallbe removed, exceptwhenno permanent accessis available to the cells, formssupporting deckof boxgirders the the and the formsin hollowabutments piersmay remainin place.prior to completion or of forming the deckforms,the insideof box girders for shallbe cleared all of loosematerial sweptclean. and Methods formremoval of likelyto causeoverstressing the concrete of shall not be used. In general,the forms shall be removedfrom the bottom upwards. Formsand theirsupports shallnpt be removed withoutapproval. supportsshallbe removed sucha manneras to permitthe concrete in to uniformly gradually the stresses to its ownweight. and take due In general, archcentering falsework or shall be struckand the arch made setf-supporting beforethe railingor coping is placed.This precaution is essential oiderto avoidjamming the eipantionlointsjnd' variations in of in alignment. filledspandrel For arches, such portions the spandrel of walls shallbe leftfor construction subsequent the striking centeis, may be to of as jamming the expansion necessary avoid to joints. of centersshall be gradually and uniformly loweredin such a manneras to avoidinjurious stresses any partof the structure. archstructures two in In of or more spans,the sequence striking of centersshallbe approved the by Engineer.
403.4

MEASUREMENT AIID PAYMENT For all concrete structures,prestressedconcrete structures,precast . concrete elementsor portionsthereof, no separate measurement or paymentshall be made for formworksupportingsuch structures. All formwork costsshallbe considered included the contract as in pricespaid (cosucMor LM of structural members lump-sum) the various or for itemsof concrete worliandno additional compensation be allowed will thereof.

403-4

ITEM 404

STEEL REINFORCEMENT

404.1

DESCRIPTION This work shall consist of furnishing, fabricating and placing of steel reinforcementof the type, size, shape and grade required in accordance with these specifications, and in conformitywith the requirementsshown on the Drawings and SpecialProvisions as directedby the Engineer. or

404.2

IUATERIAL R.E,OUIRE]UENTS All materials shall conform to the requirements hereinafter given. Test reports from approved sources shall be submitted to the Engineerfor all steel reinforcementused. These reports shall show the results of chemical and physicaltests made

r)
ii)

Deformed BilletSteelBars (Grades40 and 60) for Concrete AASHTO Reinforcement M-31(ASTM 4-615) Deformed Steel Wire for Concrete Reinforcement-AASHTO M-225(ASTMA-496) WeldedSteelWire Fabric Concrete for Reinforcement-AASHTO M-55(ASTM A-185) Steel Bar Mats for ConcreteReinforcementAASHTO M-54 (ASTM A-184) Cold-Drawn SteelWire for ConcreteReinforcement-AASHTO M-32(ASTM A-82) Welded Deformed Steel Wire Fabric for Reinforcement-AASHTO (ASTMA-497) M-221 Concrete

iii)

iv)

v)
vi)

vli) 404.3 4043.r

Structural Shapes Concrete for Reinforcement ASTMA-36

CONSTRUCTION REOUIREMENTS Fabricationof Bent Bars a) Order Lists Before materials.areordered all order lists and bending diagrams shall be furnishedby the Contractor,for the approvalof the Engineer.The approval of order lists and bendingdiagramsby the Engineershall in no way relieve the Contractor of responsibilityfor the correctness of such lists and diagrams.Any expenses incident to the revisionsof material furnished in accordance with such lists and diagrams to make it comply with the drawingsshall be borne by the Contractor.

404-1'

b) Storinsand Surface Conditionof Reinforcement Steel reinforcementshall be stored above the surface of the ground on platforms, skids, or other supports and shall be protected as far as practicable from mechanical injury and surface deteriorationcaused by exposure to conditions producing rust. When placed in the work, reinforcement shall be free from dirl, detrimental rust, loose seals, paint, grease, oil, or other foreign materials.Reinforcement shall be free from injuriousdefectssuch as cracks and laminations. Surfaceseams, surface irregularities, mill scale will not be cause for rejection,providedthe or minimumdimensions, cross-section area, and tensileproperties a handof wire brushedspecimenmeets the physicalrequirements the size and for gradeof steelspecified. c) Fabrication Bent bar reinforcement shall be cold bent to the shapes shown on the drawingsor requiredby the Engineer.Bars shall be bent around a pin havingthe following diameters(D) relation the diameter the bar (d): in to of Stirrups columntie bars & Otherbarshaving d<3.5cm(1-3l8")(No.1 1 bar) d>3.5cm(1-3l8") 404.3.2
Placing and Fastenins a) Protection of Material

D=4xd

D=Sxd D = 10xd

Steelreinforcement be protected all timesfrom injury. shall at When steel, placedin position shownon the Drawings, easilyremovable as has and detrimental rust,loosescale,or dust, it shall be cleanedby a satisfactory method, approved the Engineer. by b) Placine Fastening and Reinforcing steelshall be accurately placedin the position shownon the Drawings firmly and heldduring depositing finishing theconcrete. the and of cover,the distance between external the faceof the barandthe faceof the finished concrete, shallbe as indicated th Drawings. on Reinforcing steel barsembedded concrete in shall not be bentafterthey are in place.Bars shallbe tiedat all intersections 16 gaugeblackannealed except with wire that wherespacing less than 1 ft (0.3m)in each direction, is alternate intersections to be tied.All intersections be tied in the top mat of need shall pladedon bridgedecks and the top slabs of box culverts. reinforcement Abruptbendsshall be avoidedexcept where one steel bar is bent around other. the

444-2

barsand be of the and stir.rups ties shallalwayspassaround. outside main heldat the steelshallbe securely Att thereto. ieinforcing ,""ur"fy attached forms, which remain in place by means of from steel ;rp";'d;t""ce steel, placedon the forms.All reinforcing latvanizeosteel bars or chairs held at the properdistance above,shallbe securely E*""pt as mentioned steel b|ocksor galvanized concrete fromthe formsby meansof templates, whichwill be surfaces, formed shallnotbe usedagainst Metalchairs Blocksfor aftei tne forms are stripped. "f.r"i6. in the finishedstructure "*p"i"O reinforcement contactwith the forms shall be precast away from troiOing and shall have 16shape,and dimensions blocksof approved concrete in "on"rJt" wiresembedded them.The precast g""g" br"il annealed'tie for the class equalto that specified strength blockshallhavea compressive by to be placedin the work.Layersof bars shallbe separated of concrete or metalchairs bolsters. approved before spacerblocksshall be removed concrete Any brokenor damaged stoneor brick, piecesof broken. use of pebbles, T"he iS placed. Reinforcing will "lii"r"t" r"t"r pip" or woodenblocksas spacers not be permitted' placedin the workshailbe free fromflakerust,dirt and foreign steefwn'en materialandbeforeanyconcreteisp|aced,anymortarwhichmaybe shall be No steel shall be removed. concrete to aonering the reinforcing placingof the reinforcing the has inspected J"p".it,iO until the Engin6er shallallow The to steeland givenpermisJion placethe concrete. Contractor place and the reinforcement formsare in tne enginlerfour hourstime after or size,length shapeshallbe Any the to condluct inspection. bar of incorrect wi*i correct bars. Any bar locatedor spaced ilmoueo and replaced is beforepermission given correctly or shallbe relocated spaced incorrectly shall be at the and and such replacements corrections to placetoncrete of placedin violation these provisions All expense. concrete contractor's and be rejected removed' shall c) Splicine on in shall be furnished the full lengthsindicated the All reinforcement whereshown splicingof bars,except permitted. otherwise oi"*ing, unless -drawings, of withoutthe writtenapproval the will not be permitted on the and as be snatt staggered far as possible witha minimum ;;g;;;";. SptiJei Not morethan seiarationof not less than fort' (aO)times bar diameters. except in the (1/3)of barsmay be spliced the samecross-section, on! tnirO on shown thedrawings. where bars shall.be lappedwith a shownon the Drawings, Unlessotherwise the splices' In (40)timesthe bir diameter. lapped of ,ini*rrn overlap forty will.not splice-s Lapped placedin tontict and wiredtogether. barsshallbe to where the concretesection is insufficient be permittedat locations andonethird or of cleardistance one bardiameter one a frouiO" minimum the between spliceand the_ sizeof coarseaggregate maximum ir_ila1 the shall be done only if steel of i""r"rt adjacentbar..Welding reintorclng writing'Spiral by or on detailed the Drawings if-authorized ihe Engineer.in ai leastoneand one half(1-112) shall reinforcement belplicedby lapping shownon the Drawings. otherurise unless irrn, ot"by buttwelding

404-3

d) Lanningof Bar Mat sheet of mesh or bar-matreinforcement shall overlapeach other sufficienfly to maintaina uniform strength and shall be secureiy fastened at the ends and edges.The overlapshall not be lessthan one mesh in width. e) Covering The minimum covering,.measuredfrom the surface of the concrete to the face of any reinforcement bar shail, unress otherwise shown on the Drawings or directed by the Engineer, be not ress than s cms except as follows: Top of slab Bottomof Slab Stirrups and ties in T-beams

4.0cm 3.0cm 3.5cm

In the_footings abutments.and of retaining wailsthe minimumcoveringsharl be 7.5 cm. In work exposed the action6f sea waterine to mini.n* covenng shallbe 10 cm. 404.4 404.4.1 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT Measurement The .quantity be paid for shail be the carculatedtheoreticarnumber of -to metric tons of reinforcement steer bars, mesh or mats as determinedfrom the approved bar bending diagrams and incorporated in the concrete and accepted,exceptwhen reinforcement paid foi under is pay-it"rs. ot "i The weight of prainor deformed bars or bar mat wiil be computedfrom the theoretical weight of plain round bars of the same nominalsize as shown in the followingtabulation :

Size mm 6 8 10 12 13 16

Weight in Kilograms perMeter 0.222 0.395 0.616 0.888 1.042 1.578

Size mm. 20 22 25 32 35 40

Weight in Kilograms per Meter 2.466 2.984 3.853 6.313 7.553 9.865

clips,tiesseparators, othermaterial and usedfor positioning fastening and the.reinforcemenJin praceand structurar steershailnot be incruoed thJ in calcutated payment for yreiojrt underthis item.rf barsare substituted upon the contractor's request and as a resultmoresteeris usedthan specified, on|ytheamountspecifiedsha||bemeasuredforpayment

404-4

or otherthan those shownon the Drawings When laps are madefor splices, required by the Engineerand for convenienceof the Contractor,the extra nor steelshallnot be measured paidfor. withoutthe splicesbeing When continuous barsare shownon the Drawings, steel in the spliceswill be paid for on the basisof the shown the necessary barsnot beingshorterthan twelve(12)meters. individual of For bent bars,the lengthalongcentre-line bar will be paid. 404.4.2 Payment as The acceptedquantitymeasured providedabove shall be paid for at the for contractunit prices respectively the pay items listed below and shown in for which priceand paymentshall be full compensation the Bill of Quantities furnishing materials, labour, equipment and incidentals necessary to comolete item. the Pay ltem No. Description.

Unitof Measurement

404a

as M ReinforcementperAASHTO 31 Grade 40 Reinforcement perAASHTO 31 as M Grade 60 as Reinforcement perAASHTO M-225 as M-55 Reinforcement perAASHTO as M-54 Reinforcement perAASHTO Reinforcement perAASHTO as M-32 as M-221 Reinforcement perAASHTO (Structural Shapes) Reinforcement A-36. as perASTM

Ton Ton Ton Ton Ton Ton Ton Ton

404b

404c 404d 404e 404f 4049 404h

404-5

ITEM 405 405.1

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES


DESCRIPTION This work shall consist of prestressingprecast or cast-in-placeconcrete by placingand tensioning prestressing furnishing, of steel in accordance with detailsshown on the plans, and as specifiedin these specifications as or directed the Engineer. by This work shall also include the furnishing and installationof any appurtenantitem necessary for the particular prestressingsystem to be used, includingbut not limitedto ducts, anchorageassembliesand grout usedfor pressure grouting ducts.

405.2 405.2.7

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS PrestreSSinE Reinfoicement Steel Prestressing steel shall be hightensile wire conforming to ASTM Specification 4-421 or AASHTO Designation M-204; strand or rope conformingto ASTM specificationA-416 or AASHTo DesignationM-203 or hightensilealloybarsas follows: High{ensile-strength bars shallbe stressrelieved alloy and cold stretched to a minimumof 9,100 Kg/sq.cm. After cold stretching physicalproperties the shall,be as follows:

r)
ii) iii) iv) v) vi)

Minimum Ultimate tensile strength Minimum yield strength, measured bythe 0.7 percent extension under loadmethod shallbe notlessthan Minimum mgdulus elasticity of Minimum elongbtion 20 bardiameter in Diameters afterrupture Diameters tolerance

16,5T0 Kg/sq.cm g,100 Kg/sq.cm 1.75 10 Kg/sq.cm x ' 4 percJnt - 0.75mm - 0.25mm

The steelshallbe free from injurious defectsand shall have a smooth surface.Material, which shows injuriesdefectsduring or prior to its installationthework,shallbe rejected. in wire and strand shallbe supplied coilsof sufficient in diameter ensure to thattheylieoutstraight. The Engineer callfor a relaxation on prestressing may test steelin case,he is not satisfied with the sourceof manufacture. Relaxation prestressing for steel shallbe measured a period thousand over of (1000) hours stressed at seventy (70) percent its ultimate of tensilestrength givingless than six (6) percent elongation.
a) Testins

All wires, strands, barsto be shipped the siteshallbe assigned lot or to a number tagged identification and for purposes. Anchorage assemblies be to shipped shallbe likewise identified. 405-1

of shallbe representative the lot to be furnished. All samplessubmitted All of the materialsbpecifiedfor testing shall be furnishedfree of cost and in shall be delivered time for teststo be made well in advanceof anticipated time of use. shall furnishfor testingthe followingsamplesselectedfrom The contractor as ordered by the Engineer.The selectionof samples shall be each lot or plantby the Engineer his representative' made at the manufacturer's PretensioninqMethod Samplesat least 2.10 M long shall be furnishedof eachwtrepr strandsize.A sampleshall be takenfrom each and everycoil' Post-Tensioninq Method Samples of the following lengths shall be furnished: cable one and half lengthto make up one parallel-lay For wires, sufficient as the cable to be of (1.5) M long consisting the same number of wires one and half (1.5)M lengthshallbe furnished. For iurnistred. strands, with threadedends and nuts,one and half (1.5) M For bars to be furnished at ends. threads between Anchorage Assemblies Two anchorage assembliesof each size of plates. with distribution complete to anchorage be usedshall be furnished, 405.2.2 Concrete of for The materials concreteshall conformto the requirements item 401. D as shown in table 401-1 unless otheruvise The concreteshall be Class shownon the Plans. 405.2.3 Steel Reinforcement of steelshallconformto the requirements item404. Reinforcement 405.3 CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS General Unless otherwiseordered by the Engineer,the Contractorshall certify for the Engineer's approval that a technician skilled in the approved method will be availableto the Contractorto give aid and prestressing to equipment obtainthe required in instruction the use of the prestressing results. The tensioningprocess shall be conducted so that the tension being at may be measured alltimes. and the elongation supplied standingbehindor underjack will not be operations, Duringthe prestressing tendon allowedin orderto ensurethat no one is injuredby the flyingspindle, or the jack in the eventof a breakoccurring.

405-2

40s.3. t

Prestressing Method Themethod prestressing be usedshallbe optional the of to with provided introduces changein the position centroidcontractor, he no of of the total prestressing forceover the lengthof the memberand in the magnitude of the final effectiveprestressing force as prescribed the Drawings. in The prestressing system chosen the Contractor havebeenindicated by shall in the tender.This optionshail be subject arr requirements to hereinafter specified. lndependently the prestressing from systemto be applied, foilowing the points have be ensured. to (i) The safety.g.f anchorage the prestressing t!" of tendons and their suitability the transmission forcest6 tne concrete for of under loads all whatsoever. Thatthe actuallossesdueto friction coincide withthe calculated onesforthe prestressing. The suitability the proposed of steelfor the chosenprestressing system. The lengthof transmission the forceto the concrete of and the minimumstrengthof the ratternecessary prestressing for in systems, wherethe prestressing.erementi fuily or partiaily are anchored the concrete to through bondandfriction. Thesuitability measures of takento protect prestressing tendons fromcorrosion thefinartensioning untir is carried out.

(ii) (iii) (iv)

(v)

The contractor shailsubmit well in advance the Engineer approval to for complete details the methods, of materials, equipmEnt proposes and he to usein the prestressing operations. suchdetail shailoufline method the and sequenceof stressing,completespecifications and details of the prestressing steer and anchoringdevicesproposedfor use, anchoring stresses,type of encrosures, and ail oirrei data p"rtrining to the prestressing operation,incrudingthe proposedarrangement the of prestressing in the members. units An agreement certificate the prestressing for system shallbe submitted and approved the Engineer by beforeany structurilmember be prestressed to may be tensioned; this agreemenicertificatemust ne issrleo by an authorised testinglaboratory otherwise Enginee,,"y oioer such an the agreement certificate of lrom a laboratory hislnoice at'tfre cost of the contractor. rulesrgferrlng this agieement All to certificate here in afterare subject theapproval the Engineer. to of
405.3.2
PrestressingEquipment

jacks shail be equippedwith accuratepressure Hydraulic gauges.The contractor may electto.substitute screwjacks or ot'her types nyoraulic ior jacks.ln thatcase,proving ringsor otheripproveddevices shallbe usedin 405.3

with the jacks. All devices,whether hydraulicjack gauges or connection so otherwise, shall be calibrated as to permitthe stressin the prestressing steel to be computed at all times. A certified calibration curve shall accompanyeach device. Safety measuresshall be taken by the contractor steel or the to preventaccidentsdue to possiblebreakingof the prestressing process. equipments All shall be slipping the gripsduringthe prestressing of thoroughlywashed with clean water at least once every three (3) hours and at the end of use for each day. operations duringthe grouting 405.3.3 Enclosures

placedat locations for steel shall be accurately Enclosures prestressing by or shown theplans approved the Engineer. on metallic material shallbe completely and shall All enclosures be of ferrous that the contractor, his option,with the at with mortar-tight the exception by of may form the enclosures meansof coresor approval the Engineer, material whichcan be removed of or ductscomposed rubber othersuitable priorto installing prestressing Enclosures shallbe s[rong reinforcement. the as theirshapeundersuchforces will be imposed upon enough maintain to diameter than the bar, them.Theyshallbe six (6) mm. largerin internal cable, strand or group of wires, which they enclose.Where pressure grouting specified, with in coresor ductsshallbe provided the pipesor other suitable connectionfor the injection of grout after the prestressing havebeencompleted. operations
405.3.4
Pl?cine Steel

placedin the positionshown on the All steel units shall be accurately and heldduring placing the Drawings required the Engineer firmly or by and of setting theconcrete. from the forms shall be maintained stays,blocks,ties, or by Distance for by Blocks holding unitsfrom contact hangers approved the Engineer. with the forms shall be precastmortar blocksof approvedshape and by dimensions. Layers unitsshallbe separated mortarblocksor other of devices. Wooden blocks shall be leftin theconcrete. not equally suitable spacers shall provided, required, hold if horizontal vertical and be Suitable to in in thewiresin place trueposition theenclosure.
405.3.5 PlacingConcrete Concreteshall be controlled,mixed, and handled as specified in other herein. of specified articles this sectionunlessotherwise shall not be pouredin the forms untilthe Engineerhas inspected Concrete conduits,anchorages, and prestressing the placingof the reinforcement, steeland has givenhis approvalthereof. or shallbe vibratedinternally externally, both,as orderedby or The concrete The vibrating shall be done with care in such a manneras to the Engineer. conduits, wires. or avoiddisplacement reinforcement, of

405-4

405.3.6

Pretensioning The pretensioningelements shall be accurately held in position and stressed by jacks. A record shall be kept of the jacking force and the producedthereby.Severalunits may be cast in one continuous elongation line and stressedat one time. Sufficient spaceshall be left betweenends of units, if necessary, to permit access for cutting after the concrete has attained the required strength. No bond stress shall be transferredto the concrete,nor end anchoragesreleased,until the concretehas attaineda compressivestrength,as shown by cylindertests, of at least two hundreds and eighty(280) kg/sq.cmand as approvedby the Engineer. The elements shallbe cut or releasedin such an orderthat lateraleccentricity prestress of w i l l b em i n i m u m .

405.3.7

Post-Tensioning Tensioning shall be carriedout only in the presenceof the Engineeror his representative unless permission has been obtained to contrary. lmmediately before tensioning, the contractorshall prove that all tendons are free to move between jacking points and that members are free to accommodate horizontal the and vertical movements due to the applications of prestress. Tensioning prestressing of reinforcement shall not be commenced untiltests on concretecylinders,manufactured the same concreteand cured under of the same conditions, indicatethat the concreteof the particular memberto be prestressed has attained a compressive strength of at least 280 Kg/sq.cm. After the concrete has attained the required strength, the prestressing reinforcementshall be stressed by means of jacks to the required tension and stresstransferredto-the end anchorage(s). Stressingshall be from both ends unless otherwiserequired in the Contract or agreed by the Engineer. processshall be so conducted The tensionihg that the tensionbeingapplied and the elongationof the prestressing elements'maybe measuredat all times. The friction loss in the elements,i.e., the differencebetweenthe tensionat the jack and the minimumtensionin the prestressing steel shall be determined the formula: by F,=2(Fn-acE) d Where
t tr I
-

totalfriction loss Observed tension thejack at cross-sectional of theprestressing area element. observed elongation theelement of whentheforce at thejackis F.,. 405-5

pt , = a=

E =

of of secantmodules elasticity the elementfor the stress F1 as determinedfrom the stress-strain diagramof the element. distancefrom the jack to the point of lowesttension Wherejackingis donefrom bothends in the element. tensionis the the of the members, pointof minimum Wherejackingis donefrom one centerof the member. to end only,d is the distance the otherend of the member.

d =

Any surpluslengthof tendonshall be cut off by an approvedmethodwhich will not affect the strengthof the stressedtendon, with particularcare if the use of spark erosion or oxyacetylene burning methods of cutting are by approved the Engineer. at and elongation all times and A recordshall be kept of gauge pressures submittedto the Engineerfor his approvalwith in twenty four (24) hours of each tensioning operation. The tendons shall be maintained in such a condition that they can be re-stressed until the Engineer has given final log. the afterinspecting tensioning approval

40s.3.8

Groutins of BondedSteel Post{ensioned prestressed bridge' members preferably shall be of the bondedtype in which the tensionedsteel is installedin holes or flexible metal ducts cast in the concreteand bondedto the surroundingconcreteby fillingthe tubes or ducts with grout. The grout shall be a mixture of cement and fine sand (passiriga No.30 sieve) in the approximateproportionof one to part cementto 0.75 part sand, the exact proportions be adjustedto form a shall the and under no circumstances, grout havingthe properconsistency water cement ratio exceed 0.45. The compressivestrengthof the hardened groutshall not be less than one hundredand seventy(170) Kg/sq.cmafter seven (7) days at a temperatureof eighteen (18) degree C, when making preliminary The grout shall be mixedfor a minimumof two trialsfor quality. is (2) minutesand untila uniformconsistency obtained. reinforcement be bonded shall be free of dirt, loose rust, to All prestressing the ducts shall be Beforegrouting, substances. grease,or otherdeleterious free of water, dirt or any other foreign substance.The ducts shall be blown air out with compressed until no water comes throughthe duct. For long with drapedstrandsan open tap at the low point of the duct may members be necessary. so of The groutshall be fluid (consistency thick paint)but proportioned that aluminumpowder free water will not separateout of the mix. Unpolished may be added in an amount per sack of cement as approved by the Engineer. Commercial plasticisers used in accordance with the manufacturer'srecommendationmay be used provided they contain no pressureshall be used in that are corrosiveto steel. Sufficient ingredients throughthe duct, care being taken groutingto force the grout completely of that rupturing the ductsdoes not occur.

405.3.9

Handlins Precast prestressedconcrete members shall be transported in an upright positionand the points of support with respect to the member shall be approximately the same during transportation and storage as when the member is in its final position.In the event that the contractor deems it expedientto transportor store precastgirdersin other than this positionit shouldbe done at his own risk. care shall be taken duringstorage,hoisting, and handlingof the precasting unitsto preventcrackingor damage.Unitsdamagedby improperstoringor handling shall be replaced the Contractor his expense. by at Prestressedstructuralmembersshall be constructedin conformrty with the drawingsgoverning particulirtype of structure oe ouittor as required the to by the Engineer.

40s.3.10

Manufactureof Prestressed Members the Site off i) The details of the method of manufacture shall be approved by the Engineerbeforework is started.When the methodhas been approved, no changesshall be madewithoutthe consentof the Engineer. ii) The contractor shall inform the Engineer in advance of the date of commencementof manufactureand the dates when tensioningof tendons,castingof membersand transferof stresswill be undertaken for the first time for each type of beam. iii) The contractorshall send to the Engineer not more than seven (7) days after the transfer.of stress, a certificateshowing the force and strain in the tendons immediately after they were anchored,the strengthand age of the test cubes cast in accordancewith specified procedure and the minimumage in hoursof the concrete the time the stresswas applied at to the member. A copy of all twenty eight (28) days cube test results relating to the work shall be sent to the Engineer as these become available.Records shall be kept so that the identityof those who stress the tendons,cast the concreteand transferthe stress on any memberor line of memberscan be traced. iv) where the Engineer'sRepresentative requirestests to be carriedout, no beams to which the test relateshall be dispatched the site until the to tests have been satisfactorily completed.

405.3.1r

Comnosite SlabBridses a) The manufacturing tolerances the precast membersshall no-vrhere for exceedthose given for the length,cross-section and straightness BS in code of Practice cP116(1969). The structural use of precastconcrete. ln addition, where beamsare laidside by side in a deck: (i) The differencein soffit level betweenadjacentunits beforethe in situ concrete is placed shall no-where exceed five (5) mm for unitsup to five (5) metersnor ten (10) mm for longerunits. 405-7

(ii) (iii) (iv) (v)

The width of the deck soffitshallbe withinplustwentyfive 1+25; in mm of that described the Contract. of In adjacentspans, the continuity line of the outside beams shallbe maintained. beams shall not exceed The width of the gap betweenindividual in twicethe nominalgap described the contract. of holesshallpermitthe reinforcement The alignment transverse tendonsto be placedwithoutdistortion. or prestressing

b) The in-situ concrete shall be placed in such a sequence that the concreteover the full width of edge of the freshly deposited advancing joints is approximately parallel construction deck or betweenlongitudinal to the deck supports. from movinglaterally duringthe placingof the c) Beamsshallbe prevented in-situconcrete. 405.3.12 Samplinqand Testins a) Testing of PretensionedBeams (i) to to Any beam required the Engineer be subjected a load test by will be selected after transfer and wherever possible before the beam has been removedfrom the castingyard to the storage shall not proceedwith a load test until he area. The Contractor has obtained the approval of the Engineer to the detailed Exceptwhere otherwise agreed by the Engineer, arrangements. the load test shall be carriedout not less than twenty eight (28) The cost of the load test shall be born by the days after casting. Contractor. The at The beam shall be supported its designpointsof bearing. specified test loads shall be appliedequallyat the third pointsof equal stages. the span in not less than ten (10) approximately The maximumload shall be sustainedfor five (5) minutesand equal then removed in not less than five (5) approximately relativeto a straightreference stages.The mid-spandeflection line joining the points of supportshall be measuredfor each valueof the load and five (5) minutesafterremovalof the load. with an accuracyof + two (2) per cent Loadsshall be measured with an accuracy + decimalfive (0.5) of or 50kg and deflections millimeter. graphshall be plottedfrom these valuesand The load-deflection variation from a straightline. lf after shall show no appreciable five (5) minutesof removalof the loadthe beam does not show a recovery of at least ninety (90) per cent of the maximum deflectionrecorded during the test, the test loading shall be The beam shallbe considered have failedthe test if to repeated. the recoveryfive (5) minutesafter removalof the test load for the secondtime is not at leastninety(90) per cent of the maximum deflectionrecordedduringthe secondtest.

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

405-8

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

The result of the test shall be deemed to apply to the other beamscast in the same production line but in the eventof failure any additional beam may be separately testedat the contractor's option. The contractor shallsupplyto the Engineerrecordsheetsof the test showingthe age of the beam at the time of the test, loads, deflections,load-deflection curves and calculated value of Young'sModules Elasticity of (E). In addition, the recordsheets suppliedby the contractor the to Engineershall show the temperatures the top and bottom of surfaces the beam measured the time of the test. of at

b) Testingof Prestressing Anchorages Anchoragesfor post-tensioning shall be tested in accordancewith the procedure describedin 854447 or as approvedby the Engineer.For each anchorage systemusedin the works, the characteristic valuefor anchoraqe efficiency shall be not lessthan ninety(90) percent.

40s.3.13

CuringConcrete a) General For all prestressed concreteoperations curing procedures the shall be well established and properly controlled. Curing shall be commenced immediately following initialset or completion surfacefinishing. of Members shall be keptwet duringthe entireperiodof curing. b) Method of Curins The curingmethods shallconform thosedetailedunderitem401.3.g. to

405.4 405.4.r

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT Measurement Measurement and paymentsfor the various items in prestressconcrete work shall be made in accordancewith appropriateitems of relevant sections, depicted the drawings. as in

405.4.2 405.4.2.1

Pavment

The quantityto be paid for shall be the number of prestressed concrete structural membersof the severaltypes and sizes,constructed and installed in place, as per drawingscompletedand accepted.Each member shall includethe concrete,reinforcement and prestressing steel, enclosures for prestressingsteel, anchorage, plates, nuts, formwork, shuttering and centering required, if and othersuch material contained withinor attached to the unit.

405-9

405.4.2.2

Prestressed Cast-in-Place Concrete work as The work to be paidfor underthis item will be only the prestressing or and specified here and shown on the Drawings requiredby the Engineer shall include supply and installationof prestressinQsteel, spacers, enclosures,anchorages plates, nuts and other such material deemed necessaryto completethe work. Steel reinforcement,concrete,falsework, be and formworkwill, unless otherwiseprescribed, measuredand paid for according item No.401and404 respectively. to for and Unit of Measurement PrecastPrestressed Pay item No. Description Concrete Members and Castin-Place Prestressed Concrete will be covered,under specifiedBOQ item numberprovidedin specialprovisions, for as per drawings item separately. and otherrelateddocuments following (a) (b) (c) (d) grouting) Concrete Member(including Prestressed ropes/strands, Size ..... Prestressed Wire Size ..... Prestressed including Sheets, Hardware, Male/Female Cone and Anchorsetc. CM. Ton. Ton. Ton.

405-1 0

ITEM 406

JOINTS AI\D BEARING DEWCES FOR CONCRETE STRUCTURES

406.1

DESCRIPTION The work coveredin this item shallconsistof furnishing plant,equipment, all materials and labour in performing all operations in connection with joints and furnishing and placing(in concretestructures) deck expansion all pads completeand in metal bearingpads and elastomeric seals, bearing accordancewith the specifications, Drawings,and or as requiredby the the Engineer.

406.2 406.2.1

MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS Concrete Joint Filler a. PreformedExpansion Joint Filler Unless otherwise directed by the Engineer preformed joints filler shall conformto the requirements AASHTOM-213. of

b. Neonrene RubberSheet with BitumasticSeal Unless otherwise directed by the Engineer, neoprene rubber sheets six (6)mmin thickness, meeting requirements ltem 406.2.3, the of shallbe used as a joint fillercovered with a bitumastic seal as shownin the Drawings.

406.2.2

Steelfor DeckExnansion Joint Seals Plates,anglesor otherstructural shapesincluding anchorboltsrequired for the expansionjoint seals shall conform, unless otherwise directed by the Engineer,to the requirements AASHTO M-160 and shall be hot zinc of sprayed (galvanized) with the exceptionof the nuts and washerswhich shall be in stainlesssteel.

406.2.3

Elastomer DeckExnansion for Joint Seals Elastomershall be of the componentas neopreneor of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), at the option of the Contractor. Neopreneshall be manulactured from a vulcanized elastomeric compoundcontaining neopreneas the sole elastomer and shall have the following physical characteristicsin accordance with ASTM MethodD15. Part B.

406-1

A, Durometer Hardness, ASTM D 2240. TensileStrength, ASTM D 412 min. Elongation Break at Set, 22 Hoursat Compression 70 degreeC. ASTM D 395, MethodB. ASTM D 746 Low Temperature, Exposure to OzoneResistance, 100 PPHMOZonefor 70 hoursat 38 degreeC. Sampleunder 20 percent. ASTM D 1149. Oil DeteriorationVolumeincrease aftersoakingin ASTM oil No. 3 for 70 hoursat 100 degreeC. ASTM D 470 406,2.4 Metal BearinsDerices

45 + 5 points

127 Kgs/square centimeter 400 percent min. 20 percent max. Notbrittle 40 degree C. at

No cracks

120percent max.

Unless othemrisedirected by the Engineer or provided in the Special Provisions,the requirementsfor metal bearings shall conform to the following: a) b) c) d) AASHTOM 107 for bronzeueai-iirg. AASHTOM 108 for rolledcopperalloy bearings. ASTM B 438 for sinteredmetal powder bearings. AASHTO M 160 for galvanizedsteel bearings.

406.2.5

Elastomeric BearinsPads General

shall includeplain bearings Elastomeric bearingsas herein specified (consisting layers (consisting elastomer of bearings only)and laminated of laminates. by of elastomer restrained theirinterfaces bonded at to for The reinforcing steei plateslaminations bearingpads shall conform of M therequirementsAASHTO 183. in Elastomeric bearingpads shall conformto the requirements these Provisions. specifications the Special and

406-2

or Pads twelve (12) mm'and less in thicknessmay be either laminated all elastomer. shall be laminated. Pads over twelve(12) mm in thickness of Laminatedpads shall consist of alternate laminations elastomerand and fabricbondedtogether. metalor elastomer bearingpad is deemed to be the The thicknesscalledfor an elastomeric laminations. of totaleffective thickness the elastomeric shall be metalor fabric.The outsideedges of metal The outsidelaminations shallbe coatedover with elastomernot morethan three (3) mm laminations in thickness. The edges of the steel reinforcingplates of the bearing pads shall be carefullytreatedto preventnotch effects. in so Steelplatesshallbe fullyenclosed elastomer that thereis no dangerof corrosion. Variationin Laminations elastomershall be 12 mm + 3 mm thickness. of elastomerlaminationshall not exceedthree (3) thicknessof an individual in mm withinthe width or lengthof a pad and the variation thicknessof all within a pad shall be such that each metal or fabric elastomerlaminations lamination not vary by more than three (3) mm from a plane parallelto will the top or bottomsuface of the pad. The total overallthicknessof a pad shall not be less than the thickness shown on the plan nor more than six (6) mm greaterthan that thickness. Variationof total thickness within an individualpad shall not exceedthree (3) mm. The lengthand width of a pad shall not vary more than three (3) mm from shownon the Drawings. the dimensions bearing pads over twelve (12) mm, in thicknessare Where elastomeric shown on the Drawingsor requiredby the Engineers, such pads may be pad, or at the optionof the Contractor, manufactured a moldedlaminated as pads. individual laminated may be madeup by stacking pads are stacked,their contactsurfacesshall be cleaned When laminated prior to stacking and an approved method shall be used to hold the pads in the stack in proper alignment.Pads of all elastomeror individual with fabric laminationsmay be cut from large sheets. Cutting shall be performedin such a manner as to avoid heating of the materialand to producea smoothedge with no tears or otherjaggedareasand to cause as littledamageto the material possible. as Cornersand edges of molded pads may be roundedat the option of the Radiusat cornersshall not exceed ten (10) mm and radius of Contractor. edgesshallnot exceedthree(3) mm.

406-3

and metalor fabricshall be such that,when a The bond betweenelastomer and failureshall occur withinthe elastomer separation, ,urpr" is testedfor and metalor fabric' not betweenthe elastomer shall be rolledmild steel sheetsnot less Metal laminations gaugein thickness. than twenty(20)

synthetic polymer Fabric laminationsshall be either, (1) a long chain amid from " o n t i"r"inthalic aacii i g h tQ) i v etong p e r c esyntheticpo-lym.eric t h y | e n e g | y c o | uno , i n i n g a t | e s t e ir y f i ( 8 5 ) chain n t o f p o | y e s t e r f r o m e Each ply of fabric shall have a frexametnyenediamineand adipiCacid. of width in both breaking ltrength of not less ihan 125 Kg' per cm' shall be singleply ai top and.bottomsurfaces Fabriclaminations directions. ottrrepaoandeitherdoub|ep|yordoub|estrengthwithinth-epad' compoundshall be neopreneand shall The sole potymerrn the elastomeric be not lessthan sixty(60) percentby volumeof the total compound'

Thee|astomer,asdeterminedfromtestspecimens,sha||conformtothe following: Test ASTM


tion

Requirements

Kgs/sq.cm Tensilestrength, at Elongation break,Percent set, Compression 22 hrs. at 67 C, Percent(MethodB) degree Kgs Percmt Tear Strength, (ShoreA) Hardness 20% strain,100 Ozoneresistance C hrs.at 38 degree 1 1001 20 parts I degreeC

D412 D412 D 395 D 624(DieC) D 2240

1 6 0M i n . 350Min. 25 Max. 1 3M i n . 6015 points No (except per Cracks 100,000,000)

D 1149 stiffness, Low temPerature Modulusat 35 degreeC Young's 5 brittleness' Low temPerature at - 40 degreeC hours

Kgs per cm (2) D 797

350Max. Passed

D 736

406-4

After acceleratedaging in accordancewith ASTM DesignationD s73 for 70 hoursat 100 degreec, the elastomershall not show deterioration changes in excessof the following: percent Tensilestrength, Elongation Break,percent at points Hardness, ShearTest (without verticalload) + 15 - 50 (but not less than 300% total elongation the material) of +10 (Min) 7 Kg/sq.cm

sampling.shall be performedin accordancewith AASHTO M2s1-74 as appropriate the tests required for duringor immediately aftermanufacture. The contractor shall furnish to the Engineer a certificationby the manufacturer that the elastomer,and fabric (if used), in the elastomeric bearingpadsto be furnished conforms all of the aboverequirements. to The certificationshall be supported by a certified copy of the results of tests performed the manufacturer by upon samplesof the elastomer and fabricto be used in the pads. The Engineerwill take a sample of not less than 15 x 30 cm in size for testing from each lot of pads or batch of elastomer to be furnished, whicheverresults,inthe greater number of samples.The sampleswill be selectedat random at the point of manufacture at the option of the or, contractorat the job site. samples taken at the job site shail consist of completepads as detailedon the plans, and the contractorshall furnish additional completepads to replacethose taken for testing.pads shall be available'forsamplingthree (3) weeks in advance of intended use. All samplepadsfor testingshall be furnished the contractorat his expense. by 406.3 406.3.I CONSTRUCTIONREQUIREMENTS OnenJoints open jointsshall be constructed the locations at shown on the Drawingsor requiredby the Engineerusing a suitablematerial, which is subsequenily removed.when removingthe material,care shall be exercisedto avoid chippingor breaking concrete. of Reinforcement shall not extendacrossan openjoint,unlessshownon the Drawings. 106.3.2 Filled Joints when joints of preformedtype are requiredon the Drawingsor by the Engineer,the filler shall be placed in correct positionbeforJ concreteis being placedagainstthe filler.preformedFillerwith holes and cracks shall not be permitted and shallbe reiected.

406-5

406.3.3

SteelJoints shapedat the shapesshall be accurately Plates,anglesor other structural The to conformto the sectionof the concretefloor as per drawings. shop, Care in fabiicationshall conformto the requirements Special Provisions. shall be taken to ensurethat the surfacein the finishedplane is true and free of warping.Methodsapprovedby the Engineershall be employedin placingthe jointsto keep them in correctpositionduringthe placingof the joints shall be that to avoid impairment The openingat expansion concrete. in any manner. of the clearance

-t06.3.,1

Water Stops {JointSeals) with the details and installedin accordance shall be furnished Water-stops by the Engineer and in shown on the Drawings or where required in withthe provisions thesespecifications. accordance in shall be furnished full lengthfor each straightportionof the Water-stops joint, without field splices Manufacturer'sshop splices shall be fully vulcanized. Reinforcing bars provided to support the water-stops shown on the Drawingsor as requiredby the Engineershall be securelyheld in position wires, or other approveddevices.such by the use of spacers,supporting as for bars shallbe considered, paymentpurposes, a part of the reinforcing placing concrete, water-stops are materially out of water-stop. lf, after concreteshall be removed,the waterpositionor shape,the surrounding expense. all replaced, at the contractor's and the concrete stop reset, Field splices for neoprene water-stops shall be either vulcanized,or steel parts,or made with a splicingunionof the usingstainless mechanical, All at same stock as the water-stop, the option of the Contractor. finished of eighteen(18) kg per cm of splicesshall have a full size tensilestrength width. shall be performedby heat chloridewater-stops Field splicesfor polyvinyl the adjacent surfaces in accordance with the manufacturer's sealing electricsourceof heat shall controlled A recommendations. thermostatically to The heat shall be sufficient melt but not char be used to make all splices. the plastic. when being installedshall be cut and spliced at changes in Water-stops of to directionas may be necessary avoid bucklingor distortion the web or flange.

.106.3.5

Metal BearingDevices steel bearing plates, bars, rockers,assemblies,and other expansionor with the detailsshown on in fixed devicesshall be constructed accordance galvanized afterfabrication. the plansand shallbe hot-dip

406=6

Bronzeor copperalloy plates,if specified, shallconformto the requirements of the SpecialProvisions. The bearingplatesshall be set level and the rockersor other expansron devicesshall be set to conformto the temperature the time of erectionor at to the settingspecified. when bearingassemblies masonryplatesare shown on the Drawings or to be placed (not embedded)directlyon colcrete, the concretebearingarea shallbe constructed slightly abovegradeand shallbe finished grinding by or other approved means to a true level plane which shall not vary perceptibly from a straight edge placedin any direction acrossthe area.The finishedplaneshall not vary more than three (3) mm from the etevation shownon the Drawings that required th,eEngineer. or by
d06.3.6

Elastomeric Bearing Pads when elastomeric bearingpads are shown on the Drawings, the concrete surfaceson which pads or packingare to be placedsrrait be wood float finishedto a levelplanewhichshallnot varymorethanone and a half(1.5) mm from a straightedgeplaced in any directionacross the area. The finishedplane shall not vary more than three (3) mm from the elevation shownon the Drawings that required the Engineer. or by

406..1 106.1.r

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT Measurement a) Filled Concrete Joints The quantityto be paid for shall be in square metersof either expansion joint preformed joint filleror expansion joint with neoprenerubbersheet -with six (6) mm thick and coveredwith bitumastic seal,completed and accepted in work. b) Steel Joints The quantity be paidfor shallbe the numberof kilograms steelfor steel to of joints fabricated,galvanized and placed in the work completed and accepted. c) Water Stotrs The quantityto be paid for shall be the numberof linear meters of waterstop placedin the work, completed and accepted. d) Bearing Devices The quantity be paid for shall be the number of cubic centimeter to of bearingdeviceseithersteel bearingor elastomeric bearingpads installed in the work completed and accepted.

406-7

e) AsphalticFelt to The quantity be paid shall be in squaremeterof 3 ply rating-Fibre/Fabric felt weighingforty one 41 kg to forty five (45) kg per 20 naseo asphaltic ltr,ifing coat/paintcoat and flood coat of special square meter including laid in by as bitumenand sand OtinOing approved the Engineer, industrial bY placeas directed the Engineer. 406.1.2 Payment shall be paid for at the a-bove quantitymeasuredas provided The accepted and shown in for unit pricerespectively the pay items listedhrelow contract for which priceand paymentshall be full compensation the Bill of Quantities and any and incidentals tools labour, equrpment, furnishingall materials, tO work pertaininE joints and bearingsand which is not paid for separately' the to necessary comPlete item'

Pay ltem No.

Description.

Unitof Measurement

406a

Jointfiller Premoulded 12 mm thickwith Bitumastic JointSeal. RubberJoint Filler Nebprene 12 mm thickwith Bitumastic JointSeal. Joints. SteelExpansion WaterStops6" Size BearingPads (AccorElastomeric dingto size and thickness) AsphaltFdlt (3 Ply) Devices SteelormetalBearing

SM

406b

SM Kg M
Cubiccm. SM Each

406c 406d 406e

406f 4069

406-8

ITEM 407

PILING

407.1

DESCRIPTION

This work shall consist of performingall operationsin connectionwith furnishing, driving,cuttingoff and loadtestingof pilesto obtainthe specified bearing value complete in place and stricfly in accordancewith these Specifications as shownon the Drawinos. and The contractorshallfurnish precastpilesin accordance the with an itemized list,whichwill be provided the Engineer, by showingthe numberand lengths of all piles.when cast-in-place concretepilesare specified the orawiigs, on the Engineerwill not furnish the contractor,an itemizedlist showingthe numberand lengthof piles.when test piles and load tests are requiredin conformancewith sub-items 407.3.9and 407.3.9 respectively, the data obtained from suchtest loadswill be used in conjunction with otheravatilable subsoil information determinethe number and lengths of piles to be to furnished. The Engineerwill not preparethe itemized'iistof piies for any portionof the foundation area until all loadingtests represeniative that of portion have been completed. The contractor shall provide an oufline of his proposed method for: constructing large diameterpile when submitting tender;the proposed his methodof boringbeingstated. Not less than two weeks before the contractor proposes to commence piling,detailedpropos.al the piling shall be deiiveredto the Engineer. for These proposalsshall include full details of materials,equipment and methodto be used in the construction piles. of lf it is proposed use bentonite to slurry, this shallalso be describeo. work on piling shall not commenceuntil the contractor,s proposalshave beenapproved the Engineer by and communicated the contractor. to The requirementsherein are minimum. Strict compliance with these requirements not relievethe contractorof the responsibility adopting will for whateveradditional provisions may be necessary ensure the successful to completion the work. of The kind and type of piles shall be as shown on the Drawingsand/or as specified.No alternatetypes or kinds of piling shall be used, exiept with the writtenapproval the Engineer of eachtime.

407-1

407.2 407.2.1

MATERIAL

REQUIREMENTS

Types of Piles a Untreated Timber Piles Untreated timber piles shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO M 168. b. Treated Timber Piles

pilesshallconform the requirements AASHTO 133 to of Treated timber M and M 168."Unless otherwise called on the drawings, timberpiles for the according the Standard AWPA Pl of the shallbe treatedwith creosote to Association. American Wood-Preservers
c. Reinforced Concrete Cylindr Diameter of reinforced concrete piles shall be as shown on the Drawings

lining, shown the drawing. on andmayor maynothavepermanent as Reinforcing Steelshallconform the requirements to underltem 404 - Steel Reinforcement. Concrete shall meet all the requirements specified for Class as provided otherwise under ltem401andshallbe of Class-D unless specified.

Piles d. Structural Steel Structural steelpilesshall be rolledsteelsections the type, weightand of shape calledfor on the Drawings. The piles shall be structural steel conforming the requirements ASTMA 7 and ASTMA 36, exceptthat of to produced theAcid-Bessemer process by steel shall be used. not The steelpilesshallbe coated withred leadpaintconforming AASHTO to M 72 as instructed the Engineer, by unless otherwise specified.
Piles e. Precast Concrete Concrete piles shall meet all the requirements the specifiedclass as for for providedunder ltem 401 - Concrete.The concreteshall be of Class-Dl specified. unlessotherwise Reinforcing under ltem 404 - Steel Steel shall conformto the requirements Reinforcement.

Prestressed concrete piles shall conform to ltem 405 Concrete Structures.

Prestressed

407-2

Precast piles shall be made in accordance with the Drawings,.and reinforcement shall be placedaccurately and securedrigidlyin such manner pile.The concrete as to ensureits properlocation the completed in coveras measuredto the outsideface of ties or spiralsshall not be lessthan five (5) cm. The pilesshall be cast separately if alternatepiles are cast in a tier, the or, pilesshall not be cast untilfour (4) days afterthe adjacent intermediate piles have been poured. Piles cast in tiers shall be separatedby tar paper or other suitable separatingmaterials.The concrete in each pile shall be placedcontinuously. pilesshall be free from stone pockets, The completed porousspots, or other defects,and shall be straightand true to the form specified. The forms shall be true to line and built of metal, plywood,or dressedlumber.A two and half (2.5)cm chamferstrip shallbe formedon all edges. Forms shall be watertight and shall not be removedwithin twenty four (24) hours after the concreteis placed.Piles shall be given a surface finishaccording ltem 401.3.7 Concrete to SurfaceFinishing. Pilesshallbe curedin accordance the requirements ltem401.3.8 (e) with of - CuringPrecastConcretePiles. Piles shall not be moved until the tests indicatea compressive strengthof eighty (80) percent of the design twenty eight (28) days compressive strength and they shall not be transported drivenuntilthe tests indicate or a compressive strength equal to the design twenty eight (28) days compressive strength When concretepiles are lifted or moved, they shall be supportedat the points shown on the Drawingsor, if not so shown, as instructedby the Engineer. 40'7.2.2 Pile Shoes

Pile shoeswhen required shall be of the designas calledfor on the Drawings by the Engineer. or
407.2.3 Pile Splices Materialsfor pile splices,when splicingis allowed,shall be of the same qualityand characteristics the materials as used for the pile itselfand shall givenon the Drawingsunlessotherwise followthe requirements directedby the Engineer. 407.3 407.3.1 CONSTRUCTION REOUIREMENTS Driven Piles a. Locationand SitePreparation Piles shall be used wherq.indidated the Drawingsor as directedby the on Engineer.

407-3

in All excavations the foundation whichthe pilesare to be drivenshall be for completed before the driving is begun, unless otherwise specified or approved by the Engineer. After driving is completed, all loose and displaced materials shall be removed from around the piles by hand excavation,leaving clean solid surfaces to receive the concrete for foundations. tr. Determination Pile Length of The criteriafor pile length and bearingcapacitywill be determinedby the Engineeraccordingto the resultsfrom test piles and load tests. The piles on shall be driven to such depths,that the bearingloads indicated the Drawings obtained. are The criterion pilelengthmay be one of the following: for 1) Piles in sand and gravel shall be driven to a bearingvalue by determined use for the pile drivingformulaor as decidedby the Engineer. Piles in clay shall be driven to the depth ordered by the However,the bearingvalue shall be controlled the by Engineer. pile appropriate drivingformulaif calledfor by the Engineer. Piles shall be driven to refusalon rock or hard layer when so orderedby the Engineer.

2)

3)

The contractorshall be responsible correct pile lengths and bearing for givenby the Engineer. to capacities according the criteria c. PileDrivins All pilesshall be drivenaccurately the verticalor the batteras shown on to the drawings. Each pile shall,atterOrivingj, withinfifteen(15) cm from the be theoretical location underneath the pile cap or underneath the superstructure the case of pile bents.All pilespushedup by the drivingof in pilesor by any othercauseshallbe drivendown again. adjacent Pilesshall be used only in placeswhere a minimumpenetration three (3) of metersin firm materials, five (5) metersin soft materials, or can be obtained. Where a soft stratumoverliesa hard stratum,the piles shall penetrateto hard material upto a sufficient distance fix the ends rigidly. to All pile driving equipment is subject to the Engineer's approval. The Contractor responsible sufficient is for weightand efficiehcy the hammers of to drive the piles down to the required depth and bearing capacity. Hammers shall be gravity hammers, single acting steam or pneumatic hammersor diesel hammers.Gravityhammersshall not weigh less than sixty (60) percentof the combinedweightof the pile and drivinghead and not lessthan 2,000 Kg. The fall shallbe adjusted as to avoid injuryto the so pileand shallin no caseexceedone (1) m for timber and steelpilesand one half (0.5) M for concretepiles unlessotherwisespecifiedor approved by the Engineer. The plantand equipment furnished steam for 407-4

hammers shall have sufficient capacity to maintain, under working The at the conditions, pressure the hammerspecifiedby the manufacturer. boileror pressuretank shall be equippedwith an accuratepressuregauge the and anothergaugeshall be suppliedat the hammerintaketo determine pressure between the gauge and the hammer. \A/hen diesel drop in with test pilingand/ortest loads hammersare used,they shall be calibrated with ltem 407.3.9. in accordance Water jets shall be used only when permittedin writing by the Engineer. When water jets are used,the numberof jets and the nozzlevolume and to pressureshall be sufficient erodethe materialadjacentto the pile freely. jets shall be shut off at a depth not less than three (3) M beforefinaltip The elevation is reached, and the piles driven solely by hammer to final by penetration required the Engineer. as Piles shall be supportedin line and positionwith leads while being driven. Pile driving leads shall be constructedin such a manner as to afford by of freedomof movement the hammer,and shall be held in position guys The ensurerigid lateralsupportto the pile duringdriving. or steel bracesto lengthto make the use of a followerunnecessary, shall be of sufficient leads and shall be so designedas to permit proper placingof batter piles.The and shall be drivingof piles with followersshall be avoided if practicable from the Engineer. done only underwrittenpermission The method used in drivingpiles shall not subjectthem to excessiveand undue abuse producingcrushingand spalling of the concrete,injurious of of and brooming the wood,or deformation the steel.Manipulation splitting to by if of pilesto force them into properposition, considered the Engineer will be excessive, not be permitted. The pile tops shall be protectedby driving heads, caps or cushions in of from the manufacturer the pile accordancewith the recommendations The drivinghead shall be of the Engineer. hammerand to the satisfaction provided maintain the axis of the pile in line with the axis of the hammer to surfacenormaltothe pile. and providea driving Splicingof piles when piles shall be used where practicable. Full-length with the provisionsof ltem 407.3.5.All permittedshall be in accordance allowedby the Engineer. drivenunlessotherwise pilesshallbe continuously d. Pile Drivins Formulae Pile driving formulasmay be used to determinethe number of blows of bearing neededto obtainthe specified hammerper unit of pile penetration at for capacity pilesdrivenin the sub-soils the site. Pilesshall be drivento a final resistanceas indicatedon the plans determinedby the following formula:

407-5

For drop hammer


Qatt =

WH/[6(S+2.5)]

For single-acting steamor air hammers.and diesel for Hammershavinqunrestricted rebound rams. of
Qatt =

wH/[6(S+0.25)]
WH/[6{S+0.25(WDA /S)}l

Qa,

(Usewhen driven weightsare smaller than striking weights) (Usewhen driven weightsare largerthan striking weights)

Fordouble-acting steam airhammers or dnddiesel hammers having enclosed rams


Qall =

E/[6(S+0.25)j

(Usewhen driven weightS smaller are than striking weights). (Usewhen driven weightsare larggrthan striking weights)

Qarr

E46{S+0.25(WDM/S)}]

In the aboveformulas:
Qatt
IA' vv

pile Allowable loadin Kilograms. Weight striking parts hammer Kilograms. of of in The heightof fall in centimeters steam,and air for hammers, and the observed averageheightof fall in centimeters, blowsusedto determine of penetration for diesel hammers unrestricted with rebound hammer. of per Average penetration blow in centimeters the net for last 10 to 20 blowsof steam, or dieselhammer, air, or for thelast15centimeters driving a drophammer. of for The actualenergydelivered hammerper blow in by Kilogramcentimeter.

WD

Driven weights Kilograms in

Note: Ratioof drivenweights striking to weights shouldnot exceed three. WS = Weight striking parts Kilograms. of in

Modificationsbasic driving pile of formula:

407-6

a)

For piles driven to and seated in rock as high capacityendbearing piles: Drive to refusal (approximately four (4) to five (5) blows for the last 0.625 centimetersof driving). Re-drive open end pipe piles repeatedlyuntil resistancefor refusal is reached withintwo and half (2.5)centimeters additional penetration. of For piles.driven through stiff compressible materialsunsuitable for pilebearing an underlfingbearingstratum: to Add blows attained before reaching bearing stratum to required blowsattained bearingStratum. in

b) '

c)

For pilesinto limited thin bearingstratum:

Driveto predetermined elevation, tip and determine allowable load by load test. The bearing power as determined by the appropriateformula in the foregoing list will be considered effective only when it is less than the crushingstrengthof the pile. other recognized formulafor determinigrg pile bearing power may be used when given in special specification. However,it shall be understood that the relativemeritsand reliability any of the pile of formulacan be judged only on the basis of comparisons with the resultsof loadtests. 407.3.2 Cast-in-Place Piles Piles, cast-in-place, shall consistof one of the types either shown on the drawingand/ords specified. The tbrm shaft whereverused in this section. shall mean eitherpilesor shafts. a. Woriring i)rawines At least 4 weeks before work on shafts is to begin, the contractor shall submitto the Engineer reviewand approvgl,an installation for plan for the construction drilled of shafts. The submittal shall include following: the i. List of proposed equipment to be used includingcranes, drills, augers, bailing buckets, final cleaning equipment, desanding equipment, slurry pumps, samplingequipment, tremiesor concrete pumps,casingetc. Detailsof overallconstruction operation sequence and the sequence of shaftconstruction bentsor groups. in Details shaftexcavation of methods. When slurry is required,details of the method proposedto mix, circuldte and desandslurry. Details methods cleanthe shaftexcavation. of to Details of reinforcement placement including support and centralization methods. placement, Details concrete of curingand protection. Details any required of loadtests. Otherinformation shownon the plansor requested the Engineer. by 407-7

ii. iii. iv.

vi. vii. viii. tx.

8-10' leql alrdoq] oprslnoposJo burueyos"ro buruesoollnJuJeqasne3 ol se qcns aq lou lleLlse:npeco.rd eq1 '{pedo.rd :eq1oJo sactruos'saln}cnlls o1 :o se;rd palelduoc l;lerped lo palalduoc o1 abeuep luecelpe ut 6u11;nse: suorlerqrA osnecol se qcnsaq lou llBqssuotletedo leqlo pue eloqoroq uorlnooxa pasn alnpecordTpoqlaul 'suotleledo ur otlf 6uuoq Jo '1se1 alts ut pue Jo peoqeio 6ur:np lno pauec eq o1 (palrnber 1r) ltos uolel oq o1 seldues lros smolle ]eLll r.lcnseq lleqs poqlaLuaq1 'asuadxe pollg r{q salol{eJoq srLl rolcerluoc ololouocueal L.l}tM oq lleLls le pelcefey ':eeurbu3 aLll ^q panoldde ro parlnads ostmloqlo ssalun 'sburnnerg uo umor.ls oql uorle^oladll eqt o] polltJp lleqs seloq llv oq 'Illn;s altuoluaq 6ursec Jo/pue fierodue] Jo osn oLlt Iq aloqaloq Io aseq pue llem alll lo (6urrrre.rq or.lluo umorlsse) :apeq :o {lrlecryan'r{llttqep qctqMauo aq suteluteul Oursec Oursec ifue:oduel 'poqlaul lam lleLlspoLlloru luaueurad Jo poL{}aul 'poqlourr{rp aq1:eqgter{;;eraueb pue poqlaut aqf 6uuoq1o lueuldrnba slnp-eco-IfEu1roi1[
aloqaro{-lllr(I u! }ssl salld 'r

'esuedxa 'pa^oual oq srLl]B Jol3ertuoS rtq elercuocueal qltM pelluoq lleLls aql lou 'sedrd.ro slleLlspalcoleg 'euo pelcafe.r uec r.lcrr{M aL{lol luacefpe uenup eq ggeqs pue panouialaq lleqs sadrd.ros;;eqs adrdro llaqs Meu e ro 'pace;de: pelcafag'pelcelaroq llfvran;enOuueaq asearcap {;leue1euol se }uo]xa slr ue.Llcnso1 esde;;ocleryed smorlslo ualorq ro uan {pedordur st r.lcLlm up 'adtd.ro pecnpeJ esdelloclo} poutuexo Auy 'lurodr{ue}e Jolotuetp lo 1leqs aq lleqs sedrd .ro sllaqs leats aLll 'utolot.l] aloJcuocpue laals 6urc.ro;ure.r pue uonrJp butcepd ror.rd og 6uraq.raye'sadrd.roslloqs loals Jo osec aql ul 'sbunne:p pelels sB aq lleLlsOurur1 ,to{celncce leuorsuaLutp 'Xau aL{} aLl]uo eq1 aql pue q16ue1 uaomlaquorloos-ssorc ur uorlrsod pe.re66e1s llgr.ls auo or.1] oq ur sple^ qcns puB uorlcas-ssoJc r{ue ur peAoldueaq lleqs splaM ueas auo peutpnlr6uol ee:ql ueql alou.l oN e0t9 'S g qlnn Dufildruocr{p1ereue6 (e) splom llno uotle:1aued ^q polcauuooeq lleqs se1eldpa1loraq1 egrd llnJ paurlun aql ur aloLl aql ralatilBrp eld alrsrnbal Molleol sE ralauerp io q16ua1 :e6re; qcns :o ald or.{} Jolou.letp Jo leutuou aql ueql ssal }ou lalauerp rouur aql ol pallor pue lno oq lleqs se1e1d aql '090t 'S'g qlnn 6ur[;dr"uoc ppr.tissau)crql unultul.u LUul (Ot.) uel lo paulo] {1qe1rns e1e1dlaals 'sbunnelpalll uo umor.ls 6urur1 luaueu:ed e aprno:dlleqs lopeJluoc otl] ]l 8u-;q1@ 'lcerluoo Jopunsarlrlrqrsuodsa: oql lalllo srr.l1o Aue ro s6unne:p asoLll jo esn {q paure}qo s}lnsal ro} ,iltlqrsuodsal JolceJluoC a atlar)ou llln ;eno:ddeqcng '-raeut6u:l aql aLll ]o {q penordde 6ur>1.ronn uooq oneq s6urnnerp Llcnslr}unpe:rnber e:e sbunnerp Ll3rqM sueLlspolllJpjo uorlcnJlsuoc uels lou lleqs rolceJluoc aLlI roJ aql

has to be filled with concrete.The equipmentused for executionof to boreholeshall be adequateto ensure that each pile penetrates the founding level. required . Use of Casinq Suitablecasings shall be furnishedand placed when requiredto prevent cavingof the hole beforeconcreteis poured.Casing,if used in drillingoperations shall be removedfrom the hole as concreteis pouredunlessotherwise The bottomof the casingshall be specified. maintained less than fifty (50) cm belowthe top of the concrete not permitted duringwithdrawal and pouringoperations unlessotherwise by the Engineer. Separation of the concrete during withdrawal shallbe avoided. operations

.@! if called shall Reinforcement for conform therequirements to under


item 404. The steel shells/pipes shall be of sufficient strengthand rigidityto permit driving to the required bearing value or depth withoutinjury.The steel may be either cylindrical tapered,step or tapered or a combination,plain, circularor fluted. All types shall conform to the correspondingASTM standards. The minimum averagetensile strengthof steel shall be 3500 Kg/sq.cm(50,000 psi). When called for on the Drawings or by the Engineer, the steel shells/pipes shall be factorycoatedon both interioror exteriorsurfaces by red lead paintconforming AASHTOM-72 or as statedin the special to specifications. The coating shall not cause any hindrance while assembling pilesectionduringweldingoperations. the ii) TemnorarvCasinsMethod The temporary casing of appropriate diameterfor locatingthe pile and piloting shall be pitchedat the exact locations given on the borehole as the drawings ensurethat the casingwhen sunk is withinthe specified to tolerances. The casing shall be sunk to sufficient depthby approved methods. The depth shall be at least sufficient preventthe ingressof to alluvium otherloose materials or into the bore when executedbelowthe bottomlevel of the casing. In addition,the depth shall be such as the contractor considers nepessary for the stability of the casing and/or temporaryworks system during constructionin general and for the following conditions and operations particular in duringall conditions of rivercurrent whichmay occurduringthe periodof works: a: b: Opentemporary casingto ensureagainstblow-in soil. of Concreting the pile,untiltemporary of casingis extracted.

407-9

Safetv of Casinq The contractorshall take all such measures and provide such of and to the approval the and strengthening bracingas is necessary that the temporary.casing is not disturbed, enginLer to ensure overturned, over-stressedor under-eroded in any condition of casingshall be such that it will not disturbthe freshlycast temporary and/orreinforcement. lrning and/orpermanent concrete Where the use of temporarycasing is approvedfor the purposeof of withdrawal the boringtools and over-rapid the maintaining stability .which could lead to excessive removal of soil and water and ground and when boringthroughany of disturbance the surrounding silt),the water level in the boringshall permeable stratum(including betweenone (1) meter and two (2) metersabovethe be maintained the waterlevel,unleSS engineerdirectsotherwise. external and of distortion casingsshallbe free from significant The temporary each continuouslength. During uniform cross sectionsthroughout concreteor any internal they shall be free from encrusted concreting of the projections which mightprevent properformation the piles.

CasinsMethod Permanent methodshall be used when required casingconstruction The permanent plans. This method consistsof driving or drillinga casing to a by the cannot be begins.lf full penetration piescribeddepth beforeexcavation the Engineermay requireeither excavationof materialwithin attained, of of the embeddedportion the casingor excavation a pilothole aheadof In the casing until the casing reachesthe desired penetration. some to cases, ovrer-reaming the outside diameter of the casing may be the in required orderto advance casing. The casing shall be continuousbetweenthe elevationsshown on the casingin lieu of plans.Unliss shownon the plans,the use of temporary casing shall not be used except when the permanent or in additionto in by authorized the Engineer writing. of After the installation the casing and the excavationof the shaft is and the elevation the casingshall be cutoffat the prescribed complete, portion of the reinforcingsteel and shaft concrete placed within the casingleft in place. Slurrv iii) Bentonite Where the use of bentoniteslurry is approved for the purpose of the maintaining stabilityof the walls and base of bore, the contractor's proposals accordaniewith (sub clausevi) hereofshall includedetails in of the slurry.Theseshallincludeinter-alia: a. b. c. The sourceof the bentonite of The constitution the slurry. and PH valueof slurry' gravity, sheerstrength viscosity, Specific

407-10

d. e.

The methods of mixing, storing, placing, removal and recirculating slurry,and the The provision stand-by of equipment.

Tests shall be carriedout to ensurethat the proposed constitution the of slurryis compatible with the groundwater.Proposals the constitution for properties the slurryshall includeaverage,minimumand and physical of maximumvalues.The specificgravityof the slurryshall not be less than one and three hundredth (1.03)in any case at any time. The contractor shall use additives where necessary to ensure the satisfactory functioning the slurry. of Manufacturers Certificate A manufacturer'scertificate showing the properties of the bentonite powder shall be delivered to the Engineer for each consignment deliveredto site. Independent tests shall be carried out at labbratory approved the Engineer samplesof bentonite by on frequenfly. Tests Bentonite on Slurrv The contractorshall carry out tests during the course of the piling to checkthe physical properties the bentonite of slurryin the works.These tests shall include,inter-alia, density,viscosity, shear strengthand pH tests. The test apparatusand test methods shall be those given in "Recommended Practice" standard by American petroleum lnstitute, New York City,1957,reference API RP29,Section- ll and Vl. l, The frequencyof tests shall be that which the contractor considers necessary ensure that the bentonite to slurry is in accordance with his proposals and as such othertimes as the Engineer may direct. shouldthe physical properties any bentonite of slurrydeviateoutsidethe agreedlimits,such slurry shall be replaced,irrespective the number of of time it has been used by new bentonite slurry of correct physical properties. Adequate time shall be allowed for proper hydrationto take place, consistent with the methodof mixing,beforeusingslurryin the works. Precautions The contractorshallcontrolthe bentonite slurryso that it does not cause a nuisance eitheron the site or adiacent watenvays other areas.After or use it shallbe disposed a mannerrothe approval the Engineer. in of The level of the slurry in the bentonite shall be maintained that the so internalfluid pressure alwaysexceedsthe externalwater pressure. lf chiselingis used when boring through hard strata or to overcome obstructions, the stability of the excavationshall be maintainedby methods acceptable the Engineer. to iv) Excavation From Boreholes The soil and debrisfrom insidethe pile boreholes shall be removedby bucket, auguror circulating bentonite slurryprovided that no jettingat the 407-11

which in Methodsof excavation, foot of the boreholeshall be permitted. liningof the pile, may damagethe permanent Engineer the opinionof the shallnot be emPloYec. revealany soil stratumbelowthe bottomof a pile Shouldthe excavation the for which.,is,in the opinionof the Engineer,unsuitable supporting shallremoveall such sub loadsthat will be imposedon it, the Contractor the of soil stratumto the satisfactton the Engineerand shalllengthen pile shall be paid as per this of any such lengthening if necessaryand cost contract. shall be carriedout as rapidlyas possiblein orderto reduce Excavation to a minimum the time in which any strata are exposed to the atmosphere,bentoniteslurry or water. In any case, a pile shall not remain unfilledwith concretefor period exceedingeighteen(18) hours

of0".31:'3 completion after

shall be disposedso that the same from pile excavation The materials in works of this project, with any part of the permanent interfere does not manner. neat and workmanlike and v) Samples Tests shalltake soil samplesas given belowor as directedby The Contractor of tip to the Engineer the designed elevation the pile and shall carry ou{: tests within, and ahead of boreholeon the insitu StandardPenetration after one and half (1.5) line of verticalaxis of the pile at these locations interval.The costs of tests and collectionof samples shall be meter Each deemedto be includedin the unit rates quoted by the Contractor. Af be sampleshall,as far as possible, truly representative the disturbed grading of insitu soil at the point from which it is taken, without five by 6ontaritnation other material.lt shall be approximately (5) Kg in air tight containerimmediately weight and shall be placed in a strong shallbe sealedas soon The container from the sampler. aftei its removal placed in and shall be taken to the site as the sample has been Limitstests. contentand Atterberg moisture for laboratory grading, Test shall be for and procedure the StandardPenetration The apparatus Test and of with the provisions ASTM D 1586 Penetration in accordance sampling samplingof soils and/orASTM D 1587 thin-walled split-barrel may conflictwith other oi soils, (exceptinsofaras any such provisions of requirements the contract). vi) Limitationsof Boring Sequence in Piles shall be constructed such a mannerand sequenceas to ensure in no damage is sustainedby piles already constructed adjacent that for shall submitto the Engineer his approvala positions. The Contractor of of sequence construction variouspiles' programme showing

407-12

vii) Tolerances Following construction tolerances shallmaintained a. b. c. The drilledshaft shall be within 3 inchesof the plan positionin the horizontal planeat the plan elevation the top of the shaft. for The vertical alignment the shaftexcavation of shail not very from the plan alignment morethan 1/4 inch per foot of depth. by After all the shaft concrete is placed, the top of the ieinforcing steel cage shalr be no more than 6 inches above and no more than 3 inchesbelowplan position. when casingis used, its outsidediametershall not be less than the shaftdiame_ter shownon the plans.when casingis not used, the minimumdiameterof the drilledshaft shall be tne diameter shown on the prans for diameters24 inch6s or ress, and not more than 1 inch less than the diametershown on the plantsfor diameters greaterthan24 inches. The bearingarea of bellsshall be excavated the plan bearing to area as a minimum.All other plan dimensionsshown for the bells may be varied, when approved, to accommodatethe equipment used. The top elevationof the shaft shall be within 1 inch of the plan top of shaftelevation. The bottomof the shaftexcavation shall be normalto the axis of the shaft within 3/4 inch per foot of shafl diameter.

d.

e.

f. g.

viii) Inspection After the borehole has reached its final stipulated positions, after the samples have been taken out, as requiredby the'Engineer, and the boreholehas been completelycleanedof all loose mattei and othenrvise made ready to receivethe reinforcement and thereafterthe concrete.the contractor shallso informthe Engineer. The Engineershall inspectthe soil samples and test results thereon, check the elevation of the bottom of the borehole and the amount and direction,if any, by whichthe top of the casingis out of position, outor of-plumbhavingsatisfied himselfon theseand on any other pointswhich he may consider relevant shall sign permission authorizing the contractor to proceed with the placing of the reinforcement. The contractor shall under no circumstances proceed with the placing of -first reinforcementor with the subsequent concreting without having obtained the authority signedseparately each ind every boreholeby for the Engineer. ix) Pile Reinforcement The reinforcement each pile shall be assembled for and securelytied by of bindingwire and by weldedreinforcement rings of twentyfive TgSns (25) mm diameterbar as shownon the drawings, sucii a manner in as to form a rigidcage.

407-13

by shall be maintained cover to the reinforcement concrete The required and of sufficient suitablespacerssecurelyattachedto the reinforcement cage into of to strength resistdamageduringhandling the reinforcement the pile. The distance between the spacers shall be such that the required cover is maintained throughout and that there is no cage in the course of the concreting of displacement the reinforcement operation. preferto lower the reinforcement cage assembly Shouldthe Contractor into the boreholein sections,he may do so providedthe same lapping as requirements for assemblyon the ground are followed,namely,the shall be lappedas shownon the drawingsand reinforcement longitudinal shall be doubledover the lap zones. Spacers the spiral reinforcement maintaining concrete cover shall be located immediately below and absvethe laps at 4 pointsspacedaroundthe cage. 407.3.3 of Concreting Piles shall be followed, In general, item 401 of the General Specifications particular shallbe observed. requirements the however, following i) Materials Compressivestrength of concrete in piles shall be of class 43 as indicated. prescribed ltem 401, exceptif otherwise in plasticiser by may be addedas approved the Engineer. retarder, Suitable for additive approval, shall submitthe detailedproposed The Contractor trial mix results.The dosing of which shall be approvedafter laboratory shall ensure initialsettingtime of not less than five (5) hours retarders to corresponding the ambient temperatureat which the concretingis proposedto be carriedout. of ii) Commencement Concreting any concrete Priorto placing a. slurry,which could impairthe bentonite Any heavycontaminated free flow of concretefrom the tremie pipe, shall be removed. soil shall be removed from the Any loose or soft material/water to methodsacceptable the Engineer. bottomof the bore by

b.

of shall not proceedwith the concreting the pile until the The Contractor permitto do so aftersatisfying himselfof the: givesspecific Engineer !f Adequacy the Contractors equipment and arrangement. of r-f Proficiency his personnel. of !) Cleanliness the borehole. of

407-14

Contractor shallhave a suitable lighting arrangements all timesfor at inspecting entirelengthof the shells,pipeor hole beforeplacingthe the reinforcing steel or concrete. Priorto the concreting pile,sampleof slurryshall be takenfrom the a baseof the borehole usingan approved sampling deviceand its specific gravityshall be determined. iii) Placingof Concrete The tremie shall be of not less than two hundred and fifty (250) mm diametermade of watertight constr0ction. The means of supporting the tremieshallbe such as to permitthe free movement the discharge of end in the concretein the pile. The tremie pipe shall be fitted with travelling plug, which shall be placed at the top of the pipe before chargingthe tremie pipe with concrete as barrier between the concrete and water or bentonite slurry,so as to preventwater or bentonite slurry enteringthe tube and mixingwith the concrete. The tremieshall be carefullylowered into the borehole so that the end of the tube shall rest at about one hundred and fifty (150) mm above the bottom of the borehole,with reinforcement the borehole,and the hopper end of the tremie tube in shallbe filledwith concreteas aforesaid. shall be slighflyraisedso that lt when the concretereachesthe bottomit flows out of the lower end of the tube, and fills the bottom of the borehole. Thereafter, the rate of withdrawal the tremieshall be gradualso as to ensurethe end of the of tremie pipe is always one and half (1.5) meters below the top of the concretein the borehole. allowanceshall be made for the top five An hundred (500) mm of qoncretein borehole during concretingbeing unsatisfactory. when the next batch is placed in the hopperthe tremie shall'be slightlyraised but not out of the concreteat the bottom, until the batch dischargesto the bottom of the upper. This operationshall be controlled calculating volumeof concreterequired fill one linear by the to meter of pile and then by measuring the rate of withdrawal the tube of corresponding the volume of the batch in the hopper.The flow shall to then the retarded by lowering the tube. The depth of the concrete in borehole shall be measured at intervalsto keep a constant check that the tremiepipe bottomis immersed concrete. in concretingin each pileshall be carriedout in a continuous operation without stoppages untilthe pile has been completed. lf the bottomof the tremie pipe ceasesto be immersedin the body of the concrete in the pile and the seal is broken, concreting shall cease immediately and such remedialmeasuresas the Engineermay accept or directshall be carriedout. The contractorshall take precautions ensure to that the concreteis free of voids and shall preventthe entry of water and/or collapseof soil into concrete.lf any soil or other deleterious extraneous or materials into any pile excavation fall priorto or duringconcreting, shall be it removedimmediately. concretingshall continueuntil the concretehas reaehedan elevation five hundred (500) mm higher than the designatedpile cut off level shownon the drawings, as othenr'uise or directedby the Engineer. 407-15

from tip of cutcjff operation shallbe plaied in one continuous The concrete elevation and shallbe carriedout in such a manneras to avoidsegregation. (slump)shall aridthe consistency the The methodof placing concrete of of conformto the requirements ltem 401 or to the satisfaction the Engineer. untilall adjacent shells,pipesor No shellor pipeshall be filledwith concrete piles within a radius of three (3) M or five (5) times the pile diameter, resistance. have been drivento the required whichever greater, is After a shell or pipe has been filled with concrete,no pile shall be driven withinseven(7) metersthereofuntilat leastseven(7) days have elapsed.
J07.3.1

Withdrawal of TemporaryCasing casing withdrawal temporary of involvespartial lf the methodof construction proceeds,a sufficienthead of concreteshall be maintained as concreting above the bottom of the temporary casing to ensure that no voids are formed within the pile and to preventthe entry of ground water and to prevent collapse soil intothe concrete. of the lf such entry or collapseshould occur, the temporarycasing shall be redriven before the concrete has set and all defective concrete shall be in of removedor the construction the pile shall be abandoned, which case provisionof the clause herein which refers to "DefectivePiles" shall the apply. The withdrawalof the temporarycasing shall be carried out before the has taken its initialset. concrete adjacent The methodand timing of withdrawalmust be such as to ensure that the ground shall be filled with the pile and the surrounding space betwe'en concrete.

407.3.5

of Splicine Piles shall be made as shown by of Splicing piles,when permitted the Engineer, on the Drawingsor as specifiedwith materialshaving same quality and used for the pile itself. as characteris.tic for materials Piles i) Precast Concrete piles,the splicing to shallbe done according one of the concrete For precast specified;' unlessotheruuisp following methods 1) Using prefabricatedjoints mounted in the forms and cast togetherwith the pile sectionsand joined togetheras specified The joints and approvedby the Engineer. by the manufacturer be of the designand type as shownon the Drawings. shall By cuttingaway the concreteat the end of the pile, leavingthe steel exposedfor a length of forty (40) times steel reinforcement bar diameters. The final cut of the concrete shall be perpendicular the axis of the pile.Reinforcement the same of to

2)

407-16

size as that used in the pile shall be welded to the projecting steel and the necessaryformworkshall be placed, care being takento preventleakagealongthe pile.The concreteshallbe of the same qualityas that used in the pile. Just prior to placing concrete,the top of the pile shall be wetted thoroughlyand covered with a thin coating of neat cement, or other suitable bondingmaterialto the satisfaction the Engineer.The forms of shall remainin placenot lessthan seven (7) days.The pile shall not be drivenuntilthe28-daysdesignstrengthis reached. 3) Any other methodshown on the Drawingsor approvedby the Engineer.

ii) Steel Piles. Shells pipes or For steelpilesshells and pipe,the splicing shallbe as under: lf the orderedlengthof the steel pile, pipe, or shell is insufficient obtain to the specified bearing value, an extension of same cross-sectionshall be spliced to it. Unless otherwiseshown on the Drawings,splices shall be made by butt-welding entirecross-section form an integralpile using the to the electricarc method. The sections connected shall be properly alignedso that the axis of the pile will be straight. Piles bent or othenrrrise injuredshall be rejected. 407.3.6 Cuttins of Piles Tops of piles shall be embeddedin the concretefooting as shown on the drawings. Concretepiles shall,when approvedby the Engineer,be cut off at such a level that at least five (5) cm of undamaged pile can be embeddedin the structureabove. lf a pile is damagedbelowthis level,the contractorshall repair the pile to the satisfactionof the Engineer. The longitudinal reinforcement the piles shall be embeddedin the structureabove to a of lengthequalto at least (40)times the diameterof the main reinforcing bars. The distancefrom the side of any pile to the nearestedge of the footing shallnot be lessthan twenty(20) cm. when the cut-offelevation a precast for concretepile,steelshell,pipe or for a cast-in-place concretepile is belowthe elevation the bottomof the pile of cap, the pile may be built up from the butt of the pile to the elevationof the bottom of the cap by means of a reinforcedconcreteconstructionaccording to ltem 401,tf approvedby the Engineer. cut-offs of structural steel pilesshall be made at right anglesto the axis of the pile. The cuts shall be made in clean,straightlines and any irregularity due to cutting or burning shall be leveled off with deposits of weld metal priorto placingbearingcaps.

407-17

101.3.7

Piles Defective Any pile deliveredwith defects such as damaged during driving or cast insitu',placed out of its proper location,incapableor partiallycapable of to the load which it is intended carry,drivenbelowthe carrying permanently elevationfixed by the Drawing or by the Engtneer,due to the immature of settingof the concretein the pile or due to caving/collapse the borehole of which Engineershall be sole judge or fully o-rpartially, due to any cause expense by one of the to deteiminesfrattUe correctedat the contractor's approvedby the Engineer:methods following a) The pile shall be withdrawn and replaced by a new and when bY necessary, longerPile. pile. to b) A secondpile shallbe drivenor cast adjacent the defective providedhereinor the c) The pile shall be splicedor builtup as otherwise imbedthe pile' to properly of underside the footinglowered as suchadditionaltests/works the Engineer shallundertake The contractor the to foundations supplement defective to provideadditional may specify as to pile! and so modifythe structure be supported to ensurethat loadwill of foundations existingpile'The safelyto the additional be transferred and functions for shallbe responsible the cost of such additional contractor to in such modification the testsand/orof the extrawork carriedout structure. A concretepile shall be considereddefectiveif it has a visible crack or aroundthe four sidesof the pile, or any defect,which, in cracks,extending or affectsthe strength, life of th'epile. the opinionof the Engineer one, the Contractor, When a new pile is drivenor cast to replacea rejected as deemed necessaryby the at his expense,shall enlarge the footing Engineer.

407.3.8

TestPiles Test piles which are shown on the Drawingsor ordered by the Engineer for shall conformto the requirements piling as specifiedand shall be so located that they may be cut-off and become a part of the completed structure. with ltem 407.3.9shall be driven Test oilesto be load tested in accordance These piles shall not be utilizedin by determined the Engineer. in locations directed. unlessotherwise the structure Test piles driven by the Contractorfor his own use in determiningthe lengthsof pilesto be furnishedmay be so locatedand they may be cut-off providedthat such test piles structure becomea part of the completed andfor pilingin thesespecifications. to conform the requirement

407-18

Any pile,whichafterservingits purpose a test pile is found unsatisfactory as for utilizationin the structure,shall be removed if so ordered by the Engineer, if approvedby the Engineer shall be cut-offbelowthe ground or it line and footings, but such approval does not in any way relieve the Contractor his responsibilities. of Test piles shall generallybe drivenwith the same equipmentthat is to be piles. When required,the ground shall be used for driving foundation excavated the elevation the bottomof the footingbeforethe test pile is to of driven. When diesel hammers are to be used for driving end bearing piles, or friction piles where the bearingcapacityshall be checked by pile driving formulas, Contractor the shallin advance carry out test pilingor load teststo determine the energydeveloped the hammer.The Contractor bv may elect one of the following methods the calibration: for a) By test drivingthe same type of piles successively with diesel hammerand gravityor singleacting hammer,or by drivingtwo differentpiles with diesel hammer and gravity or single acting hammerrespectively. By drivingtest pilesto a depth determined the Engineer by and loadtestingthe same pilesin accordance with ltem 407.3.9. Calibration testsshall be made at leastat two different sites until the resultsare satisfactory the Engineer. to

b) c)

Calibration dieselhammersmay not be requiredif the hammerhas been of previously calibrated undersoil conditions and for the same size and type of pile,provided that the calibrhtion data is acceptedby the Engineer. 407.3.9Load Tests A load test shall consistof the application a load equalto a minimumof 2 of times the specifiedbearingcapacityor as otherwiseprovidedfor hereinor as directedby the Engineer. Loadtestsshallbe made where specified and/orwhere calledfor by the Engineer. Unlessotherwise permitted the Engineer, load by the tests shall be completedbeforethe remainingpiles in the same structureare drrven cast. or Loadtestsshallbe madeby methods approved the Engineer. by The contractor shallsubmitto the Engineer plansof the loading detailed systemand apparatus he intendsto use at leastthree (3) weeks in advance.The apparatus shall be so constructed to allowthe variousincrements the load to be placedgradually as of without causing vibration the test piles. to Tensionanchorpilesif used,shallbe of a designand drivento a depth satisfactory the Engineer. steel shellsor to pileswhosewallsare not of adequate strength withstand test loading to the when empty,shall havethe required reinforcement concreteplacedbeforeloading. and The load test shall not be started until the concretehas attaineda minimum compressive strengthof ninetyfive (95) percentof the designtwenty eight (2g) days compressive strength.lf he so elects,the contractor may use high early strength cementin the concrete the loadtest pile and the tensionpiles. of

407-19

the accurately load on the pile for approvedapparatus determining Suitable of of and the settlement the pile undereach increment load shall be supplied The apparatusshall have a working capacityof three by the C,ontractor. times the design load for the pile being tested. Reference points for away from the test pile shall be sufficiently of measurement pile settlement of all to preclude possibility disturbance. shall be measuredby adequatedevices,such as All pile load settlements level.Increment of by gauges, and shallbe checked meansof an Engineer's is shall be read just aftereach lgad increment appliedand at 15deflection load shall be considered as The safe allowable thereafter. minuteintervals application, has percentof the load which, after48 hours of continuous 50 measuredat the top settlement, causednot more than 6 mm of permanent of the pile. to The firstloadto be applied the test pile shallbe 50%, of the piledesign shallbe up to the pile designload by applying loadand the firstincrement A loads in three equal increments. minimumperiodof 2 hours additional except that no of betweenthe application each increment, shall intervene of shallbe addeduntila settlement lessthan one tenth(0.1)mm increment appliedincrement. underthe previously interval for is observed a 1S.-minute as lf thereis a qu'estion to whetherthe test pilewill supportthe test load,the at'the direction the of shall be reducedbyfifty (50) percent, load increments Engineer,in order that a more closely controlledfailure curve may be plotted.The full test load shall remainon the test pile not less than forty and the permanent be The fulltest loadshallthen removed eight(48)hours. read. settlement When directedby the Engineerload tests snall then be continuedbeyond to the doubledesignload in 1O{onincrements failureor a maximumof three (3) timesthe designload. The pile may be consideredto have failed when the total permanent exceeds(6) mm. settlement 407.3.10 lling EmntyBorine Backfi When each pile has been cast, the empty bores remainingshall not be proceduresand activities back{illed unless required by the construction of the following completion pilingwork.

407.3.r1

Pile Records A shall keep recordsof the pilesdrivenor installed. copy of The Contractor withintwo (2) days after each pile the recordshall be givento the Engineer is driven.The recordform to be used shall be approvedby the Engineer. on The pilerecordsshallgive full information the following:

407-20

Driven Piles

Cast-in-Place Piles

Piletypeand dimension. Driving equipment, type,weight, reach-and efficiency hammeretc. of Dateof casting(forconcrete piles) and driving. Detailsof Reinforcement.

Piletype and nominal dimensions. Date of boring commenced,level reachedeach day and date of casting. Soil samplestakenfrom pileboring operation and soil test results. ground Strata and water encountered with levels,description shall be in accordance with B . S . C . P .0 0 1 . 2 Length of finished pile and tip elevation Dia of borehole. Elevation the bottomof borehole. of Dateof placingconcrete; theoreticaland actual quantitiesof concreteused in pile. Lengthsand diameter temporary of casingand permanent liningand the elevation the tip of temporary of casing and of permanent lining. Detailsof Reinforcement. Detailsof penetration duringboring operation or driving of steel shell (driving recordsas for drivenpiles). consistency othertest Quality, and resultson concrete. Time interval between boring or drivingand concreting. Anv otherrelevant information.

Test resultson concrete Depthdriven& tip elevation. For gravityand single-acting hammers: heightof drop. the For doubleactinghammers: the frequency blows. of Finalset for last20 blowsfor every 10 pilesand when the Engineer so requires penetration the alongthe wholedrivendepthshallbe recorded. Detailsof any interruption in driving Levelof piletop immediately after driving, and the levelwhen all pilesin the groupare driven. Detailsof re-driving. Any otherrelevant information.

407-21

On completion the pilingfor each structure, Contractor of the shall deliverto the Engineera drawingrecording exact locationand the final depth (tip the elevation) all piles. of 407.3.L2 ConfirmatoryBoring The contractor shall carry out confirmatory boringat bridgesite at locations indicated the Engineer. by Boringshall be carriedout with ASTM D 1s86 penetration Test and split barrelsamplingof soil.Additionally, when undisturbed samplingis required, the procedure shallconformto ASTM D 1587,Thin walled sampling soil. of Diameter boreholes of shall be twenty(20) centimeters casedthroughout its length and shall be down to the designatedelevation.In-situ standard penetration test shall be carriedout at one and half (1.5) meters interval from designatedtop elevationto the bottom of the hole. Undisturbed samplesshall be takenfrom substratum. clay is encountered, lf undisturbed sampleswill be takenat interval three(3) meters. of At leasttwo boringsare required each bridgesite.The boringshallextend at to a depth of at least three (3) meters below the pile tip elevationas indicated the drawings. in
491.4 407.4.1

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT Measurement The quantities be paid for shall be the numberof linear metersof piles, to completedand accepted,measuredfrom the pile tip elevationto the bottom of pile caps, footings or bottom of concrete superstructure the caseof in prlebents.In case the bottomof pilecaps or footingor bottomof pile bent is aboveN.s.L and methodof fabrication suchthat the work aboveN.s.L is is done as that of columh,the same shall be measuredas concreteand steel for column.No allowance shallbe madefor cut-offsor the required lengthof concreteor reinforcement steel placedinto the concretestructureas called for on the drawings. Any additional pile lengthsthat may be necessary to suitthe contractor's methodof operation for any otherreasonshallnoi be or included the measurements. in For cast-in-situ piles,helicaland vertical steelwill be measuredin Tons. Pile casing where ever providedwill be measured in linear meters. Measurement shallbe madefor permanenily placedpile casings shown on drawings.lf the contractor likes to use temporarycasing for the convenience preparing boreholes, same shallnot be measured of of the whetherleft at site or withdrawn aftercompleting boreholes. the Test piles when ordered by the Engineer,whether or not utilizedas service piles in the structureshall not be inctuded in the above measurements. Acceptedtest pileswill be measuredseparately the as numberof linearmeters.

407-22

Pileshoeswhen calledfor on the Drawings by the Engineer or shallbe measured the numberacceptedin place by Splicing pilesif not shown on the drawingswill not be allowedexcept of that the lengthof reinforcement to exceed 12 meterin which case the is splicingwill not be measuredor paid directlybut the cost thereofshall in be considered included the unit pricefor piling. as Load tests shall be countedas the number of completeand acceoted foadtestsas described ltem 407.3.9. in Concretefootings or pile caps shall be measuredand paid for as providedunder ltem 400 "Structures". quantities concrete, Additional of reinforcement and formwork caused by incorrectlocationof piles or additionalpiles necessaryto replace defectivepiles shall be to the Contractor's exoense.
107.4.2 Payment

The quantities pilingleft in place in the accepted of structuremeasured as provided above shall be paid for at the contractunit price per linear meterof pilesof the different types listedbelowand shown in the Bill of Quantities. piles,rate per linear meter will includeall items except For cost-in-situ for helicaland verticalreinforcement, which will be paid as per steel reinforcement 404. item . For pre cast piles,the cast of steel shall be includedin the rate per linearmater.

Pile casing will be paid at the contractunit price per linear meter for pile casrng. Test piles whetheror not used in the completedstructureor constructed to as of adjacent structure per requirements the contractdocumentshall be paidfor at the contract unit pricefor pile installation. Load tests shall be paid for at the contractunit price for pile load Tests, eitherone and half (1.5)times or two (2) times the designload.The unit pricefor test loading three (3) timesthe designload shall includethe total to loadtestwithall loadincrements described ltem407.3.9. in as Paymentfor tubular steel piles left in place shall includethe cost of the class of concreteand the steel reinforcement concretecore of the specified of the said concrete core. The quantity be paidfor confirmatory boringshall be the numberof linear to metersof the boringcompleted and accepted.

407,23

Such prices and payment shall be considered full compensationfor furnishing all materials, performingstandard penetrationand all other relevantlaboratory tests, labour,equipment, tools, fuel, welding,if needed and other incidentalexpensesincludingsplicing,caging providingcovers etc. necessary complete item as directedby the Engineer. the to

Pay ltem No.

Description.

Unit of Measurement

4O7a 407b 407c 407d 407e 407f 4O7g 407h

TimberPiles Untreated TreatedTimberPiles PrecastConcrete Pilestype Cast-in-place Concrete Piles,type Structural SteelPiles,type _PileShoes, type_ Test Piles, type_ PileLoadTeststo 1.5timesthe design load

M M M M M Each M

Each

407i

Pile LoadTeststo 2 times the design load. Each

407i

Pile LoadTeststo 3 timesthe design load. Each M M M

407k 4071 4O7m

Boring Confirmatory Permanent Casing, Pile type_ Temporary PileCasingtype_

407-24

ITEM 408

SHEET PILING

408.1

DESCRIPTION This item shall consist of furnishing,driving,cutting off and removal, if required,of sheet piles in accordancewith the Drawings,or as designated by the Engineer. sheet piles for cofferdams connection in with foundations for structuresshall be included in the unit price for ltem 1O7-Structural Excavation. sheet pilingshall be a separatepay item only when stated in the Bill of Quantities.

408.2 408.2.r

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS Timber Sher!-Piles The timber, unless otherwisedefinitelynoted on the Drawingsor in the special Provisions, may consist of any species,which will satisfactorily standdriving.lt shall be sawn or hewn with squarecornersor with tongueand-groovejoint as directed by the Engineerand shall be free from holes, loose knots, wing shakes, decay or unsound portions, or other defects whichmightimpairits strength tightness. or

408.2.2

Concrete Sheet Piles concrete, reinforcement,and manufactureof concrete sheet piles shall conform to the specificationsgoverningPrecastconcrete piles under ltem 407 - Piling. Jointdetailsshall be as indicated the Drawings. on

408.2.3

SteelSheet Piles steel Sheetpilesshall be of the type and weightindicated the Drawings. on The steel shall conform to AASHTO M 223 or AsrM A s7z. permanent steel sheet piles shall be coated with red lead paint conformingto AASHTo M 72 as instructed the Engineer. by

-{08.2.4

Bracine Bracings or anchors for sheet piles shall be made of wood or steel according the Drawings as designated the Engineer. to or by For temporarysheet piling like cofferdamsfor excavations,the contraetor shall be solely responsible the design and construction the bracing. for of The Drawingsshall have the approvalof the Engineer,but such approval does not in any way relieve the Contractor his responsibility. of

408-1

408.3 408.3.1

CQNSTRUCTION REOUIREMENTS Installation at Timberand concrete sheetpilesshall be sharpened theirlowestends. or shown on the Drawings as All sheet pilesshall be drivento the elevation Where it is impossibleto drive to the elevation directedby the Engineer. conditions, the piles may be shown on the Drawingsdue to sub-surface permission the Engineer. with the written of stoppedat a higherelevation to such permission Engineershall investigate the However,beforegranting ascertain that the Contractor has adequate equipment for the required shownwith the drivingand that the pilescan not be drivento the elevation properuse of this equipment. sheet pilingshall be driven or cut-offto a straight The tops of a permanent indicated the Drawings. on lineat the elevation governing installation sheet pilingshall conformto of the The requirements pilesas set forthunderltem 407.3.3and 407.3.1 . 1 thosegoverning

408.3.2

Removal Temporary sheet pilingshall be removedor cut off at the streambed or the by originalgroundwhen directed the Engineer. orderssheet pilingto be left in placefor erosion In case when the Engineer protection, and the Engineershall agree on an equitable the Contractor price.

408.4 408.4.1

MEASURET{ENTAND PAYMENT Measurement pay item in the Bill of Quantities, sheetpilingwill When statedas a separate be measuredby the square meters of sheet piling or as a Lump Sum as completein or shown on the Drawings directedin writing by the Engineer, place and accepted.Measurementof piling, which has been delivered accordingto Drawings and cannot be driven to the directed elevation conditions shall be measuredb the drivenelevation. becauseof subsurface

408.4.2

Payment Sheet Pilesand SteelSheetPiles Paymentof TimberSheetPiles,Concrete shall be made at the contractunit price undermeasurement as determined per square meter or as a Lump Sum for the pay items listed below and 'the Bill of Quantities.Such prices and payment shall be' shown in for consideredfull compensation all materials,labour, equipment,tools paint, bolts, Wales and incidentalsnecessaryto completethe item. All necessary bracings,whether shown on the drawings or not, shall be price. included the contract in

408-2

The undermentioned pay itemsand pricesshallnot applyto the equitable rate for sheet piling left in place for erosion protectionaccordingto ltem 408.3.2.

Pay ltem No.

Description.

Unit of Measurement

40Ba 40Bb 408c

TimberSheetPiles Concrete SheetPiles SteelSheetPiles

SM SM SM

408-3

ITEM 409

WELL FOUNDATION
DESCRIPTION with the in all This item shall consistof performing operations connection The for to be used as a foundation a pier or abutment' of construction a well 1)the castingof main operations: of comprised five separate work shallbe 2) well kerb in properposition. the erectionof well steeningby stages3) the sinkingof the erectedkerb and well steeningto the requiredelevation 4) of of the pr6perplugging the well, and 5) the construction the transomslab or and the Drawings as directedby the all in accordalcewitlrspecifications, Engineer.

409.1

409.2 409.2.1

MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS Steel Structural of to steelshallconform the requirements AASHTOM 183 (ASTM Structural specified)' otherwise A 36 unless DESIGNATION:

409.2.2

Steel Reinforcing under item 404 Steel steel shall conformto the requirements Reinforcing Reinforcement.

409.2.3

Concrete Structural Structuralconcrete shall conform to CIaSSA concrete requirementsas underltem 401-Concrete. specified

409.2.4

Brickworh under ltem 410as Brick work shall conformto the requirements specified of BrickMasonry thesespecifications.

109.2.5

Fill Sand subject materials Fill sand shallconsistof naturalsand free from deleterious of the Engineer and as specified and shown on the to the approval Drawings.

409.3 409.3.1

REQUIREMENTS CONSTRUCTION Eq Construction uiPment shall be on the Site in first class to All equipment be used in construction before by and working'condition shall have been approved the Engineer is construction started. to shallbe adequate the sizes,etc.,of all equipment The numberof units, in work withinthe time specified the Contract. of ensurecompletion the 409-1

No equipment shall be removedfrom the site withoutthe writtenapproval of the Engineer. All equipment, toors and machinery used shail be maintained in a satisfactory workingcondition throughout required the periodof therruse. 409.3.2 Structural Steel Work (a) Notice of Ro'ing jrn4 Fabrication The contractor shail give ampre advancenoticeto the.Engineer ottre neginning oiin" *oirlt ihe miil and 9h.og, .that inspectionmay be providid. NJ materiatsnarr'be roiled or 9o fabricatedbefore the Engineerhas been notitieJ v*rere-it,l'oro"r. nru" been placed. for The contractorshail furnishail facirities the fbl :Irittttes for Inspection materials of and workmanship the miil in ,r,op, inspector shallbe allowedfree accessto the necessary "nJ "no partsof the premises.
ofF

Ail shariconform to l"liy"-y,?!,11 of structure. structurar works "^s]9. requirements shown steer the applicable ASTM as under

,\

el\/vr

rro

item 413. casethese rn requirements notmet,the materiarthus are fabricated be iejected. shail

(d) rfandlins Members fieldassembling the component The of partsof the structure shail be done by the use of iwistint, n",ioi"g tr 'otherwise deforming metar., members "shatt the No srighily bent6r twisted oe put in place untiltheirdefects correcteo any members are a'nc seriously damaged in handling be rejected. will (g)Finish.of structural Steel wortr Theworkmanship finish and shallbe first classand equar the bestpractrce mode.rn to in bridge .r.,op.. sn""ring and clipping shallbe done neaflyand accurately ""rr po,iion-of and the work exposed viewshallbe neafly to finished.
409"3.3 Snecial Construction Operations (a) casrting.well Kerbs.Thecuttingedge of the well kerb will be structural steel pre-fabricated suppried segmentsconvenient and in for siie assembry by boltingtogetheras per rinesand d'imensions shown on ttre Drawings. The segmentsof the cutting edge shail be interchang"ror". The fitting togethershall be checkedat the site of fabrication work by the assembry of at least two compretecuttingedges, formed of segments at random beforetheseare accepted dispatch the site of for "t,or"n to work. None of the steel work is to be paintedand no surfacepreparation is calledfor otherthan the removal the rust and looseadhering scale. of mill Reinforcing steerworkin the cuttingedge wiil be properry borted the steel to work and placedand assembled shownon the Drawinos. as

409-2

Structural concrete the cuttingedge will be of the requiredstrengthand for to shownon the Drawings.' shallbe finished the form and dimensions (b) Well Steenine Well steeningshall be made eitherof brick work in (1:3) cementmortaror Portlandcementconcreteof the requiredstrengthand of as the form and dimensions shownon the Drawings. Reinforcing steel work will continuefrom the cutting edge into the well steening with spacersmade of structural steelwork consisting mild steel of ' platesof the size and dimension shownon the Drawings. as (c) Well Sinking: Well sinkingincludes operations all required sink the to wellin position to the yequired and elevation. (1) Positionins: Each well kerb shall be correctlypositionedin place and approved the Engineer by beforecommencement furtherwork. of (2) Surrrrort: Well kerb shall be adequately supported preventshift.ortilt to duringthe initialoperation and on excavation and sinkingwhetherthe well has beenstarted made up groundor in waterin excavation. on (3) Excavation Sinhins:The soil from insidethe well shall be removedby of grabbing by otherdevicesas approvedby the Engineer. mechanical or The accuracy the sinkingwill be the rbsponsibility the Contractor. of of (4) Dewaterins: The Contractor be required pump out the water from will to insidethe wells in such a way as shall be approvedby the Engineer;but notwithstanding dewatering that the Contractor any aid may use to assistin the operation sinkingthe wells,the safetyof plantand labourwill remain of the responsibility the Contractor. of (5) Limits of TiIt and Shift: The limit of departurefrom true vertical position of any well shall not exceed one unit measuredhorizontally a vertical in distance sixtyunits. of The maximumhorizontal displacement any well away from its correct of position shallnot exceedtwenty(20) cm. (6) Correctine etc: lt will be entirely responsibility the Contractor Tilt the of to keep the tilt and shiftwithinthe specified tolerances. the above limitsare lf exceeded, the Contractor will be requiredto adopt measuresto overcome the adverseaffectsof such shiftsand tilts. ln any case maximumpressure at the baseof foundations afteraccounting all shiftsand tilts shallremain for withinthe specified limits. The measures takenshallbe allowedonly afterits has beenreceived approval from the Engineer. (7) Kentledse: The use of railsand other , reavyweightsis permissible well in sinkingand in correctingerror of tilt and horizontal displacement. But the Contractor mudttake care not to damagethe well in the process; and in any case he mustobtainthe approval the Engineer his proposed of for method.

409-3

(8) Limits of Well Sinkine:Each and every well shall be sunk to the level indicatedon the Drawings.But in no case shall the Contractorstop well sinking unless has firstobtained approval the Engineer. he the of (d) Plueeine Well: When the well has reachedthe final elevatton which of to it is to sink and has been approvedby the Engineer, the bottomof the well will be pluggedby the depositing concrete the required of strength. (1)Concrete UnderWater: The concretedepositedunder water shall have ten (10) percent excess cement. To prevent segregjation shall be it placedin the final positionby meansof a dump bucketor other carefully approvedmethodand shall not be disturbed after being deposited. The concrete shallbe placedunderthe supervision the Engineer. of (2)Continuous Placing:The concreteshail be placed in one continuous operation. (e) SandFiiline:When the well bottomhas been plugged,the well hole will be filledwith sand as specified and shown on Drawings. The sand shall be free from deleterious materials. (0 Transom Slab:When the well bottomhas been plugged, welltop will the be providedwith a transom slab made of structuralconcreteof required strength,and reinforcing steel work, all accordingto the lines, dimensions and form shownon the Drawinos.

-r09.4

SAMPLINGAND TESTING The contractorwill have adequatearrangements the satisfaction the to of Engineerto collect disturbedsamplesof soil at every one and half (1.5) meterelevation and at everychangeof soil strataand to deliverit in proper bagsto the representative the Engineer. of The contractorwill also be required obtainthree samplesof the natural to soil at the elevationat which the well kerb has been stoppedand another samplethree(3)metersbelowthat elevation beforehe is allowedto plug the well.

.109.5 409.5.r

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT Measurement a) General For the various items of work constructed under this ltem, measurement shall be made as narratedunderthe respective items. The quantityto be paid for shall be the original plan quantity measured as provided for respective items,exceptwhere changeshave been made by the Engineer and order has been given in writing. No measurements or otherallowances be made for work or materials for will for forms,falseworks,supports, bracings, kenfledge pumping. or 409-4

Steel b) Structural steel enteringinto and becominga part of the The quantityof struetural and acceptedby the Engineershall be the computed completedstructure, of structure enteringintothe completed weightin metrictons of this material item of work. steelwork shallbe metrictons. of The unitof measurement structural The weightsof the rolled shapes,bars, platesand pipe railingshall be computedon the basis of nominalweight as given in the manufacturer's The weightshall shownon the drawings. usingthe dimensions hand books, and orderedoveralllengthsfor all be computedon the basis of dimensions from the computedweight of rolledsteel shapes.No deductions structural drillings, borinEs, edges,punching shall be made for caps, clips,sheared shall be made for the weightof weld millingor planingand no allowance metalor for overrunin weight.

Steel c) Reinforcing For well kerb, steening and transom slab reinforcingsteel shall be of to and paidfor according the requirements ltem 404. measured

Concrete d) Structural For well kerb, steening,pluggingof well and transom slab construction, concreteshall be measuredand paid for accordingto the requirements the cost of ten (10) oercentextra under ltem 401. The unit rate includes cementto be usedwhere required. e) BrickWork ln (1:3) cement mortar for steening shall be measured and paid for of to according the requirements ltem410. fl Well Sinhine shall be For any item of work carried out under this head, measurement externaldiameter, well of specified made per linearmeter of twin or single The unit of measurement sunk belowthe bed level shownon the Drawings. twin or singlewell shall be one linearmeter.The unit ratefor sinking shall tilt pumping,supports,bracings,kentledge, correction includeexcavation, given in ltem 409.3.3and to all soil samples, according the requirements 409.4. s) Fill Sand The well hole shall be measuredas the volumeof well hole requiredto be shallbe in cubicmeters. The unitof measurement filled. 409-5

409.5.2

Payment Payment will be made in accordancewith the unit prjcibin the Bill of Quantitiesfor the various items in accordancewith the..specifications and shallconstitute compensation furnishing material, full for all equipment, and labour and for performing operations all necessaryto completethe work. Provision delivery of materialsto site, handling and storage and all incidentals shall be included unit pricesfor variousitems. in

Pay ltem No.

Description.

Unit of Measurement Ton Ton


CM CM CM CM

409 a 409 b 409 c 409 d 409 e 409 f

Structural Stdel Reinforcing Steel Structural Concrete Brickwork WellSinking FillSand

409-6

ITEM 410

BRICK MASONRY

410.1

DESCRIPTION This work shall consist of furnishing materials,equipmentand labour all required for constructing brickwork as shown on the drawings and in with thesespecifications. accordance

41o.2 410.2.1

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS PortlandCement Portlandcement shall conform to the requirements set forth under item 401.2.1.

4t0.2.2

Sand Sand for mortar used in brickworkshall conform to the requirementfor the fine aggregatespecifiedin item 401.2.2except that the grading shall be according AASHTOM 45. to

410.2.3

Water The waterused in the preparation mortarshall be free from objectionable of quantities silt, organicmatter,saltsor other impurities. water shall be of No usedwithoutthe approvalin writingof the Engineer.

410.2.4

Mortar The mortarfor all brickwork''shall consist.of one (1) part of Portlandcement to three (3) parts of sand by volume and of sufficientwater to producethe properconsistency the intendeduse. for

410.2.5

Bricks The size of the bricksshall be standard size (9"x4 112"x3")22.86 x 11.43 cm cmx7.62 cm. They shall be well-burnt withoutbeingvitrified. They shall be of uniformcolour,regularin shapeand size with sharp and squarecorners faces.They must be homogeneous textureand emit a clear and parallel in ringingsound when struck.They shall be free from flaws and cracks.They shallnot absorbmore than 1/6thof theirweightof water afler beingsoaked for one hour, and shall show no signs of efflorescenceon drying. strength Compressive shall not be lessthan 1j0.62 kg/sq.cm (2000psi).

410-1

{10.3 -l10.3. r

CONSTRUCTION REOUIREMENIS Mixingof Mortar Methodsand equipment used for mixingmortarshall be such that each ingredient enteringinto the mortar shall be subjectto the approvalof the Engineer. a mixeris used,it shallbe of approved lf designand the mixing time after all the ingredients are in the mixer, except the full amount of water,shallbe not lessthan two minutes. Mortar shall be mixed only in sufficient quantitiesfor'immedrateuse. All mortar not used withinthirty(30) minutesafter additionof the water to the mix shall be wasted. Retempering mortar will not be allowed.Mixing of troughs and pans shall be thoroughly cleanedand washed at the end of each day'swork.

1r0.3.2

Brick Layins Brick work shall not be placedduringheavy or prolongedrain to wash the mortar from the bricks. Mortar already spread, diluted by rain shall be removedand replaced beforerestoring work. the All bricks to be used in brickwork with mortarjoints shall be immersedin waterfrom three (3) to four (4) hoursbeforeuse. All bricks shall be skillfullylaid with level courses, uniformjoints, square corners,plumbverticals and true surface, exceptwhere otherwise shownon the Drawings.

All walls and abutments shall be provided with weep holes. Unless otherwiseshown on the Drawingsor directedby the Engineer, the weep holes shall be placed at the lowest points where free outlets can be obtainedand shall be spacednot morethan two (2) meterscenterto center. All surfaces exposed to weather.shall be struck pointed to give a good workmanlike appearance and to sealthe cavitiesin mortarjoints.

J l0.J.J

Curing All brickworkshall be cured for at least seven (7) days after laying.The curingmethodshallbe to the satisfaction the Engineer. of

410-2

-110.4 410.4.1

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT Measurement as of Measurement brickworkshall be made to the lines of the structures for the appropriate shown on the Drawingsor as modifiedby the Engineer is itemsin which such brickwork incorporated. The quantitiesto be measuredshall be the number of cubic met'ersof laid brickwork and accePted.

410.4.2

Pavment aboveshall be paid for at the contract as measured provided The quantities which pricesand in the Bill of Quantities, unit orice listedbelowand shown for compensation furnishingall materials,labour, payment shall be full all for equipmentand incidentals performing the work involvedunder this item:

Pay ltem No.

Description.

Unit of Measurement

410

Brickwork

CM

410-3

ITEN'I ,lI l 4l l.l

UNCOURSED STONEMASONRY B4NDUM AND DRESSED


DESCRIPTION The item shall consistof Randomand Dresseduncoursed stone Masonry with or without mortar. Dimensionsof such masonry may vary as per drawingsor as directed the Engineer. by

4tL.2 1rt.2.l

MATERIAL REOUIRENTENTS Stone Randomor dressed stoneshallbe of approved quality, soundand durable, free from segregation's, seams, cracks and other structuraldefects or imperfection tendingto reduceits resistance weather.lt shallbe free from to roundedor weathered surfaces.

111.2.2

Mortar Mortar for laying stone and pointing shall be composedof one part of Pottland cement and .four parts of sand unless otherwiseshown on the drawings.Portlandcement shall meet the requirements MSHTO M-gs of and sand shall meet the requirements AASHTO M-45. water used in of preparation mortarshall conformto the requirement forth under item of set 401.2.7.

-tI 1.3 -111.3. r

CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS StoneSizeand Shape lndividualstones shall have a thicknessof not less than twenty (20) cms and a widthof at leastone and a half(1.1/2) timesthe thickness-and length of atleastone and a half (1 1/2)timestheirwidth shape of stonesmay be irregular randommasonry,however dressed in for uncoursedmasonry,stones shall be cut in such a way that a well locked masonrycan be laid.The size and shape of ring stonesfor archesshall be as shownon the drawinqs.

. f1 1 . 3 . 2

Dressing Stones of For 'A-class" Masonry,stones shall be dressedio exactsizesand shapes and cut to lay on beds with top and bottomtruly parallel. Hallowbeds shall not be permitted. Beds of face stoneshall be fine finished a depthof not for less than thirty (30) centimetersVerticaljoints of face stone shall be fine finished and full to the squarefor a depth of not less than twentyfive (25) centimeters. Exposed surfacesof face stoneshall be accordingto the plans,with edges pitched to true lines and exact batter,chiseldraftJfour (4) centimeters wide shall be cut at all exterior corners.
41 1-1

shallbe roughly squared joints,beds on StoneMasonry for Stones B-Class pitchto lineshallbe usedat all roughly squared stones, and faces.Selected arrgles and endsof wall. I r1.3.J Stretchers times Stretcher shallhavea widthof bed not lessthan one and a half(1.1/2) and lengthof bed not less than twice nor more than three theirthickness, and half (3.112) times their thicknessbut in no case less than ninety Stone masonrvin cementmortarshall be cured for at least centimeters. seven(7) days.
Jl1.3.1
Hcaders

I I r.J.5

Header,placedin each course.shallhave width not less than one and a '1.2 rneters ln of or half (1 1/2)timestheirthickness. wallshavingthickness less,the headers shallextendentirely throughthe wall. In wallsof greater shallbe not lessthantwo and a half(2112) of thickness, length headers the wherr coLrrse fortyfive(45)centimeters lessin is or timestheirthickness the height,and not less than 1.2 metersin coursesof greaterheight.Header shall bond with the core or backingnot less than thirty (30) centimeters. Headershallhold in the heartof the wall spacednot furthera partthan2.5 meters center to center.There shall be atleast one header to everv two streichers. and Backing Cores headers shallconsist either roughly of bedded andjointed Coreand backing When and stretchers, specified as above or concreteas may be specified. (1.112) the stoneshall of at stoneis usedfor coresof backing, leastone-half as ends. be of the samesizeand character the face stoneand with parallel No courseshallbe less than twenty(20) centimeters thick.Concrete used in for coresand backing shall conform to the requirementsspecified in of Item 401. The headersand stretchers walls,havinga thickness one of meteror less shallhave a widthor lengthequalto the full thickness the will wall.No backing be allowed.

ll1.3.6

[-aving Stone in io as lt shallconform the requirement specified ltem 41?-.2.g. Arches R e f e t o l t e mN o . 4 1 2 . 2 . 1 4 r

{r r.3.7

ll LJ

l\l EASURF- ENl' Air- PA\' \l EN'I' Nt D Lfeasurcnrent The quantity stonemasonry be paidfor shall be the numberof cubic of to metersmeasured the completed in work and the limiting dirnensions shall not exceedthan those shown on the drawingsor fixed in writingby the Engineer.

-tr l.-1.I

411-2

as separately per dimensions ClassC or leanconcrete shallbe measured shown on the drawingsor as directedby the Engineer.No separate which is deemed to be measurement shall be made for stuck pointing included in stone masonry with rnortar, however roll pointing shall be measured separately squaremeter. in

lr l.{.2

Pav!nent The quantities determlned providedabove shall be paid for at the as for contractunit price respectively each of the particularpay items listed below and shown in the B.O Q., which price and paymentshall be full to equipment and incidentals complete compensation labour, for materrals, the item as described above

Pay ltem No.

Description.

U n i to f Measurement

4 1 1a 4 1 1b 4 1 1c 4 1 1d

Dry Random StoneMasonry StoneMasonryRandomwith mortar.

CM CM

Dry C M StoneMasonryDressedUncoursed Dressed Uncoursed Stone' Masonry with mortar. Concrete Class-C. Leanconcrete RollPointing CM CM CM SM

4 1 1e 4 1 1f 4 1 1g

411-3

ITEM J12

DRESSED COURSED STONE MASONRY

lt2.l

DESCRIPTION This item shall consist of Dressed coursed stone masonry with mortar. by or may vary as per drawings as directed of Dimensions such masonry theEngineer.

J12.2 "|2.2.1

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS Stone Size Theyshallnot be stones shallbe largeand well proportioned. The individual (50) cms in thickness.The less than twenty (20) nor more than fifty to from bottom top of regularly if shalldiminish of thickness courses, varied, shallbe as shownon the plans. in sizeof ringstones arches wall.The

112.2.7.

Mortar set to Moriarshallconform the requirement forth under ltem 411.2.2.

112.3 { 12.3.1

REQUIRI MENT CONSTRUCTION Finishes Stone of Surface the surface finishes of stone are For the purpose of this specification definedas follows:from the pitchline Havinga surfacein whichthe variations Smooth-finished: 0 d o n o te x c e e d . 1 5c m . from the pitchline Havinga surfacein whichthe variations Rough-finished: do not exceed1.25cm. from the pitch line do Havinga surfacein which the variations Scrabbled: two (2) cm. not exceed face without indicationof tool Having an irregularprojecting Rock-faced: beyondthe pitch line shall not exceed seven and marks.The projections half(7.5)cmand no partof the face shallrecedebackof the pitchline.

112.3.2

Dressing Stone Stones shall be dressedto exact sizes and shapes before being laid and beds with top and bottomtruly parallel shall be cut to lie on their natural The bottombed shallbe the full size of will not be permitted. Hollowbeds top. In rock-face the stone and no stone shall have an overhanging the face side of any stone shall not present an undercut construction appearance unstable to contouradjacent its bottomaxis givinga top-heavy, when laid. 412-1

Beds of face stone shall be fine-finished a depth of not less than thirty for (30)cm. jointsof face stoneshall be fine-finished full to the squarefor a Vertical and (15)cm. depthof not lessthanfifteen Exposed surfaces of the face stone shall be given the surface finish indicated the plans,with edges pitchedto true linesand exact batter, on Chiseldraftsfour (4) cm wide shall be cut at all exteriorcorners.Face stone forming the starlingor nosing of piers shall be rough-finished unless otherwise specified. Fioles stonehooksshallnot be permitted show in exposedsurfaces. for to
I12.3.J
Stlctchers

Stretchers shallhave a widthof bed of not less than one and halt (1.112) timestheirthickness. They shallhavea length bed not lessthantwicenor of more than three and hal'f(3.112) times theirthickness, and not less than ninety(90)cm J1 2 . 3 . { Headcrs Headers shallbe placedin each courseand shallhave a widthof not less thanone and half(1 112) timestheirthickness. wallshaving thickness a In of 1 2 meters or less. the headersshall extend entirelythr-ough wall. In the wallsof greater thickness. lerigth headers the of shallbe not lessthan two and half (2.112) timestheirthickness when the courseis fortyfive (45) cm. or less in height, and not lessthan 1.2 metersin courses greater of height. Headersshallbond with the core or backingnot less than thirty(30) cm. Headersshallhold in the heartof the wall the same size shown in the face and shall be spacednot furtherapart than 2.5 meterscenterto center. Thereshallbe at leastone headerto evervtwo stretchers.

I r2.3.s

C ores and Baelti

Cores and backingshall consist either of roughly bedded and jointed headers and stretchers,as specified above. or concrete, as mav be specified. Whenstoneis usedfor coresof backing, leastone-half the stoneshall at of be of the samesizeand character the face stone,and with parallel as ends. No courseshallbe lessthan twenty(20) cm. thick. Concreteused for cores and backing shall conform to the requirements specified ltem40'1. in The headers and stretchers wallshavinga thickness one meteror less in of shall have a width or length equal to the full thickness the lryall. of No backingwill be allowed.

412-2

lTEi\{ J12

STONEMASONRY COURSED DRESSED

1L2.1

DESCRIPTION This item shall consist of Dressed coursed stone masonry with mortar. by or of Dimensions such masonrymay vary as per drawings as directed the Engineer.

1r2.2
412.2.1

MATERIAL REOUIRENTENTS Size Stone Theyshallnot be shallbe largeand well proporlioned. stones The individual (20) nor more than fifty (50) cms in thickness.The less than twenty from bottomto top of if of thickness courses, varied,shalldiminishregularly shallbe as shownon the plans. wall.The sizeof ringstonesin arches

t12.2.?.

Mortar set Mortarshallconfonnto the requirement forth underltem 411.2.2.

1t2.3 J1 2 . 3 . t

CONSTRUCTION R.EQUIREMENT SurfaceFinishesof Stone For the purpose of this specification the surface finishes of stone are defined as follows:-

from the pitchline Havinga surfacein whichthe variations Smooth-finished: 0.'15 cm. do not exceed from the pitchline Havinga surfacein whichthe variations Rough-finished: do not exceed1.25cm. from the pitch line do Havinga surfacein which the variations Scrabbled: two (2) cm. not exceed face without indicationof tooi Havingan irregularprojecting Rock-faced: beyondthe pitch line shall not exceed seven and marks.The projections half (7.5)cm and no partof the face shallrecedebackof the pitchline. 1L2,3,2 Dressins Stone to Stonesshall be dressed exact sizes and shapesbeforebeinglaid and shall be cut to lie on their naturalbeds with top and bottomtruly parallel. The bottombed shallbe the full size of Hollowbedswill not be permitted. top. In rock-face the stone and no stone shall have an overhanging the face side of any stone shall not present an undercut construction appearance unstable to contouradjacent its bottomaxis givinga top-heavy, when laid.
411-l

1r2.3.6

Miring l\'lortar by The mortarshall be hand or machinemixed,as may be required the mortar,the sand and cement of In Engineer. the preparation hand-nrixed sfrattOe thoroughlymixed togetherin a clean, tight mortar box until the mixtureis of uniformcolour,afterwhich clean water shall be added in such mortar shail be quantityas to form a stiff plastic mass. Machine-mixed mixerand shall be mixed not less than one and prepared an approved in after Mortarshallbe usedwithinfortyfive (45)minutes minutes. half ('1.1/2) of mixing.Retempering mortarwill not be permitted.

tr2.3.7

Stonc Laving (a)General in Stone masonryshall not be constructed freezingweatheror when the frost. except by written permissionof the Engineerand stone contains as subjectto such conditions he may require.Stone Masonryin Cement period seven(7) days. of shallbe curedfor a minimum mortar (b) Face Stonj upon.or slid over the wall,nor will hammering, Stoneshallnot be dropped They shallbe carefully of or rolling, turning stoneson the wall be allowed. with a jarringthe stonealreadylaid and they shall be handled set wrthout willnot causedisfigurement that Lewisor otherappliance with water before saturated Each stone shall be cleanedand thoroughly set and the bed, which is to receiveit, shall be cleanedand well being All moistened. stonesshall be well bedded in freshlymade mortarand woodenmaul beforethe settingof the mortar. settledin placewith a suitable the face loints which can not be so pointedshall be Wheneverpossible, by prepared pointing rakingthem out to a depthof five (5) cm. beforethe fcr mortarhas set. The face surfacesof stonesshall not be smearedwith the No mortarforcedout of the jointsor that used in pointing. pinningup of in will be permitted beds. stoneswith spawls Jointsand beds shallbe not lessthan one (1) cm. nor morethan one and of and quader(1.114) in thickness the thickness the jointor bed shallbe cm. throughout. uniform shallbe placedso as to form bondsof not iess The stonein any one course than thirty (30) cm. with the stonesof adjoiningcourses.Headersshall be placed over stretchers and, in general,the headers of each course shall but courses, no of the the spacesbetween headers adjoining divide equally pla(Obover a joint and no joint shall be made over a headersshall be header.

412-3

(c) Stone Backing and Cores stone backingshallbe laid in the same manneras specified abovefor face stone,with headers interlocking face headers with when the thickness the of wall will permit.Backingshall be laid to break joints with the face stone. stone cores shall be laid in full mortar beds so as to bond not less than thirty(30)cm. withface and backingstoneand with each other.Bedjoints in cores and backingshall not exceed 4.5 cm and verticaljoints shall not exceed (10)cm. in thickness. ten (d) Concrete Cores andBacking The operations involved the handling in and placingof concreteused in cores and backingshall conformto the requirements specified ltem 401. rn However,the puddlingand compacting concreteadlacentto the ashrar of masonry facingshallbe done in a mannerthat will eniure the fillingof all spacesaroundthe stonesand securefull contactand efficient bond with all stonesurfaces. 412.3.8 Leveling Courses stone coresand backingshall be carriedup to the approximate level of the face coursebeforethe succeeding courseis started. The conskuctionjoints produced in concrete cores or backing by the intermittent placingof concreteshall be located,in general,not less than fifteen(15)centimeters belowthe top bed of any of masonrv. "orri" Resetting ln case any stoneis movedor the joint broken,the stoneshall be taKenup, the mortarthoroughly cleanedfrom bed and joints,and the stcne reset in fresh mortar. 412.3.10 Dorvels and-llramps where required, copingstone,stonein the wingsof abutments, and stone in piers shall be securedwith wrought-iron crampsor dowelsas indicated on the plans. Dowel holesshall be drilledthrougheach stone beforethe stone rs placed and, after it is in place,such dowel holes shall be extendedby dr-illing into the underlying coursenot lessthan fifteen(.15) cm. cramps shall'be of the shapes and dimensions shown on the plans or approved the Engineer. by They shall be insetin the stoneso as to be flush with the surfaces. cramps and dowelsshall be set in lead. care beingtaken to completely fill the surrounding spaceswith the moltenmetal.

412.3.9

412-4

1r2-3.6

Mixing l\{ortar The mortarshall be hand or machinemixed,as may be requiredby the mortar,the sand and cement of In Engineer. the preparation hand-nrixed clean,tight mortar box until the mixed togetherin a snitl Ue thoroughly mixtureis of uniformcolour,after which clean watershall be added in such mortar shail be quantityas to form a stiff plasticmass. Machine-mixed mixerand shallbe mixednot less than one and prepared an approved in after Mortarshallbe usedwithinfortyfive (45) minutes minutes. half(1.1/2) of Retempering moftarwillnot be permitted mixing.

1r2.3.7

Stone Laving (a)General in Stone masonryshall not be constructed freezingweather or when the by written permissionof the Engineer and stone contains frost. except Stone Masonryin Cement as subjectto such conditions he may require. period seven(7) days, of shallbe curedfor a minimum mortar

(-!t)-Ease-Dlqle
upon.or slid overthe wall,nor will hammering, Stoneshallnot be dropped They shail be carefully or rolling, turningof stoneson the wall be allowed. with a jarringthe stonealreadylaid and they shall be handled set without disfigurement that Lewisor otherappliance will not cause Each stone shall be cleanedand thoroughlysaturatedwith water before being set and the bed, which is to receiveit, shall be cleanedand well All moistened. stones shall be well bedded in freshly made mortar and woodenmaul beforethe settingof the mortar. settledin placewith a suitable possible, face jointswhich can not be so pointedshall be the Whenever prepared pointing rakingthem out to a depthof five (5) cm. beforethe fcr by mofiar has set. The face surfacesof stonesshall not be smearedwith the No mortarforcedout of the joints or that used in pointing. pinningup of permitted beds. in stoneswith spawlswill be Jointsand beds shallbe not less than one (1) cm. nor more than one and of and (1.114) in thickness the thickness the jointor bed shallbe quarter cm. throughout. uniform so The stole in any one courseshallbe placed as to form bondsof not iess shall be Headers courses. than thirty(30) cm. with the stonesof adjoining general,the headersof eaCh course shall placed over stretchersand, in courses,but no equallydividethe spacesbetweenthe headersof adjoining pla6|dd over a joint and no joint shall be made over a headersshall be header.

412-3

4r2.3.11

Copings sha|lbe carefu||y of Stonesfor copings wa|l,pier,and abutmentbridgeseats piers,not morethan two stones stones.on selectedand fuliy dimensioned The copings of be used to make up the entire width of coprng' shall widthto extendat leastten (10) abutmentbridgeseatsshali be of sufficient cm.underthebacK-wal|.Eachstepformingthecopingofwingwa||shaiIbe formedbyasing|eStone,whichsha|lover|apthestoneformingthestep belowit at leastthirty(30) cm' immediately T o p s o f c o p i n g s s h a | | b e g i v e n a b e v e | c u t a t | e a s t f i v ejointsm . w ibe , a n d (5)c de shall The vertical be beds, bevelcuts,and tops"shall fine-finished. and the coping shall be laid with joints not more than smooth-finished shall copings'preferably' of The undersides projecting 0.6 cm in thickness. havea driPbead. a not less.than thitly shallbe locatedso as to provide Joints in copings so that no loint will witn the stonesof the under courseand OonO i3gl masonryplates' "..r underthe superstructure directly come

4r2.3.r2

Arches shall be as shownon the The numberof coursesand the depthof voussoirs p|ans.Voussoirssha||bep|acedintheorderindicated.shal|befu||size the dressedtrue to templaie,and shall have bond not less than itrrougtrout, and mortar thickriessof the stone. Beds and joints shall be fine-finished jointsshallnotexceedtwo(2)cm.inthickness.Exposedsurfacesofthe indicatedon the intradosand arch ring shall be given the surfacefinish plans. stonesshapedio fit or as Backingmay consistof concrete specified of large thearch,bondedtothespandrels'and|aidinfu||bedsofmortar.The faces of the spandrelwalls shall be given a finishing extradosand interior shall be trawled coat of one ratio three (1:3) cement sand mortarwhich waterproofing' the smoothto receive for and fillingshall be as specified drainage, waterproofing, Arch centering, arches. concrete

412.3.r3

Pointins weathernor when the stone contains pointingshallnot be done in freezrng frost wet wth Jointsnot pointedat the time the stone is laid shall be thoroughly mortar shall be ct"an water and filledwith mortarafter properraking.The pointingtool' The well driveninto the joints and finishedwith an approved wa|lsha|lbekept*"t*nit"pointingisbeingdoneandinhotordryweather and kept wet for a the pointedmasonryshall be pro[ectedfrom the sun periodof at least3 days aftercompletion' Afterthepointingiscomp|etedandthemortarset,thewa||sha||be condition' and thoroughly'cleaned left in a neatand workmanlike

412-5

112.1 ll2.J.t

M [ASUIIEIVIENT AND PAYMENT Mcasurcment The quantityof stone masonryto be paid shall be the number of cubic metersmeasured the completed in work and the limiting dimensions shall not exceedthan those shownon the drawings fixed oy tne Engrneer. or concrete class-c or lean shail be measuredseparately per dimensions as shown on the drawings or as directed by the Engine"i. tto separate measurement shall be made for stuck pointing,wrrich is deemed to be included in stone masonry with mortar, however rolr pointing shalr be measu-red separately square nreters.No separatemeasurement be in will madefor dowelsand cramps.

112.1.2

Pavrncnt The quantities determined providedabove shall be paid for at. the as contractunit price respectively each of the parlicularpay items for listed below and shown in the B.o.e., which price and paymentshail be furl compensation for labour, materials,tools, equipment and incidentals to complete the item as described above. Dowels and cramps shall be considered subsidiary as item.

Pay ltem No.

Description.

Unit of Measurement

4 1 2a

StoneMasonryDressed Coursed with mortar. Concrete Class-C. Lean Concrete RollPointing.

CM CM CM SM

4 1 2b 4 1 2c 4 1 2d

412-6

IThNI {13

STEELSTRUCTURES

J1 J . I

DESCRIPTION General portionsof This work shallconsistof steelstructures and the steelstructure compositestructures, constructed conformity in with the lines, grades and dimensions shownon the drawings as established the Engineer. or by The workwillinclude labour, all materials equipment and required furnish, to fabricate, erectand paint structural metalscalledfor in these Specifications or as shown on the plans. Structural metalswill includerivet, welding, special and alloysteels, metallic electrodes. steelforging, and castings, and iron castings. This work will also include any incidental metalconstruction not otherwiseprovided for, all in accordancewith these specifications, Drawings as directed the Engineer. or by

Jl3.l.l

{13.1.2

Drarvings The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer workingDrawingsfor steel for structures approvalpriorto use in construction. Such workingDrawings shall be submitted sufficiently advanceof the start of the relatedwork to in allowtime for reviewby the Engineer and correction the Contractor the by of Drawings without delaying work. Suchtime shallbe proportional the the to complexity the work, but in no case shallsuch time be less than six (6) of weeks. The workingDrawings shall show detailsof any permitted optionsproposed in the work, detailsfor connections not dimensioned the plans,the on direction rollingthe plateswhere specificorientation required, of is the sequence shopand fieldassembly of and erection, welding seluencesand procedures, location all buttwelded the of splices a layoutDrawing the on of entirestructure. locationof any temporary the supports that are to be used and the verticalalignment the girder at each stage of the erection. of Substantiating camber calculations shall be submitted with the working Drawrngs.

113.1.3

I nspcction Structural steelwill be inspected the fabrication at site.The Contractor shall notifythe Engineerwhen materialshave been delivered the fabrication to site and shall give the Engineerat least ten (10) days notice before the commencing fabrication any structural of steel.

4tJ-l

The Contractor shall furnishto the Engineera copy of all mill orders, of for certifiedmill test reportsand a Cerlificate Compliance all structural steelto be used in the work otherthan steel which is to be used underthe provisions ltem 413.2.6. "Unidentified in Stock Material". Certified test mill impactvaluesshall include,in addition to reportsfor steelswith specific other.test results,the resultsof CharpyV-notch impact tests. When fine grainsteelis specified, test report shallinclude grainsize.Copies of the the mill orders shall be furnishedat the time, orders are placed with the manufacturer. Certified test reportsand Certificates Compliance mill of shall priorto startof fabrication material of coveredby thesereports. be furnished The Certificates Compliance shall be signed by the manufacturer of and to shall certify to the Engineerthe specifications which the materialhas and been manufactured tested,and that the materialis in conformance with and said specifications test requirements. Material be used shallbe madeavailable the Engineer that the each to to so piececan be examined. The Engineer shallhavefree accessat all timesto site where said materialis stored or where any portionof the fabrication is work on said material beingperformed. Handling and Storing Materials Shipping, weighing morethantwo and one half (2.5)metrictons shallhave Members thereon. the weightmarked In handlingand shippingof the steel work, every care shall be taken to avoid bending,scraping,or overstressing the pieces. All pieces bent or injured will be rejected. otherwise The loading,'transporting, unloading structural and of material shall be so conductedthat the metal will be keot clean.Materialto be storedshall be placedabovethe groundupon platforms, skids,or othersupports. and shall be kept free from dirt, grease, and other foreign materialand properly from corrosion. drainedand protected Girdersand beams shall be placed and shored.Long members, suchas columnsand chords, upright shallbe supportedon skids placednear enoughtogetherto preventdamagefrom deflection.

{13.1.{

4r3.1.5

Falsework Falseworkused for the erectionof structuralsteel shall conform to the provisions ltem 402, "Falsework in for and Centering Bridges", exceptthat dead loads shall consistof the weight of the structural steel and any other portions the structures of whichare supported the falsework. by

413-2

shall work on steel structures the and forms supporting concrete Falsework any loadsappliedto girderwebs shall be applied so be constructed that in and shall be distributed a withinfifteen(15) cms. of a flangeor stiffener producelocal distortion the web. Temporarystruts of mannerthat will not to loadsapplied the to as and tiesshallbe provided necessary resistlateral prevent appreciable relative vertical movement girder flanges and to steelgirders. the between edge of deck form and the adiacent Loads imposedon existing,new or partiallycompletedstructuresby the shallnot exceedthe load methods and equipment construction Contractor's by or thereof,as determined the capacityof the structure, portions carrying '1967 as specifiedby the or for Code of Practice HighwayBridges Pakistan Engineer.
113.1.6

Members Continuous Unless otherwisenoted on the plans, structuralsteel girders have been may girderdead load.The Contractor in for designed continuity supporting for that the girdercontinuity in erectthe girders sucha manner at his option the and erecting dead load is or is not as assumedin design.Furnishing in girders to shallbe subject the requirements thisltem. procedures to be usedwhich will providethe designedgirder are lf erection in withfieldjointsshallbe pre-assembled for continuity dead load,members positions. an upright in or condition a horizontal a no-load are to be used whieh will result in steel girdersnot lf erectionprocedures for the continuity dead load assumedin design,the Contractor attaining shall furnish to the Engineer for review a statement of steel erection that girder detail to substantiate in procedures with calculations, sufficient will and geometry be correct. capacity are to be used which will result in steel girdersnot lf erectionprocedures shall, in the for the attaining continuity dead loadassumed design, structure have a load carryingcapacityat least equal to the designed erection, after structureshown on the plans. The Contractormay increase the crossload area or changethe steel gradesto providethe specified sectional steel Any additional by subjectto approval the Engineer. capacity carrying the or higherstrengthsteels requiredto accommodate methodof erection selected shall be consideredto be made for the convenienceof the payment be madetherefor. will no Contractor"and additional

113.2 lr3.2.l

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS DescriDtion of shall conformto the specifications ASTM as listed The variousmaterials and additions as in the following tabulation with certain modifications specified.

413-3

,-t,rv
',,soleld uotleluatjo,, Jo t'eLt uell lo sluaujoltnboleql Lllt^ setldruoc uotleluoljooleld aql leql os lnc aq lleqsa]ts uotlecuqel ]e leAlJJe loud ]ncaJd aql ol laols lejnlcnjlsllv '0 'sleqalo pue sobueu Jousoleldla6upr.l ioJ pue 'so6ueu sJeqa{a oql lo uotlectJqeJ lo} pasn aq }ou lleqs o}eld loa}s polloC v pue Lw v 'gt 'laals paddec pou.lrxlj lo uer.ll laqlo oq lleLls z/g y\lIsv o] ourLtroluoc :suotleuolsac v laals lprnlcnrtsllv

889V gB9V :09aperc ',zLg v 889V :09eperc',zlgv ',Lwv


u u!f r,ud rsa(J l4ll)^v-slEtrelE I4l

sruc ot g 0t srlc g o] z sruc o] 0 z


ssru)lcrqJ.

-:DutMollo, ol ulloluoolleLls aql laals q6rq lernpnrlsIolle nnolq16ue.r1s se sueld eqguo pauOtsap loals lelnlcnlls 'pailtIS . ,ittnlJo -l.Llos raqlre 0Z0f q6norql

' g 1 9 gs a p e : 6 g 0 t V

'S ro

'99 y :l ad{1

r09 ro g opere'009v '/t 0tgzt aperc v '8t 900ssetS v '/z 9t-99aperc v 9tv '899 c ssetc v '899 c ssetc v /0e v
889 V gzt,V

pnls sJolcauuoc g apetc '6e aperC t 0l ' 9V t o : g o p e r c v:8 (zitdde llt^ 6ur1sa1 crlelsotp{g) lae1g elrd lou
0urqnllernlcnllslaals uoqJeC sbullsecuolt alqeelley! '' '''''''" ' 's6utlsec uo:r{et9 sOurlsec laals-uoqieC slnu utd 6urOtol ;aa1s .ro1 Iogly slallorpue surd'6ur0lo1 leals uoqJe3 lo, " slnu pue sllo8 Aolge q16uatls nnol qOrg leaisleinpn:1s " sJaqseM pue slnu 's)loqlaalslelnlcnJls q16ua4s qOr;1 ' '' suoiJeolldde JoJ Jetauab spoJ pepeorq] pue 'spnls 's]loqlaals qlDuallsrl6rH Ourplean alqeltns loJ e1eld Iol1e laa1s 'r.l]6uatls peredual pue paqcuanb pgall{-q6rg
'

6rvv
,19 V 09 aperc 'zlg v

IVF V

9ev
uotleu8rsall 6115V

,11p.:Y.:n LUllquTJ:c anol q16ue.r1s {o;;e q6rp ''' ' uintpeue^ laels aseueOueu r{o11e q16ue.r1s q6rg mo1 lelnlcnlls
laals lBrnl3ntls ler.relElAI

laals

of steel plate used for the fabrication tensionflanges,eyebars All structural and hangerplatesand for spliceplatesof tensionflangesand eyebarsshall specified CharpyV-notchimpact value requirements meet the longitudinal herein. Sampling proceduresshall conform to the provisionsin ASTM A Designation; 673. The H (Heat) frequencyof testing shall be used for A to steelsconforming ASTM Designations: 36, A 441,A 572 and structural steel of A 588. The P (Piece)frequency te:;tingstrallbe used for structural A to conforming ASTM Designation: 514. CharpyV-notch impactvalues E23. with in shallbe determined accordance ASTM Designation'. Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact values shall conform to the following (Note:all metricvaluesin this test are rounded closest to values: minimum decimal).
Nlaterial

.lf the yieldpointof the mater:al the Kg/Sq.cm), 65.000psi (+569.5 exceeds shall be reducedto for temperature the CVN impactvaluefor acceptability of 15 deg. F. (-9.45deg. C) for each increment 10,000psi (703 KgiSq.cm) Kg/Sq.cm). above65,000psi (4569.5 shall be producedby cold heading,cold rolling or cold Stud connector's ouality and free of shallbe of uniform Finished stud conneciors machining. laps, fins, seams,cracks,twists,bends or other dbfects.Studs injurious from the shallnot have cracksor burstsdeeperthan one half (112) thickness the peripheryof the head to the shaft.Tensilestrengthof stud connectors shall be determinedby test of bar stock after drawingor of full diameter requirements shall finished studs at the optionof the CcntractorStrenoth to conform the followinq. 413-5

TensileStrength

Elongation

Reductionof Area (Min.)

p ( M i n .6 0 , 0 0 0 s i ) (4218 q/Sq.cm) K

(.Min.)20% in 2 inches{50.8mm)

50%

of shall be lurnishedwith arc shields (ferrules) heatStud connectors material welding. for resistant ceramicor othersuitable r lJ.2.l Steel Structural steelplates, otherwise specified shownon the plans,all structural or Unless A conform ASTM Desiqnation: 36. to and barsshall shapes girder flangeplatesshownon the plansmay At the optionof the Contractor, that the in in and may be increased lengthprovided be increased thickness, of of in thickness any portion a changecjoesnot involve decrease detailed girders,increasesin lengthof girder flange said plates.For continuous plates, of which involve changesin locations butt welds betweendifferent prior by in shallbe approved writing the Engineer thickness flangeplates, of to fabrrcation. lcngerthan twenty(20) cms. are to be When stud type shearconnectors of used,they may consist two (2) or more shorterstudsof the type shown welds. wiihfull penetration together on the plansconnected and welded for Rolledshapes may be substituted the welded sections, for sectionsmay be substituied the rolled shapes shown on the plans, provided complywith the to that the shapesand sections be substituted provisions: following thickness shallbe at leastequalto those a) The depth,widthand average for the shapeor section shownon the plans. b) For welded sections,the flanges shall be welded to the web with continuous fitletweldson each srdeof the web. All weldingshallconform "Welding". in to the provisions ltem413.2.7, classifrcation the material of shall not be reduced c) The strength
-ll J.2.3

Castings grayiron,and malleable castings withadequate iron shallbe provided Steel, angles.The radius of continuous fillets cast in place in all re-entrant of curvature the exposedsurfaceof a fillet shall definethe size of the fillet. (112) the thickness the of of shallnot be lessthan one-half The sizeof fillets (1.25) member lessthanone and one quarter nor cms. thinnest adjoined shallnot be less than the specified. of casting The dimensions the finished overweight shall not be more than seven and half (7.5) percent Castings and overtheirentirearea.No Largecastings shallbe suspended hammered cracks,flawsor otherdefectsshallappearaftersuch hammering.
4 tJ-O

,113.2.1

Pads B.earing Devices :r.Mctal Bearing for the by directed the Engineer, materials metalbearing Unlessotherwise requirements: following to shallconform the bearings. AASHTOM 107for bronze alloybearings. copper AASHTOM 108for rolled metalpowerbearings for sintered ASTM B 438 steelbearings. AASHTOM 160for galvanized FabricPads b. Preformed The preformedfabric pads shall be composed of multiple layers of two and cottonduck impregnated (270)gms/SM(8-ounce) and seventy hundred materials suitable rubber,or of equivalent natural boundwith high-quality of The number ply shall padsof uniform thickness. into compressed resilient and thickness,after compression as to producethe specified be such The finished pads shall with-stand compressionloads vulcanizing. of perpendicular the planeof the laminations not lessthan sevenhundred to or in reduction thickness extrusion. detrimental without (7OO) Kg/sq.cm Pads Bearing c. Elastomeric in padsshallconform the requirements ltem 406.2.5, to bearing Elastomeric Pads". "Elastomeric Bearing

-113.2.5

(Concrete Joints) Packing Sheet Asbestos fifteen(15) mm thickunless shallbe approximately sheetpacking Asbestos of otherwiseshown on the plans, and shall be composedessentially fibresboundtogetherwith a synthetic asbestos whitechrysotile compressed and fillers. rubberbinder undera load of three hundredand fifty of The deformation the sheetpacking not more than fifteen (15) percent.when tested (350) Kg/sq.cmshall be the between planed steel plates under a load of fifty five (55) Kg/sq.cm, of packingshall show a static coefficient frictionless than 0.4 after sheet .25 1.00-1 cm. movements. Where asbestossheet packingis shown on the plansto be placedin joints the bottomlayer of the packingshall be firmly attachedto in the concrete, cement. the concreteusingwater-proof

{r3.2.6

ecl Unidentifi StockMaterial which cannotbe identified of consisting material stock material, Unidentified in with certifiedmill test reports,may be used subjectto the requirements this item. 413-7

113.2.{

l].earing Pads a. Metal Bearing Devices

for the by directed the Engineer, materials metalbearing Unlessotherwise requirements: following to shallconform the bearings. AASHTOM 107for bronze copperalloybearings AASHTOM 108for rolled ASTM B 438 for sinteredmetalpowerbearings steelbearings. AASHTOM 160for galvanized FabricPads tr.Preformed The preformedfabric pads shall be composedof multiple layers of two and duck impregnated cotton (270)gms/SM(B-ounce) and seventy hundred matertals suitable rubber,or of equivalent natural boundwith high-quality The padsof uniform thickness. numberof ply shall into compressed resilient and after compression thickness, as to producethe specified be such The finished pads shall with-stand compressionloads vulcanizing. of perpendicular the planeof the laminations not lessthan sevenhundred to or in reduction thickness extrusion. detrimental (700)Kgisq.cm without Pads Bearing c. Elastomeric in padsshallconform the requirements ltem 406.2.5, to bearing Elastomeric "Elastomeric Pads". Bearing -113.2.5 (Concrete Joints) Packing Sheet Asbestos fifteen(15) mm thick unless Asbestossheetpackingshall be approximately of otherwiseshown on the plans, and shall be composedessentially fibresboundtogetherwith a synthetic asbestos whitechrysotile compressed andfillers. binder rubber of The deformation the sheetpackingundera loadof three hundredand fifty When tested (350) Kg/sq.cm shall be not more than fifteen(15) percent. planed steel plates under a load of fifty five (55) Kg/sq.cm,the between of sheet packingshall show a static coefficient frictionless than 0.4 after 1 . 0 0 - 1 . 2c m . m o v e m e n t s . 5 sheet packingis shownon the plansto be placedin joints Where asbestos the bottomlayer of the packingshall be firmly attachedto in the concrete, cement. usingwater-proof the concrete 113.2.6 ed Unidentifi StockMaterial which cannotbe identified of consisting material stockmaterial, Unidentified in with certifiedmill test reports,may be used subjectto the requirements thisitem. 413-7

When unidentified stock materialis proposed use the Engineermay, at for his discretion, selectrandomtest specimens from each piece.The number of such test specimens shall be entirely the discretion the Engineer. at of Test specimensshall be cut and machined in accordancewith ASTM requirements. Test specimens from unidentified stock material, including thoserequired retest, for shallbe furnished, machined and got testedby the Contractor from approved laboratory his expense. at Fabrication shall not be commenced untilthe materials involvedhave been approved the Engineer. by (14\ metrictons of unidentified Not more than fourteen stock material mav be used on one contract Unidentified stockmaterial shallbe segregated from all othermaterials be to usedin the work.

113.2.7

Weldins Weldingmaterials, welding, welderqualification, inspection welding and of shall conform to the requirements the American Welding Society of Structural Welding Codeor otheraccepted codesas shownon the plansor as approved the Engineer. by Correction weld faultsshall be carried of out in the presence the Engineer. of

J13.2.8

(ialvanizing When galvanizing showrf the Drawings, is on such galvanizing products of fabricated from rolled,pressedand forged steel shapes, plates.bars and strips three (3) mm thick or thicker,shall conformto the specifications of AASHTOM 111 (ASTMA 123),except that complete seal welding tightly of priorto galvanizing required contacting surfaces such products of is only where seal welding is shown on the plans Except for pre-galvanized pipe,galvanizing material standard of three(3) mm thickor thrcker shallbe performed afterfabrication the largestpractical into sections. Galvanizing not be required stainless will for steel,mono metaland similar corrosion resistant oarts. All weldedareasshallbe thoroughly priorto galvanizing remove cleaned to all slag and other material that would interfere with the adherence the of zinc When it is necessary straighten sections to any aftergalvanizing, such workshallbe performetl without damage the zinccoating. to Components boltedassemblres of shall be galvanized separately before assembly. Galvanizing tapped holes will not be required.Galvanized of surfaces, whichare specified be painted, to shallnot be chemically treated aftergalvanizing priorto cleaning and and painting

413-8

413.2.9

Cleaning All steel works shall be blast cleanedafter fabricationin accordancewith the Drawings and to the satisfaction the Engineer. of steel work which is to be in contactwith concrete shall be, afterfabrication, wire brushedand cleaned to removeall looserust,dirt and grease.

413.2.10

Painting a) ShopCoat (PrirUglQqaD The shop or prime paint coat for metal structuresincludingedges, nuts, paint, AASHTO bolts,etc. shall be a factory mixed red lead Ready-Mixed M-72. Red lead pigmentin the dry form or as a pastein oil shall conformto ASTM D 83. The ninetyseven(97) % gradeshallbe specified dry pigment. for b) First Field Coat (2nd nrime Coat) The first field coat shall be a red lead paint as specifiedfor the shop coat, tintedlightbrownas required with lamp blackin an amountnot to exceed30 gms. per litreof linseedoil. c) Second FieldCoat(FinishCoat) The paint to be used for the second field coat shall be field mixed and conform, unlessspecified otherwise the Drawings, one of the following on to MSHTO Specifications: Foliage GreenBridges Paint, BlackBridgePaint, AluminumPaint(Paste-Mixing Vehicte) Whiteand TintedReady-Mixed Paint(Lead and Zinc Base), Red Lead (Dryand Paste-in Oil), Red Lead Ready-mixed Paint(Tinted with Lamp blackas directedby the Engineer), d) Numberof Coats and Colour steel shall be paintedwith one shop or prime coat and with not less than two field coats. The colour shall be as specifiedor determinedby the Engineer. coats shall be different colourto permitdetection incomplete in of application. e)Weather Conditions Paintshall not be appliedwhen the steelis damp, the air is misty, when or in the opinionof the Engineer, conditions otherwise are unsatisfactory for the work. 413-9 M67 M68 M69 M70 M71 M72

413.2.9

Cleanins All steelworksshallbe blastcleanedafterfabrication accordance in with the Drawingsand to the satisfaction the Engineer. of Steelwork which is to be in contactwith concrete shallbe, afterfabrication, wire brushedand cleaned to removeall looserust,dirt and grease.

,113.2.10

Paintins a) ShopCoat(PrirUqCoat) The shop or prime paint coat for metal structuresincludingedges, nuts, paint, AASHTo bolts, etc. shall be a factorymixed red lead Ready-Mixed M-72. Red lead pigmentin the dry form or as a paste in oil shall conformto ASTM D 83. The ninetyseven(97)% gradeshall be specified dry pigment. for b) First Field Coat (2ndrrrimeCoat) The first field coat shall be a red lead paint as specified the shop coat, for tintedlightbrownas required with lamp blackin an amountnot to exceed30 gms. per litreof linseed oil. c) Second FieldCoat(Finish Coat) The paint to be used for the second field coat shall be field mixed and conform,unlessspecifiedotherwiseon the Drawings,to one of the following AASHTOSpecifications: FoliageGreenBridges Paint, BlackBridgePaint, AluminumPaint(Paste-Mixing Vehicle) White and TintedReady-Mixed Paint(Lead and Zinc Base), Red Lead (Dryand Paste-in Oil), Red Lead Ready-mixed Paint(Tinted with Lamp blackas directed the Engineer), by d) Numberof Coats andColour steel shall be paintedwith one shop or prime coat and with not less than two field coats. The colour shall be as specifiedor determinedby the Engineer. coats shallbe different colourto permitdetection incomplete in of application. e) WeatherConditions Paint shall not be appliedwhen the steel is damp, the air is misty,or when in the opinionof the Engineer, conditions are otheniruise unsatisfactory for the work. M67 M68 M69 M70 M71 M72

413-9

f) Application Paintingshall be done in a neat manner and may be appliedwith hand Aluminumpaint brushei or by spraying(withoutthe additionof a thinner). spraying. By either method the coating ne shall prefera-nty applied by appliedshall be smoothiyand uniformlyspread so that no excess paint will collectat any Point. g) Inaccessible Surfaces fabricationor erection,with the All surfaceswhich wilt'be inaccessible'dfter shall prior to assembly receive the full exception of contact surfaces protectivetreatmentspecifiedfor the componentof the structure including any additional priming coat and finishing coats, which for accessible to surfaceswould be appliedsubsequent erection. of h) Insnection Cleaninsand Paintins The cleaning and painting of all structural Steel parts shall be subject to detailed inslection and ipproval of the Engineer. Contractor shall be responsiblefor all defects or faults and the correctionthereof at his own exjense during fabrication,erection or subsequentlydiscovered before or duringthe Periodof Maintenance. .{13.3 413.3.1 CONSTRUCTIONAND FABRICATION REOUIREMENTS General shall submit as soon as possibleto the Engineerfor his prior The Contractor full details of their proposedfabricationand erection procedures approval, together with details and calculationsof any temporary wo-rls which the contractor proposesto install for the purposesof erectionof the structural steel work. Workmanshipand finish shall be equal to the best general practicein modernbridgeshoPs'
41J.3.2

Material Straishtening Rolled material before being laid out or worked shall be straight' and completed members shall be straight before being Subassemblies it is into the work. lf straightening necessary,. shall be done by incorporated acceptable to the Engineer. Details for methods proposed for methods in sirallbe submitted writingto the Engineerpriorto their use' straightening evidenceof fracture or other damage will be cause for After-straighlening, rejectionof the material.

413.3.3

Oiientationof Plates steel plates for flanges, eyebars, hangar plates, and splice plates for flangesand eyebarsshall be cut and fabricatedso that the primarydirection stress of to of rJting is parallel the direction the maintensileor compressive member. in the

413-10

413.3.4

Cuttine with Torch for of to Torchcuttingshallconform the requirements preparation materialto Code or equivalent. StructuralWelding the American WeldingSociety's

413.3.5

Facingand BearingSurfaces Surface of bearing and base plates and other metal bearing surfacesthat are to come into contactwith each other or with ground concretesurfacesor shallbe flat to withinthreetenths(0.3)cm. and with asbestos sheetpacking overall.Surfaceof bearing to withinone and six tenths (1.6) mm tolerance and base plates and other metal bearing surfaces that are to come in contact with preformedfabric pads, elastomericbearing pads or Portland in cementmortarshallbe flat to withinthree (3) mm tolerance thirty(30) cm overall. withinfive (5) mm tolerance and to Steel slabs where not in contactwith other metal bearingsurfaces may be in hot-straightened lieu of machiningat the option of the Contractor, provided abovetolerances met. are the

413.3.6

Fit of Stiffeners Girder stiffenersdesignatedon the Drawingsas bearing stiffenersshall be welded in accordance with detailsshown on the Drawings. Where the end on of a stiffeneris shown as "Tight-fit" the plans,the end of the plate shall be so fitted that it bears on the girder flange with at least point bearing. and the girderflangeshall Localclearances between end of the stiffener the not exceed one and six tenths (1.6) mm. Except where stiffenersare cut back, local clearancesbetweenthe end of the stiffenerand the girderflange which are too greatto be sealedby the paintfilm shall be caulkedpriorto painting.

113.3.7

BentPlates rolledsteelplatesshallconformto the following: Cold-bent load-carrying a) They shall be so taken from the stock platesthat the directionof bending will be at rightanglesto the direction rolling. of b) The radius of bend, measuredfrom the concave face of the metal shall publishedby the be as specifiedin the Manual of Steel Construction AISCor equivalent. c) Beforebending, cornersof the plateshall be rounded a radiusone the to and five tenths(1.5)mm throughout that portionof the plateat whichthe bendingis to occur. lf a shorterradius is essential, the platesshall be bent hot.

413.3.8

End Connection Anqles Floor beams, stringers and girdershaving end connection angles shall be builtto exact lengthback to back of connection angles.lf end connections are faced, the finishedthicknessof the angle shall not be less than that shownon the detailed Drawinqs.

413-11

{r3.3.9

Finished Members Finished membersshall be true to lineand free from twists,bendsano oDen joints.

413.3.10

ScrewThreads Screw threads shall make close fits in the nuts and shall be American StandardForm, exceptthat for pin ends of diametersgreaterthan 3.81 cm (1.112 inches) they shallbe made with six (6) threadsto 2.54 cms (1 inch).

413.3.1I

Match - Markins parts pre-assembled the purposeof settingup for weldingor Connecting for for drillingor reaming holes for field connections shall be match-marked, and a diagramshowingsuch marksshallbe furnished the Engineer. to

413.3.12

Finish Portionsof the work exposed to view shall be finished neafly. Shearing, flame cutting, and chippingshall be done carefully and accurately. sharp All corners and edges, and edges that are marred, cut or roughened in handlingor erectionshall be slightlyroundedby grindingor other suitable means.

413.3.13

BoltedConnections Boltedconnections unlessotherwise shownon the Drawingsshall be made with high-strength steel bolts conforming ASTM Designation 325. All to A boltsshall be installed with a hardenedwasher under the nut or bolt head, whichever the elementturnedin tightening. is Boltsmay be tightened the required to tensionby use of a calibrated manual torque wrench, the turn-of-nutmethod, or by tighteningand using direct tension indicators. The torque value or the direct tension indicatorgap needed to develop the bolt tension will be determinedby the Engineer. checkingof bolt tensionshall be done by the contractorin the presenceof the Engineer and in such a mannerthat the Engineercan read the torque wrenchgaugeor directtensionindicator duringchecking. Nuts shall be located,wherever practicable, the side of the member, on which will not be visiblefrom the traveledway. Nuts or bolts that will be partially embeddedin concreteshall be locatedon the side of the member that will be encasedin concrete.

413.3.1.t

Bolt Hotes Boltholesshallbe eitherpunchedfull size,drilledfull size,sub-punched and reamed,or sub-drilled and reamed. Attentionis divertedto the provisionsin ltem 419.3.17, "Assembly", and detailsshown on the Drawingsfor connections where drillingor reamingis required afterthe joint is assembled. 413-12

perpendicular the plane of the The finished holes shall be cylindrical, to connection shallnot be morethan one and half (1.5)mm larger and thanthe nominaldiameter the bolt.Holesshall be clean cut, withouttorn or ragged of edges. All burns, fins, sharp edges and hole irregularities which would preventsolid seatingof the partsshall be removed. All holes punchedfull size,sub-punched, sub-drilled or shall be locatedwith (beforeany reamingis done) a sufficient accuracyso that after assembling pin cylindrical three (3.0) mm smallerin diameterthan the nominalsize of the punched,sub-punched, sub-drilled or hole may be passedthroughthe in holewithoutdrifting at leastseventyfive (75) percentof the holesfor each connection. holes shall pass a pin four and a half (4.5) mm smallerin All diameter thanthe nominal sizeof the hole. Mis-punched mis-drilled holes shall not be correctedby weldingunless or approvedby the Engineer. Punching, drilling and reaming shallconform the following: to a) Punching Punching or sub-punchingof structural steel conforming to ASTM Designation 26 wherethe materialis thickerthan two and a quarter(2.25) A cm. will not be permitted.Punching or sub punching of high-strength structural steel where the materialis thickerthan two (2.0) cm. will not be permitted. Holessub-punched reaming for shall be sub-punched decimalsix five (0.65) cm less in diameter thanthat of the finishedhole. b) Drilline Drillingfull size shall be done with the parts assembledon to'a steel template with hardened bushings or may be performedwith gang drill equipmentif approvedby the Engineer. The Engineermay requirea proof assembly checkthe fit of majorfieldconnections. to Where bolt holes are sub-drilledfor reaming, they shall be sub-drilled decimalsix five (0.65)cm lessin diameter than that of the finishedhole. Drilling throughtemplates shall be performed only after the templates have placedand firmlyclampedor bolted. been accurately lf members are drilledwhile assembled,the parts shall be held securely together whiledrilling beingdone. is Stock drillingof plate partswith precisiongang drills will be permitted atl if parts are firmly clamed during drilling and if the drill bits remain perpendicular the work duringdrilling to operations.

413-13

c) Reamins Reaming shall be done after the pieces forming a built-up member are assembledand are firmly bolted together so that the surfaces are in close contactor after templatesare securetylocatedover the member.The pieces and shavingsremoved.lf it if shallbe takenapart beforebolting, necessary, the pieces to is necessary take the membersapartfor shippingor handling, so markedin order that they may be reassembled reamedtogethershall be Reamedpartsshallnot be interchanged. in the same position. Reaming templates shall have hardened steel bushings and holes accuratelydimensioned.Templates shall have reference lines, which will permit accuratelocation of the templateon the member or members to be reamed. Templates used for reaming shall be properly located on the materialand shall be firmly clamped or bolted in position.Templates used faces of one member, or for the reamingof matchingmembers, the opposite shallbe exactduplicates. Holesthrough assembledmaterialthatare to be reamed shall not consistof holesand holespunchedor drilledfull size. or bothsub-punched sub-drilled 413.3.15 Pin Connections shown on the plans and turned to the dimensions Pins shall be accurately smooth, and free from flaws. The final surface shall be shall be straight, producedby a finishedcut. Pins and rollers shall be forged and heat-treatedin accordance with the shownon the plans. designation lf pins are larger than twenty three (23) cms. in diameter, a hole not less five (4.75) cms. in diameter shall be bored full than four decimal seven^ length along the axis after the forging has been allowed to cool to a temperature below the critical range under suitable conditions to prevent and beforebeingannealed. injuryby too rapidcooling, Holes for pins shall be bored true to the specified diameter, smooth and straight, at right angels to the axis of the member an{ parallel with each other unless otherwise required.The final surface shall be produced by a finishing cut. Machinedsurfacesfor pins and holes shall be coated with a rust inhibitor that can be easilyremoved. of The distanceoutside-to-outside holes in tension members and inside-tomembersshall not vary from that shown on insideof holes in compression (0.8)mm. the plansby morethan decimaleight The diameterof the holesfor pins shall not exceedthat of the pins by more or than half (0.5) mm for pins thirteen(13) cm. or less in diameter, decimal eight(0.8)mm. for largerpins.

413-14

Holes for pins in built-upmembers shall be bored after assemblyof the approved member, or may be bored prior to assembly,providedprocedures followedwhich resultin such holes being in advance Oy itre Engineerare positionedto the same degree of accuracyas would be obtainedif the holes were bored after assemblY. hangarplatesshall be boredin pairsor in stacksfirmlybolted Pin-connected Pilotand so or clampedtogether that each pair of hangarplatesis matched. pins. Pins shall be so driventhat the driving nuts shall be used in driving the memberswill take full bearingon them. ln field assembling, pin nuts on and the threadsburredat the face of the be tightened pin connections shall tool. nuts with a pointed 413.3.16 Anchor Bolts No anchorboltsshallbe cast in the concrete. The Anchor boltsshaltbe set in round holes drilledor cast in the masonry. on be as indicated the Plans. size and lengthof boltsshall Bolts shall be accuratelypositionedby means of templates set to correct locationand alignmentso as to ensure proper span lengths,and tops of noted, bolts bolts shall be carefullyset to proper elevation.Unlessothenruise shall be installedplumb or normal to the finished bearingsurface of the masonry. When anchorbolt holes are drilled,a templateshall be used to locatethe bolts accuratelyand permit reinforcingsteel bars to be shiftedclear of holes before pouring concreteto prevent cutting these bars during drilling. The steel. of drilling shallbe done priorto the erection structural Bolts set in holesdrilledor cast in the masonryshall have the portionbelow and the drilledor cast holesshall have a diameter the bridgeseat swedged, at least one 1 inch (25 mm) in excess of the diameterof the bolt. Anchor bolts for steel stringers for all bridges (weathering steel and/or steel and shall not be painted.The paintedsteel)shall be A-36 galvanized and shall used on anchor bolts shall also be galvanized nuts and washers not be painted. Holes cast in the masonryfor swedgedbolts shall be formed with removable round sleeves sealed at their lower ends, and they shall be completely removedafter the hole is cast. During cold weather,effectivemethodsshall be used to preventthe freezingof water in anchor bolt holes' the After anchorbotlsare finallyand correctlypositioned, holes aroundthem until filled.No groutingof anchor boltswill be permitted shall be completely steel is set in its final position. After the masonry plates or all structural shoes are set, the space between the bolts and the round holes through fixed plates or shoes shall also be filled with the same material. Slotted to devicesshall remainunfilled allowfree movement. holesin expansion with in anchorboltsshall be composed accordance Mortarusedfor grouting one of the following:

413-15

a) one part Portland cement and one part mortar sand by dry loose volume. b) Non-shrink grout shall be used when specified. The grout shall have a minimum compressive strengthof 350 Kg/sq.cm (5000 psi) in seven days when tested in accordancewith AASHTO r 106 except that the cube mouldsshall remainintactwith a top firmlyattachedthroughout the curing period.The non-shrink groutshall have a minimumexpansion of 0.o percentafter seven days when tested in accordancewith AASHTO T 160. when air temperatureis below four (4) degree c, the contractor shall provide adequate cold weather protectionto maintain a minimum air temperatureof four (4) degree c around surface of mortar for a period of threedays. lf anchor bolts are mortaredin place during cold weather,the bolts and suiroundingmasonryshall be kept at a minimumternperature four (4) of degree C for a periodof three days. when mortarfillingis used for bolts insertedin holes drilledor cast in the masonry, the holes shall first be checked for depth by inserting and withdrawing the bolts. They shall then be partiallyfilled with mortar into which the bolts shall be forced by uniform pressure or light blows from a hammer(flogging and runningwill not be permitted) that excessmortaris so pushedout at the top of the hole. The excessmortarshall be removedand finished off flush with the top surfaces of the masonry, masonry plate or shoe as the case may be. Boltsshallbe set to projectapproximately (0.5)inch (13 mm) abovethe half nut and shallbe threaded approximatety (0.5)inch (13 mm) betowthe to hatf nut in its finalposition. Nuts shall be drawn up tight except over the slotted holes of expansion devices whichcasetheyshallbe positioned (0.5)inch (13 mm) clear in half of the moveableparts.All anchor bolt threadsshall be burredwith a sharp pointedtool at the top of the nut. when nuts are set hatf (0.5) inch (13 mm) clear of moveableparts, the bolt thread shall also be burred immediately underthe nut to preventit becoming tightagainstthe moveable parts. Rockersor expansion plateswith slottedholes shall be set with the proper tilt or offsetas determined the temperature by prevailing the time and'so at that they will be in their midway positionat twenty (20) degree c or as indicated the Drawings. on . 1 1 3 . 3 . 1 7 Assemblv Erection and Procedures a) GenerAl The contractorshallsubmitas soon as possible the Engineer his prior to for approvalfull details of their proposed erection proceduretogether with details and calculationsof any temporary works which the contractor proposesto installfor the purposesof the erectionof the structuralsteel work. 413-16

at b) Stoiase SiteandHandling steelworkafter arrivalon Site shall be laid out in the area The structural allocated by the Contractor.lt shall be unloaded by crane, or other handledfor and carefullystacked on timbers and subsequently appliance, in such a manner that no distortionor damage is done to the erection on No shallbe storeddirectly the ground. variousmembers. steelwork g_l ErectionGenerallv The works on site shall comply with the requirementsstated in these and the Contractorshall be responsiblefor providingall specifications plant,equipment, and supervision all labour, and unskilled skilled materials, other things necessaryfor the erection of the steelworkon the Site as Documents and shownon the Drawings. in specified the Contract of shall ensurethat suitableplant and equipment adequate The Contractor is capacity usedon the Site. d) Supervision The erection of the steelwork shall be under the direct charge of a who has had sound experiencein the erectionof competentSupervisor steelworkand who shall work full time on the Site from start to structural of completion the work. e) SecuritvDurine Erection fastenedand the Duringerection work shall be securelyboltedor othenryise for braced,so as to make adequateprovision temporarily where necessary all erectionstressesand conditions,includingthose due to the erection and its operation. equipment Each part of the structureshall be alignedas soon as possibleafter it is connecteduntil the structure erected.Membersshall not be permanently connected aligned,leveled,plumbedand temporarily been sufficiently has of duringthe erectionor alignment to ensurethat they will not be displaced All of the remainder the structure. temporarybracingshall be left in position far for until such time as erectionis sufficiently advanced it to be no longer required. Connections f) TemDorarv holes,membersor cleats for bracingand additional Connections temporary handling erectionshall be providedin a manner,which or used to facilitate -doesnot weakenthe permanent structure impairits serviceability. or g) ErectionPacks. Etc shall provideand shall be deemedto have includedin his The Contractor packs,shims a rangeof steelerection ratesand pricesfor providing suitable of necessary ensurethe accurateadjustment to and wedgesto be used as works levelof the steelworkerectedon Site and for the temporary line and sub-item. to referred in the previous 413-17

h) Settine Out The contractor shall be responsiblefor the final positioning,leveling, plumbingand alignmentof all steelworkand the accurateplacingof every part of the steelwork in accordance with the Drawings and his own fabrication drawings. No steelwork shall be finallyconcreted untilthe positioning, levels,plumbing and alignment of the steelwork (or part of the steelwork if agreed by the Engineer) has beenfinallycheckedby the Contractor. i) Work on Site Allwork on Siteshallcomplywith the following: 1) The steelwork after erection and fixing complete shall comply with the following maximumpermissible dimensional tolerances: i) Departurefrom overall plan dimensionsat any level ....ten (10) mm. ii) Departurefrom theoreticalcentres of adjacent beams or girders in any flooror roof ....five (5) mm. iii) Departurefrom the true alignmentof any plate girder relativeto the associated setting out geometry shown on the Drawing ... five (5) mm. iv) Departure from the true vertical centre line or any girder throughout lengthof height....five (5) mm. its v) Departurefrom the specifiedlevel of ilre top of any beam .... five (5) mm. i) SiteConnections The contractor shall make all site connectionsin accordancewith the details shown on the contractor's detailedfabricationdrawings,which shall complywith the requirements these Specifications. of Drifting shallnot be usedto correcta bad alignment. Any additionalholes requiredin the steelwork(which must first be approved by the Engineer) shall be drilledon the site. Burningholes in the steelwork willnotbe permitted. k) ContactSurfaces All steel to steel contact surfaces shall be thoroughlycleaned and painted with two coats of primer as described in clause No 413.2.10 in this specification. The surfaces shall be brought together while the second coatingis stilltacky.

413-18

l) SiteWeldine Sitewe|dingwi|lon|ybepermittedwhereshownontheDrawingsandwith priorconsentof the Engineer. of mi Inspection SiteWorks AlIparlsofthesteel-workwiIIbesubjecttoinspectionbytheEngineer.The duringthe for and assistance inspection shall afford all facilities Contr""to1. progressof the works. give the Engineerat.least twenty The contractorshall wheneverpossible, or parts of the steelworkwill be ready for four hours noticeof when materials inspection. shallbe remediedor replacedby or or Materials worKmanship partsrejected the time for the contractor without extra charge and without affecting of comoletion the contract. the contractor as lnspection aforesaidby the Engineershall not absolve error or fault that may be discovered fbr any from being responstble of and subsequenlly for the final accuracy the Works' n) Paintingafter Erection manufacturer's 1) All paints shall be applied in accordancewith the underclause413'2'10' and as specified instructions scraped,.wire-brushed sha|lbe thorough|y 2) Damagedareas of paint-work primer, back to grease and |ooseand c|eanedto remove a|l rust, dirt, soundPaint. cleanedpriorto furtherpainting. shallbe thoroughly All surfaces cleaning and Damagedareas shall then be treated as describedin the painting section. twenty-four The second priming coat shall be allowedto dry for at least coat' of hoursbeforeapplication the finishing o) Insnection by steelworkshall be subjectto inspection the Engineer' 1) The structural witt as far as possiblebe carriedout at the Contractor's That inspection of workshops,but the Engineermay at his discretiondefer inspection parts have been any parts of the structJral steelwork until after those afford the to delivered the site. The contractorand his suppliersshall at all placesfor inspection times and at facilities all reasonable requisite and testingto be carriedout by the Engineer' by 2) All parts of the works done on the site will be subject to inspection ' for and assistance shall affordall facilities The Contractor the'Engineer. until as inspect"ion aforesaidduring the progressof the site works and of the comPletion the contract' 413-19

3) Materialsor workmanship parts rejectedon inspectionas aforesaid or shallbe remedied.or replaced the contractorwithoutextrachargeand by without affectingthe time for completionof the whole or any part of the Works.
,ll3.jl

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT Measurement The quantityto be paid for shalr be the carculated theoreticalnumber of kilograms different of shapesof members.

-t13.,1. I

113.4.2

PaYment The pay item shall include fabrication,erection and protective coating (painting).The measurementshall be the total weight of the finished member comprisingplates, rolled sections,shear connectors, stiffeners, cleats,packs, splice plates and all incidentals, necessaryto comptetethe item,withoutallowance tolerance rollingmarginand other permissible for for deviations from standard weights, and excluding weightsof wetds,fillets, thJ bolts,nuts, washersand protective coatings.No deduciionsshall be made for notches, holes and the like each less t[an 0.01 squaremeter measured in area. Fabrication shallinclude: a) b) Preparation supplyof shop drawings. and Examining and checking steel plates for segregation, laminations, cracks and surface fraws and carryingl o,ii rny remedialmeasuresrequiredby the Engineerin reipict of such defects. Cutting,marking off, drilling,notching,machining,form fitting, edge preparation cambering. and Welding,riveting,boltingas the case may be, assembling and pre-heating. Bolts,nuts and washersrequiredto fabricatethe steerwork and to completethe erectionand installation steelworkon site, of togetherwith spares and serviceborts,drifts, draw-upcteats ani the like. welding shear connectors steermemberseitherat the prace to of fabrication on Siteand prehedting. or g) h) Approval testingof welders. Productiontests of welding during fabricationincluding non destructive testing. Marking members for identification and dblivery in matching sequence. 413-20

c)

d)

e)

shall include: erection Permanent a) including Temporarybracing or stays to prevent displacement the provisionand removalof temporaryattachments. testingof welders. Approval Permanent bolted and welded connectionsrequired on Site for of the including provision preheatand shelters welding. testing' non-destructive testsof Siteweldingincluding Production

b) c)

d)

coatingshallinclude: Protective a) b) c) d) e) panelsof blastcleaning. Specimen to Paintsamplesand dispatching testingauthority. procedure trials. Paintapplication Testing. Masking and other measures to protect adjacent untreated steelwork. joints. Jointfillersand sealingof bolted for materials application. Preparing of and painting steelworkat the placeof of Preparation surfaces and on Site. fabrication in with any specialrequirements respectof ambient Complying conditionsfor the applicationof protectivetreatment and for intervalsbetweensuccessiveoperationsand applications. Stripcoats.

0 s)
h)

Pay ltem No.

Description.

Unit of Measurement

413

Steelwork. Structural

Kg

413-21

DRAII{AGE AI{I) EROSIOI{ WORKS

DRAINAGE AND EROSION WORKS


ITEM 5OO

GENERAL

The Contractorshall so schedule the constructionof drainage works that the bothduringand after construction, of discharge runofffrom rain or othersources, provided for. is properly the shall provide To avoiddamageto works in courseof construction, Contractor temporaryoutlet ditches, including necessary all adequatemeans of protection, or dams or diversionchannels,culverts,'ditches other drainageworks for the construction which shall be kept clear of all and of discharge runoffwater-during that obstructions mightimpedethe flow of water. paymentand all coststhereof shallbe met withoutadditional Theserequirements in shallbe included the bid pricesfor any itemsunderthe contract. and their estimatedtotal quantities shown on the Drawings Drainage structures of who will informthe Contractor them are not to be taken as final.The Engineer, will in writing, decidethe finalquantities.

500-1

ITEM 5[I1

REINFORCEDCONCRETE PIPE CULVERTS

501

DESCRIPTION This work shall consist of the construction, reconstruction repair of or culverts and water drainage structures in accordance with these specifications, in conformity and with the lines, grades and dimensions shownon the Drawings orderedby the Engineer. or The work shall includethe furnishing and laying of the pipe, and the construction such joints and connection other pipes,catch basins,or of to other structures may be requiredto completethe work as shown on the as Drawings as required the Engineer. or by The work shallalso include removaland disposal existing the of culvertsand structuresexcept such portionsas may be requiredor permittedby the Engineer be left in place. to The Engineer reserves rightto inspectand test the pipe after its delivery the to the work. Injurious defects revealedsubsequent acceptanceof pipe to and priorto its installation the work shallbe causefor rejection. in The contractorshall not order and deliverthe pipes for any work until the Engineer approved listof sizesand lengths. has a

501.2

NTATERIALRf QUIREMENTS The pipesshallmeetthe requirements the AASHTo M-170,class ll and of lV as called in the Billof Quantities. for cement, sand and watershallconformto the requirements specified item rn 401-concrete, exceptthat the grading sand shall meet the requrrements of of AASHTOM-45. steel reinforcement shallconformto the requirements specified ltem 404 in of thesespecifications. Rubber ring gaskets for rigid pipe, if required, shall conform to the requirements AASHTOM-198. of

501.3

MANUFACTURING REQUIREMENTS Reinforcedconcrete pipe culverls shall conform to the requirementsof AASHTO M-,I70.

501-1

DRAINAGE AND EROSION WORKS


ITEM 5OO

GENERAL

of The Contractorshall so schedulethe construction drainageworks that the discharge runofffrom rain or othersources,bothduringand afterconstruction, of provided for. is properly shall provide the To avoiddamageto works in courseof construction, Contractor temporaryoutletditches, including necessary all adequatemeans of protection, works for the culveds,'ditches other drainage or channels, dams or diversion construction which shall be kept clear of all and of discharge runoffwater-during obstructions mightimpedethe flow of water. that paymentand all coststhereof shallbe met withoutadditional These requirements in shallbe included the bid pricesfor any itemsunderthe contract. Drainagestructuresshown on the Drawings and their estimatedtotal quantities who will informthe Contractor them of are not to be takenas final.The Engineer, in writing, decide finalquantities. will the

500-1

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i) Steam Curing Pipesshall be placedin a curingchamber.free from outsidedraughts, and cured in a moist atmosphere, maintained a temperature at betweenthirty eight (38) and fifty four (54) degreec by the injection steam for a period of of not less than twenty four (24) hours or, when necessary, for such additional time as may be neededto enablethe pipe to meet the str-ength requirements. When a curing chamber is not available,pipes may be placed in an enclosureof canvas or other closely woven material and subjected saturated to steam at the temperature.and the time specified for above. The enclosureshall be so erected as to allow full circulation of steam aroundthe entire pipe. The interiorsurfacesof the curing room or canvasjackets and the surfacesof the pipes shall be entirelymoist at all tlmes. ii) WaterSpravCurine Under the conditions enclosureprescribed (i) above, pipes may be of in cured by subjecting them to a continuous freguenfly or appliedfine sprayof water in an enclosuremaintained a temperature not less that twenty at of one (21) degreec for a periodof not less than seventytwo (72) hours,or such additional time as may be necessary to meet the ,strength requirements. iii) Saturated CoverCurinq The sidesand top of each pipe may be coveredwith heavyHessianor other suitablematerial, saturatedwith water before applyingand kept saturated with water at a temperature not less than twentyone (21) degree c for of seventytwo (72) hours, or such additional time as may be necessaryto meetthe strength requirements. The ends of the pipesshallbe so enclosed as to preventthe free circulation air throughor around the pipe. lf the of temperature the water is less than twentyone (21) degreec, the curing of period shall be increased as may be necessaryto meet the strength requirements. The ends of the pipesshall be so enclosed to preventthe as free circulation air throughor aroundthe pipe. of 501.3.7 Workmanship Finish and All pipes shall be substantially free from fractures,large or deep cracks, honeycombing, open texture,spellsand sudace roughness. The planesof the ends of the pipe shallbe perpendicular the longitudinal to axis. 50r.J.8 Insrrection The qualityof all materials,the processof manufacture and the finished pipes shall be subject to inspection, test and approval at the place of manufacture.The contractorshall make the necessary arrangements with the manufacturer set aside in a separatearea all pipes for which he to desiresapproval.

s01- 3

,-ro9
'sodld aLl] 'Ja^a^Aoq 'palcafareq lo ]uoc lleqs sadld a^llcojapaq] otll rod (0f ) uol ueql alou ul lslxa ocuololulncrtc punoleLuc(gt) uol ueq] aroul ]ou 0utpuayaLo lulof arll Jo.lleqauo ueql ladaep aql lou s11eds aoualo1ulncitc punole Luc(0t) ual ueql oloul ll slledg Ourpueyero lutol oq] ]o qldop aq1Jleq auo ueql -redaep 'lanocalalcuocolenbopeul r{q pasne3 s)Jeu lsnl 6urpnlcul}uauloclo}ulallo a:nsodxa slcaJapace;.lns pue aJnXaJuado .to 6utquoclauoq Bullectpul 'f)urp;nou slcola6 alPclpulleLl] pue Outxttu lcapedr"ul 'palca[a.t 'palcadsut sedtd eql 'rono^Aoq Jo aq lletls sadtd entlcelep oL1l ul luac rad (Ot.) ual ueql oJotr.l lslxa slurofeq] 1o qldep alll poacxa 'uotlcafalloJ osnec aq e lou lou saop ler.{} )ceJc pua e16urs ;1 lurofaql1o qldapoq] poecxalou saup lBql )cerc pua a;6uts 1leqs e lelll ldacxa 'llaqs aql qbnorql butssed s)celc lo solnlcell a1oqeaLl} -:6urano;;o1 {ue Jo}unocce lo s}uorua:tnbel uol}eculcods uo aq11o sadt6 o] uo uol1cefel icehns aq 1;eqs lo 1o,tue o] uroruoc ol alnlteJ lunocce ftlFa-Eii .slueulelrnbar rtluo aLll uaqan aseLl} 1;e q10uells }eaulsuaurcedspo}sa}el ot1l 'polteJ qcea rol sueutceds eq a;qeldacce ll$ adrd eq1 pue ]eLlluorutcods |euo|}|ppeoM}uolsa}-aJepaMo||eaq||$lo}3eJ}uocaql.S}UaLUallnbeJ lsa] aLl] loieu.t ol llel a^oqe ( r.) qde.roeled ul palsll sluaulaltnbe.t aLl] tlym acuBplocce ul peprnold suarutcedslsal aql 1o {ue plnoLls tSeF5ETli 'leaut6u3aql Aq penoldde e ol A.role.roqel lolcedsuleql Aq '6unsel 6utqstu:n1 're^oldru3aq] ol po]3alas B ]so3 ou le suotlcasaord aq1 'alnlceJnueul to; slueuaoue:le fuessecaualll e)eu lleLlslolcelluoc oql 'leaut6u3 jo lutod aql le olqellene lou ale selllllsel 6ullsel eql ]l tolcedsul oq] ]o ecuaseld aql ul palcnpuoo slse] aql Aq peyeubrsap pelrnba:oqt a^eq o1sluauaouelle{:essecaueq} alPtu lleqslolcel}uoc otl} ,tse]Ll]ouells jo} aql seq aq] 6urqsnlc burlcnpuoc lueuudrnba lajnlseJnueur ,l iteuiil.rnb'iits5llii 'suotlectltcads asaql 'palcalosoq lllm azts fuene jo auo ]seol o] ruroluoclleLlsslsel lo1 sedt4 suollsas ldacxeluecrad(z) oru ueql aroruaq ]ou llrMlso] tol pe:tnba: le ]eL.ll jo raqurnueq1 :eeutbuf eql Aq uopuel le polsalosaq ll$ pue Jolselluo3 aLll Aq ]soo ]o eall poqsluln] aq llells slsa] 1o asodlnd aq1 to1 sadt6 ilaruJ-ta6jsSlli
6''I0S

(nt

(!!!

(rt

v)

Misplaced reinforcement already exposedor verifiedby checking with an approved concrete reinfor^ement covermeter.

501.,1 501.{.1

CONSTRUCTION REOUIREMENTS Excar.a lion A trench shall be excavatedto the depth and grade establishedby the Drawings. The bottomof the trenchshallbe shapedto conformto the shape of the pipe for at leasttwenty(2O) percentof its outsidediameter. The width of the trench shall not be greaterthan two(2) times the pipe diameter, to permit satisfactory jointingand thorough tampingof the'beddingmaterial specified in item 502 under and around the pipe. Recesses shall be excavatedfor any bells involved. where rock or hardpanis encountered, the trenchshall be excavated a depthat least (30) centimeters to betowthe grade established the bottom of the pipe. This excess depth shall for be refilled with approved material and thoroughly compacted. where in the opinion the Engineer, natural of the foundation is suchas soil to requirestabilization, such material shall be replacedby a layerof suitable material. where an unsuitable material (peat,mulch,etc.)is encountered at or below invert elevation during excavation,the necessary subsurface exploration and analysis shall be made and corrective treatmentshallbe as directedby the Engineer.

541.4.2

PlacinePipe The pipe shall be laid carefully, up-grade, beil ends fully and closery lointed, and true to the elevationsand grades given. proper facilitiesshall be providedfor loweringthe sectionswhen they are to be placed in a trench. Each section shall be securelyattachedto the adjoiningsectionsby the method specifiedfor the type of joint used. All joints, unless othenvise specified,shall be filled with stiff mortar composed of one part porfland cement and two parts sand. The mortar shall be placed so as to form a joint aroundthe whole circumference the pipe.After durable,watertight of each sectionof pipe is laid and beforethe succeedingsection is laid the lower portion of the bell shall be plasteredthoroughlyon the inside with mortarto such depthas to bringthe innersurfaceof the abuttingpipe flush and even. After the sectionis laid, the remainderof the joint shall be filled with mortar and sufficientadditional mortar shall be used to form a bead around outside thejoint.The inside thejointshallthen be wipedand the of of finished smooth. After the initialset, the mortar on the outside shall be protected from the air and sun with a cover of thoioughlywetted earth or burlap. Any pipe,whichis not true in arignment whichshowsany unoue or settlement after being laid, or is damaged,shall be taken up and relaidor replacedwithoutextra payment. joints, includingany connections, All shall be capableof transferring r.equired the shearacrossthe point.

501-5

,-109 'Ja^oA 'sedtdeql 'palcafar oL1 eL{} aq lleqssodtda^l]cs1ap Jo}uac aql red (g;.)uel ueql alou u! lslxo acuoloJulnolls punoleulc (0t) :o ual ueLlloroul ]ou 6utpuelxa lutof aql ]o ,leq auo ueql ladeep jl 'acuelaluncJls otll punoJeLUc(0t) ual ueql oJol'll 1ousl1eds qldep eq1JleLl ouo ueql redeep s1ledg ;o 6urpuelxa lutof aq] Jo 'Janoc alolcuocelenbePeut l,q pasnec sIJeul lsnJ 6ulpnlcut luauaclolulel ;o a:nsodxe slcalap ocelns pLrearnlxol uedo .to Dulquoc,teuoq butlectpul 'Ourp1nou Outxttu speia6 pue olBclpulleql 1ce;-iadut 'Pelcefe.l 'palcadsutsedld aq] 'lo^amoq ]o aq lleqs sedrd entlcalapalll ual luac red (Ot,) ueLllaloul ul lslxo slutolaq] 1o qldepaql paacxa 'uotlcafa: asnec oq lou lol e lou soop lell] )ceJc pua a1Outs 11 paacxo]ou saup ]BLl] )cel3 pue al6uts lurofeqg1o qldapaql 1leqs 'llaLlsaLll qOnolql butssed slcelc lo selnlcerl e ]eql ldecxa a1oqeaLl} -:6ulnno;;o1 lo {ue Jolunocceuo lo s}uaulelrnba: uotlect;tcads arl] sodld oi uloluoc ol oJnllei lunocceuo uotlcefel ]ce[qnsaq lleL{s Jo 1oIue ol ffiii-ni 'sluaLualtnba: oql ueqm{1uo q16ual1s laoul sueulpadspolsolalasoLl] 1;e oq] pue 'pollel leql uaulcads qcea lo1 suewtceds elqeldacceaq lln adrd eq] eq1 'sluaue:tnbel oM] uo lsa]-al E poMolleaq lllm JolceJluoC leuorlrppe lso] alli loour ol lle, a^oqe ( l) qde:Oered ul pelsll slueulallnbe.t aLll qlm aoueptocce ul pepno.rd sueupads ]sol oL{} 1o Aue plnoqs

(nl

(rrr
(l

6'e'r0s

tsaFsifm
':eaut6u3aq] Iq penoldde aq1 e {ro}e.roqel o1:olcedsul [q '6ut1sa1 6u;qstu:n; 'iaAoldru3 aql o] ]soc ou 1e palcolassuotlcosadrd arl] i 'aJnlcplnugrl fuessecauaql o)eu lleLlsJolselluoc aql .ro1 slueLue6uel:e ':eautbul lo ]uroo otl] ]e alqeltene]ou oJe solllllcel burlsal aql jl palcnpuoc slsel aql Aq paleu6rseptolcadsul oql lo ecuesald aql ul lolseJ}uocaq} pelrnbalaql a^eq ol slueuaouelle {ressecauoq} a)PLU lleL.ls ']se] r.llouarls aq] seq to1 eq] 6urqsn:c ourlcnpuoc lueuudrnbe laJnlcejnueul Jl tu-iru--finbiilsqtli! 'suotlectltceds esoLll 'polgolasaq slsal tol sadr6 o] tt.tJoluoc ll$ ezts ,{:enalo auo }seal lleqs ]e ]eq] ldacxeluac:ed(Z) oMl uBtllaJouleq ]ou lllMlsal:o1 peltnba:suollsos pue ro}3elluoC aq lE ]o roqurnueq1 teeut6uf aq] {q Luopuer pa}calas llyv\ oql Aq ]soo Jo aorJ paqsluln1aq lleLlsslse] 1o asodlnd aq1 ro1 sedt6 suatu-i5td$dlli

s01.4.3

Backfilline joints sufficiently set' After the pipe has been installedand the mortar from roadwayexcavation (sand)and / or selectedmaterial granularmaierial twenty the 6r borrowshallbe placedalongside pipesin layersnot exceeding compactedto minimum ninety (90) percentof the (20) cms in depth and so as determined perAASHTOT-191Method, thaton dry maximum density compactedmaterialat least pipe there shall be thoroughly each side of the as wide as the externaldiameterof the pipe except insofaras undisturbed if uponthiswidth.Eachlayershallbe moistened, dry,and obtrudes material hammersor by hand tamping by tampingwith mechanical then compacted under item 108.3.1 as with heavyiron tampersto the densities specified and This methodof filling with of Formation Embankment common Material. shall be continueduntil the embankmenthas reachedan compacting ol elevation twenty(20) cms abovethe top of the pipe. When construction over the pipes,specialinstructions calls for placinga high embankment of backfitlingshallbe givenby the Engineer. the regarding method

501..1.,1

Plant Construction Movement of construction equipment,over a culvert shall be at the risk. Any pipe injuredtherebyshaflbe repairedor placedat the contractor's cost. contractor's

501.5

Headwalls the ends of the pipe culvertsshall be Where indicatedon the Drawings, as constructed shown on the concreteor masonryheadwalls protectedby the are constructed, ends of the pipe shall be wnen headwalls brawings. face of the headwalls' flushwith the outside neatlyCutoff

501.6 501.6.r

AND PAYMENT MEASUREMENT Measureqrent pipe to The quantities be piid'fdr:.shallbe the number of linear metersof and;accePted. piaced, contPl,Pte* payment shall be made separatelyunder ltem 502 for furnishingand in or granularmater:ial concrete the bed of the culvertas shownon insialling the Drawings.

501.6.2

Pavment as The quantities, measuredabove,shall be paid for at thei contractunit for price respectively, each of the particularpay items listed below in the for boo. eryrent shall be full compensation furnishingand placing all joints,for excavating trenchesand backfilling' includingmortarfor materials of proper completion the or and for all other iosts necessary usual to the with and apronstogether wing-walls in work prescribed this item.Headwalls, measuredand paid for the beddingfor the concretepipe culverl,will be separately. 501-6

Pay ltem No.

Description

Unit of Measurement

AASHTOM 170,Glass ll Reinforced Concrete pipe. 501 a 501 b 501 c 5 0 1d 5 0 1e 5 0 1f 501 g 501 h 501 i Diameter 310 mm Diameter 380 mm Diameter 460 mm Diameter 610 mm Diameter 760 mm Diameter 910 mm Diameter 1070mm Diameter1220mm Diameter 1520mm AASHTOM 170,Class lV Reinforced M M M M M M M M M

Goncrete pipe.
5 0 1j 5 0 1k 5 0 1| 501 m 501 n 501 o 501 p 501 q 5 0 1r

Diameter mm 310 Diameter mm 380 Diameter mm 460 Diameter mm 610 Diameter mm 760 Diameter mm 910 Diameter 1070 mm Diameter 1220 mm Diameter 1520 mm

M M M M M M M M M

501-7

ITEM 502

BEDDING OR ENCASEMENT OF CONCRETE PIPE CULVERTS

502.1

DESCRIPTION This work shall consist of furnishingand placing granularmaterialor pipeculverts. in and aroundconcrete as concrete specified bedding

502.2 s02.2.1

MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS GranularMaterial sandysoilall of whichpassesa shallbe sand or selected matenal Granular 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) sieve and not more than fifteen('15)percentpassesNo. 200 sieve.

502.2.2

Concrete in ClassB shallbe as specified ltem401. Concrete

502.3

REQUTREMENTS CONSTRUCTION in as The beddingmaterial specified ltems 502.2.1and 502.2.2 shall be laid or shownon the drawingsfor the typesspecifled directed to the dimensions accurately shaped by the top surface of which shall be by the Engineer; templateto fit the surfaceof the concretepipe culvertfor at least twenty (20) percentof its outsidediameter. twenty(20) cms in shallbe deposited layersnot exceeding Granularmaterial (95) percentof maximumdry to and shall be compacted at least Ninety-five with MSHTO T-180, MethodD. Howeverin case of densityin accordance will be allowed,and density methodfor compaction sand, sand saturation shall be approvedby RelativeDensityTest Methodvide ASTM-D 2049. Concrete Class B shall be mixed, placed, finished and cured all in with accordance ltem401.

502.1 s02.{.1

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT Measurement to The quantities be paidfor shall be the numberof cubic metersof granular ClassB, placedand accepted. or material, concrete

502-1

502.1.2

Pavment Quantities measured providedaboveshall be paidfor at the contractunit as price, for each of the particularpay items listed below,which onces and payment shallbe full compensation furnishing for and placing materials, all labour,equipment, tools and incidental requrred completion the work for of prescribed thisitem. in

Pay ltem No.

Description

Unit of Measurement

502 a

Granular Material Beo in to Concrete Pipe Culvert Concrete ClassB in Beddinq and Encasement of Concrete PipeCulvert

CM

502 b

CM

502-2

ITEM 503 503.1

UNDERDRAIN
DESCRIPTION in complete underdrains and installing of The work shallconsist furnishing and to the width shown on the typical with these specifications accordance or cross-sections drawings.

503.2 503.2.1

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS PiDe Concrete Perforated of to This pipeshallconform the requirements AASHTOM 175 or to ASTM classes. and strength diameters C 444 for the specified

503.2.2

PiDe Concrete Porous of This pipe shall conform to the requirements AASHTO M 176 for the diameters. specified

503.2.3

Granular Backlill Granular backfill for bedding and surrounding underdrains shall be of to aggregateconforming the requirements ltem 201.2 - GranularSubC. base,Grading earth of into In orderto avoidintrusion the sub-base the in placesurrounding that the ratio: it material, shallbe required Drs Des (Sub-base) shallbe lessthan5 (Surrounding Earth)

s03.3 r 503.3.

REQUIREMENTS CONSTRUCTION Trench andBedding to Trenchesshall be excavated the width, line and grade as shown in the Drawings;Unlessshown othenviseon the Drawings,the depth shall vary from 0.7 to 1.4 metersbelowthe bottomof a gutteror ditchwhen underdrain is situated under a gutter or ditch, and to depths required for proper ten backfill, (10) as by drainage, determined the Engineer.A bed of granular cm thick, shall be spread, and compacted in the bottom of the trench its throughout entirelength.

503.3.2

PlacinsPipeand Backfiliine bellsupgrade, firmlyin the beddingmaterial, The pipe shall be embedded ends fully enteredin the adjacentbells and spot mortaredto providefor of of centering the pipe, but the joint shall not be closedto allow infiltration water.

503-1

pipe shall be laid with the perforated Perforated length of the pipe on its underside. After the pipe has been placed and approvedby the Engineer,granuiar backfillas specifiedin ltem 503.2.3shall be placedaround the drain for a thicknessof at least thirty (30) cm and care shall be taken that no pipe is displaced.The upperportionof the trenchshallthen be filledwith approveci fine soil selectedfrom structural, comrnonor borrowexcavation. All filling material shallbe thoroughly compacted, the satisfaction the Engineer. to of 503.4 s03.4.1 MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT Measurement The quantities be paidfor shallbe: to (1) The number of meters of underdrain, the kind mentioned of below,in placeand accepted. The number of cubic meters of granularbackfill,in place, and accepted.

(2)

s03.4.2

Payment The quantities,determinedas providedabove, shall be paid for at the contractunit pricefor the pay itemslistedbelow. These pricesand payment shall be full compensation furnishingand placingthe underdrain, for for excavating the trench in which the underdrain laid, for granularbackfill is used,for the backfill and all othercostsrelated the work prescribed this to in item. Pay ltem No.

Description

Unitof Measurement

503a 503b 503c 503d 503e 503f

Perforated Concrete Pipefor Underdrain, Diameter'150 mm Perforated Concrete Pipefor Underdrain, Diameter mm 200 Perforated Concrete Pipefor Underdrain, Diameter mm 380 Porous Concrete Pipefor Underdrain, Diameter mm 150 Porous Concrete Pipefor Underdrain, Diameter mm 200 Granular Backfill Concrete to Pipe Underdrain.

M M M M M CM

503-2

ITEM 50.1

HEADWALLS, WING-WALLS. PARAPETS, APPROACH SLABS. APRONS AND SIPHON INLETS/OUTLETS

504.1

DESCRIPTION in of as This ruorkshallconsistof construction sections mentioned the ltems above in concrete.brickworkor stone work for concretepipe and other shownon the Drawings. and bridges culverts

504.2 504.2.1

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS Formwork of Formworkshall be in accordancewith the requirements design or as directedby the Engineer.

504.2.2

SteelReinforcement

with the material shall be in accordance Qualityof Steelreinforcement of requirementsltem404.


504.2.3
Concrete

A, for of of requirementsall materials Concrete Class ClassB, Class Quality on and concrete specified the Drawings shallbe in as C, ClassY or lean material requirements ltem401. of with accordance the
504.2.4 Brickwork Quality of brick and other materials shall be in accordancewith the of requirements ltem410. 504.2.5 Work Stone with item No. 412. Stonework shallbe in conformitv 504.3 504.3.1 COIISTRUCTIONREOUIREM Excavation with with ltem 107.3.1and in conformity Excavation shall be in accordance the Drawings.

504-1

50-r.J.2

(lranular Backfill Granular backfill, orderedin writingby the Engineer, if shall be furnished, placed and compacted accordance ltem j07.3.3. in with

501.3.3

Formn'ork Formwork shall be supplied and fixed in the positionsrequired for the concreteto be cast as shown on the Drawingsand shall be erectedand removedas directedby the Engineer.

50-1.3.{

Steel Reinforcement steel reinforcement shall be furnished, bent and fixed where shown on the Drawings.Furnishing, bending and fixingshailbe in accordance with item 404.

504.3.5

Concrete concrete class A, B, c or Y shown on the Drawingsshall be supplied, placed, finished and cured,as specified ltem401. in

s04.3.6

Brickwork Brickwork shown on the drawings as shall be supplied, placedand finished as specified ltem410. in

50.1.3.7

Stone Work Stonework shallbe constructed cohformity in with item No. 412.

50.1.4 50,t.,1.l

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT Measurement Excavation and Backfill shallbe measured specified ltem 107. as in The formworkin placeand accepted shallnot be measured paymentand for shallbe deemed havebeenpaidunderotheritems. to steel reinforcement placeand accepted in shallbe measured specified as in Item404. concretein placeand accepted shallbe measured specified ltem 401, as in as per concrete classspecified. Granular backfill placeand accepted in shall be measured specified as in I t e m1 0 7 .

504-2

in Brickwork placeand accepted shall be measured as specified in ltem 410. as Stone work in placeand acceptedshallbe measured specified item in 412.
50.1.-1.2

Pavment and Backfillshall be paid for under differentltem of 107 as the Excavation case may be. The formworkin placeand acceptedshall not be paid and shall be deemed to have beenpaid underotheritems. Steel reinforcement place and acceptedshall be paid for as specifiedin in Item404. in Concrete placeand acceptedshallbe paidfor as specified ltem 40'1,as in per concrete classspecified. backfill place and accepted in Granular shallbe paidfor as specified ltem in 107 Brickwork placeand accepted in shallbe paidas specified ltem 410. in Stone work in placeand acceptedshallbe paidas specified item 412. in

504-3

ITfNr 505

MANHOLES
DESCRIPTION The work shallconsistof the furnrshing and erectingpre-castor cast in situ concretemanholesof sizes shown in drawingswith the necessaryframes and covers constructedin accordance with these specifications and the specifications the other work items involvedand in conformity for with the dimensions, lines, elevations design and shownin the Drawings.

505.r

505.2 50s.2.1

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS Precast Concrete Units. These units shall be cast to the dimensionsshown on the drawings. structural concrete shall be class-A in accordance with ltem 4ol. Reinforcement shall be used as per design drawings. The precast units shall be cured in accordance with AASHTO M 170. water absorption of individual corestakenfrom such unitsshallnot exceedseven(7) percent. A sufficient numberof cylinders shall be cast to permitcompression testsat seven (7) and twenty-eight (28) days,and to allowfor at leasttwo cylinders for each test. lf the strengthrequirement met at seven (7) days,the units is will be certifiedfor use fourteen(14) days from date to casting. lf the strength requirements not met at 28 days,all unitsmade from that batch are will be rejected. cracks in units,honeycombed patchedareas in excess of two hundred or (200) square centimeter, excessivewater absorption, and failure to meet strength requirements be causefor rejection. will

505.2.2

Steel Reinforcement steel reinforcement shall be in accordance with the requirements ltem of 404.

s05.2.3

Frames. Grates and Covers. LadderRunqs and Metalunits shall conformto the dimensions shown on the Drawingsand to the following requirements the designated for materials. Gray iron castingsshall conformto the requirements AASHTo M 105. of Strength classshallbe optional unlessothenvise specified. carbon steelcastingshall conformto the requirements MSHTO M 103. of Gradeshallbe optional unlessotherwise specified. structuralsteel shall conform to the requirements AASHTo M 1g3 or of ASTMA 283, GradeB or better. Greyiron itemsshallconformto MSHTO M 10S. 505-1

Galvanizing,where specified for these units, shall conform to the requirements AASHTOM 111. of of Malleableiron castingsshall conform to the requirements AASHTO M unlessotherwise specified. 106. Gradeshallbe optional
505.2.-l

Mortar cementand two partsof fine Mortarshallbe composedof one part Portland aggregate,by volume unless otherwisespecifiedand sufficientwater to make the mortar of such consistency that it can be handled easily and Aggregate mortarshallconformto ltem 401.2.2. for spreadwith a trowel.

505.2.5

Concrete ln case of cast in situ concrete manholes.concreteshall be of Class A unlessotherwise shownon the Drawings as directed the Engineer, or by and prescribed for that particularclass of shall conform to the requirements concretein ltem 401. Forms of approvedquality shall be used to give reasonable finishfrom inside,whileroughform work may be allowedfor fair outside finish. All otherspecifications shallbe followed per item 401. as

505.3 505.3.1

CONSTRUCTIONR.E QUIREMENTS Excavation Excavation shallconform the requirements ltem 107. to of

505.3.2

Backfill Backfill shall conform to the requirementsof ltem 108, unless where granularbackfillas specifiedin ltem 107 is requiredby the Drawings, is or in specified writingby the Engineer.

s0s.3.3

Concrete Concrete construction shallconformto the requirements ltem 401. of

505.3.4

SteelReinforcement Bending and fixingof steelshallconformto the requirements ltem 404 of

505.3.5

Pre-cast Concrete Units

Pre-cast concrete units shall be erectedin the positions shownon the Drawings, as required the Engineer. or by During erection the unitsoutside the manhole of of shallbe finished smooth andthejoints flushed withmortar. full

50s-2

505.3.6

Cgnnections SectionsoJ connectionpipe shall be incorporatedinto the constructionand placedat the elevation,'direction grade required. The innerends of the and pipe shallbe flushwiththe innerfacesof the walls.

505.3.7

Metal Frames Metal frames shall be set on full mortar beds or otherwisesecuredas shown on the Drawings and the frames,covers,and gratingsshallbe accurately set true to the line and elevationrequiredto fit the adjoiningsurfaceas apprwed by the Engineer.

505.3.8

Cleaning Upon completion each manhole shall be thoroughly cleaneo of any accumulation silt, debris,or foreignmatterof any kind and shall be kept of clear of such accumulations untilfinal acceptahceof the work.

505.4 505.4.r

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT Measurement The quantities be paidfor shallbe: to (1)

The numberof concrete manholes, complete with framesand covers and all other relevantcomponents, positionand in accepted, fromone(1) meterto two (2) meters deep; The numberof concrete manholes, complete with framesand covers'and all other relevantcomponents, positionand in accepted, morethantwo (2) metersand up to three(3) meters deep; The nurnber concrete of manholes, complete with framesand covers and all other relevantcomponents, positionand in greater accepted, than3 meterin depth.

(2)

(3)

In the determination the depthof a manhole of the distance shall be measured fromthetop surface the manhole of coverto the undersurface of thefoundation themanhole. of

505-3

505.4.2

Payment

be The quantitiesmeasuredas providedabove sha]J paid for.at.the contract of the pay items listed belowthat is shown in for unit price respectively, each the Bill of Quantities,which prices and payment shall be full compensation for furnishingand placingall materials,and for all other costs necessaryor usual to the propercompletionof the work prescribedirf this item. Excavationand backfill shall be measuredand paid for as specified under Item 107 or 108,as the case may be' paid Granularbackfill,which is in place and acceptedshall be measuredand 107. in for as specified ltem Pay ltem No.

Description

Unit of Measurement

505 a

1 Manhole M to 2 M Concrete deep morethan2 M Manhole Concrete to 3 M deeP: greater than Manhole Concrete 3 M.deep.

Each

505 b

Each

505 c

Each

505-4

lI'EN,!506

DROP INLETS AND CATCH BASINS

506.r

DESCRIPTION This work shallconsistof constructing concretecatch basins,and drop inlets including furnishing metalframes,gratesand lids,and the necessary the of excavation and backfill in accordance with these specificationsand the specificationsfor other work items involved and in conformity with the dimensions, elevations designshownon the Drawings. and

5$6.2 506.2.1

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS SteelFrames. Gratesand Lids Steelframes,gratesand lids shallconformto the requirements AASHTO of M-105.

506.2.2

Concrete concrete shall be as specifiedin ltem 401, of the class indicatedon the Drawings.

s06.2.3

Masonry When so indicatedon the plans or approved by the Engineer,brick or concrete block masonry may be used in lieu of concrete for the walls of catch basinsor drop inletsas specified item 410, "BrickMasonry". in

5t)6.2.1

SteelReinforcement Qualityof reinforcing steelif used in construction catch basinsshall be in of accordance with the material requirements item 404. of

50(r.3 5{)6.J.1

CONSTRUCTION REOUIREMENTS Fl,xcavation Backfill and Excavation and backfill shallconformto the requirements ltem 107 or 10g of as the case may be.

506.1.2

Concrete Construeltion concrete of the specified classshall be supplied, placedfinishedand cured as specified ltem 401. in

506-1

506.3.3

Connections Inlet and outlet tile, sewer pipe and conduit for connections with such shall be of the same size,type and class as the tile, sewer pipe, structures are made and shall conform to the and conduit with which connections pertinentrequirements therefor. shall extendfrom the Pipe placedin concretefor inlet or outletconnections inside surface of the walls and beyond the outside surface of the walls a minimum distance of forty five (45) centimeters distance to allow for connectionswith conduits or sewers, and the concrete shall be carefully constructedaround them so as to prevent leakage around their outer surface.

506.3.4

Frames. Gratesand Lids securedas shown on All frames shall be set on full mortar beds or otherurise the Drawings. Gratesand lids shall be fitted or securedto the frames so that will rockingor chattering be eliminated. set so that the complete The frames, grates and lids shall be accurately installationwill be at the correct elevation required to fit the adjoining surface,the grates and lids shall not be in place while the adjoiningconcrete is struck-off and finished.

506.3.5

Cleaning All catch basins and drop inlets shall be thoroughly cleaned of any of accumulations silt,debris,or foreignmatterof any kind, and shall be kept until of clearof such accumulations the finalacceptance the work.

s06.4 506.4.1

MEASUR.EMENTAND PAYMENT Measurement The quantities be measured to shallbe: 1) The number of drop inlets of the type specified in the of construction Drop inlets,completein place and accepted. The number of catch basins of the type specified,complete in place,and accepted.

z)

506-2

506.4.2

Payment The quantitiesmeasuredas providedabove qhall be paid at the contractunit price for each of the pay items listed below. Such prices and paymentshall be full compensation furnishingan( placingall materials,and for all other for costs relativeto the propercompletionof the work prescribed. Granular backflll in place and accepted shall be measuredand paid for as specifiedin ltem 107.

Pay ltem No.

Description

Unitof Measurement Each Each

506a 506b

Droplnlets, Type CatchBasins, Type

506-3

ITEM 507

GABIONS

507.1

DESCRIPTTON gabions,furnishedand placed in of This work shall consist. wire-mesh for and specifications, the specifications the other with these accordance with and andat the locations in conformity the linesand workitemsinvolved, used coversgabions gradesshownon the Drawings.The work in general, jetties, work, such as bank revetments, streamstabilization for river and structures. and groins ectors,scourprotection retaining defl

507.2 507.2.1

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS General steelwlre mesh,whichshall be by shall be enclosed galvanized Gabions and transport hahdling. folded to facilitate flat supplied lengths, widths with in shallbe furnished accordance the various Gabions by or by required the Drawings, as direcied the Engineer.lf not heights and all required, gabionsshall be one meter in width. The lengths otherwise shall and of the of be multiples 2,3 or 4 times width the gabion heights shall or one tenth(0.3), half(0.5) one(1)meter. bethree

507.2.2

Wire quality steeland size as per Drawtngs of All wire shatlbe a goodcommercial at M prime western speller equal(AASHTO 120)applied a or witha coated persquare M) foot (0.25Kg/Sq. of uncoated rateof notlessthan0.8ounces wire. dips ten shallwithstand (10)one-minute by the Preece of Uniformity coating of with AASHTOT-66. "Uniformity Coatingby the Test in accordance lron Dip) on Zinc Coated(Galvanized) or PreeceTest (CopperSulphate before 220 hours of exposure withstand Wire mesh srlall SteelArticles". part when subjectedto a salt spray test in failure by rusting of any with accordance ASTMB 117. (4,000) of strength the wireshallbe in the rangeof fourthousand Thetensile to permit (6000)kg. / sq. cm. and shallhave an elasticity to six thousand to of elongation the mesh equivalent a minimumcif ten (10) % without strength thewire. of or the reducing gaugd tensile

507-1

The minimumsize of the wire used in fabrication the gabionbasketsshall of be as follows:-

Diameter mm
BodyWire Selvedgeor Perimeter Wire Tyingand Connecting Wire 507.2.3 Fabrication

US Steel Wire Gauge


11 .l .7

(2.3) (2 8) (1.e5)

Gabions shall be in the form of rectangular baskets of the requtred dimensions and shall be manufacturedfrom wire as specified above. Gabions shall be made of steel wire triple twisted forming a uniform hexagonatmesh patternwith openingseight (s) am by ten (10) cm or by twelve (12) cm. The edges shall be formed into securely connected selvedges adequate to prevent raveling. Individual basket ties and connections shallbe made by usinga quantity wire not lessthan 8 percent of of the weight of each basket. When the gabion length exceeds its width, it shall have securely tied diaphragms connected all edges to form individual at cells of equal iength and width. Diaphragms shall be of the same materialand manufacture as specifiedabovefor the gabions. Four cross-connecting wires shall be providedin each cell havinga heightof one half the width or less, and eight (8) cross-connecting wires shilt be provided each cell havinga heightgreaterthan one halfthe width. in All the characteristics, values aJrdfigures given in the above specifications are subjectto the toleranceof plus or minus five (5) percent. 507.2.4 Rock Fill Fill for gabions shall consist of hard, durable rock pieces that will not deteriorate when submerged in water or exposed to severe weather conditions.Rock piecesshall be generally uniformly gradedin sizesranging from ten (10) cm to twenty (20) cm. Filledgabionsshall have a minimum densityof one thousandthree hundredsixty (1,360) kg per cubic meter. Void spacesshall be evenlydistributed and shall not exceeda maximumof thirty(30) percent. The rock shall meet the requirements AASHTO M 63 except that the of Sodium SulphateSoundnessLoss shall not exceed nine (g) o/oafterfive (5) cycres.

507-2

507.3

CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS by manneras approved the in shall be performed a workmanlike Installation Gabionsforming Engineer. Beds for gabionsshall be suitablylevel. elements of structuresshall be securely connected along the complete length of top contact edges by means of the above specifiedtying and wire. connecting in Beforethe rock fill is placedthe gabionsshall be stretched such manner of compaction fill. and proper shape. alignment as will permit selectedfor Rock fill for exposedfaces of gabionswalls shall be parefully piecesshall be hand placed to providea neat or uniformity size, and the by as appearance approved the Engineer. The verticaljoints of gabionbasketsshall be staggeredas in runningbond brickwork.

s07.d 507.4.1

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT Measurement as for shall be measured payment below: The quantities i) Wire Mesh placedand acceptedshall be the steelwire mesh furnished The galvanized from the weightper squaremeter calculated numberof kilograms theoretical The and approvedby the Engineer. of mesh certifiedby the manufacturer area of the Gabionin position. shallbe the net area of meshto be measured ii) Rock Fill The rock fill shall be the numberof loosecubic metersof rock placedin the and of gabionwith an allowance maximumthirty(30) % voids and accepted and lengthof the gabionconstructed. by measured the width,breadth

507.4.2

Payment aboveshallbe paid for at the contract as determined provtded The quantities for price, which shall be full compensation all necessaryexcavation, unit placingof materials and all other costs relatedto completion and furnishing of the work. Pay ltem No. Description

Unitof Measurement Kg CM

507 a 507 b

Meshfor Gabions SteelWire Rock Fillin Gabions

507-3

ITEIU 508

BRICK PAVING

s08.1

DESCRIPTION

This item shallconsistof one or more layersof brickslaid over thin layerof spread sand and ihe joints filled with sand with suitable bonding,over prepared shoulder embankment or slopes. 508.2 s08.2.1 MATERIAL REQUE.EM4NTS Bricks Qualityof bricksshall meet the MaterialRequirements specified ltem as in 410 or as approved the Engineer. by 508.2.2 Sand Sand used in thiswork for bed or jointsshallbe mediumto fine sand. 508.3 508.3.1 CONSTRUCTION REOUIREMENTS Shoulder The shoulders shall be properly leveledas directed by the Engineer before commencement work on this item. of 508.3.2 Embankment Slopes These shall be cut and dressedto dense slopes accordingto specifiedline and grade as per ltem 108, or as directed by the Engineer before commencement this item. of

s08.3.3

Stackingof Bricks The bricks shall be deliveredat site in stacks of ten courses high and two bricksthick for the convenience proper inspection. of

508.3.4

Placineof Bricks

A thinlayerof sand,at least1" (25 mm) in thicknegs, shallbe spread over dressedshoulder slopeto facilitate. or neat dressing bricks.The bricks of shall be laid closelypackedin parallelrows transverse the centerline to and/oras directed the Engineer site. The bricksshallbe laidon edge, by at in one (1) or two (2) courses called in the plans. lf morethanoneit; as for courseis to be laidthe jointsin the successive courses be staggered. will Eachcourseshallbe properly rolledandjointsfilledwith sandor approved localsoilbefore laying nextcourse. the 508-1

508.4 508.4.1

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT Measurement thicknessand grade line to Brick pavingwhen laid and finished the required will area. The unit of measurement be be measuredby in superficial shall squaremeter.

508.4.2

Payment Paymentshall be made as measuredabove and shall be full compensation for preparing and shaping the shoulders and embankment slopes, provision and layingof the sand bed and unstablematerial, replacement.bf voidswith sand or approvedlocal soil,wateringand rolling bricks,fillingthe the whole width for proper compaction,also including material,labour, the to necessary complete work prescribed tools,and incidentals equipment, in this ltem.

Pay ltem No.

Desbription

Unitof Measurement
SM SM

508 a 508 b

Course) Brick Paving(Single Course) Brick Paving(Double

508-2

ITEM 509

RIPRAP AND REINFORCED CONCRETE SLOPE PROTECTION


DESCRIPTION This work consists furnishing of and placinga protective covering er.osion of resistantmaterialas riprap or reinforcedconcreteslope protection the on locations shown on the plans for slopesor pier foundation protection.The work shallbe done in accordance with the specifications conformity and with the lines,grades, thickness and typicalcross-sections shownon the plans. The areasto receiveriprapor slope protection any kind shall be dressed of smoothto the slopesor shapescalledfor on the plansand shallbe free from stumps, organic matter, or waste material. A filter blanket should be provided where it is anticipated that there may be migration fines through of the riprap.Toe trenchand/orfilter blanketis to be constructed, directed as by the Engineer. All materials, regardless type or kind, shall be placed as per lines and of levelscalledfor on thd Drawings.

509.1

s09.2 s09.2.r

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS Stones stone for riprapshallconsistof field stoneor roughunhewnquarrystone as nearly rectangular sectionas is practical, in except that riprap of class A shall consistof round naturalstones. The stones shall be sound, tough, durable,dense,resistant the action of air and water, and suitablein all to respects the purpose for intended.samplesof the stoneto be used shall be submitted and approved the Engineer to by beforeany stoneis placed. The minimum apparentspecificgravity shall be two and half (2.5) and water absorptionshall not exceed six (6) percent for stones to be used in riprap. The stoneshallnot havean abrasion fossgreaterthan fortyfive (45) percent when subjected five hundred(500)revolutions a LossAngeles to in Abrasion test. stones for riprap shall be one of the followingclassesas shown on the Drawings determined the Engineer: or by class A: stones rangingin weightfrom a minimumof fifteen(15) Kg to a maximum of twenty five (25) Kg, with at teast 50 percent by weight of the stonesweighing morethantwenty(20) kg. class B: stones rangingin weight from a minimumof thirty (30) kg to a maximum of seventy(70) kg, with at least fifty (50) per:eent weight of the by stones weighingmore than fifty (S0) kg. Class C: Stones ranging in weight from a minimum sixty (60) kg to a maximumof one hundred(100) kg, with at leastso percentby weightof the stonesweighing mone than eighty(80) kg. 509-1

Sound pieces of broken concrete obtained from the removal of bridges by for may be substituted stoneupon approval and otherstructures culverts, the Engineer. 509.2.2 Filter Material on The gradingof the filtermaterialshall be as specified the drawingsor in that D15 it specified, will be required the SpecialProvisions.lf not otherwise of the filter is at least 4 times as large as D15 for the underlying embankment materials,and not more than 4 times the D85 for the materia'. embankment to Where: Dl5 and D85 are the particlediameterscorresponding fifteen passing(by weight)in (15) percentand eightyfive (85) percentrespectively, a grainsize analYsis. 509.2.3 PortlandCement of to cementshallconform the requirements AASHTOM 85. Porfland 509.2.4 FineAggregates of for Fineaggregates mortarshallconformto the requirements AASHTOM 45. 509.2.5 SteelReinforcement bent and fixed where shown on the shall be furnished, Steel reinforcement with ltem bending and fixing shall be in accordance drawings. Furnishing, 404. 509.2.6 Concrete Concrete of specifiedClass shown on the Drawings shall be supplied, in placed, and usedas indicated item401. finished 509.2.7 Water . and mortarof ratio1:3 shallconformto ltem 401.2.7 Water for concrete 509.3 509.3.1 REOUIREMENTS CONSTRUCTION Excavation The bed for the riprap shall be excavatedto the required depths and or of trimmedand shapedto the entiresatisfaction the Engineer compacted, as shownon the Plans.

509-2

The riprapshall be set in a toe trenchas shown on the Drawings. The toe trenchshallbe filledwifh stoneof the same classas the one specified the for riprap,unlessotherwise specified. toe trenchesand excavations All shall be approvedby the Engineerwith firm sub-gradeor base prior to placementof stones.Stonesshall be placedso as to provideminimumof voids. Larger stones shall be placedin the toe trench and on the outsidesurfaceof the slooe. 509.3.2 Placins Stones placed below water line shall be distributed that the minimum so thicknessof the riprapis not less than that specified. Stonesabovethe waterline shall be placedby hand. They shall be laidwith jointsand shall be firmlybeddedintothe slopeand againstthe close,broken adjoining stones. The stones shall be laid perpendicular the slope with to ends in contact. The riprapshall be thoroughly compacted construction as progresses and the finishedsurface shall presentan even, tight surface. Interstices betweenstones shall be chinkedwith spallsfirmly rammed into Place. Unless otherwise provided, riprap shall have the following minimum perpendicular the slope: thickness, measured to

ClassA: Class B : ClassC :

20 cm 45 cm 60 cm

The surface riprapplacedabovethe waterline shallnot vary from the of theoretical surface morethan8 cm at anypoint. by
509.3.3
Loose RipraD

The loose riprap shall be placed in layers manually other methods or approved the Engineer, to secure stablemass. Surface by all a irregularities of'theslopeshallnotvarymorethaneight(8) centimeters alongthe intended slope. After the completion and approvalof the riprap placement, the surface voidsof the riprapin the footing trenchand on the lowerportions of the slope shall be filled with excavatedmaterialand dressedto the satisfaction the Engineer. of
509.3.4 GroutedRiprau Stone for this purpose shall, as for as practicable,be selected of the size and shape so as to secure fairly large, flat-surfaced stone which will lay up with a true and even surfaceand a minimumof voids. The stonesshall be placedfirst and roughlyarrangedin close contact, the larger:stones being

509-3

placednear the base of the slope. The spaces betweenthe largerstones shall be filled with stones of suitable size, leaving the surface smooth, reasonably tight, and conformingto the contour required. In general,the stone shall be laid with a degree of care that will ensurefor plane surfacesa maximum variationfrom a true plane of not more than three (3) percent. Warped and curved surfaces shall have the same general degree of ccuracy as specifiedabovefor plane surface. by As each of the largerstonesis placed,it shall be surrounded fresh mortar stonesshall be shoved into contact. After the largerstonesare and adjacent them shallbe filledwith grout in place,all of the spacesor openingsbetween consisting of one (1) part of Portland Cement and three (3) parts of fine aggregptes,and one-fifth(1/5) part of hydratedlime with suffictentwater to producea plasticmix and the smallerstones then placedby shovingthem forcingexcess mortarto the surface,and ensuringthat each into position, and firmly beddedlaterally. Mortarshall not be placedin stone is carefully temperaturelower than five (5) degree C. During hot, dry weatherthe work from the sun and kept moist for a minimumof 3 days shall be protected of placement.Stonesshallbe kept wet duringplacing the mortar. after all After the work has been completedas above described, excess mortar uniformlyto completelyfill all surface voids. All forced up shall be spread surfacejointsshallthen be roughlypointedup eitherwith flushjointsor with shallow, smoothrakedjoints. Weep holes shall be providedthrough the riprap cover as shown on the plansor as directed the Engineer. by

s09.3.s
The slopes with suitable material shall be prepared with appropriate compactionto form a sub-grade approved by the Engineerand formwork accordingly. shall be completed reinforcedconcreteslope After furnishingand fixingthe steel reinforcement, protection'shall be constructedafter light spray of water at the locations and finishing shownon the plansor wheredirectedby the Engineer.Placing specifiedin ltem 401. of concreteshall conformto the requirements 509.4 509.4.1 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT Measurement The quantities be measuredfor paymentshall be the number of cubic to meters of completedand acceptedwork placedto the designatedthickness the as on slopesineluding toe-wall shownon Drawings. A filter layer of granular material, when required, shall be measured in separatelyby the cubic-meters, place and accepted.

509-4

The computation the quantities of will be based on the volume within the theoretical limiting dimensions designated the Drawings. on placingand grouting These items shallincludethe furnishing all material, of stone riprap, mixing and placing concrete including reinforcement. Excavation, backfilling and slope preparation shall not be measuredfor paymentbut will be considered substdiary the items of "Riprap"or "Slope to Protection".
509.4.2

Payment The quantities, measured provided as aboveshallbe paidfor at the contract unit price,for each of the pay items listed below and shown in the Bill of Payment shallbe full compensation furnishing materials, Quantities. for all labour,equipment, toolssupplies and all othercosts relatedto completion of the work. Pay ltem No. Description Unit of Measurement

509 a 509 b 509 c 509 d 509 e 509 f 509 g 509 h

Riprap, ClassA Riprap, ClassB Riprap, ClassC GroutedRiprap,ClassA GroutedRiprap, Class B GroutedRiprap,ClassC Reinforced Concrete Slope Protection FilterLayerof granular Material

CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM

509-5

ITEM 510

DISMANTLI.NG OF STRUCTURES AND OBSTRUCTIONS

510.1

DESCRIPTION This work shall consist of dismantling,removal, wholly or in part and satisfactorydisposalof broken materialfrom buildings,fences, bridges, facilities differentlocations culverts,drainage at and any other obstructions which are not designatedor permittedto remain on those sections of existinghighways exceptfor the obstructions be removedand disposed to of under other items in the contract. lt shall also includethe salvagingof designatedmaterials and backfilling resulting the trenches,holes, pits and ditches.

510.2

REOUIREMENTS CONSTRUCTION General Engineershall specifythe extent of dismantling each structureand the for contractorshall raze, remove and dispose of all remains of all those dismantled structures and otherobstructions portion whichare on the any of right of way, exceptutilities and those for which other provisions have been made for removal. All designateduseable material shall be removed, without unnecessary damage,in sectionsor pieces,which may be readily placeswith in transported, and shallbe storedby the contractor specified at projectlimits. Unusableperishable the materialshall be destroyed. Nonperishable materialmay be disposedof outsidethe limitsof view from the projectwith writtenpermissions the propertyowner on whose propertythe of materialis placed. Copiesof all agreements with property ownersare to be furnished the Engineer. Basements cavitiesleft by structural to or removal groundand, if withinthe prismof shallbe filledto the levelof the surrounding constructionshall be compactedto the required degree of compaction designated the plansfor roadwayembankment on and as specified ltem in 108.3.1. Salvagedpipe culverts otherstructures or shall be storedat designated and pointson the projectas approvedby the Engineer accessible and shall be the property the client. Dismantling of shall'becarriedout eithermanually or with approved equipments. Structures be dismantled to may inclpdeplainor reinforced concrete, brick, stone masonry or any other such construction item.

5 10 - 1

510.2.1

Removal of Bridges. Culverts and other Drainage Stnictures

concrete Bridges, culverts and other drainage structures in use by traffic shall not be removed until satisfactoryarrangementshave been made to accommodate traffic. Unless otherwise directed, the sub-structuresof existingstructuresshall be removeddown to the natural stream bottom and those parts outside of the stream shall be removed thirty (30) centimeters belowgroundsurface. where such portions existing of structures wholly are or in part within the limits for a new structure,they shall be removed as necessary to accommodate the construction of the proposed structure. Steel bridges and wood bridges as designatedon the plans, shall be carefully dismantled withoutunnecessary damage. steel membersshall be match marked,unlesssuch match markingis waived by the Engineer. All 'salvagedmaterialshall storedas previously be specified. Blasting other operations or necessary the removalor dismanfling an for of existingstructure obstruction, or which may damagenew construction, shall priorto placing new work. be completed the 510.2.2 Removal Pines of Unless otherwise directed all pipes shall be carefully removed and every precaution taken to avoid breakingor damagingthe pipe. The contractor shall be held responsible the satisfactory for removalof such structuresin a usable condition. In case these provisionsare violated, due to the Contractor's negligence, materialto be salvagedwhich is damaged in all dismantling/ removal to impair its future use will be charged to the contractorat sixty (60) percent of the current quoted price, deliveredto the project, an equalamountof new material.This amountof moneyshallbe of deducted from any moneydue or to becomedue to contractor. 510.2.3 Fences. Boulders. Stone Piles Stones,fences,pilesof stonesor boulders size greaterthan one-quarter of (1/4) cubic meter in volumewhich lie withinthe limitsof the work as shown on the plans, or which fall within the approvedcross sections shall be removed and disposed as directed. of when fences enclosingpastureland or farm land are to be removed,the contractor shall notify the propertyowner sufficienflyin advance to permit the owner reasonable time to construct supplemental fences or make other arrangements.

510-2

570.2.4

Wells or wells,abandoned active,whichlie withinthe limitsof the Work as Existing shown on the plans,or which fall withinthe approvedcross sectionsor as directed by the Engineershall be dismantled,backfilledand compacted' material and store it at removeall salvageable shallcarefully The Contractor by a locationon site designated the Engineer. Unlessotherwisenoted or materialshall become the propertyof the Client. directed,all salvageable groundand, if withinthe Wells shall be filledto the level of the surrounding within shall be compactedto the type of compaction Drismof construction, and plans for roadwayembankment on the moisturerange designated the of backfilling a well shallbe done or in as specified ltem 107.No dismantling of the without priorapproval the Engineer. by the Contractor wells shall be made,the or for No separatepayment dismantling backfilling to other items listed in the Bill of costs being consideredsubsidiary for exceptthat the compactedbackfillrequired wells will be paid Quantities, material. item of backfill for as per applicable

510.3 510.3.1

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT Measurement to the of The quantity dismantling structure be paidfor shall be measuredin shallbe agreed dismantled.All such measurements cubic meterof structure work starts. .Engineer the Contractorbefore the dismantling and by the will be prepared by the contractor for such Necessary shop drawings purpose.

510.3.2

Payment The quantityas measuredabove shall be paid for at the Contractprice per for full shallconstitute compensation dismantling, cubic meter. The payment removal and disposalof materialas directedby the Engineerand for all the to necessary complete work. toolsand incidentals labour,equipments,

Pay ltem No.

Description

Unit of Measurement

510

of Dismantling Structures andObstructions.

CM

510-3

ITEM 5II

STONE PITCHING
DESCRIPT{ON where shownon the Drawings, work shallconsistof furnishing this hand-set pitching laid dry or grouted to stabilizeslopes or as a protectionagainst water or other erosion to form a flat or cured surface as directed by the Engineer. materials All regardless type or kind shall be placedas per the of linesand levelscalledfor on the plans.

5 r1 " 1

5r1.2 511.2.1

MATERIAL REOUIR.EMENTS Stones The stones shall comprise good, hard and durable broken bouldersor piecesof rock. These shall be sound,dense,resistant the actionof air to and water and suitable in all respectsfor the purpose intended. stones of class I or ll shall be used in pitching,shall conform to the following specifications. depthof the stonesand theirweightshallbe as under:The Class I stones rangingin weightfrom a minimum fifteen(15) Kg to a maximumof of twenty five (25) Kg with at least fifty (50) percent by weight of the stones weighingmore than twenty (20) Kg. The depth of the stones shall generally be from twenty (20) cm to twenty five (25) cm and shall be used for heavy pitching to culvert or bridge ends and approaches, wadi diversions. protection structures, for revetmentto slopesand where directed. ClassII stones rangingin weightfrom a minimumof ten (10) Kg to a maximumof fifteen (15) Kg with at least fifty (50) percent by weight of the stones weighingmore than twelve (12) Kg. The depth of the stones shall vary from fifteen(15) cm to twenty (20) cm and shall be used for lighterpitchingwhere directedto ditches,beams, dykes etc.

5r1.2.2

PortlandCement Portlandcement shall conformto the requirements AASHTO M g5. of

511.2.3

FineAggregates Fine aggregatesfor mortar shall conform to the requiremdntsof AASHTo M-45.

511.2.4

Water Water for cement sand mortar shall be as specifiedin ltem 40,1. 511-1

511.3 511.3.1

CONSTRUCTION REOUIREMENTS Drv Pitchins The bed upon which pitchingshall be laid, shall be firm or compactedof grades and to the required thickness granular of material specified approved plans or as directed and approved by the and lines as shown on the Engineer. The stonesshall compriseroughlydressedand shaped,set on at their edgeswith their longestdimension rightanglesto the flow of water. bedded, breakingbond closely packed with any These shall be securely locked and filled by selectedstone spalls hammeredin. The interstices pitching in specified plans shall be placedby dumpingand spreading loose all hand or other methodsapprovedby the Engineer to securea in layersby The ends of pitched areas shall be protected from stable mass. by undermining the use of edge stones at least twice the generalsize and key stones shall be weight set on end. ln large or slope areas of pitching, providedat the rate of one per square meter, at least one and a half times the generalsizeand weight,set on end. The pitchingto the batters of the earth works and diversionsof waterways shall be carrieddown in trench to such a depth as will ensure a sound to footing for the lowest course. Subsequent pitchingthe trench shall be ground level with approved, well compacted suitable backfilledto normal material.

511.3.2

GroutedPitchins Specifiedstones shall be arrangedin such a way that the largeststones are at the base of the slope. The surfaces of the rock shall be cleaned of adheringdirt and clay and shall be moistened.Stonein the bottomcourses and to a vertical height and thickness as per plans shall be carefully arrangedby hand to inter lock and so as to yield true and even surface with minimum voids and conformingto the contour required. Pitchinglaid in cement mortarsof 1:3 shall be furnishedin panels with weep holes, the joints between panels being approximatelytwo (2) cm in thickness and extendingthe full depth of the pitching the joints shall be filled with sand bitumen mixture consistingof approximatelyone part by weight of bitumen heated as necessaryto two parts by weight of a clean sharp sand' The two of dimensions the panelsshall be approximately meterssquare but the precisedimensions any instanceand the spacingof the weep holes shall in the by be as required the Engineer. ln layingthe pitching lines of the panel joints shall be picked out with a straight fillet laid on the face of the earth to to works and the stonesset up carefully the edge of the fillet. Subsequent the layingthe pitching fillet shall be removedand the joint caulkedwith the sand bitumen mixture as above. The exposed surface of the stones shall project not less than four (4) centimeters and not more than eight (8) shall be cured of centimeters the grout surface. The groutedstone pitching by an approvedmethod for a minimum period of four (4) days and afier expirationof the curing period,the exposed surfaces shall be cleared of all curingmediums.

511-2

5l1.4 511.4.1

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT Measurement The quantitiesshall be measuredby the square meter of completedand accepted work placedto the designated thickness slopesincluding toe of the walls as shown on Drawing. Toe walls shall be measuredby the height times the length,and no additional paymentwill be made for the additional thickness of the toe walls when compared to the slope thickness. Measurement shall be bdsed on the dimensions shown on the plans or as otherwise authorised by the Engineer. These items shall include the furnishing all material,placingand groutingstone pitching. Excavation, of backfilling and slope preparation shallnot be measured payment, will for but be considered subsidiary the item of "Stonepitching". to

5r1.4.2

Pavment The amountof completedand acceptedwork as measuredabove shall be paidfor at the contractunit pricefor each of the pay items listedbelowand specified the Bill of Quantities, in which priceshall be full compensation for furnishingall materials,for all labour,equipment,tools, supplies,and all otheritem necessary the completion the work. for of

Pay ltem No.

Description

Unitof Measurement
SM SM

5 1 1a 5 1 1b

Dry StonePitching GroutedStonePitching.

5 11 - 3

ITEM 512

DITCH LINING AND WASH CIIECKS

5t2.1

DESCRIPTION ditch and/or This work shall consist of the constructionof stone or concrete and in conformitywith with the specifications wash checks, in accordance shown on the drawingsor as directed cross_sections i;;ii";;, ;;"0", "no by the Engineer.

512.2

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS items' in specified the following to shallconform the requirements Material

512.2.1

Concrete in item 401' concretefor ditchliningand wash checksshallbe as specified

512.2.2

Steel Reinforcine in steelshallbe as specified ltem 404' Reinforcing

5r2.2.3

Stoneand Mortar Stoneandmortarforgroutedstoneditch|iningorgroutedstonewash concrete in checks,shallbe a" speJified ltem509 for Riprapand reinforced slopeprotection.

512.3 512.3.1

REQUIREMENTS CONSTRUCTION Excavation to excavated a for The sub-grade the ditch liningor wash checks shall be and to a depth smooth surface parallelto the [roposed finishedsurface as shown on the of for sufficient the full thickness the liningor wash checks with and replaced sub-gradematerialshall be removed Unstable drawings. by as materials approved the Engineer' suitable

512.3.2

Ditch Linins and Wash checks Concrgte of class A concrete ditch lining and wash checks shall be constructed mixing' and concrete. The c6mposition, consistency, proportioning' of of protection the concreteshall conform to the requirements item 401' for ditch lining shall begin at the lower end of the Flacementof concrete towardthe upperend' portion the ditchto be linedand progress of

512-1

lf .shown on the prans,the concreteshail be reinforcedwith the type of reinforcement and in the manner indicated. contractionor construction jointsshallbe spacedand formedas indicated in the plans. The surfaceshallbe finished with a woodenfloat.Bridgesfor workmen shall be used io avoidwalkingin the freshlylaidconcrete. lmmediately after the frnishing operations compreted, concretesharl are the be protected and curedin a manneras approved the Engineer by

s12.3.3

Stone Ditch Linins and Stone Wash Checks

a. StoneDitch Linins The stonesshall be placedin rowstransversely to the centerline the ditch of in the mannerindicated the prans. The stones on shalrbe placeowith ends and sides abuttingand the joints between stones in each row breaking with the joints in the preceding row. The largerspaces betweenstonesshall be filledwith spails. The stonesshail be ,lmm"o or compactedto give them firm bearingand stability b. Stone Wash Checks The stones for wash checks'shail be raid to form a structure of the dimensions shown on the plans. The sidesand ends of the stonesshall be rn contacts much as the sizes and shapes of the stones wiil permit. spails shall be rammed into the larger spaces between stones to form a soridwall. Joints between stones in one row shall break with joints between stones in the adjacentrows. stone wash checks may be substituted with concrete wash checks, constructedby.crass A concrete, if approved by the engineli at no extra cost to the coniractoror client. c. Grout After the surface has been inspectedand approved, the spaces between stones shalr be compretery fiiled with a grout composedof one (1) part of Portlandcement and three (3) parts ot ri"ne aggregate mixed with sufficient water to produce a plastic mortar. The grout shall be brushed or broomed intothe spacesto ensureproperfilling. The grout shail be cured in the manneras providbd for',GroutedRiprap,, in Item 509, "Riprap and Reinforced Concrete Slopeprotection.,,

512-2

512.4 512"4.r

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT Measurement a. Ditch Linine Ditch lining shall be measured in square meter by multiplying the exposed face width to the length of ditch and accepted in place as measured along the finished surface as shown in the plans or authorized by the Engineer.

b. WashChecks Wash checks shall be measuredaccordingto the linear meter of wash checks complete and accepted in place. Measurementshall be made perpendicular the ditch centerlinealong the top surface and at the to edge of each wash check. upstream 5t2.4.2 Payment a. Ditch Linine will Work as measured, be paid for and accepted The amountof completed in at the unit price(s)bid per squaremeteras specified the Bill of Quantities for "ConcreteDitch Lining"or "GroutedStone Ditch Lining"which price(s) shall be full compensationfor furnishing,transporting,and placing all backfilling for if reinforcement, required, all excavation, including materials, and for all labor, tools, and all other items necessaryfor the proper of completion the Work. b. WashChecks The amountof completedand acceptedWork as measuredwill be paid for in at the unit price(s)bid per linear meter as specified the Bill of Quantities for "ConcreteWash Checks" and "GroutedStone Wash Checks,"which for all for all excavation,backfilling, price(s)shall be full compensation for toolsand all otheritems necessary the for materials, all labor,equipment, propercompletion the Work. of

Pay ltem No.

Description

Unit of Measurement

512 a 512b 512 c 512 d

Lining typeDitch Concrete Ditch Lining typeStone Grouted typeWashChecks Concrete type-WashChecks Stone Grouted 512-3

SM SM M M

ANCILLARY WORKS

ANGILLARY WORKS
ITEM 600

GENERAL
or This sectionshallconsistof itemsof work whichare ancillary incidentalto Such works shall include the other parts of the General Specifications. general items, precast concrete posts and markers, traffic control devices, side walks,guard rails,detours,trafficsigns,pavementmarking,reflectors, and with these specifications in fencingand brickedgingetc., in accordance and locationsin the with the lines,grades sectionsdimensions conformity plansor as required the Engineer. by This section deals with those items of work in which small elementsof items such as concrete,brickwork, stone employconstruction construction steel.These items of work have or masonry,steel reinforcement structural quantified that contractor can price them by assessing so been separately size of each elementand extra effort which is essentialin additionto the of requirement the parentitem. specification trafficroad signsand safetydevices,pavementmarkings, Metalguard-rails, reflectorised pavement studs, and other such fixtures shall meet the of and of requirements ISO - 9,000 for which certificates manufacturers shallbe produced. supplies

600-1

ITEM

60I

CONCRETE KERBS, GUTTERSAND CHANNELS

601.1

DESCRIPTION This work shall consistof kerb, gutter,channel,or combination kerb and of gutteror channel;constructed the followingmaterialsand in accordance of with the specifications the locationand of the form, dimensionsand at designsshown on the Drawings as directedby the Engineer. or The kerb, gutter,channelor in combination may be constructed one of the following by methods. i) Cast in placeconcrete kerbing. ii) Precastconcretekerbing. iii) Extruded concrete kerbing.

601.2

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS The concrete cast in placeconcrete for kerbs,guttersand channels shallbe either class 'A' or class 'c' or as indicatedon the Drawingsand shall conformto the requirements that particular of class prescribed under item "classes of concrete". air entraining 401.1.1. An agent,if required, shall be addedduringmixingan amountto produce five (5) to eight (g) percent by air volumein the mixedconcrete. Precastconcretekerbingunitsshallconsistof class 'c' concrete conforming to the requirementof item 401 and to lengths,shape and other details shown on the Drawings.Kerbingwhich shows surface irregularities more of than five (5) mm when checked with three meter straight edge or surface pits morethan fifteen(15) mm in diameter be rejected. will Formsto hold the concrete shallbe builtand set in placeas described under item 403-Formwork. Formsfor at least sixty metersof kerb or combination kerb and gutteror of channelsshall be in place and checked for alignmentand grade before concreteis placed.curved sections shallhaveforms of eitherwood or metal and shall be accuratelyshaped to radius of curvature shown on the Drawings.steel Reinforcement requiredshall conform to item 404 "steel if Reinforcement". Expansionjoint filler shall be either the performed type conformingto requirement AASHTO-M153 or shallbe precastfiber boardpacking. of Joint filler shall consist of one part cement and two parts of approvedsand wjth sufficientquantityof water necessary obtainthe requiredconsistency. to The mortarshallbe usedwithinthirty(30) minutesafterpreparation. The Bonding compound when usedshallconformto AASHTOM_200.

601-1

601.3 601.3.1

CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS Cast-in-Place a) Excavationaud Bqllli4g shall be made to the requireddepth and the base upon which the Excavation to of kerb or combination kerb and gutteris to be set shall be compacted a (90) percent of the maximum dry densityas minimum density of ninety material shall All by determined AASHTOT-191 Method. soft and unsuitable to acceptable the Engineer. with suitable material be removedand replaced a Where directedby the Engineer, layerof cindersor cleansand and gravel, thickness, or other approvedporousmaterialhavinga minimumcompacted (15) cm shall be placedto form a bed forthe kerb or combination of fifteen of kerb and gutter. Concrete b) Placing The top of Concretemay be placedin the gutterto the full depth required. of kerb or combination kerb and guttershall be floatedsmooth and the the the edges roundedto the radii shown on the Drawings.Before finishing, gutter shall be tested with a three (3) meter straightedge and surfaceof the any irregularitiesof more than five (5) mm in three (3) meters shatl be presentin the concrete only mortarnormally In concrete eliminated. finishing coat permitted finishing. The use of a separatemortarfinishing for shall be practiceof working dry cement into the surface of the concretewill not or the be permitted. c) Joints in The kerb and gutter shall be constructed uniform sectionsof not more than twenty five (25) meters in length except where shorter sections are requiredto coincidewith the locationof weakened planes or contraction joints of the concretepavementor for closuresbut no sectionshall be less than two (2) meters long. The sections shall be separated by sheet to set templates perpendicular the face and top of the kerb and gutter.The of five shall be approximately (5) mm in thickness, the same width templates as that of the kerb or kerb and gutter and not less than five (5) cm greater than the depth of the kerb or kerb and gutter. Templates shall be set carefully and held firmly during the placing of the concrete and shall be to allowedto remain in place untilthe concretehas set sufficiently hold its shape,but shall be removedwhilethe forms are still in place.When pre-cut jointsit may be used in placeof packingis used in the expansion fiber-board the sheettemplatereferredto above,on the approvalof the Engineer.ln this event the fiber 6oard shall be pre-cut to the shape of the kerb so that its kerb. outeredgewill be flushwith the abutting jointsshall be formedin the kerb and gutterat intervals six (6) of Expansion joints of cement to ten (10) meters in order to coincidewith the expansion concretepavementor as shown on the Drawing.

601-2

0-r09
pallulceqaq lleqsslauueqs sJalln6 'sqrol lo uotle^e3xaeLlJ Jo 'parJrcads potnc se pue pa^ouJaj uaoq seq eloJcuos ueoq seLl sullol Jauv ;Er.11llr1cuflq Joourouforl]^q pa^oidde pue elaJcuoc '6urrn3-g'g1.97 uotlcos Llt pauotluau se poqlal! leqlo {ue Iq :o :aded loo.rd:e1em prnbtl qlrrn ,Ja}eM Ll}tM spunoduoc Ourrurol lo qtrn 6url1uuds {q pue s}eul uetssoH uol}ocalqe}tns qlnn6uuanoc lo luanba:; r{q 6uftp ernleua:d lsure6e palcelo.rdaq lleqs s:apnb pue slauuBr.lc 'sqro) aql 'olarcuoc s:noq (71) om1ftuanas 6ur:n6 1o burceld6umno1;o1

BElm5rc
'rlloours {eq1 a:e ltlunaoe;.tns eq1 0urqqnlpue leog ]o loolq poo^ e Ourgann ,,uear6,, st alaJouoo {q llt}s 'paqsru4aq aql otrLlm paqstut; lleqs tapnb pue qlel ar.l]Jo uorlcrulsuoc aqgur pesodxeaq llrn qctqMsocepns lM uotlesuadruoc leuotltppe lnoqym paceldalpue panou.tal lleqs lepnb .ro qlay palcafeJ pue :apn6 pue oq lle 'ale6er66e qral Jo qrol e lo ocel aLll uo peprul:edaq ]ou ;;eqs6ur_re1se16 ou4 oql 1o syed o Al pue luauloc pueluod1o yed euo burureguoc JeUouJ qlnn perredaleq lleqs s]3alop.rouryl edeqs slt plorl o1{lluercrgns les seq olaJcuoo se uoos se penoual aq lleqs regn6 pue qJaI io uotleutquloc aql e ur qJaI aLll to oce] aql lsurebe posn uJoJ rll leLll ldacxa pece;d seLlelolcuooJoUestnoq (y7) lnol r{1uem1 po^outal aq lleqs sulo1 aql ulrl}tm dulqsluldpuBsruJod lB^orueug Jo 'qldeppue 'uealc qlpm paurcads pue leau slurofaql pue paloo]aq llBqs io uel oq l1eqs slutoleq11o sebpa aLlj 'slauueqc ocelns all] ut pue sleuueqcpue qla) ]o ed{ oqllouoru Jo ocelns lauueqceq} ut pue qlol }o acel {ervrpeol pesodxe aql ur pue sqJal lle 1o do1aq] ul peulol aq lleqs senoolbaql 'apm Luc(9) entlr{qdeep uc (g) enU'uot}cas-ssolc te;n6ue}catsq lleqssanooJ6 ur ar.lt 'aoe1.tns qJaI pue luauubr;e qJa) aLllo1 agbue jo aJnlcru]s acepns ]q6r:le pue ocej aql ur sanoot6 6urru.ro; peprno.rd llpr.ls r(q oq slurofuollcel]uoc aql lo unutxeut e o1peceds 6unne:6 aLll uo umoLlssuollecolJoqlo pue lueuaned alalcuoc 6urpnqe ur slurol uorlcerluoc o1 aysoddo pepno:d aq lleqs slurol uorlceJ]uoc aslonsueJf ;1e Sturpf uo-itiErtm5re pue aqt lurofuorsuedxo o1se16ue ]qOl.r Agalelncce :agnb eq1 le do1 {;alelncce }es oq lleqs laMopqce3 's6unne:6 lo ace1-tns aq1o1 la11eled aLl] uo polectpurse aq lleLlssJeq leMop aql 1o burcedspue azts aql 's6unnelq uo ul alll or.ls suotle3ol untpau la;suell peol e se peprnotd le eq lleqs anaolsdrls qlrm sJeq lo/v\op pelured'{llecrq1louoru }llnq louueqs puP sqje) jo uotuod lauueqc alll ul pue slauueqcur slurol uorsuedxe}y
slauuBqJ ur slurof uofsuBoxl lB sle^roo (p

'slalou; (g) rnol

with suitableearth or granularmaterialtamped into place in layers of not morethan fifteen(15) cms each untilfirm and solid. 6{11.3.2 Pre-Cast
a) Excavation and Bedding

depth as shown on the D.rawings. shall be made to the required Excavation All soft and unsuitablematerial shall be removed and replaced with a to acceptable the Engineer. suitable material of confoiming the requirements to Bedding shallconsistof ClassB Concrete shownon the Drawings. Item401 and shallbe to the sectionand dimension b) Placine The precastconcretekerbs shallbe set in 1:3 of cementsand mortarto the line, level and grade as shown on the Drawingsor as directed by the Engineer. c )J o i n t s kerbsshallbe three (3) to five (5) mm wide and Jointsbetweenconsecutive filledwith cementmortarto the full sectionof the kerb. d) Baclifillins (h). of shallmeetthe requirements ltem601.3.1 Backfilling 60r.3.3 Kerbingand Channels Estruded Concrete and a) Excavation Bedding as and bedding shall conform to the requirements described Excavation i u n d e r t e m6 0 1 3 . 1 ( a ) b) Placine Concreteshall be fed to the machineat a uniformrate. The concreteshall it that after e'xtrusion will maintainthe shape of the be of such consistency without support and shall contain the maximum amount of kerb section water that will permit this result. The machine shali be operated under to sufficient uniformrestraint forwardmotionto producea well compacted otherthan lightbrushing no which requires furtherfinishing mass of concrete filledwith wateronly. with a brush machineshall be readilyadjustable of formingtube portion the extrusion T-he motionof the machine.A grade line gauge or fonrvard vertically duringthe can comparison pointershall be attached the machineso that a continual to kerb gradeas beingplacedand the established be made betweenthe kerb indicated an offsetquideline. bv 601-4

The top end face of the finishedkerb shall be true and straightand the top surfaceof the kerbshallbe of uniformwidth,free from bumpsor surfacepits iarger than fifteen (15) mm in diameter.When a straight-edge three (3) meterslong is laidon the top or face of the kerb.or surfaceof the gutter,the surface shall not be more than five (5) mm from the edge of the straightedge exceptat gradechangesor curves.

Where adhesiveis used to bond the kerb to an existingpavement,the surfaceshall be first thoroughly cleanedof all dust, loose materialand oil, in the cost of whichshallbe included otheritemsof work. c) Joints jointsshall be constructed sawingthroughthe kerb sectionto Expansion by full depth.The widthof the cut shallbe such as to admitthe joint fillerwith its joint fillershall conformto the provisions ltem 601.2 a tight fit. Preformed of shall be inserted and mortared place. in and lf sawing is performedbefore the concrete has hardened,the adjacent portionof the kerb shallbe supported firmlywith closefittingshieldsand the operations sawingand inserting of the joint filler shall be completedbefore curingthe concrete. jointfillersshallbe permitted be placedat the location pre-cut Alternatively to joints prior to the placingof the extrudedkerb with the of the expansion The joint fillers shall be set firmly in place in a approvalof the Engineer. verticalposition the lineand gradeof the kerb profile. to d) Curins and Backfillins Curing and backfilling shall be as described item 601.3.1(g) in and ltem 6 0 1. 3 . 1( h ) .
601.J 601.4.1

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT Measurement The unit of measurement concretekerb, gutter,or combination kerb for of and gutter,channel, extrudedkerbs and channelsshall be measuredby or the linear meter along the front face of the section at the finishedgrade in elevation. Deduction lengthwill be made for drainage instailed structure in the kerbingssuch as catch basinsand drop inletsetc. Measurement not will includeany area in excessof those shown on the Drawings exceptfor any in area authorised the Engineer writing. by

60'1-5

601.-1.2

Pavment shallbe paid for at the contractttnitprrce Measuredand acceptedquantities pay per linearmeterfor each of the particular item listedbelowand shownin the Bill of Quantities which prices and payment shall constitute full compensationfor furnishingand placing all materials for concrete,for for steel if requiredon the Drawings expansionJoints' materlal' reinforcing and dumpingand disposal backfilling excavation, opening, form for drainage of surplus material and for all labour, equipment,tool and incidentals the to necessary complete item. and expattsion joint fillermaterial used in transverse for Payment expansion in to shallbe understood be included joints in kerbsand channel contraction the kerbs and channelsand shallnot the pricetenderedper linearmeterfor be paidfor seParatelY. Concreteand mortar requiredfor beddingof precast concrete kerbs as item, but the cost shall not be paidfor as separated shownon the Drawings pricefor precastconcretekerb' unit in shallbe included the contract

Pay ltem No.

Description

Unit of Measurement

60'1a 601b

tYPe-Kerb,in Place, Concrete of Combination Kerb and Gutterin place,tyPe-of Combination kerb and Channelin place,type-PreCast kerb in place,typetYPe-Channel, Concrete Kerband Channel, Extruded type--

601c

M M M

601d 601e 601f

601-6

n'E\t 602

ASPHALT CONCRETEAND CEMENT CONCRETE SIDEWALK


DESCRIPTION whichcan be asphalt of This work shallconsistof the construction sidewalks plain portland cement concrete, or precast Portland cement concrete, inm or smalleror interlocking concreteblocksall concreteslabs (450x450) and to the line, grade, levels and with these specifications in accordance by or dimensions shownon the Drawings as required the Engineer.

I 602.

602.2 602.2.1

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS Concrete Cement The Concrete shall be either Class A or Class C as indlcatedon the with drawings and in accordance ltem4O1.1.1.

6112.2.2

AsphaltCohcrete of Asphalticconcreteshall conformto the requirements ltem 305 - Asphalt ConcretePavement for ClassB mixture.

602.2.3

Expansion Joint Filler of directed joint fillershallhave a thickness five (5) mm the Unlessotherwise of and conformto the requirements ltem 601.2.

602.2.1

Forms Forms shall be of wood or metal as approvedby the Engineerand shall free from All extendto the full depthof the concrete. forms shallbe straight, strength resistbending. to warp and of adequate

602.2.5

BedCourse Material Bed course materialshall consist of cinders,sand, slag, gravel,crushed stone or other approvedmaterialsof such gradationthat all particleswill (12.5m) sieve. passthrough 112" a

602.2.6

Asphallre Jrunc_egAl of shall conformto the requirements ltem 301 Asphalticprimecoat material Asphalt. for Cut-back

602-1

602.3 602.J.1

CONSTRUCTIONREQUIREMENTS Sidewalk Concrete Asrrhalt aalExcal'ation Excavationshall be made to the requireddepth and to a width that will permit the instattation and bracingof the forms. The foundationshall be dry to compacted minimumninety(90) percentof the maxtmum shapedand shallbe even The surface T-191Method. by as determined AASHTO density All to conforming the sectionshownon the drawings. soft materialshall be material. with acceptable and replaced rernoved (b) Placine BedCourse Material of ten in be The bed coursematerialshhll compacted layersnot exceeding (10) on the drawingsand to the line and grade of the cm, to the depth shown surface. sidewalk finished Material (c) Priminethe BedCoufse of shallrecetvean application primecoat The preparedbed coursematerial of. ltem 302 and approved by the in accordancewith the requirements Engineer. (d) Placing Asnhalt Concrete the primedprepared bed The asphaltconcreteshallbe placedon the previously :the Engineerthe bed is sufficiently and dry only when, in the opinionof The mixtureshall be placedon one or more are weatherconditions suitable. Each courseshall as coursesof uniformthickness shownon the Drawings. compacted by and shall be thoroughly be smoothedby rakingor screeding After Engineer. to rolleror a type satisfactory the with a handoperated rolling and sectionshownon the shallbe of the thickness the compaction, surfacing shallbe smooth,evenand of a denseand uniformtexture.Forms, Drawings, to shapedand compacted the if used, shall be removedand the shoulders section. required

602.3.2

Sidewalk Concrete Cement (al Excavation of shallmeetthe requirements ttem 602.3.1(a). Excavation (b) Placinsof BedCourse Material the on Where indicated the drawings bed coursematerialshall be placedin with ltem 602.3.1(b). accordance

602-2

(c) Formsand Exnansion Joints All forms shall be staked securely in position at the correct line and elevation. joint filler shall be set in the positionshown on the Drawings Expansion The joint fillershallbe placed5 beforethe piacing the concreteis started. of sidewalk. mm belowthe top surfaceof the finished (d) Placingthe Cement Concrete Material and curing of concreteshall be as provided The mixing,placing, finishing, under ltem 401-Concrete. Before the concrete has set, the surface of the concrete shall be trawled and until it is of uniformsmoothnessand is true to the lines, elevations. surfacerequired. The surfaceshall be cut throughto a depth of one (1) cm with a trowel at in linesperpendicular intervals one (1) meteror where required, straight of to The surfaceshall then be brushed. The edges of the edge of the sidewalk. and the transverse cuts shall be shapedwith a suitable tool so the sidewalk radius. formedas to roundthe edgesto a one and half (1.5)centimeters (e) Precast Elements Precast concreteslabs or interlockingconcrete blocks shall be set on the bed course materialwhere indicatedon the drawingsor as directed by the engineer provide smoothtop surfacewithoutridgesor lumpsat joints. to a Precastconcreteunitsshall be fair faced cast to the sizes and dimensions as indicated the drawings. on The concreteused for pre-castunit shall conformto the specifications laid down in item 401-Concrete. The Contractor shall be requiredto submit a sample of pre-castunit for the approvalof the Engineer. pre-castunits All shallstrictly conform the approved to sample. A pre-cast unit crackedor damagedbefore,duringor aftererection shall be removedfrom the works and replacedby the Contractorat his own expense. All pre-castunits shall be smoothlyfinishedto the requiredlines, grades pockets, anglesetc. Holes,grooves, hooksshallbe provided shownor as as directedby the Engineer. The unitsshallbe properly stackedon a platform withoutcausingany cracks or damage.Curingof allthe pre-cast unitsshallbe done in accordance with i t e m4 0 1 .

602-3

602.4 602.1.r

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT Measurement to The quantity be paid for shall be the numberof squaremetersof asphalt concrete or cement concretesidewalkcomplete in plaCeand accepted, surface. in measured the placeof the sidewalk

602.1.2

Pavntent unit price above,shallbe paid for at the contract as The quantity determined in the Bill of per square meter for the pay items listed below and shown for full compensation which price and paymentshall constitute Quantities, cement Portland concrete, for and placingall materials, asphaltic furnishing concrete, expansionjoint material,for excavatingand compactingthe foundationbed, for furnishingand placingfor forms, and for all labour, the to necessary complete item. toolsand incidentals equipment,

Pay ltem No.

Description

Unit of Measurement

602 a 602b 602 c

Sidewalk AsphaltConcrete Sidewalk CementConcrete PrecastConcreteSlab Sidewalk

SM SM

SM

602 d

Interlocking PrecastConcrete SM BlockSidewalks

602-4

t'I't_NI60-l

BRICK EDGING
DESCRIPTION This item shall consist of brick installedon vertical edge between the in structure shoulders such a manner thatthe brickis laidon oavement and compactedshouldersand top of brick is flushed with the slope of road pavement

603. r

6{f3.2 I 603.2.

,MATERIALREOUIREMENTS Bricks as Quality of Bricks shall meet the materialrequirement specifred under i t e m4 ' 1 0 .

603.3

CONSTRUCTION REQUIRE MENTS A trench of appropriate dimensionsshall be excavatedto accommodate brick on vertical edge,so that top of the brick becomesflushedwith the top of road pavement and to ensurethat one face of the brickremainsin contact with the pavement structure. The cavities the otherface of the brickshall on be refilledwith the excavatedshouldermaterialand properlycompacted. The brick shall be laid in accordance with the line and grade of the road pavement.lt shall be ensuredthat bricksare installedin verticalpositions.

603..1 603.4.r

MEASURE ENTAND PAYMENT I\,I Measurement grade and line shall be Brick edgingwhen laid and finishedto the required per measured linearmeterinstalled and approved the Engineer. by

603.-1.2

Pavment The quantity as measured above shall be paid per linear meter for of excavation trench,installation bricks,compacted of backfill cavities of and dressing bermsincluding of material, watering, tamping,labour,equipment, toolsand incidentals necessary complete item. to the

Pay ltem No.

Description

Unit of Measurement

603

BrickEdging

603-1

|TIIM 601

METAL BEAM GUARD-RAIL

60{.1

DESCRIPTION in This item shall consistof metai beam Guard rail constructed accordance at specificattons the locations and in conformitywith the with these and desrgn shown on the Drawings or as ordered by the dimensrons. Engrneer

60-t.2 60J.2.1

i\'IATERIALREOUIREMENTS GuardRail VletalBearn to steel beam conforming corrugated The rail elementsshall be galvanized class. type and of the requirements AASHTOM 180 of the designated properties the base metals for beams shall conformtc of The mechanical requirements: the following YieldPoint TensileStrength Elongation 3500kg / sq. cm. (Minimum) 4900kg i sq. cm. (Minimum) in not lessthan 12 percent a 2 inch(5.08cm) with gaugelengthwhen testedin accordance ASTM E 8.

a to In addition the above,the rail shallwithstand cold bendwithoutcracking equalto of one hundredeighty(180)degreearounda mandrelof a diameter of timesthe thickness the plate. two and half (2.112)
601.7.2

End or BufferSections The end or buffer sectionsshall be formed from open hearth, electric furnaceor basicoxygensteel.The sectionshall be of the same or superior classand type usedfor the beamto which it is attached.

6tl{.2.J

and Connections Srrlices button- headed or All connections splicesshallbe formedwith oval shoulder the guard.All boltsand nuts for on boltsto minimizeprojections the side of of beams shall conformto or exceed the requirements ASTM A 307 and of 153. The boltedconnection in as shall be galvanized specified ASTM A a two thousandtwo hundred the rail elementto the post shall withstand seventy(2270)kg pullat rightanglesto the lineof the railing.

604-'1

604.2.1

GuardRail Posts Postsshall be of eithersteel or concreteas specified. only one type of post shall be usedfor any one continuous Guardrail,exceptat junctionsbetween bridges and approach embankments. a) steel postsshallbe galvanized and of the sectionand lengthspecified or as shown on the Drawings.They shall conformto the requirements of AASHTOM 183for the gradespecified. b) Precastreinforced concreteposts shall be of a sectionand length as specified as shownon the Drawings. or The concrete shallbe class c as specified in ltem 401.1.1. Reinforcement shall conform to the requirements AASHTOM 31 or M 53. All barsshallbe of the deformed of type,conforming AASHTOM 31 or M 42. to

604.2.5

Wooden Soacer Blocks wooden spacerblocksbetweenthe Guard rail and the postsshall conform to AASHTo M-133and M-168and be constructed the sectionand lenoth to specified as shownon the Drawings. or

604.2.6

PostFoundation Blocks where required as orderedby the Engineer, or post foundation blocksshall be constructed class A concreteas specifiedin ltem 401.1.1,to the in sectionand lengthspecified as shownon the Drawings. or In order to facilitate removalof posts damagedby vehicleimpact,posts the shall be set in galvanized tubularsteel socketscast into foundation blocks. The socketsshall be of internaldimension(s) after galvanizing such that thereis a clearance 3 to 5 mm between socketano tne guardrail post. of the Following erectionof guardrails, space betweenposts and socketsshall the be filledwith epoxymortar.

604.3

CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS All posts shall be set vertically the positionshown on the Drawingsand in whereembedded a concrete in foundation blockshallremainundisturbed for a minimumof forty eight (a8) hours. The space around the post or post foundation blocksshall be backfilled the groundline,with selectedearth to containing rocks,in layersof not exceeding no ten (10) cm and each layer shall be moistened and thoroughly compacted. where steelpostsare driven intothe groundno buckled post or deformedhead shallbe acceoted.

604.3.1

Erection Rail of All metalwork shallbe fabricated the shop and no cuttingor welding in shall be done in the fieldunlessotherwise orderedby the Enginelr.Railelements shall be lappedso that the exposedends will not facJ approaching traffic. Terminalsectionsshall be installedin accordance with the manufacturer's recommendation.

604-2

60-t..1 60,1.4.1

AND PAYMENT VIEASUREMENT Measurement The Guard rail shall be measuredby the linearmeter from centerto center of end posts for each completedsectionfastenedin place and accepted. in Guardrail end piecesshall be measuredby the numbercompleted place and accepted. Post for Guard rail shall be measuredby the numbererectedin place and accepted.

6(fJ.J.2Pavment

The quantitiesdeterminedas prescribedabove shall be paid for at the for contractprice per unit of measurement the pay item listed below and for which price shall be full compensation shown in the Bill of Quantities and erectionof for placingall materials, foundations, provision for furnishing and for all for and fastening, posts for excavation and backfill, installation the to necessary complete work labour, tools and incidentals costs including in orescribed this item.

Pay ltem No.

Description

Unit of Measurement

604 a 604 b 604 c 604 d

Rail MetalGuard GuardRailEnd Pieces

M Each

Concrete Postfor GuardRail Each SteelPostfor GuardRail Each

604-3

ITEt\I605 605. r

CONCRETE BEAM GUARD RAIL


DESCRIPTION This item shall consist of concrete beam Guard rail constructed in accordance with these specifications the locations at and in conformity with the dimensions, designshownon the Drawings. and

605.2 605.2.1

MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS Concrete BeamGuardRail The rail shall be of concrete class A as specifiedin item 401.1.1 "structures'1. Reinforcing steel shall conformto requirement specifiedin as item 404. Concretebeam Guard rail shall be of size .125mm x 300 mm, where as reinforcing steel shall be provided at the rate of one hundred twenty(120)Kg. per cubicmeter.

605.2.2

Connections Splices and Bolts, nuts, washers,.sleeves and other fittings shall conform to ASTM Designation A 325 (AASHTOM 614) and shalt be zinc coated in accordancewith the requirementof ASTM Designation 153 (AASHTO A M232)

605.2.3

Guard Rail Posts Post shall be of concreteclass A as specifiedin item 401.1.1of these Specifications. Precastreinforced concreteposts shall be of a section250 mm x 250 mm. The concreteshall be class A as specifiedin ltem 401.1.LReinforcement shall conformto the requirements MSHTO M 31 or M 53. All bars shall of be of the deformedtype, conforming AASHTO M 137. Reinforcing to steel shallbe provided the rate of one hundred at twenty(120)kg per cubicmeter.

60s.2.{

PostFoundation Blocks where required as orderedby the Engineer, or post foundation blocks,shall be constructed concretgclass c as specifiedin ltem 401.1.1to the in sectionand lengthspecified as directedby the Engineer. or

605.3 605.3.1

CONSTRUCTION REOUIREM ENTS Formrr'ork Formwork shall be supplied and fixed in the position required for the concreteto be cast as shown on the Drawings,or as required by the Engineer,and shall be supplied,erected and removed as specified'in Item403. 605-1

605.3.2

Steel Reinlbrcement shall be furnished.bent and fixed where shown on the Steel reinforcement bendingand and its furnlshing, by or Drawings, whererequired the Engineer. with ltem 404 ftxtngshallbe in accordance

60s.3.J

Concrete concrete class D1 as shown on the Drawings or as required by the in placed,finishedand curedas specified ltem Engineer shall be supplied, 401.

605.4 605..1.1

AND PAYMENT MEASUREMENT Nleasurement The Guard rail shall be measured by the length in meter of completed in sectionfastened placeand accepted. Guardrai|endpiecessha||bemeasuredbythe|engthtnmetercomp|etedin placeand accepted. Posts for guard rail and guard rail end pieces shall be measuredby the in numbererected placeand accepted.

60s.4.2

Pavment determinedas prescribedabove shall be paid for at the The quantities, for contractpnce per unit for measurement the pay item listed below and for which price shall be full compensation shown in the Bill of Quantities steel,formwork' concrete, including of fabrication itemsin lengthas directed, erectionand fasteningof posts and Guard rail, making and transportation, filling of holes, and for all costs includinglabour, tools and incidentals in the to necessary complete work prescribed this item.

Pay ltem No. 605 a 605 b 605 c

Description

Unit of Measurement M M

BearnGuardRail,tYPe-Concrete tYPe-GuardRailEnd Pieces, Postfor GuardRail Concrete tYPe-and GuardRail End Pieces,

Each

605-2

I'I'EM 606

BRIDGE RAILING

606.I

DESCRIPTION Thrswork, consistsof the supplyand erectionof concreterailingfor bridges and other structuresin accordancewith these specifications anO to ihe detailsshownon the Drawings. Where metalbeam Guardrailsform partof the BridgeRailing, Guardrail the beam and connections shall conformto the requirements item 604 and of shallbe paidfor underthat item.

606.2 606.2.1

I\{ATERIAL REQUIREMENTS Formw,ork

Formwork wherenecessary, shallconformto ltem 403. 606.2.2 Steel Reinforcement Steelreinforcement shallbe as specified ltem 404. in 606.2.3 Concrete concreteshallbe classD1 as specified item 401.1.1or shownon the in as Drawings. 606.3 606.3.l CONSTRUCTION REOUIREMENTS Formwork Formwork shall be supplied and fixed in the position required for the concreteto be cast as shown on the Drawings,or as directed by the Engineer,and shall be supplied, erectedand removedas specified ltem in 403.
606.J.2

Steel. lirrcement I{cin steei reinforcement shall be furnished, bent and fixed where shown on the drawings wheredirected the Engineer or by and its furnishing, bending, and fixingshallbe in accordance the ltem404. with

606-'1

606.3.1

9oncrete ConcreteclassD'l as shownon the drawingsor as directedby the Engineer in placed, finishedand cured,as specified ltem 401. shall be supplied,

606.4 606.4.1

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT Measurement in as shallbe measured specified ltem 401' Concretein placeand accepted as The formworkin place and acceptedshall not be measuredseparately in specified ltem 403. in Steel reinforcement place and accepted shall be measured for as in specified ltem 404.

606.4.2

Payment Paymentshall be made for the materialsutilized,or the rates quoted by items. above,for following as and measured provided contractor

Pay ltem No. 606 a 606 b

Description
Concrete Structural steelGrade60, Reinforcing deformed

Unit of Me