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ME3122E Lab 2

Forced
Convection Heat Transfer

LIN SHAODUN A0066078X


by Group
Date

1A
13-Sept-2012

TABLE OF CONTENTS

R AW D ATA

S AMPLE C ALCULATION

D ISCUSSION

10

C ONCLUSION

12

R AW D ATA
Table 1 Aluminum Sphere

Time (s)

Pressure head
(mm water)

Sphere
Temperature
(C)

Atmosphere
Temperature
(C)

16.631

128.824

23.161

0.000

0.000

30

15.836

113.350

23.362

-0.159

4.041

60

15.942

97.608

23.370

-0.351

8.081

90

15.749

86.231

23.212

-0.517

12.122

120

15.430

77.293

23.130

-0.670

16.163

150

14.779

69.664

23.166

-0.822

20.203

180

15.517

63.183

23.218

-0.973

24.244

210

15.015

57.524

23.390

-1.126

28.284

240

14.978

52.714

23.339

-1.278

32.325

270

15.342

48.606

23.224

-1.428

36.366

300

15.248

45.018

23.250

-1.581

40.406

330

16.394

41.911

23.209

-1.735

44.447

360

15.831

39.361

23.482

-1.883

48.488

390

14.814

37.135

23.413

-2.032

52.528

420

15.197

35.222

23.250

-2.181

56.569

450

14.735

33.576

23.329

-2.330

60.610

480

15.480

32.183

23.411

-2.475

64.650

510

15.935

31.068

23.476

-2.610

68.691

540

15.772

29.998

23.404

-2.758

72.732

Average

15.507

58.972

23.305

Graph 1a Aluminum Sphere

ln[(T - T) / (Ti - T)] vs. t/ro(Aluminium)


0.0

y = -0.0377x - 0.0454
R= 0.9995

ln[(T - T) / (Ti - T)]

-0.5
-1.0
-1.5
-2.0
-2.5
-3.0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

t / ro
Graph 1b Aluminum Sphere

Temperature vs. Time (Aluminium)


140

y = -0.1621x + 102.75
R= 0.8655

Temperature (C)

120
100

80
60
40
20
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

550

Time (Sec)

Table 2 Brass Sphere

Time (s)

Pressure head
(mm water)

Sphere
Temperature
(C)

Atmosphere
Temperature
(C)

16.089

136.267

23.577

0.000

0.000

30

15.192

123.162

23.428

-0.124

1.638

60

15.164

111.505

23.457

-0.248

3.276

90

15.405

101.353

23.413

-0.371

4.913

120

15.636

92.267

23.368

-0.495

6.551

150

15.555

84.140

23.499

-0.621

8.189

180

15.829

77.060

23.770

-0.746

9.827

210

15.841

70.734

23.700

-0.872

11.464

240

14.685

65.270

23.592

-0.995

13.102

270

15.386

60.441

23.569

-1.118

14.740

300

15.148

56.133

23.494

-1.242

16.378

330

15.058

52.326

23.508

-1.367

18.015

360

14.633

49.011

23.588

-1.490

19.653

390

15.325

46.116

23.464

-1.611

21.291

420

14.510

43.540

23.595

-1.732

22.929

450

14.899

41.276

23.574

-1.853

24.566

480

14.525

39.361

23.685

-1.968

26.204

510

14.330

37.592

23.797

-2.087

27.842

540

13.880

36.085

23.726

-2.201

29.480

570

14.504

34.761

23.535

-2.313

31.117

600

14.536

33.472

23.624

-2.436

32.755

630

14.400

32.461

23.792

-2.544

34.393

660

14.285

31.521

23.852

-2.656

36.031

690

14.507

30.705

23.948

-2.765

37.668

720

13.922

29.932

23.777

-2.881

39.306

Average

14.930

60.660

23.613

Graph 2a Brass Sphere

ln[(T - T) / (Ti - T)] vs. t/ro(Brass)


0.0

y = -0.0736x - 0.0224
R= 0.9996

ln[(T - T) / (Ti - T)]

-0.5
-1.0
-1.5
-2.0
-2.5
-3.0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

t / ro
Graph 2b Brass Sphere

Temperature vs. Time (Brass)


140

y = -0.1316x + 108.04
R= 0.8662

Temperature (C)

120
100

80
60
40
20
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

Time (Sec)

Table 3 Teflon Sphere


Time (s)

Pressure head
(mm water)

0
30
60
90
120
150
180
210
240
270
300
330
360
390
420
450
480
510
540
570
600
630
660
690
720
750
780
810
840
870
900
930
960
990
1020
1050
1080
1110
1140
1170
1200
1230
1260
1290
1320
1350
Average

15.365
14.621
13.898
14.088
13.321
13.080
13.683
14.502
14.201
14.088
14.171
13.807
13.787
14.335
13.694
13.880
13.855
14.412
13.952
14.175
14.301
14.724
14.083
13.998
14.220
13.556
14.283
14.351
14.482
13.399
14.429
14.202
14.469
14.383
13.799
13.283
14.243
14.602
14.012
13.979
13.903
14.012
14.718
14.682
14.979
14.646
14.217

Sphere
Temperature
(C)
106.013
102.988
98.450
95.465
93.396
91.889
90.574
89.215
87.986
86.651
85.267
83.876
82.418
80.815
79.153
77.509
75.826
74.089
72.375
70.644
69.022
67.319
65.655
64.027
62.453
60.944
59.434
58.015
56.612
55.304
53.974
52.765
51.562
50.377
49.254
48.213
47.183
46.206
45.233
44.363
43.502
42.541
41.882
41.121
40.351
39.681
51.519

Atmosphere
Temperature
(C)
23.853
23.971
23.822
23.714
23.779
23.999
23.757
23.788
23.741
23.954
24.054
23.807
24.038
23.893
23.962
24.007
23.928
24.061
23.929
24.028
23.984
23.914
23.906
23.916
23.862
24.051
23.995
24.024
23.900
23.862
24.013
24.199
23.921
24.095
24.012
24.038
23.924
24.064
23.953
23.978
24.133
23.803
23.748
23.859
23.866
23.956
23.960

0.000
-0.038
-0.097
-0.138
-0.167
-0.189
-0.208
-0.229
-0.248
-0.269
-0.291
-0.314
-0.339
-0.367
-0.397
-0.427
-0.459
-0.493
-0.528
-0.564
-0.599
-0.638
-0.677
-0.717
-0.757
-0.797
-0.839
-0.879
-0.921
-0.962
-1.006
-1.047
-1.089
-1.133
-1.177
-1.219
-1.262
-1.305
-1.350
-1.392
-1.435
-1.485
-1.521
-1.565
-1.611
-1.652

0.000
0.007
0.015
0.022
0.029
0.036
0.044
0.051
0.058
0.066
0.073
0.080
0.088
0.095
0.102
0.109
0.117
0.124
0.131
0.139
0.146
0.153
0.161
0.168
0.175
0.182
0.190
0.197
0.204
0.212
0.219
0.226
0.233
0.241
0.248
0.255
0.263
0.270
0.277
0.285
0.292
0.299
0.306
0.314
0.321
0.328

Graph 3a Teflon Sphere

ln[(T - T) / (Ti - T)] vs. t/ro(Teflon)


0.0

y = -4.993x + 0.0632
R= 0.989

ln[(T - T) / (Ti - T)]

-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
-1.0
-1.2
-1.4
-1.6
-1.8

0.04

0.08

0.12

0.16

0.2

0.24

0.28

0.32

t / ro
Graph 3b Teflon Sphere

Temperature vs. Time (Teflon)


120

y = -0.048x + 99.372
R= 0.987

Temperature (C)

100
80
60
40
20
0

100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400

Time (Sec)

S AMPLE C ALCULATION
1. Method 1: Lumped-heat-capacity method
Table 4 Calculation of convective heat transfer coefficient
Sphere Material
Gradient of curve

Biot Number
( )

Aluminum

Brass

Teflon

-0.0377

-0.0736

-4.993

0.0042

0.0082

0.555

Validity of the lumpedheat-capacity method


Convective heat transfer
coefficient

2. Method 2
Table 5 Calculation of convective heat transfer coefficient

Sphere
Material

Aluminum

Brass

Teflon

Gradient of curve

-0.1621

-0.1316

-0.048

24.150
(

26.599
)

6.047
)

3. Method 3: Empirical relation (Whitaker)

Table 6 Calculation of convective heat transfer coefficient


Sphere Material

Aluminum

Brass

Teflon

Initial sphere temp, K

401.97

409.42

379.16

Average sphere temp, K

332.12

333.81

324.67

Average ambient temp, K

296.46

296.76

297.11

0.709

0.709

0.709

1.190

1.189

1.188

0.0155

0.0149

0.0142

15.99

15.70

15.32

51997

50958

49658

168.18

160.78

0.02597

0.02599

0.02602

88.15

87.43

83.68

169.71

4. Method 4: Heisler Chart


Table 7 Calculation of convective heat transfer coefficient
Sphere Material

Aluminum

Brass

Teflon

Initial sphere temp,

401.97

409.42

379.16

Average sphere temp,

332.12

333.81

324.67

Average ambient temp,

296.46

296.76

297.11

Y axis

0.338

0.329

0.336

X axis

28.284

14.740

0.233

78

44

0.05

105.6

116.4

280.0

Convective heat transfer


coefficient

Table 8 Experimentally determined convective heat transfer coefficients


Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient, W/m2 K

Reynolds
Number

Method 1

Method 2

Method 3

Method 4

Aluminum

51997

103.55

86.21

88.15

105.6

Brass

50958

125.61

91.42

87.43

116.4

Teflon

49658

23.30

27.94

83.68

280.0

Spheres

D ISCUSSION
1. Compare the convective heat transfer coefficients of the methods 1, 2 and 4 with that
obtained from the method 3. Give a brief account on possible causes of the discrepancy
in the values of the heat transfer coefficient obtained from method #3.

Here is the comparison of Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient with different calculation
methods:
280

Convection Coefficient

300
250
200
150

Method 1
Method 2
Method 3
Method 4
125.61
103.55

100

86.21 88.15

105.6

116.4
91.42 87.43

50

83.68
23.3 27.94

Aluminium

Brass

Teflon

For Method 1(lumped-heat-capacity method), the result for Aluminum and Brass sphere is
higher (17% ~ 42%) than Method 3, while the result for Teflon sphere is significantly different
(72%) from Method 3.
The transient heat transfer processes such as cooling of a solid sphere are normally
multidimensional in nature because the temperature within the body is a function of time and at
least one space dimension. However, approximate analysis can be obtained if the Biot number
( )

is small, under this condition, the variation of temperature with the spatial coordinates will

be negligibly small, such that the temperature can be taken as a function of time only. The
Lumped-heat-capacity type of analysis yields reasonable estimates when Biot number <0.1.

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From Table 4 one can see that the Biot number for Aluminum and Brass sphere is much smaller
than 0.1, while for Teflon sphere, the Biot number is larger than 0.1, hence, the Lumped-heatcapacity method is not applicable for Teflon sphere and result in very large error.
Sphere Material
( )

Aluminum

Brass

Teflon

0.0042

0.0082

0.555

Validity of the lumpedheat-capacity method

For Method 2, the result for Aluminum and Brass sphere is very close (2~5%) to Method 3,
while the result for Teflon sphere is significantly different (67%) from Method 3.
Method 2 has taken both convection and radiation into consideration, so the result is much closer
to Method 3 compare with Method 1.
For Method 4 (Heisler Chart), the result for Aluminum and Brass sphere is higher than
(20~33%) to Method 3, while the result for Teflon sphere is significantly higher (235%) than
Method 3. This is because the limitation of Heisler Chart as it doesnt have enough resolution
when the

is very small. In this experiment the thermal diffusivity of Teflon is much

smaller than Aluminum and Brass, which result in very small value in X-axis of Heisler Chart, so
that it is impossible to read an accurate Biot number from the chart, which directly affects the
calculation of convection coefficient.
For Method 3, the empirical relation (Whitaker) ignored some material properties like emissivity
and thermal diffusivity, and it also does not consider the radiation effect, which will introduce
some discrepancy in the result. For Method 3, it requires the following condition to be fulfilled so
that the empirical relation can be satisfied:
. From table 6, one can see that the P_r number is 0.709, which is in the marginal
condition; hence the method 3 calculation may not be very accurate in this case.
2. Comment on the values of heat transfer coefficients obtained from method 1, 2,
3 and 4.
Base on values of heat transfer coefficients obtained from method 1, 2, 3 and 4, here are the
comments:
1) Method1, only consider convection heat transfer and ignore radiation, so the convection
coefficient will be larger than actual value. And this method is not applicable when the
Biot number is larger than 0.1.

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2) For Method 2, the Temperature vs. Time curve is non-linear, hence the

will not be a

constant value, but in the calculation, the nonlinearity of the curve is ignored, that will
introduce some discrepancy into calculation. Method 2 has taken both convection and
radiation into consideration, so the result is much closer to Method 3 compare with
Method 1.
3) For Method 3, the empirical relation (Whitaker) ignored some material properties like
emissivity and thermal diffusivity, and it also does not consider the radiation effect, which
will introduce some discrepancy in the result , that is the reason the convection coefficient
calculated by this method is very close for 3 very different materials.
4) For Method 4, the accuracy is depends on how user read the chart, for some material has
very low thermal diffusivity, the resolution of the chart is not enough, so it will create
huge error. It also does not consider the radiation effect, so the calculated convection
coefficient will be higher than actual value.
C ONCLUSION

After this experiment, I have gone through the different kinds of configuration and practical
analysis on forced convective heat transfer process. I have understand well of their fundamental
principle, properties, characteristic.
By analyzing between graph and practical approach, I have learned about the practical
limitations. I have learnt about the relationship between flow across the sphere and heat transfer
from the sphere as well.
As a summary, by going through this experiment, I had gained the required topical knowledge of
forced convective heat transfer process from the sphere.

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