Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 117

Anglais 1re

B1 B2

LIVRE DU PROFESSEUR
Sous la direction de Jean-Louis HABERT
Romain BERLIER, Agrg danglais Lyce Joffre, Montpellier Formateur Marina GUIBERT, Agrge danglais Lyce priv dAlzon, Nmes Jean-Louis HABERT Agrg danglais, Docteur en linguistique Montpellier Martine HOYET, Certie danglais Lyce Albert Camus, Nmes Philippe MONTEIRO, Agrg danglais Lyce Joffre, Montpellier Fiona RATKOFF, Agrge danglais Acadmie de Nantes Dominique RIBEYRE, Certie danglais Lyce Henri IV, Bziers Formatrice Joanna WISTREICH, Certie danglais Lyce Alphonse Daudet, Nmes

Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

NEW

Sommaire

Introduction : les f iches 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 In the Limelight Manifest Destiny? Breaking Out Rocking the Boat Legacy Time Off Our Changing World Making Things Better

3 9 22 34 49 64 76 89 102 118

Fiches de travail

Toutes les rfrences des sites Internet prsentes dans cet ouvrage ont t vries attentivement la date dimpression. Compte tenu de la volatilit des sites et du dtournement possible de leur adresse, les ditions Belin ne peuvent en aucun cas tre tenues pour responsables de leur volution. Nous appelons donc chaque utilisateur rester vigilant quant leur utilisation. Le code de la proprit intellectuelle nautorise que les copies ou reproductions strictement rserves lusage priv du copiste et non destines une utilisation collective [article L. 1225] ; il autorise galement les courtes citations effectues dans un but dexemple ou dillustration. En revanche toute reprsentation ou reproduction intgrale ou partielle, sans le consentement de lauteur ou de ses ayants droit ou ayants cause, est illicite [article L. 122-4]. La loi 95-4 du 3 janvier 1994 a con au C.F.C. (Centre franais de lexploitation du droit de copie, 20, rue des Grands Augustins, 75006 Paris), lexclusivit de la gestion du droit de reprographie. Toute photocopie duvres protges, excute sans son accord pralable, constitue une contrefaon sanctionne par les articles 425 et suivants du Code pnal.

ditions Belin, 2011

ISBN 978-2-7011-5906-5

Imprim en France par xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx N ddition : 00xxxx-01 - N dimprimeur : xxxxxxxxx Dpt lgal : xxxx 2011

Introduction : les ches


A propos des wordf ile les f iches Wordwork
Lenrichissement lexical est lune de nos ides xes ! On trouvera donc, avec chaque double page ou page de documents, des ches dactivits lexicales dont le but est double : faire le point sur ce que les lves savent dans le champ lexical du thme tudi et enrichir leurs connaissances sur ce sujet. Ces activits prennent des formes diffrentes et peuvent tre donnes travailler soit la maison en amont du cours prvu, soit au dbut de ce dernier. Elles sont tlchargeables et imprimables partir du site On Target et gurent aussi la n de ce livre du professeur. Il conviendra bien entendu de veiller ce que ce lexique soit remploy le plus souvent possible lors des activits proposes dans le manuel, ainsi que sur les ches teamle et dans les Projects proposs en n de cours. Dans le mme esprit daide lexicale systmatique, nous avons ajout en n de manuel une partie Lexique permettant aux lves de vrier rapidement le sens des mots quils ne connaissent pas ou de trouver la traduction anglaise dun mot franais, toutes les classes ntant pas quipes de dictionnaires. Dans chaque chapitre, deux ches au contenu identique, lune en franais, lautre en anglais, aident les lves dans leurs efforts de comprhension de lcrit (deuxime double page) et de loral (troisime double, page de gauche). Quatre quipes de trois ou quatre lves, cela fait une classe de douze ou seize... effectif peu vraisemblable, sauf en situation de modules . Plusieurs solutions soffrent au professeur. Par exemple deux quipes peuvent travailler la mme che, lune vriant le compte-rendu oral de lautre. Si chaque quipe est double on travaille avec huit groupes de quatre, pratique pour une classe dune trentaine dlves. Interact, cest galement un travail minut, une quinzaine de minutes maximum sufsant chaque groupe pour cocher les bonnes cases ou prparer quelques phrases de rponses ou de prsentation. Pendant la rexion des groupes, le professeur circulera et sassurera de la pertinence des rponses et du travail fourni, en anglais dans toute la mesure du possible. Il pourra aussi apporter des prcisions phonologiques. Il ne faut pas craindre le bruit gnr par cette phase : dune part il peut tre contenu dans une limite supportable que le professeur aura indique en amont de lactivit, dautre part il est le signe que les lves sont intellectuellement actifs, ce qui nest pas toujours le cas en cours frontal traditionnel. Le dlai imparti coul, le professeur exigera un retour au silence. Le groupe 1 se lve (les autres suivront), et prend la parole pour livrer ses informations la classe ; celle-ci a pour tche de prendre des notes, qui, de fait, deviendront souvent la base de la trace crite du cours. Il ne sagit pas de dicter des rponses quon lit mais bien de transmettre des informations en sassurant que lauditoire suit et comprend. Le travail de prparation/restitution suppose bien sr de faire en amont un travail mthodologique, que lon pourra pratiquer laide des ches Mthodologie qui se trouvent la n du manuel.

A propos des teamf ile : les f iches Interact


Chaque double page ou page de documents propose dans New On Target est assortie dune option Interact de travail de groupe. Notre objectif est doffrir ainsi plusieurs parcours dapprentissage pour un mme document. En effet, le professeur choisit, selon sa classe et son projet, davoir recours ou pas cette activit. En dautres termes, lenseignant peut soumettre aux lves les tches du Read ou du Listen du manuel, dune faon que lon pourrait qualier de traditionnelle , ou bifurquer vers les activits de Interact, plus guides, gnrant plus doral de la part de plus dlves. De la mme faon, le professeur a le choix de concevoir sa squence en intgrant ou pas la ralisation actionnelle appele Project. Mais nous rappelons nanmoins que les Instructions Ofcielles prconisent dutiliser une approche actionnelle. La section Interact, prsente sous forme de ches photocopiables, est un travail prcis, car chaque quipe se voit assigner une tche spcique sur le document ou une seule partie du document ; de nombreux exercices ont pour consigne Tick the right answer, ce qui signie que les lves sont exposs de nombreux items lexicaux parmi lesquels il faut choisir le ou les plus pertinents. Lexprience de la pratique de ces ches Interact dans nos classes nous encourage suggrer des quipes de trois ou quatre lves maximum an que chacun soit sollicit la fois pendant la phase de prparation en groupes, et dans lactivit de compte-rendu oral la classe qui suivra.

Corrig des f iches teamf ile (Interact)


Il sagit ici dun travail de groupe, guid certes, mais nanmoins effectu en semi-autonomie ; les productions et restitutions orales seront faites dans la spontanit, ce qui suppose maladresses, erreurs, hsitations, omissions, reprises et autocorrection. Il est videmment impossible de prvoir lavance les productions effectives des lves. Cest pourquoi, et nous y insistons, les corrigs des ches teamle proposs dans ce livre du professeur nont pas valeur de modle intangible des productions attendues : il sagit ici de suggestions de rponses possibles. Chaque corrig de che propose donc des noncs pouvant tre ventuellement produits par chaque groupe dlves. Toutefois, les pistes qui sont proposes dans les ches elles-mmes, ainsi que les banques daide lexicale notamment dirigent les lves vers des rponses envisageables et acceptables, la logique de leur propos tant la cl de lacceptabilit de celui-ci. Diffrentes rponses peuvent donc faire sens selon les cas et il conviendra de faire le point des rponses proposes lors des phases de mise en commun. Enn, on notera utilement que le corrig dune che peut galement servir dans un premier temps orienter les lves dans la phase de prise de parole/restitution qui suit la prparation en quipe du travail sur che.
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

Introduction : les ches


A propos des Projects
Il y a trois Projects par chapitre : ce sont les dernires activits des pages Comprhension de lcrit , Expression autour dun document visuel , et Comptence culturelle (Magazine) . Le principe qui sous-tend ce travail est le transfert des connaissances acquises lors du cours des situations de communication courantes dans lesquelles les lves doivent jouer un rle prcis ou se mettre dans la peau dun personnage, le Project consistant effectuer le mieux possible la tche donne. Un Project de type actionnel doit faire lobjet dune consigne incluant des contraintes respecter : dure de chaque phase (conception, validation, prparation, ralisation), niveau de langue, rgles du jeu ... Certes, cest limagination, loriginalit et la crativit des lves que nous faisons ici appel an quils puissent trouver une relle motivation dans la tche qui leur est cone ; mais cest la contrainte (voire les contraintes) dans la consigne qui les guidera et les aidera simprgner de la tche propose. Par ailleurs, comme dans toutes les activits de classe de langue, on demandera aux lves de rinvestir les contenus manipuls et appris en cours. En rsum, dans les activits thtrales des Projects et autres jeux de rles, il ne sagit en aucune manire de faire lacteur dans le vide, gratuitement, sans raison et sans but. Dans ce manuel de premire, nous avons ajout en n de chapitre et sur la seconde double page Ateliers , un class project de plus grande envergure qui offre aux lves la possibilit de rutiliser de faon actionnelle les connaissances acquises au cours de ltude du chapitre. Les grilles dvaluation des Class Projects sont tlchargeables depuis le site Lib des ditions Belin : www.libtheque.fr/ anglaislycee. condition bien sr quil travaille avec dynamisme et bonne volont, cela va sans dire. Cette che dauto-valuation est une che photocopiable linni, transfrable, rutilisable, quelle que soit lactivit Interact choisie.

Fiche Im a referee today!


Nous prconisons galement, de manire rgulire, lintervention de quelques lves jury (quatre lves, chacun dentre eux tant charg dvaluer une quipe) dans le cadre de la phase Interact. Chaque jury dispose de la grille Im a referee today! pour observer et valuer une quipe de faon quitable. Il sagira ici dinter-valuation, sur un total de dix points (tout comme la che dinter-valuation proprement dite). Lvaluation de type paritaire permet aux lves de se jauger les uns les autres et leur en apprend beaucoup sur les attitudes diverses de leurs camarades face au travail, comme dans une micro-socit part entire.

Autres ches dinter-valuation


Cette grille dvaluation prend en compte le fait que la plupart des Projects proposs dans le manuel, reposent sur une prestation orale (la plupart, mais cest loin dtre une rgle rigide, la perspective actionnelle mettant notamment en exergue la crativit, limagination et limplication des lves). Pour valuer sayntes, sketches, et mini-pices de thtre impliquant une prise de parole en continu ou en discontinu, nous proposons deux ches : lune concernant la phonologie/grammaire et le lexique, la deuxime la communication et linterprtation thtrale. La prestation des lves pour raliser la mission cone est gnralement tellement remarquable, au sens premier du terme, que nous ne pouvons raisonnablement pas faire lconomie dune valuation. Tout travail mrite salaire ! Concernant les Projects bass sur un travail crit, il sera judicieux doprer un savant dosage entre diffrents critres dvaluation tels que le contenu des informations apportes, leur clart, les remplois de lexique et structures vus au cours de lunit, ainsi que lorthographe, le soin, la lisibilit, la crativit, lattractivit et les illustrations ventuelles ralises.

Fiche dauto-valuation dun travail en teamwork


Lauto-valuation, dont lintrt nest pas dmontrer, est ncessaire. Nos lves sen servent comme dun vritable levier dapprentissage, et une che, claire et compose dun nombre restreint de critres formuls positivement, est facile manipuler par les lves dune part (elle est trs rapide renseigner avec efcacit et justesse) et par les enseignants dautre part (elle se [re]lit en un clin dil). Ces phases valuatives permettent aux lves de dresser des bilans ponctuels de leur apprentissage et les incitent sinvestir encore davantage dans le travail mis en place et propos par le professeur, tant la volont dobtenir une bonne note tout en vitant de perdre la face dans lactivit tellement expose dinteraction orale est prgnante. En effet, tout lve, quel que soit son niveau, peut obtenir un rsultat honorable, voire, dans la majorit des cas, satisfaisant grce cette che dvaluation,

Fiche End-of-class Assessment


La grille valuative End-of-class assessment a pour but de rveiller , de dcupl er lattention des lves en cours en leur demandant de rchir au contenu de celui-ci a posteriori. En le confrontant son apprentissage tout frais , nous permettons llve de conceptualiser ce quil vient de faire. Le but est videmment de lui faire prendre conscience de ses acquis et de ses ventuelles lacunes an dy remdier rapidement, sans attendre. Bien entendu, il est envisageable, terme, dvaluer cette che qui est souvent riche en enseignements pour le professeur !

Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

FICHE DAUTO-VALUATION DUN TRAVAIL EN INTERACTION


la n de lheure de cours passe en Interact, remplissez ces deux parties de tableau pour obtenir votre note sur 10 du jour, celle de votre prestation en interaction orale !

valuation du travail de prparation avec mon quipe


Oui Nous avons travaill srieusement, sans perdre de temps, et avons accompli notre tche en totalit. Nous avons bien jou le jeu et toujours parl en anglais (entre nous et avec le professeur, quand nous lui demandions de laide). Nous avons pris des notes non rdiges en vue de la restitution orale. 1 2 1 Non 0 0 0

valuation de ma prestation orale personnelle


Oui Jai capt lattention en parlant clairement, sufsamment fort et sans lire mes notes. Jai t attentif (sans bavarder) et ractif ce que disaient les autres quipes. Jai fait des efforts pour prononcer et accentuer correctement. Jai parl anglais sans le moindre mot de franais, du dbut la n de ma prise de parole. Jai corrig mes interventions ou celles de mes camarades lors derreurs commises. 1 2 1 1 1 Non 0 0 0 0 0

MA NOTE : / 10

Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

IM A REFEREE TODAY!
Mon prnom : ..................................................................... Date : ................................ Je moccupe de suivre lquipe................ Membres de lquipe : ...............................................................................................................................................................................................

PENDANT LE TRAVAIL DE PRPARATION DE LQUIPE


Oui Tous les membres de lquipe taient concentrs et ont particip activement et srieusement au travail commun. Tous les membres de lquipe ont bien gr le temps imparti et prpar avec soin la phase de restitution orale. Tous les membres de lquipe ont russi parler seulement en anglais entre eux et avec le professeur. 1 1 2 Non 0 0 0 Remarques

PENDANT LA RESTITUTION ORALE DE LQUIPE


Oui Tous les membres de lquipe ont pris la parole quitablement et sans coller des notes rdiges. Ils ont parl voix haute, distinctement et assez lentement, en regardant rgulirement leur auditoire. Ils ont fait des efforts frquents pour atteindre une prononciation et une accentuation satisfaisantes. Ils ont fait des efforts de correction grammaticale (et dauto-correction) en produisant des noncs oraux. Ils ont toujours fait en sorte de sexprimer en anglais entre eux et avec leur auditoire en interaction. BONUS ventuel : leur intervention orale tait agrable suivre et leur message est clairement pass. 1 1 1 1 2 1 Non 0 0 0 0 0 0 Remarques

RELEV DES ERREURS CONSTATES / ENTENDUES


GRAMMAIRE (syntaxe, formes verbales, accords...) PHONOLOGIE (prononciation, accentuation...)

LA NOTE DE LQUIPE : __________/ 10 Commentaire : ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

FICHE DINTER-VALUATION
Mon nom : .............................................................................................................................. Type de projet et intitul : ...................................................................................................... valuation de : ................................................ Date : ................................................................

Phonologie et grammaire
Oui Efforts faits sur laccentuation (accents de mot ou de phrase bien marqus) Efforts faits sur la prononciation (spcicits de langlais : r , th ... diphtongues...) Rythme et musicalit de la langue (discours produit tonique ou pas) Efforts faits sur la correction grammaticale Complexit de la langue (noncs produits : simples ou complexes) 1 1 1 2 1 Non 0 0 0 0 0 Exemples entendus

Lexique
Oui Rutilisation de lexique vu en cours Qualit globale du lexique (simple ou complexe) Remploi de lexique fonctionnel (Classroom English, phrases de communication, dinteraction) 2 1 1 Non 0 0 0

BONUS
Apports lexicaux personnels pour enrichir le script 1 0

Commentaire et points amliorer : ....................................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... TOTAL DES POINTS : __________/10

Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

FICHE DINTER-VALUATION
Mon nom : .............................................................................................................................. Type de projet et intitul : ...................................................................................................... valuation de : ................................................ Date : ................................................................

Communication
Oui Aisance (la communication passe ou pas) 100% ANGLAIS (aucun mot de franais prononc du dbut la n) Mmorisation du script : qualit de lapprentissage (lecture, oublis... ou bien dclamation russie) Voix (puissante et claire, ou pas) 1 1 2 1 Non 0 0 0 0 Exemples entendus

Interprtation thtrale
Oui Intensit du jeu dacteur (implication thtrale, totale, et de bout en bout) Body language (gestuelle, mimiques, regards, attitudes) Ton adapt la situation (plat ou vivant : comique, tragique, ironique, etc.) Mise en scne (prparation, objets, costumes) BONUS : crativit et originalit, humour 2 1 1 1 1 Non 0 0 0 0 0 Exemples entendus

Commentaire et points amliorer : ....................................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... TOTAL DES POINTS : __________ /10

Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

1 In the Limelight
Ce premier chapitre traite de ce quon appelle de nos jours la clbrit et de tous ses avatars. Le titre du chapitre fait bien sr rfrence au monde du spectacle et ses hros , vedettes ou stars, mais aussi lexposition mdiatique laquelle les clbrits sont soumises, ou lusage commercial qui est fait de ladite clbrit.

livre du professeur

Pages douverture

(p. 10-11) Les documents iconographiques retenus dans cette double page douverture visent, comme toujours, aider llve anticiper sur la thmatique et les contenus de lunit, mais aussi sur le ton des documents supports qui ont t choisis. Les trois questions poses ici visent aider llve mener cette tche bien et faire le lien entre les diffrentes photos. Lextrait vido propos reprend la thmatique de la clbrit des chanteurs, des efforts que certains font pour russir et entrer dans le limelight. (p. 11)

Corrig Limelight refers to a type of stage lighting that was used in theatres and music halls before the advent of electric lighting. Today the word is mainly used metaphorically for (the centre of) public attention. A person who is in the limelight is the object of public attention. Pictures 1, 2, 3 illustrate respectively how some celebrities react to public attention, the pressure that may be put on them by paparazzi, and the sort of adulation they receive from their audiences. It is Princess Diana of Wales, rst wife of Prince Charles, photographed with a telephoto lens, almost certainly without her knowledge. Her position on the diving board suggests loneliness, isolation, unhappiness... Everyone remembers how paparazzi hounded her till the very last minute of her life. They are held by some to be partly responsible for her accidental death. This photo was taken during a press conference to launch Michael Jacksons association with PepsiCo. This sort of link between a product and a celebrity only works if they share a similar image. At the time, Pepsi (a soft drink) wanted an image that was associated with energy and youth. Later, when Jackson was involved in various sex scandals, PepsiCo terminated the arrangement. Script dvdscript-p10-1 REBECCA: Combining funky pop rock with R & B air, the guys in this New Jersey band pride themselves on being accessible to their fans. Hi, Im Rebecca Brayton and welcome to watchmojo.com, and today were speaking with Honor Society. Well, wed like to start by having you guys tell us how the band originally got together. JASON: The band originally started with me and Michael. We actually met in high school, in art class, and just played in some bands in high school and through, you know, friends of ours, through different musical circles, met Andy and Alex, and its been a little over two years that weve been playing together.

MICHAEL: Weve always been friends sort of rst, you know, I think Im not sure people know that; sometimes people think a lot of bands and acts are kind of put together but weve all had a long-standing friendship. REBECCA: How do you guys like to describe the sound? Do you consider yourselves a boy band at all or do you kind of shun that? MICHAEL: Yeah, I think thats an unfortunate title. Anyone who sees the show will denitely see a band, you know, weve always been a rock band. We just decide to make pop music cos its the kind of music that we love but its basically funky uptempo rock music. REBECCA: What would you say is your musical philosophy as a group? MICHAEL: I dont know if a lot of people know, sort of like, the complexities that go into pop music. You know Michael Jackson records are some of the most singalongable music since the Beatles, yet you have someone like Quincey Jones whos such a jazz-minded, you know, very deep musical theoretical producer, you know, making those songs. The point Im trying to get to is that weve always said that our in-house musical philosophy is to, sort of, make those complex-type songs, you know, seem accessible. ANDREW: We usually write songs with just an acoustic guitar or a piano or both and we think that a good song is really a song that can stand out on its own in that really stripped-down setting. And its a very collaborative effort: we all write together; its usually all four of us in a room at one time. On our record Fashionably Late, most of that is Honor Society the four of us. We did do some co-writing with the Jonas Brothers and some other friends of ours and its such a cool experience, you know, to like sit in a room, the four of us, and to get other outside ears and, you know, musical hands on the music. Its really... its a lot of fun. REBECCA: Now, you mentioned your work with the Jones Brothers. How has that helped you? MICHAEL: You know, they gave us our shot. When we look back on our history, you know, one day that is denitely the turning point, them becoming interested in our project and signing us to their label. You know, they saw something in us that we believed in ourselves but gave us, sort of, that bigger platform. And theyve been awesome friends. You can just watch them walk into a room and you learn how to, sort of, carry yourself, how to perform and how to be, you know, professional. REBECCA: Lets talk about the album a bit. What were you guys going for and what do think youll evolve to in the future? ANDREW: We are a rock band and we make pop music. And so the record is unabashedly pop, you know, thats what we wanted to go for. The album shows the full picture of Honor Society just in terms of, like, the range of music. MICHAEL: We know what our spectrum is and we may depending on how were feeling at the time you may hear a really more R & B pop-type album or maybe more a rock acoustic... rock. I honestly feel very blessed, you know, with these guys in the band, really the skys the limit. Its really where our heart is, you know, [its] how the music is going to sound. REBECCA: Thank you very much, guys.
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

1 In the Limelight
Corrig A. 1/a, 2/b, 3/b, 4/a. B. 1/i, 2/j, 3/a, 4/f, 5/g, 6/c, 7/b, 8/h, 9/d, 10/e. dvdle-p10-1 REBECCA: Why dont you tell us more about the live show? ANNA: A journalist friend of mine came out [inaudible] and heard us play. It was an industry showcase. It was a lot of suits. Like so we were performing for them, so we felt a little bit operated. Yeah we tend, you know, to drop the F bombs on stage and we kind of let our guard down, you know that whole thing and he said, Its really weird. I came to see you but I thought, based on the music, that youd be like This songs about heartbreak, everyone can relate to that, right? And were sort of cute cos were sort of country singers, and were girls, but its just we dont put that on because were incapable of it for starters, and (b) because we just want to be real and I think people relate to that more. SENJA: To make an actual connection with people that youve never met and that youve never seen before and actually like treat them like your neighbour is really important. REBECCA: Thanks very much, guys. SENJA/ANNA: Thank you. Corrig dvdle-p10-2 A. 1. country, hippy, pop, rock. 2. a/b/d. 3. b/c/d. B. 1/f, 2/g, 3/e, 4/a, 5/c, 6/b, 7/d. C. (students own answers)

Script dvdscript-p10-2 REBECCA: All great musicians in their own right, when these four ladies come together, its magic. Hi, Im Rebecca Brayton and welcome to watchmojo.com and today were speaking with Ladies of the Canyon. SENJA: I am Senja Sargeant and I sing and play guitar. ANNA: Im Anna Ruddick and I play the upright bass and electric bass and I sing in... Ladies of the Canyon. REBECCA: If you had to describe your music, how would you label it? ANNA: The producer of our record called it hippy country. SENJA: Theres like a song or two on the album that could be labelled as hippy country but I dont think that we can really be boxed into any particular genre. ANNA: Its not quite country, its not quite rock, its not quite pop, but its denitely all of those things at the same time. REBECCA: What is the songwriting process like? ANNA: On this record, a lot of the songs are composed individually, arranged as a group, but some of them were composed as couples. SENJA: Yeah like [inaudible] of us would get together and write a tune or whatever. Its usually one person presents an idea and if they choose to share it with somebody else, theyll come up with like the entire song. REBECCA: Youve never ever done anything like with the four of us, like collaboratively? ANNA: Maybe in the next record. I mean were getting more used to each other musically and so on, you know. We were friends rst and then we became bandmates so maybe in the future Im sure itll happen. REBECCA: In terms of inspiration for the music, you know, where does that come from for you guys? ANNA: Experience. SENJA: Yeah. ANNA: Emotions, things that happen to us. She was saying earlier, we were doing an interview, and she said she likes to mark sort of like important things that have happened in her life with a song and I think we all feel that way. SENJA: To get like really basic like sometimes you smell something like lilacs and itll remind you of, I dont know, your aunts funeral or something, so to hear something and to feel like it just takes you back to that time totally. REBECCA: Usually in a band like this each member kind of assumes a certain role... ANNA: Senja and I have been referred to as the troublemakers, clowns. SENJA: Yeah, the clowns, the comic relief I guess. ANNA: Yeah. SENJA: We like to defuse any sort of tension which there can be a large amount of in any band... ANNA: Yeah. SENJA: ...especially one where theres like four very strong personalitied women.
10 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

A Lost Childhood

(p. 12-13) Le texte est un extrait de magazine rdig par le journaliste/ romancier Paul Theroux. La version intgrale est disponible sur le site du Daily Telegraph. On a dans cet article une vue intressante de la solitude vcue par deux grandes stars de la musique et du cinma, aujourdhui dcdes. (p. 12) Cet exercice pourrait tre donn sous forme de devoir la maison en prparation pour la squence. Les lves qui ne connaissent pas Elizabeth Taylor pourraient alors consulter Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_Taylor). (p. 12) Corrig Real characters: Jacksons mother Katherine, Michael (Jackson), Elizabeth Taylor, the narrator/journalist/famous travel writer Paul Theroux. Fictional characters: Wendy and Peter. Places: Neverland, Santa Barbara. Record albums: Thriller. Elizabeth is compared to Wendy and Michael to Peter. Neverland is different because it is lled with childrens activities, funhouses, etc. It is called Neverland because that was the name given to Peter Pans home and Jackson obviously recognizes that, like Peter Pan, he has never wanted to grow up. They became friends when Michael decided to give Elizabeth tickets for one of his concerts and then, when he heard she had left the concert early, Michael phoned her up and they immedi-

livre du professeur

ately got on well. They had a lot in common: they had both been child stars and had had a difcult childhood helping to support their families and missing out on a real childhood. Michael himself doesnt seem to feel he had a tragic childhood. In later life he was obviously lonely and unhappy and badly treated by the press. However, he also had a lot of the benets of being a star.
WORDWORK

Corrig A. 1/d, 2/c, 3/j, 4/b, 5/a, 6/g, 7/f, 8/i, 9/h, 10/e. B. 1/a, 2/c, 3/a, 4/b, 5/b. C.
faux ami franais mange ride ride (n.) ddi dvou devoted timide, hsitant tentative tentative support (v.) aider, soutenir supporter scne stage stage mot anglais sa traduction

(p. 12) wordle-p12-1a

sa traduction wrinkle dedicated attempt bear (training) course

wordle-p12-1b A. 1/c, 2/d, 3/e, 4/b, 5/a, 6/f, 7/h, 8/k, 9/g, 10/l, 11/i, 12/o, 13/n, 14/p, 15/j, 16/m. B/C. (voir ci-dessus : 1a) wordle-p12-2 A.

best friend bosom friend boyfriend close friend soul mate

buddy chum crony mate pal

casual acquaintance classmate friend of a friend schoolmate workmate

B.
get along well get on like a house on re have a great relationship hit it off together love each other to bits fall out with get on badly get on each others nerves rub each other up the wrong way wind each other up

(p. 12) Corrig teamle-p12-1 He wasnt from a wealthy family because he had to give his earnings to his father to support the family. Elizabeth Taylor became almost his only defender. Sensitive: Michael called the next day in tears apologizing for the bad seats. Generous: out of the blue, Michael offered her tickets for one of his Thriller tour concerts. Sincere: tremendously eager and helpful. Vulnerability (n.) dear (adj.). Boyish and tentative show that hes vulnerable and that he likes playing and having fun. Eager and helpful reects his behaviour over the tickets for the concert and the ensuing phone call.

Circuses, amusement parks, animals, watching cartoons and playing video games. These all reect Michaels boyish enthusiasm. His liking for animals shows he is a sensitive person. (exemple) I dont think I would say he was tragic because, although he had difculties in his life, he still managed to have fun and hold on to his childlike character. teamle-p12-2 Michael and Elizabeth were like Peter Pan and Wendy in the play and novel Peter Pan by J. M. Barrie (1860-1937). Wendy is recruited by Peter to act as a mother to him in the same way that Elizabeth obviously does to Michael. Elizabeth tells Theroux that they have such fun together just playing (like children). Michael was the one who initiated the friendship by giving Elizabeth tickets to one of his concerts. He then phoned her the next day even though he knew she had walked out of the concert early. By speaking for hours on the phone. Having fun together playing. They both enjoyed circuses, amusement parks and animals. They both shared the problem of having lost their childhood to stardom and of having had to support their families as children. They were both lost children who, deprived of parental love and support, needed to make up for it by playing together and never really growing up. teamle-p12-3 (students own answers) See wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_Taylor. The fact that she wasnt satised with her seats for the concert and walked out early. She liked his vulnerability and his warmth, probably because she herself felt vulnerable and needed someone to love her for who she was and not for the fact that she was a star. Hell talk to you if I ask him to. He uses the adjectives warm and cuddly adjectives one could use about a mother-gure. She likes things that children like circuses, amusement parks and animals. It is more than likely that she also lost out on these activities as a child and feels the need to make up for it as an adult. teamle-p12-4 It is near Santa Barbara in California, but in quite a remote spot. It occupied an entire 3,000-acre valley. It is a metaphor for eternal childhood. Neverlands are found in the minds of children, so they vary from child to child. It is a place full of carnival rides, dolls houses, giant cinemas, zoo animals; it has its own toy train, etc. Its a world of play far from real life adult problems of money and personal relationships. He loved watching cartoons and so Neverland had a giant cinema screen. He also loved animals, so he had his own zoo.

Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 11

1 In the Limelight
TRANSLATORS WORKSHOP

(p. 13)

Corrig (Les numros renvoient aux procds de traduction tels quils sont dcrits dans la che p. 164.) Leur (5) amiti commena/a commenc le jour o (5), de but en blanc/ brle pourpoint (11), Michael lui offrit des billets pour lun des concerts de son Thriller Tour (1)/de sa tourne Thriller. En fait, elle lui en (9) demanda 14. Mais les siges taient placs dans une loge vitre rserve (8) aux ofciels/aux VIPs et situe (8) si loin de la scne que ctait comme si vous aviez suivi le spectacle la tlvision . Au lieu dassister au spectacle (7), elle emmena son groupe damis chez elle. Quand, le lendemain, il apprit quelle avait quitt le spectacle avant la n (7), Michael lappela, en larmes, et la pria de lexcuser de ne pas lavoir mieux fait placer (7).

An Invasion of Privacy?

(p. 14)

(p. 14) Corrig Although she is hiding her face, probably from the paparazzis cameras, the blonde celebrity is easily recognisable as Marilyn Monroe, probably the most famous movie actress of all time. She had an unfortunate love life: three unsuccessful marriages, several affairs and no children (although she would have loved to have children). She was often unhappy and depressed and died at 36 from a drug overdose, either accidental or deliberate. This picture shows that celebrity can make life unbearable for those who are constantly in the limelight. (p. 14) Script tapescript1-p14 PRESENTER: Now there have been a lot of stories in the press recently about celebrities prosecuting photographers for invasion of privacy and in some cases assaulting them physically. Margaret Stretton, youre a journalist with The Sun. How do you feel about this? MARGARET: Well, this is not exactly new, is it? PRESENTER: Not exactly news either, some people might say, but you put it on the front page. MARGARET: Well, its what our readers want to read about: nothing interests them more than stories about celebrities. PRESENTER: But isnt this the problem? Were living in a period when celebrity culture seems to have taken over the media a celebrity style of reporting, where everything is about entertainment and selling newspapers and not about the truth. MARGARET: Youre referring to those hoaxes, I suppose. PRESENTER: Well, you have to admit you should have checked your facts. Isnt that the rst rule of journalism? MARGARET: We were made to believe certain things which turned out not to be true, that I concede. PRESENTER: And they got you to pay out quite a lot of money. MARGARET: It wasnt only The Sun. Well, look, the stories were funny, not too cruel, we were given a name and a phone number... there was no reason to doubt them.
12 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

PRESENTER: And it turned out they were just clever hoaxes designed to show up how gullible the tabloid press is. Did any of the celebrities involved take you to court? MARGARET: No. They know which side their bread is buttered. If they take us to court, we stop writing about them. Its as simple as that. PRESENTER: Well, if they dont want you to stop writing about them, how do you explain the recent wave of prosecutions for invasion of privacy that have even been featured on your front pages? MARGARET: Quite honestly, I dont know what theyre complaining about. No one asked them to become celebrities. Nobody made them become famous. Nobodys forcing them to go to nightclubs and restaurants and parties with other celebrities, nobodys telling them they have to have their faces on ten-foot high posters or do TV commercials for perfumes that carry their name, or get million dollar paychecks from some dogfood company... PRESENTER: Of course no ones forcing them, but what about their private life? MARGARET: Listen, if you want to earn a lot of money from sport or modelling or acting, you need to have a following, you need to be a star, and the only way of doing that is by deliberately setting out to get noticed, to get photographed in the right places with the right people. And thats what we are there for. We make celebrities. PRESENTER: So you think people who want to be celebrities have sold their soul to the devil, so to speak? MARGARET: Or rather sold it to the media in this case. PRESENTER: And you have no sympathy for them at all? MARGARET: Let me say this. If they want privacy, they can have it. There are thousands of actors who lead very quiet lives off the screen, under the radar. But once they decide they want to be in the limelight... They bring it on themselves, for Gods sake. Corrig a. Its a radio interview. b. Margaret Stretton is a journalist. c. They are talking about celebrities and the problems they have with the press. a. She is being accused of not doing her job properly, of inventing stories. b. She says they were made to believe certain things that turned out not to be true. c. He thinks that celebrity culture has taken over the media because these days all that the press is interested in is making money/selling more papers. a. They go to nightclubs, restaurants and parties to get themselves photographed, they do advertisements that appear on billboards, and do TV commercials. b. He thinks she has a hard, unsympathetic attitude to celebrities. c. She thinks the celebrities bring it on themselves, that they ask for it. They could choose to live a quiet life if they wanted.

livre du professeur

(p. 14) Corrig (exemple) From Dream to Nightmare The life of Sheila Brandon, winner of an early X-Factor series, turned from dream into nightmare last night. Loving parents and an attractive personality enabled her to believe in her singing qualities and hit stardom, but it all turned sour in the hectic weeks following the nale of X-Factor. An impossible schedule of concerts together with too much media attention and parties every night gave this shy girl of nineteen a degree of celebrity she couldnt deal with. Yesterday evening, not long after Sheila had arrived back in her palatial apartment in London after being on tour for three weeks, police were called...
WORDWORK

Corrig A. 1/c, 2/g, 3/a, 4/f, 5/b, 6/h, 7/e, 8/d. B. 1/b, 2/a, 3/a, 4/a, 5/b, 6/a. C. 1/c, 2/b, 3/a, 4/b.

(p. 14) wordle-p.14-1a/1b

wordle-p.14-2 A. 1/d, 2/f, 3/e, 4/b, 5/a, 6/c, 7/j, 8/i, 9/g, 10/h. B. 1. meet, 2. be mad with, 3. have an affair, 4. cut all ties, 5. get back together, 6. be faithful, 7. get married to, 8. make up with, 9. faithless, 10. fellow..

teamle-p14-3 A. 1. a/F. Not exactly news either b/T. But isnt this the problem? Were living in a period when celebrity culture seems to have taken over the media. c/T. where everything is about entertainment and selling newspapers d/F. not about the truth 2. To check the facts. 3. gullible 4. He thinks they have sold their soul that they have lost their integrity. 5. No, he suggests that she has no sympathy for the celebrities. teamle-p14-4 A. 1. They know which side their bread is buttered. Quite honestly, I dont know what theyre complaining about. 2. Nightclubs, restaurants and parties. 3. On ten-foot high posters and on TV commercials. 4. Perfumes and dog food. 5. Sport, modelling and acting. 6. You must deliberately set out to get noticed to get photographed in the right places with the right people. 7. Yes, she says there are thousands of actors who lead very quiet lives off the screen, so they can choose not to become like other celebrities.

PRONOUNCE

(p. 14)

Warhols People

(p. 15) (p. 15)

Corrig A. 1. book, foot, hood, look, put, should, would. 2. food, fool, new, rule, soup, true, truth, two, would. B. The vowel sounds of to and do may be pronounced [] or [e] when the words are not stressed in a sentence. (p. 14) Corrig teamle-p14-1 A. 1. Margaret Stretton, a journalist on The Sun, is being interviewed by a radio presenter. 2. Its a radio interview. 3/c. 4. The Sun a British tabloid. 5. a. Tabloids have a smaller format than quality papers and often deal in sensational news. b. The Gutter Press. c. They often have articles on celebrity culture, gossip, sensational crime stories and sport rather than on politics. The Sun dedicates its third page to a photo of a sexy woman in very revealing clothes or wearing hardly any clothes at all! There are often hoaxes and stories that turn out to be untrue. d. In the US, there is the Philadelphia Daily News, the Chicago Sun-Times, the Boston Herald, the New York Observer and Newsday. In the UK, there is the Daily Mirror, the Daily Mail and the Daily Express. teamle-p14-2 A. 1/c, 2/c/e, 3/b, 4/d, 5. They want the newspaper to keep writing about them so that they can stay celebrities. Therefore, they do not want to get on the wrong side of the newspaper.

Corrig The picture on the left shows Marilyn Monroe (1926-1962), the glamorous icon of American cinema in the 1960s who died tragically at a very early age for reasons that still remain unclear. She is said to have had an affair with President Kennedy. The picture on the right shows the artist himself Andy Warhol (19281987). He most probably chose to portray Marilyn for her iconic signicance in the 1960s a decade marked by disputes and conicts worldwide and maybe to counterbalance any negative image of the USA by showing its more glamorous side. He was also attracted to any people who personied camp (usually taken to mean exaggerated glamour and femininity and often associated with gay icons) such as Marilyn Monroe, Elizabeth Taylor and Jackie Kennedy. This type of art which emerged in Great Britain in the mid-1950s and then in the USA in the late 1950s is called pop art in reference to popular art and culture, that is to say the art forms in direct connection with peoples everyday lives. In portraying everyday objects, however, there was almost always an element of parody. (students own answers) Andy Warhol was an American artist, painter, printmaker, writer, record producer and lmmaker. He was a leading gure in the visual art movement known as pop art. Warhol has been the subject of numerous exhibitions, books and lms. He coined the expression 15 minutes of fame. For his portraits, Warhol often used photographs on which he superimposed bright colours. The result was an unreal comicbook effect, making his subjects look like superheroes or timeless icons.
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 13

1 In the Limelight
Even though Warhol was interested in making abstract art accessible to the general public, his work is considered as realistic, believable and understandable, as opposed to abstract art. Therefore the expression real art came to be associated with him. (students own answers) Other famous pop artists include Roy Lichtenstein, Keith Haring, Robert Rauschenberg, Ed Ruscha, Jasper John, David Hockney and Niki de Saint Phalle. Their work covered not only painting but sculpture, drawing, street art, collage and montage. (p. 15) Le but de ce projet est de permettre aux lves dutiliser un support visuel en loccurrence leur propre cration quoiquassiste par ordinateur ! an de mettre en application ce quils ont appris sur la technique du pop art. Encourageons-les laisser libre cours leur imagination et crativit an de proposer un panel aussi vari que possible duvres et de prsentations la classe. Le pop art tant un savant dosage de ralisme et de transgression du rel travers le travail de lartiste, llve essaiera de se placer dans linconfortable position de la justication. Loriginalit du propos, un ton clairement marqu, un jeu dacteur transformant llve en artiste doux-dingue, seront sans aucun doute bonier dans lvaluation. Pourquoi ne pas envisager par la suite lorganisation dune exposition de ces uvres, dans la salle de classe ou au CDI, chaque lve devant associer un texte explicatif potique son document visuel selon une thmatique choisie ? Le visuel sera donc un prtexte artistique une production orale (et donc, peut-tre, crite dans un second temps). On conseillera aux lves, dans les consignes donnes, de prparer une forme dinteraction avec son public lors de la prsentation orale. La che dinformation Une che dinformation est tlchargeable : bonusle-p.15. Elle fournit des renseignements sur le peintre, le background et le tableau. Pour ceux qui disposent du manuel numrique, ces textes sont disponibles galement en version enregistre. Lactivit supplmentaire Une che de travail est tlchargeable : artle-p.15. Il sagit dun texte trous sur la vie de Andy Warhol. Corrig artle-p.15 Andy Warhol, a founder of Pop Art whose paintings and prints of Presidents, movie stars, soup cans and other icons of America made him one of the most famous artists in the world, died yesterday. [...] Though best known for his earliest works including his silkscreen image of a Campbells soup can and a wood sculpture painted like a box of Brillo pads Mr. Warhols career included successful forays into photography, movie making, writing and magazine publishing. He founded Interview magazine in 1969, and in recent years both he and his work were increasingly in the public eye - on national magazine covers, in society columns and in television advertisements for computers, cars, cameras and liquors. In all these endeavors, Mr. Warhols keenest talents were for attracting publicity, for uttering the unforgettable quote and for nding the single visual image that would most shock and enPROJECT 14 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

dure. That his art could attract and maintain the public interest made him among the most inuential and widely emulated artists of his time. Although himself shy and quiet, Mr. Warhol attracted dozens of followers who were anything but quiet, and the combination of his genius and their energy produced dozens of notorious events throughout his career. In the mid-1960s, he sometimes sent a Warhol look alike to speak for him at lecture engagements, and his Manhattan studio, the Factory, was a legendary hangout for other artists and hangers-on. [...] He never denied his obsession with art as a business and with getting publicity; instead, he proclaimed them as philosophical tenets. Being good in business is the most fascinating kind of art, he said on one occasion. On another, he said: Art? Thats a mans name. As widely known as his art and his own image were, however, Mr. Warhol himself was something of a cipher. He was uneasy while speaking about himself. The interviewer should just tell me the words he wants me to say and Ill repeat them after him, he once said.
LANGUAGE CORNER

(p. 16-17)

Lemploi des articles : a, the,


Occasion dattirer lattention des lves sur les diffrences de fonctionnement des deux langues et aussi leurs similitudes. On sentira que notre choix de point de langue est motiv aussi par les problmes de traduction que lemploi des articles entrane. Notez que les rexions sont toujours bases sur des exemples tirs des textes tudis (en comprhension crite ou comprhension de loral). Corrig (Observation) weeks: nombre indni de semaines. the calls: les appels dont on a dj parl (appels identiables par linterlocuteur). the [...] tragedy: celle des enfants stars (dnie). childhood stars: les enfants stars en general (indnis). circuses: les cirques en gnral. amusement parks: les parcs dattractions en gnral. animals: les animaux en gnral. people: les gens en gnral. (strange) things: aucune reference des vnements prcis. stage: utilisation de la notion on stage/off stage, mais rfrence aucune scne en particulier, bien plutt un un type dendroit en gnral. Notons en franais sur scne . Lemploi de larticle nest donc pas tranger au franais non plus. Les/des semaines passrent, les appels continurent. La grande tragdie des enfants vedettes/stars. Les cirques, les parcs dattractions, les animaux. Cela incite les gens faire des choses bizarres. Mais aussi : dtranges choses. Aprs avoir quitt la scne, vous avez limpression de otter dans lair. Larticle dni les est employ mme lorsque les choses ne le sont pas ! Langlais semble plus logique : the napparat que si lon sait de quel objet, vnement ou personne on parle.

livre du professeur

Il nest pas possible de mettre tous les mots pluriels au singulier ici sans obtenir des noncs qui ne font pas sens. A week passed, the calls continued. On voit ici le caractre comptable de larticle indni a, et, au pluriel, de larticle indni des . The great tragedy of a childhood star. A circus. An amusement park. An animal. It makes people do strange things. La question se pose vraiment de savoir si cette mise au singulier fait vraiment sens dans le contexte donn. = les lorsque larticle franais est utilis pour parler de choses ou de personnes en gnral. = des lorsquil est impossible de dire de combien dlments il est question ou de les dnir clairement. La traduction de la premire phrase illustre bien cette difcult de traduction. (Application) The Neverland carousel played Michaels own song, Childhood. Even the lawns and ower beds were playing music; loudspeakers disguised as big, grey rocks buzzed with showtunes, lling the valley with unstoppable Muzak that drowned the chirping of wild birds. a. Even though no rain had fallen for months, the acres of lawns watered by underground sprinklers were deep green. b. Here and there, like toy soldiers, uniformed security people patrolled on foot, or on golf carts. c. Elizabeth and Michael went in disguise to movies in Los Angeles cinemas, sitting in the back, holding hands.

plments introduits par une prposition : snuggle up to something/someone; cover oneself with something. Ils apparaissent ici dans des relatives dont le pronom relatif est that, lequel ne peut tre prcd dune prposition, contrairement aux relatifs en wh-. La prposition est donc rejete la n de chaque proposition. Il sagit ici de style parl courant. Les puristes prfreraient sans doute : Shes a warm and cuddly blanket to which I love to snuggle up and with which I like to cover myself! (Application) a. Human habitation was a very small part of what the valley was devoted to. b. A railway terminus was what the rest was given over to. a. Who was Katharine Station named after? b. Who can I conde in? c. What did you miss out on?

Les structures causatives


Autre point structural source de difcult pour les lves, la traduction du franais faire faire . Corrig (Observation) nonc 1a : we subit la pression dun sujet par ailleurs omis. nonc 1b : them est lobjet de la pression (absente ici cause du caractre ngatif de la phrase). nonc 2 : them (mme cas que pour la phrase prcdente). Dans les noncs n 1, cest le verbe make ; dans le second, le verbe lexical force. nonc 1a. sujet (passif) + be made + to + V (pas dagent). nonc 1b. sujet (actif) + make + COD + V. nonc 2. sujet (actif) + force + COD + to + V. Lnonc 1a est au passif. lapparition de to + V aprs make, l o lactif utilise make + V. Nous ninigeons pas aux lves dexplication linguistique sur le pourquoi des diffrentes structures (make + V ; be made to + V ; force to + V). (Application) We were forced to believe certain things. Nobody forced them to become famous. Nobody is making them/makes them go to nightclubs... a. We have to nd something sensational to write about to make readers buy our paper. b. I want you to stop writing those horrible lies about my life. If you dont, Ill force you to do so. c. I didnt want to hire any bodyguards. But the pressure of the paparazzi nally forced me to. d. Lots of celebrities these days sue the tabloids to make them stop writing tall stories about them.

(all) the more.../(all) the less...


Le deuxime point de cette double page de rexion sur la langue a t choisi parce que sa matrise est indispensable celle dune argumentation bien construite. Corrig (Observation) all Il y a en lui une vulnrabilit qui le rend dautant plus attachant. (students own answers) (Application) a. There are many rides and funhouses at Neverland, which makes it all the more attractive to children. b. But to adults, the gateway, formidable headquarters and uniformed guards might make it look all the less welcoming. c. When he learned she couldnt see anything, he was all the more embarrassed. d. When he heard she had left before the end of the concert, he was all the sadder. e. She was his only defender. Thats why Michael thought her all the more trustworthy.

Manipuler les verbes prpositionnels


Entranement lemploi dune particularit syntaxique de langlais. Il nest donc pas surprenant que les exercices prennent une tournure... structurale. Corrig (Observation) Les deux verbes de chaque proposition sont suivis de com-

Marketing Celebrity

(p. 18-19) (p. 19)

Corrig (students own answers) Rita Hayworth is advertising soap. Her perfect beauty is
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 15

1 In the Limelight
associated with a pure clean skin. The message (to women) is that, by using this soap, some of her glamour and beauty will rub off on you when you cleanse your skin. At the time (1940s-50s) lm stars were the trendsetters for young people since teenage fashion had not yet taken off in a big way. When it did, along with rock music and pop stars, musicians and singers became teenagers fashion icons. David Beckham is advertising Armani clothes. The message is that these clothes are for masculine, modern men who have a healthy lifestyle, are family men and yet have a lot of sex appeal. Since clothes by Armani are by no means cheap, the ads are designed to appeal to young professionals, (e.g. stockbrokers, marketing executives...) between, say, 28 and 35. Beyonc Knowles is advertising perfume. Her female fans (mostly 18-40) admire her image as a woman both independent and sexy. Like her, they will tend to be successful and concerned with their image. Pierce Brosnan is advertising skin products for men. LOral is trying to convince men that you dont have to be feminine to use skin products. By using a man known for his seductive appeal to women and with a very masculine image, LOral hopes to overcome the perennial problem of men being afraid of being thought effeminate if they use beauty products. Kate Moss is advertising lip gloss. Kate Moss is an interesting choice for an advertiser because she has a rather wild, edgy reputation, being liked by the young because she experiments with different styles, and being admired by the 25-40 age group because she started her career over 15 years ago. The advertiser is trying to capture the largest market possible. (students own answers) Students should be able to realise that the quotes are carefully-worded statements, probably included in press releases, and therefore not off-the-cuff at all. One wrong word could mean the loss of millions of dollars. It is also probable that, since none of the three people is a native speaker of English, that the quotes originated with, or at least were edited by, someone else. (students own answers)
WORDWORK

Corrig A.
adjective accurate ambitious clever courageous efcient energetic experienced generous gifted honest humble sincere skilled, skilful tenacious talented noun accuracy ambition cleverness courage efciency energy experience generosity gift honesty humility sincerity skill tenacity talent

(p. 19) wordle-p19


translation prcis ; precision ambitieux ; ambition intelligent ; intelligence courageux ; courage efcace ; efcacit nergique ; nergie expriment ; exprience gnreux ; gnrosit dou ; don honnte ; honntet humble ; humilit sincre ; sincrit comptent ; comptence tenace ; tenacit talentueux ; talent

B. 1. Natacha surpasse toutes les autres lles/Natacha est cent fois meilleure que les autres lles.
16 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

2. Quand il sagit de jouer au basket, en gnral, il bat les autres garons plates coutures. 3. Dans le domaine de la haute technologie, le Japon est largement en tte de la plupart des autres pays/le Japon devance largement les autres pays. 4. Elle a le don de la dcoration dintrieur, tout comme sa mre. 5. Cest un chef de premier ordre. 6. Cest une artiste de premier plan. 7. En maths, elle en connat vraiment un rayon. 8. Mary sait y faire/sait sy prendre avec les enfants. Les autres enseignants lenvient. 9. Keith a vraiment la main verte. Regarde donc ces eurs ! 10. Laisse-la faire la partie orale. Elle a du bagout. Script dvdscript-p.19 Today, Harry Potter actress Emma Watson is doing a photo shoot with Alberta Ferretti, an Italian fashion designer. Together they will be launching a new line of clothes inspired, apparently, by Jane Birkin. So what? you may ask. Here we have yet another celebrity lending her name to fashion products that will be bought by thousands if not millions of teenage girls hoping that some of that celebritys glamour will rub off on them. Here we have yet another celebrity getting paid astronomical sums for doing nothing except being famous. But this is where you would be wrong. Emma Watson is not in it for the money any more. Before she was 18, she was already a millionaire, with over 10 million pounds in her bank account thanks to the Harry Potter lms in which she plays Hermione, and plays her so well that she has won more critical acclaim than Daniel Radcliffe who plays the lead in the series. She herself has admited that she need never work again. She even hesitated a very long time before signing up for the nal two Harry Potter lms. The enormous sums of money involved may have been what nally decided her, but it may also have been the enjoyment of acting with people who have become like family to her over the past 10 years or so. Being a very clever girl with 10 A-levels and a strong desire to get a university degree she has taken good advantage of the opportunities that fame offers, having become the face of Burberry, for example, and having launched one clothing line already. But she is at pains to insist that her venture into fashion design was not for nancial gain. In fact, the prots from her rst line of clothing, The People Tree, went towards spreading the practice of fair-trade farming. So this new venture with Alberta Ferretti is more about organic clothes than about money. Emmas views on fair trade and organic farming are now some of her strongest motivations when it comes to making decisions as to who she works with or who to work for. But, on the other hand, it is difcult to imagine her giving up the limelight, the glamour and the excitement of the Hollywood movie world which she has grown up with. And what a waste of talent it would be if she retired from movies at the ripe old age of 21... Corrig dvdle-p.19 a studio photo shoot a. get paid a lot of money for simply being famous.

livre du professeur

b. the lms she has made. c. she enjoys lming and it pays well. b/c/e. (students own answers)
PROJECT

(p. 18) Pendant la phase prparatoire, les lves se rpartissent les rles et sentranent. On leur conseillera dimproviser partir de notes succinctes et de ne pas rdiger le script ! Ils peuvent se lmer chez eux ou au lyce et remettre ensuite le DVD leur professeur. Le DVD constituera donc leur project. Ils peuvent galement jouer la scne en classe. Dans ce cas, le professeur pourra dcider de modier les groupes au moment de la restitution an de laisser une plus grande part limprovisation. (p. 20-22)

Ateliers
Atelier 1

(p. 20) Script dvdscript-p20 Its romantic, its huge, and, after the long wait, New Moon is coming to the big screen. Welcome to watchmojo.com and today were revealing seven things you may not know about the Twilight franchise. Number 1: the Franchise The Twilight lms are based on the four award-winning and very popular vampire romance novels written by Stephenie Meyer. The story revolves around teenage girl Bella Swan and her move to Forks, Washington, to be with her Dad. The very mysterious vampire, Edward Cullen, is unexplainably drawn to Bella. For most of the series, the handsome werewolf Jacob Black competes for Bellas affection, and thus the love triangle begins. Number 2: The Vampires The vampires in the Twilight series differ from those in traditional vampire stories. In Twilight they are unharmed by garlic, holy items or wooden stakes. They have reections and are able to venture out in daylight. However, their skin sparkles like diamonds when hit by the sunlight, which is why the Cullen family has chosen Forks, Washington. It is rarely sunny in Forks. The Cullen clan differ from most vampires as they are vegetarian and have renounced the act of drinking human blood. Number 3: Vampire Government and Laws In Twilight, vampires are ruled by the Volturi. They are elite vampires who oversee and regulate the vampire population. If their rules are broken they take action and destroy those who do not obey. They have forbidden the birth of newborn vampires. This is to avoid the creation of armies and because new vampires cant control their thirst and go on a killing spree which draws attention to the vampire population. It is also a law that humans cannot know about the vampire world. Bellas knowledge puts her and the Cullen clan in constant danger. Number 4: The Werewolves The werewolves in Twilight are the descendants of a shapeshifter. As such, they can take any form, though they choose that of a wolf. The werewolves are faster than the vampires, extremely strong and heal quickly.

Number 5: Authors Inspiration The author, Stephenie Meyer, has acknowledged that her series takes much of their [sic] structure and themes from classic novels such as Pride and Prejudice, A Midsummer Nights Dream and Romeo and Juliet. Meyer said that the idea for the series rst came to her in a dream. She admits that her faith as a Mormon has inuenced the underlying principles of her stories, as demonstrated by the books cover, which portrays the forbidden fruit from the book of Genesis. However, Myers does not admit to promoting values of sexual abstinence or spiritual purity. According to her the series is about life, not death and love, not lust. Number 6: The Phenomenon Twilight has attracted a huge fan base, comprised primarily by teenage girls. (Girl: We screamed. It was awesome!) However, the series also has developed a wider appeal as its author has been compared with the likes of J. K. Rowling of the Harry Potter franchise. Economically, Twilight has bolstered the town of Forks, Washington, with over 8 thousand fans making the pilgrimage to visit the books setting each month. Number 7: The Future of the Series Meyer penned a dozen chapters of a companion book to Twilight, which retells the events of the rst novel from the perspective of vampire Edward Cullen. These chapters have been available on her website for fans to read. Meyer plans to produce similar pieces that reveal the perspectives of the other main characters. After New Moon hits theaters, fans can expect the movie series to continue with adaptations of the last two novels Eclipse and Breaking Dawn. Corrig (questions du manuel) a. It is between Bella Swan and her two suitors, Edward Cullen the vampire and Jacob Black the werewolf. b. They are not harmed by garlic, holy items or wooden stakes. They have reections and can go out in daylight but, in the sunlight, their skin sparkles like diamonds. They are vegetarians who dont drink human blood. c. They may be destroyed by the Volturi if it is found out that the Cullens have told Bella about themselves, i.e. about their being vampires. d. The inspiration comes from different romantic novels and plays such as Pride and Prejudice, A Midsummer Nights Dream and Romeo and Juliet. The authors Mormon faith also inuenced the underlying principles of the stories. e. The fans are mainly teenage girls. (students own answers) dvdle-p20 a/T, b/F, c/T, d/F, e/T, f/T, g/F, h/T, i/T, j/F/ In the vampire romance novels by Stephenie Meyer, two nonhumans compete for the affections of a teenage girl, Bella Swan. One of them is a vegetarian vampire who is unharmed by things that hurt or destroy other vampires. The other is a werewolf, an extremely fast and strong creature descended from a shapeshifter. Although the author admits that her Mormon faith has
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 17

1 In the Limelight
inuenced the stories, they do not promote Mormon values. They are about life and love. Atelier 2 (p. 21) Nous proposons en comprhension crite un extrait du rcent recueil de nouvelles de Jay McInerney dont nous conseillons la lecture. Ce livre est une mine de textes utilisables en classe. Extrait comique crit par un habitu de la vie new-yorkaise. Les questions sont organises de telle faon que llve soit guid vers la perception de tout ce qui est spcique la vie des chasseurs dautographes et autres groupies. Elles ont aussi pour but daider llve comprendre le comique de la situation dans laquelle le lecteur est plong, comme sil en tait le tmoin vivant. Notons que lagression dont Chip est victime est due au fait quil vient de chiper la copine de lagresseur. Corrig The scene is outside the stage door of a theatre where fans have come in the hope of seeing their favourite stars and getting their autographs. There are police barriers and security men. One of the so-called fans is an imposter posing as a fan. His reason for being there becomes clear at the end. Clarence looks like a bit of a nerd (thick glasses and a parka) and suspiciously intense, but Charlie looks more ordinary (a Mets jacket is the sort of thing thousands of men wear). Both are here to get as many autographs as they can in the hope of selling them to other people. We assume that both are unashamedly selsh and dont hesitate to push themselves to the front of a crowd. Collin pretends to be one of the fans and is waiting for the right moment to attack Chip. He moves very fast and, before the security men can intervene, punches Chip in the face. He is immediately and brutally subdued (I see stars!). Collin obviously has a serious grudge against Chip. It may be that they were in competition for the same part that Chip eventually got or Chip may have done something to Collin that was bad enough to make Collin want to get his revenge. a. press up: the people are squeezed against the barriers. clutched: they hold onto their books as if afraid that someone might steal them stamping: theyre very cold and try to keep their feet warm by marching on the spot goes taut: you can feel the tension when the people see signs that a celebrity is arriving launches himself: the actor is obviously trying to get past the crowd as fast as he can slide under: Collin manages to pass under the barrier cut him off: stand in his way and block his progress nail: hit duck away: try to avoid wobbles: staggers, loses his balance sinks: (here) falls tackles: jumps and throws the person down as in a rugby or US football match smashes: hits very hard, crushes b. squeaky-wheel Me-me-me manners of born New-Yorkers: New Yorkers, like other city people, are not famous for their politeness
18 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

or discretion. They speak their mind and say what they want. Squeaky-wheel refers to an insistent noise that can be heard above others, and Me-me-me means egotistical. a love-struck jellysh: you have to imagine a jellysh wobbling about and surging forwards from time to time because of an irresistible attraction to something. a shiny black stretch ns up to the curb: a black limousine (a stretch limo is longer than a normal car) comes and pulls up by the sidewalk. Fins could refer to the tail ns of the car, which might be exaggerated, but more probably refer to the silent slithering movement of a sh. c. I see stars: this is what is supposed to happen when something hits you very hard on the head. Collin here has been violently thrown to the ground and his head hit it hard. He had come to meet a star, and now he can see several! Atelier 3 (p. 22) Corrig (exemple) What is at issue here is the relationship between celebrities and the advertising industry, and above all the astronomical sums that celebrities are paid to endorse a particular brand. Not only are the fees astronomical in this case, but totally indecent when compared to the salary of the average wage-earner who gets around $2,000 per month. It would take 9,000 months that is 750 years to make as much money as the woman in question did in a mere few minutes. If you consider that the working life of a person is around 40 years, then you can conclude that it would take almost 19 lifetimes. While any form of ofcial control over such fees seems undesirable, advertisers and celebrities should realise how inappropriate they are when compared to values in the real world that most people live in. Although celebrities obviously have a far greater impact on viewers than unknowns, it would be nice if advertisers hired young actors and actresses. It would give them quite a boost to their career. Atelier 4 (p. 22) Nous conseillons de faire prparer cet change en donnant aux lves des pistes pour rechercher des cas datteinte la vie prive et des lois en vigueur dans les pays anglo-saxons et en France. Pistes de recherches http://www.jumpjet.info/CEM/04/Celebrities_Rights_to_Privacy. pdf http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/talking_point/forum/2744599.stm http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-invasion-of-privacy.htm http://www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz/article-366038/The-celebrities-invade-privacy.html http://science.jrank.org/pages/10853/Privacy-CELEBRITY-PRIVACY.html http://droit-finances.commentcamarche.net/legifrance/37code-penal/89928/de-l-atteinte-a-la-vie-privee Atelier 5 (p. 22) Revoir les conseils donns p. 162 pour la rdaction dune lettre. Inciter les lves inventer des situations cocasses.

livre du professeur

Corrig (exemple) (adresse de lexpditeur et date) (nom et adresse du destinataire) Dear Sir, On the front page of the last issue of your magazine there is an article about me and a photo purporting to be of me lying by my pool in the company of Mr Zackary Highve, the basketball player. The caption reads that I am enjoying some company while my husband is away at an international golf tournament and the article continues in the same vein. Since the photo is not of me at all, I consider its publication to be detrimental to my reputation and the caption and the article to be libellous. Firstly, the person in the picture is shown wearing a skimpy yellow bikini, which is ample evidence that it cannot be me as I am obliged by a $2 million contract with Little Georginas Summer Secrets, Inc., the multinational swimwear company, to wear only one-piece swimsuits (preferably black) for the next ve years whether in public or in private. The face, however, is recognisable as mine, but it is nothing more than a montage: my face has been superimposed on someone elses body. Some of my fans have recognised that the picture of me that you used was taken at least two years back. As for the implication that I was being unfaithful to my husband with Mr Highve, let me say this: I have never even met Mr Highve. Your article is not only inaccurate but libellous in this respect. My reputation has been severely damaged by both the picture and the article. You have also put my contract with Little Georginas Summer Secrets in jeopardy by showing someone you claim to be me wearing another brand of swimwear. Accordingly, unless you immediately print a retraction stating that the information contained in the photograph and the article was false, and make a formal apology in the magazine, I shall ask my attorney to take the necessary legal action. I shall be claiming $10 million in damages. I also demand that the retraction take up as much space on your front page as the original article did and that it be accompanied by a recent picture of me in the right swimwear. Sincerely yours, .........

Class Project

(p. 23) Ce projet poursuit ltude sur les clbrits et le rle quelles peuvent jouer dans la promotion de produits ou dans la dfense de certaines causes dutilit publique et/ou citoyenne. Il motivera les lves dans la mesure o ils vont pouvoir faire montre de crativit et de rexion sur lart et la manire de vhiculer des messages dans le domaine de la publicit. De plus, la comptition entre les deux agences de publicit sera un atout supplmentaire car proche du jeu de rle, par consquent motivante puisque llve fera son possible pour gagner et donnera ainsi le meilleur de lui-mme. Diviser la classe en deux groupes : les deux agences de publicit.

Chaque agence comprend trois quipes (une quipe par projet). Chaque quipe dsigne lun de ses membres pour faire partie du jury lors de lvaluation. Pralable An daider les lves construire leur travail, il faut les inciter aller chercher de linformation sur chacun des thmes de la campagne publicitaire en question. Une campagne publicitaire, de quelque nature quelle soit, sappuie sur une ralit et a pour objectif de changer les choses. Un certain nombre de faits et de statistiques ainsi que leurs consquences ventuelles sont donc ncessaires au choix des arguments qui vont tre employs pour convaincre. Ce travail de recherche est donc indispensable. 1. South Africa Les lves trouveront des informations utiles de toutes sortes sur les sites suivants parmi beaucoup dautres : http://www.arrivealive.co.za/history.aspx?title=general http://www.arrivealive.co.za/pages.aspx?i=2826 http://www.arrivealive.co.za/ http://www.citypress.co.za/SouthAfrica/News/Road-safetystats-hit-a-pothole-20101001 http://www.arrivealive.co.za/pages.aspx?i=1459 http://www.grsproadsafety.org/page-south_africa-22.html 2. Men wearing skirts h tt p : / / ez i nea r ti c le s. c o m / ? W hy - Men -S ho u ld -Wea rSkirts&id=123491 http://hubpages.com/hub/Skirts-And-Dresses--Men--Can-WearIn-Public http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mens_skirts 3. Voting in the UK htt p : / / w w w. stati stics. gov. u k / STAT BA S E / ssdatase t. asp?vlnk=5204 http://www.ukpolitical.info/Turnout45.htm h t t p : / / w w w. s ta t i s t i c s . g o v. u k / S TAT B A S E / P r o d u c t . asp?vlnk=8673&More=Y http://news.bbc.co.uk/news/vote2001/hi/english/newsid_1254000/1254995.stm http://www.newcastle.edu.au/Resources/Schools/Newcastle%20Business%20School/APSA/PanelYouthPol/Hill-Lisaand-Louth-Jonathon.pdf (texte et statistiques) http://www.ukyouthparliament.org.uk/ge_website/pages/whyvote.html http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/education/2699275.stm valuation Ce projet peut donner lieu une valuation qui peut tre mise en forme, avec laide du professeur, par les lves qui joueront le jury ou avec toute la classe avant de commencer le travail sur le projet.

Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 19

1 In the Limelight
Checkpoint
Comprhension de loral
(p. 24-25) (p. 24) (p. 24) Corrig Andy (the woman) and Nate (the man). They live together. They are boyfriend and girlfriend. Nate is angry because Andy was late back from work and missed his birthday party. She rebukes him for thinking that the world of fashion is a stupid world. Runway. Miranda is the head of the rm Andy works for. She is the editor of the magazine. He criticises her for lacking in integrity and for looking like the girls who read the magazine. A phone call, probably from Miranda. Nate breaks up with Andy, saying that they no longer have anything in common. He thinks Miranda and Runway are more important to Andy than he is. Script tapescript3-p24 NATE: Andy, what the hell is wrong with you? ANDY: I didnt have a choice. Miranda asked me. I couldnt say no. NATE: I know. Your answer for everything: I didnt have a choice. Like this job was forced on you, like you dont make decisions. ANDY: Youre mad because I work late and I missed your birthday party. Im sorry. NATE: Oh, come on, what am I, four? ANDY: You... you hate Runway. And Miranda. And you think fashion is stupid. Youve made that clear. NATE: Andy, I make port-wine reductions all day. Im not exactly in the Peace Corps. You know, l wouldnt care if you were out pole-dancing all night... as long as you did it with a little integrity. You used to say this was just a job. You used to make fun of the Runway girls. What happened? Now youve become one of them. ANDY: Thats absurd. NATE: Hey, thats okay, thats ne. Just own up to it. And then we can stop pretending like we have anything in common any more. ANDY: You dont mean that, you... NATE: No, I do. ANDY: Well, maybe this trip is coming at a good time. Maybe we should take a break. Nate? Im sorry. Just one second. NATE: You know, in case you were wondering... the person whose calls you always take... thats the relationship youre in. I hope you two are very happy together. They expose their private lives in the media. Boorstin ironically explained that a celebrity was someone known for no other particular reason than he or she was [...] well-known! His point was to show how insignicant a so-called celebrity could be. Or that celebrities were in fact non-entities! It titillates some of our less likeable traits and tendencies. It replaces other, more traditional, forms of cultural entertainment such as books, lms or art, which no longer have any relevance for most people.

Expression crite

(p. 25) (p. 25)

Comprhension de lcrit

(p. 24) (p. 24)

Informations supplmentaires Rap star Kanye West has his own Internet search engine (Search With Kanye West). Aerosmith guitarist Joe Perry has his own line of hot sauce. The R & B singer Usher teamed up with Mastercard to launch a range of credit cards. Justin Bieber has his own line of nail polish called One Less Lonely Girl. Lady Gaga has released her own range of Heartbeat headphones. Beyonc has her own clothing ranges, House of Dereon and I Am Sasha Fierce. Quelques pistes pour lvaluation Respect du nombre de mots. Pertinence des rponses. Varit du lexique (r-emploi du lexique vu en cours voir ches Wordwork). Richesse de la langue (r-emploi de structures grammaticales vues en cours voir Language Corner). Corrig Stage Door refers to the theatre entrance used only by the actors and the stage staff, not by the general public. As the title of an article, it therefore implies that this is information not usually available to the public. The journalist criticizes musicians for not being creative enough for not recording new albums and for spending too much time concentrating on making money in other ways. They are wrong because, in the long run, this will shorten their careers. (exemple) If I were asked to appear in ads or in movies, I would probably be attered and agree. It is easier money than playing live but it could never replace the buzz you get from a live audience. (exemple 1) I never buy products because I have seen them endorsed by singers or actors. It is not their celebrity that makes the product good. (exemple 2) I tend to be inuenced by ad campaigns featuring celebrities that I admire. By buying products that they advertise, I feel closer to them.

Corrig The three women are supposedly three of Tiger Woods mistresses.
20 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

livre du professeur

Sweetheart goes to NYC

(p. 26-27) (p. 26)

Corrig The characters move to an apartment in the Upper East Side, one of the smartest and most expensive areas in New York. They spend half of the year there. Living in a co-op implies that they have to abide by a certain number of rules. Blythe comes from an upper-class background. The sentence I certainly wouldnt have passed the co-op board if not for Blythes venerable family name means that the narrators origins are more modest. He thinks that he would not have had the opportunity to live in such a building if he had not been married to Blythe. Sweetheart is a female pig/a sow that has been domesticated/ house-trained. When Blythe rst took her to New York, she weighed 80 pounds. Her owner feeds her only on vegetables (l. 39). The adjective sweet (i.e. cute, attractive...) is rarely used to describe a pig. Calling a pig Sweetheart sets the comic tone of the story. The guards at the airport were surprised to see a couple carrying a pig with them. However, the presence of such an unusual pet did not seem to bother them (since they could nd no rules against it) and they let Blythe and the narrator board the plane with Sweetheart. When the narrator got on the plane, it was difcult for him to nd a place to put the bag containing Sweetheart. After he had nally managed to solve the problem, he was asked to change rows because he had taken someone elses seat. This scene is funny mainly because, as soon as one problem is dealt with, another one comes along. Grunt (l. 48) is used to describe the sound that Sweetheart makes a pig grunts. The narrator has been carrying Sweetheart around and his back hurts; grunt (l. 53) is used to describe the sound that he makes to express the pain he feels. There is an obvious parallel being drawn between the narrator and the pig... (cf. question 9). Keeping Sweetheart in the apartment required some ingenuity. Except for one of the doormen, nobody in the building knew about Sweetheart. Blythe had thought of a place where she could quickly hide the pig (l. 69-70). To prevent the super from nding out about the animal she disposed of the pigs excrement somewhere outside of the building. Blythe used designer label shopping bags from Barneys, Bergdorf, Chanel and Armani to secretly get rid of the contents of the pigs litter box. Knowing that Blythes husband is unfaithful to her gives another dimension to the title of the short story. If you call someone a pig you think that they are unpleasant in some way. The word Pigs in the title therefore refers both to Sweetheart and to Blythes husband.
WRITERS WORKSHOP

A. The scene 1. Describe the situation. Place: ....................................................... Time: ....................................................... What is going on: ....................................................... 2. Comic/farcical elements ............................................................................................................... B. The characters The way they look: ............................................................................................................... The way they behave: ............................................................................................................... The way they talk: ............................................................................................................... C. The outcome What nally happens: ............................................................................................................... Comic/farcical elements: ...............................................................................................................

Pour valuer la prestation orale des lves-acteurs, on peut demander aux lves-spectateurs de remplir la che suivante.

The situation 1. Sum up the scene. ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... Yes. No. 2. A comic scene? Explain. ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... The actors--1. Their roles: ............................................................................................................... 2. The way they spoke: ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... 3. The way they acted the scene: ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... ...............................................................................................................

(p. 27) Vous pouvez aider les lves rdiger leur scnario en leur donnant la che suivante.

Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 21

2 Manifest Destiny? 2 Manifest Destiny?


Ce second chapitre concerne la place des tats-Unis dans le monde, et en particulier laccroissement de leur inuence aux cours des 250 ans de leur histoire. Le titre vise introduire le concept de destine manifeste souvent utilis pour dcrire, voire justier, les diffrentes tapes du dveloppement de cette nation-continent. Certains parleront dimprialisme tandis que les Amricains eux-mmes ont recours la notion de destine crite davance. Ralit ? Croyance ? Alibi ? Le point dinterrogation du titre nest pas l par erreur. Il indique simplement que les documents et les activits que nous proposons aux lves ont pour but de les aider se faire une opinion sur ce concept de destine prtablie quun certain nombre dautres nations (ou dAmricains euxmmes) remettent volontiers en question comme certains des documents (textuels ou iconographiques) que nous utilisons le montrent. Script dvdscript-p28 To describe the US as an empire is controversial because of the countrys foreign policies. According to the government, these strategies are rooted in an aggressive desire to protect the countrys own interests and territory. In the year 1900, President William McKinley went so far as to claim the American ag had never been planted on foreign soil in an effort to claim more territory, but rather for the sake of humanity. However, even in the early days of the nation, President Thomas Jefferson was said to have been anxiously awaiting the fall of the Spanish empire in the hopes his country could add territory from its collapse. Through the centuries, the policies and methods implemented by American leaders to exercise their inuence have been subtle in comparison with those used by past empires. Until that point, brute, obvious force had been the main technique used to claim and control land. Instead, from its beginnings, the United States have used a more strategic and calculated approach. After British colonisation of the Americas, the thirteen American colonies refused to be governed from overseas by Great Britain. Between 1775 and 1783, these colonies united against Britain in the American Revolutionary War. By the end of the battle, the United States of America was recognised as a sovereign nation. According to the treaty that ended this war, the US at this time stretched up the east coast of North America reaching as far west as the Mississippi River. In 1803, through the Louisiana Purchase, the US effectively doubled its area with land that had belonged to France. In the following years, they continued to push their borders using a combination of military efforts, purchases and annexation. Less than 75 years after gaining independence, the United States had nearly tripled in size and extended its borders all the way to the Pacic. With the purchase of Alaska, as well as the annexation of Hawaii at the end of the 19th century, the United States added what would become their 49th and 50th states. Guam, the Philippines and Puerto Rico were ceded to the US by Spain after the Spanish-American war in 1898. At this moment, the United States owned nearly 7% of the worlds total land area. However, the amount of territory occupied by the US is deceiving, considering the tremendous inuence the country held over much of the world throughout the 20th century. And the country continues to have a strong military presence throughout the world with thousands of troops stationed in countries across the globe. In addition, American culture has spread globally, thereby increasing its dominance. The music, lm and nancial landscapes were all dominated in the 20th century by the United States. Also, US advances in science and technology have helped push the world into a new era. However, some analysts claim the gap between America and the rest of the world is narrowing. The tallest building in the world stands in Dubai, the biggest movie industry is Bollywood and the worlds largest passenger airplane is built in Europe. If America is indeed losing its hold on world dominance, inevitably a new power will emerge to write a new chapter in the history books.

Pages douverture

(p. 28-29) Les cinq images de cette double page douverture vont nous servir introduire la problmatique annonce par le titre laide des questions poses dans la partie Speak. La vido qui accompagne cette ouverture renvoie, elle aussi, ce quon appelle parfois lempire amricain (voir script et corrig des activits infra). (p. 29)

Corrig These pictures are obviously related to the USA. There is the launch of a space shuttle, an Indian (or Native American) in full traditional costume, a picture of immigrant children discovering the Statue of Liberty upon arrival in New York harbour, a picture of the rst moon landing of 1969, and nally one of the American ag, slightly different from its original version... Picture 5 illustrates the hope of a better life that incited so many immigrants to leave their home countries and nd the land of milk and honey. Picture 4 is related to the conquest of the American continent and the treatment that Native Americans were given as well as the loss of their territory. The picture of the burning ag (3) shows how America is perceived in some countries. Pictures 1 and 2 represent an aspect of what America can justly be proud of, while pictures 3 and 4 point to other aspects of American history both long past and recent that might be considered as things to be regretted. The title of the chapter refers to a theory that rst saw the light of day in the 19th century, and by which the expansion of the USA across the whole of the American continent was not only natural but inexorable. More at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manifest_Destiny. The question mark is there to precisely establish how valid or justied this theory is.
22 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

livre du professeur

Corrig dvdle-p28 A. 1/b, 2/a. B. 1/d, 2/a, 3/e, 4/g, 5/h, 6/f, 7/b, 8/c. The date of the purchase of Alaska is not mentioned in the video. C. The US had a tremendous inuence over much of the world during the 20th century and continues to have a strong military presence throughout the world. American culture has spread globally, thereby increasing its dominance. It dominates the music, lm and nancial landscapes. Also, US advances in science and technology have helped push the world into a new era. However, the gap between America and the rest of the world is narrowing. The tallest building in the world stands in Dubai, the biggest movie industry is Bollywood and the worlds largest passenger airplane is built in Europe.

The Land of Make Believe

(p. 30-31)

Le texte propos ici est tir dun thriller politique de David Baldacci, typique du genre. Extrait critique de Publishers Weekly : ... a renegade CIA faction attempts to reassert the agencys primacy over the FBI by manipulating members of Congress who fund both outts. To do so, the CIA conspirators aim to take over a bribery scheme theyve discovered. The scam was concocted by legendary lobbyist Danny Buchanan, who has been greasing the palms of lawmakers to gain their support of bills aiding the poor and hungry overseas. The spooks plan to assassinate Buchanan and his protge, the lovely Faith Lockhart, and force the legislators, under threat of exposure, to support the CIA over the FBI. (p. 30) The pictures symbolise American supremacy or what America is proud of. America is sometimes thought of as the land of make believe because of the philosophy that anything is possible, usually in a business sense. Also, even if moving pictures were invented in France, America has the biggest and most legendary movie industry. The pictures illustrate the extent of Americas inuence over the whole globe. They were chosen to illustrate the theme developed in the passage: that of the USAs global domination. (p. 30) Corrig (exemple) I feel so privileged to be living in comfort, enjoying my wealth and when I see those awful heart-rending images of poor, starving people in the Third World, I just want to do what I can to help. The story takes place in the USA. Washington, Wall Street and Hollywood are mentioned in the text. Washington is the symbol of the US government. Hollywood is that of the land of dreams and ction, and Wall Street is the symbol of American capitalism. Danny tells Ward that hes having a recurring dream but what he then describes sounds more like a nightmarish harbinger of what may befall America.

Just two years after the publication of the book the 9/11 terrorist attacks destroyed the World Trade Center in the heart of New York City. One could say the book was prophetic but in fact there had already been some hint of things to come with the rst WTC bombing attempt in 1993. Obviously the character (or the author himself) has felt the anger that was mounting in various parts of the world due to American policies. Danny feels shame concerning the attitudes in his country, the way the USA always wants to be on top, the way some people make so much money for doing so little and the way his country pollutes the rest of the world. However, Rusty doesnt feel they are so bad. He thinks that the reason he gives money is because he feels there is too much tragedy compared to happiness in the world and so he perhaps thinks that his money could create a little more happiness in areas where there is great tragedy. (p. 30) Corrig (exemple) My idea of a nightmare concerning France would be if the country were run by a group of anarchists, without law and order. Although it may sound like a dream to be able to live without any constraints, but in this nightmare policemen and judges dont exist any more. Theft, rape and murder are permitted, and there are no laws against drug-taking or dangerous driving. Children arent obliged to go to school any more and they roam the streets where they grow steadily into delinquents. Sex and violence are the only subjects of the mainstream TV channels or movie theatres. The only things that keep the economy aoat are drug-dealing and prostitution. My dream, on the other hand, would be a little like Martin Luther Kings dream: a place where everyone lives in harmony and no one judges anyone else by their colour or their social background. In my dream everyone would feel they had a valuable role to play in society.
WORDWORK

Corrig A. insane, adjective, h. recurring, adjective, a. hoard, verb, i. fraud, noun, g. stuff, verb, j. ush, verb, f. make-believe, noun, d. stern, adjective, b. suck up, verb, e. trash, verb, c. B. 1/b, 2/a, 3/b, 4/a, 5/a, 6/a.

(p. 30) wordle-p30-1a, 1b

wordle-p30-2 A. 1. retreat, 2. withdrawal, 3. kindness, 4. delight, 5. condence, 6. submission, 7. shelter, 8. leave alone, 9. bravery, 10. fearlessness. B. 1/c, 2/e, 3/d, 4/f, 5/j, 6/i, 7/h, 8/g, 9/a, 10/b.
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 23

2 Manifest Destiny?
Corrig A. 1/c/e/f 2. (students own answers) 3. He suggests that America is taking all the worlds money for itself, leaving other countries poor. 4. It crushes the other countries in many different ways often by force (for example, some people say that America invaded Iraq just to have access to its valuable oil). 5. It likes to be seen as America the Beautiful and the true land of make believe. 6. America the beautiful is a land full of very rich people such as athletes, movie stars, young computer geeks or lobbyists in their private jets. The land of make believe is mainly Hollywood. teamle-p31-2 A. 1. a. T. (l. 22, ...see us for what we are: a fraud) b. T (l. 23, ...they start coming for us) c. F. l. 23, In log boats and propeller planes) d. F. l. 24, And they wipe us out) e. T (l. 28, the true land of make believe) 2. The ball players, the movie stars and the supermodels all make loads of money for doing very little. 3. (exemple) They are the symbols of powerful and ultra wealthy America they are associated with the idea of dream because it is supposed to be every Americans dream to work in one of these places. 4. The fact that America pollutes so much because it is a consumerist nation they suck up the energy in the world. teamle-p31-3 A. 1. He is probably surprised that Buchanan is so critical of America and worried about what might happen to it. 2. No, rstly he is very wealthy himself, then its clear that he is cynical and disapproving of the way they get their money. 3. a. T. (l. 34, We also suck up ... energy in the world) b. T (l. 34, a disproportionate share) c. F. (l. 34, a disproportionate share of the wealth) d. T. (l. 36, We trash foreign economies) e. F. (l. 37, and never look back) 4. (exemple) Fear, because he worries about America being attacked by others. Guilt, because he recognises that Americans (and perhaps he himself) have got rich by exploiting others. 5. l. 45: he paused, moistness creeping into his eyes. 6. Danny is more critical; Rusty says were not so bad. teamle-p31-4 A. a. February 26th. b. A truck bomb was detonated below the North Tower of the WTC. c. 7 (6 adults and one unborn child) people were killed and 1 042 were injured. d. They lost their over-the-air broadcast signal for almost a week. e. Ramzi Yousef masterminded the attack. He was born in Kuwait and his uncle funded the operation. Abdul Rahmen Yasin helped make the bomb. Yousef escaped to Pakistan and Yasin also got away: he ew back to Iraq the next day and is still on a list of FBIs most wanted terrorists. f. Iraq.
24 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

(p. 31) teamle-p31-1

g. They wanted the US to end all involvement or interference with Middle East countries, in particular Israel. 2. They were obviously founded on fact; there had already been the rst WTC bombing in 1993 and then in 1995 came the Oklahoma bombing and other smaller incidents. However, it would seem to have a prophetic nature too as it was written just 2 years before the 2001 WTC attack.
PROJECT

(p. 31) Les projets raliss par nos lves cette occasion montrent que linspiration ne manque pas et que la motivation est au rendez-vous. La forme la plus courante de projet ici a pris la forme de scnes vidoscopes dans lesquelles les intervenants dcortiquent les diffrentes tapes de leur recherche documentaire (extraits des vidos trouves sur les sites suggrs, raison du tri effectu et montage nal accompagn du commentaire). (p. 31)

TRANSLATORS WORKSHOP

Corrig (Les numros renvoient aux procds de traduction tels quils sont dcrits dans la che p. 164.) Buchanan se redressa, trs droit contre le dossier de son sige (8), joignit les paumes de ses mains (8) et sclaircit la voix (4). Il navait jamais dit quiconque ce quil allait dire (8). Mme pas Faith. Peut-tre lheure tait-elle venue (de le faire) (8). Il tait sr quon penserait (8+4) quil tait devenu fou/quil passerait pour fou (8), bien sr, mais au moins Rusty garderait cela pour lui. Cest surtout le recours ltoffement qui caractrise ce passage traduit. Le choix de il tait sr quon penserait est un choix de linguiste d la prsence de would (qui marque la certitude de lnonciateur) dune part, et de look de lautre, le smantisme de look/ sembler impliquant, quon le veuille ou non, une certaine passivit de la part du sujet.

Confederation

(p. 32)

Nous utilisons ici un document authentique ofciel et propice au travail de loral puisquil sagit du discours que le Prsident Polk a prononc le jour de son investiture. Ce discours est rest clbre parce quil annonait clairement pour qui savait lire entre les lignes quelle serait la politique de son administration concernant lexpansion territoriale de lUnion. Certains nhsiteront pas parler de cynisme pour qualier la faon dont les choses sont prsentes. (p. 32) Pour la question 2, de nombreuses illustrations lies cette bataille se trouvent sur le site suivant : http://www.google.fr/im ages?hl=fr&sugexp=llsfp&xhr=t&q=the+battle+of+the+alam o&cp=22&um=1&ie=UTF-8&source=univ&sa=X&ei=Yn2UTf7O9Lo4Aai69W_DA&sqi=2&ved=0CDIQsAQ&biw=1636&bih=940 Nous nallons pas ici nous substituer aux recherches que les lves doivent faire. Quelques sites leur permettront de parfaire leurs connaissances sur ce sujet qui est directement reli lessentiel du discours du prsident Polk :

livre du professeur

http://www.sonofthesouth.net/texas/battle-alamo.htm ; http://www.lone-star.net/mall/texasinfo/alamo-battle.htm ; http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/battleswars1800s/p/alamo. htm. Ils trouveront sur ces trois sites de quoi travailler leur comprtence de comprhension crite puis celle dexpression orale... Pour la question 3, les lves rpondront librement, compte-tenu de ce que la question prcdente leur aura permis dapprendre, le fait que cet pisode de lhistoire amricaine soit une dfaite laissant prsager quil serait vraiment surprenant quelle nait pas eu de suites ou quelle nait pas donn lieu une revanche. Corrig a. The cut and colour of the attackers uniforms are those of the Mexican army. b. The defenders are obviously civilians, but those on the roof of the building in the background might be soldiers from a small Texian garrison. c. The ag is that of Texas at the time. d. The man in the raccoon hat is the famous trapper Davy Crockett (played by John Wayne in the 1960 lm version) who died ghting at the Alamo with his friend Jim Bowie, another national hero who died there. (students own answers) Les lves trouveront de nombreux sites sur lesquels ils peuvent sappuyer. Leur demander de prparer un rapide rsum qui ne soit pas un simple copier-coller. Ils trouveront galement de nombreuses illustrations relatives la mission elle-mme et la n tragique de ses occupants. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Alamo http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/battleswars1800s/p/ alamo.htm http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eCH-LbPiUns http://www.lone-star.net/mall/texasinfo/alamo-battle.htm (students own answers) Les informations prleves loccasion de la question prcdente les mettront sur la voie. (p. 32) Script tapescript4-p32 The Republic of Texas has made known her desire to come into our Union, to form a part of our Confederacy and enjoy with us the blessings of liberty secured and guaranteed by our Constitution. Texas was once a part of our country was unwisely ceded away to a foreign power is now independent, and possesses an undoubted right to dispose of a part or the whole of her territory and to merge her sovereignty as a separate and independent state in ours. I congratulate my country that by an act of the late Congress of the United States the assent of this Government has been given to the reunion, and it only remains for the two countries to agree upon the terms to consummate an object so important to both. I regard the question of annexation as belonging exclusively to the United States and Texas. They are independent powers competent to contract, and foreign nations have no right to interfere with them or to take exceptions to their reunion. Foreign powers do not seem to appreciate the true character of our Government. Our Union is a confederation of independent

States, whose policy is peace with each other and all the world. To enlarge its limits is to extend the dominions of peace over additional territories and increasing millions. The world has nothing to fear from military ambition in our Government. While the Chief Magistrate and the popular branch of Congress are elected for short terms by the suffrages of those millions who must in their own persons bear all the burdens and miseries of war, our Government cannot be otherwise than pacic. Foreign powers should therefore look on the annexation of Texas to the United States not as the conquest of a nation seeking to extend her dominions by arms and violence, but as the peaceful acquisition of a territory once her own, by adding another member to our confederation, with the consent of that member, thereby diminishing the chances of war and opening to them new and ever-increasing markets for their products. To Texas the reunion is important, because the strong protecting arm of our Government would be extended over her, and the vast resources of her fertile soil and genial climate would be speedily developed, while the safety of New Orleans and of our whole southwestern frontier against hostile aggression, as well as the interests of the whole Union, would be promoted by it. Corrig Hes talking about Texas whose inhabitants wanted to join the Union. Texas was then a much larger territory than the present day state of Texas and the Union was a confederacy of independent states with a federal capital in Washington, DC. Texas itself at the time was a republic. They agreed to the annexation of the republic of Texas to the Union. Liberty. To live in peace with the rest of the world. He tries to convince foreign nations that the USA harbours no hostile intentions against anyone. Texas is supposed to benet from the wide market that the other states of the Union provide for its products. The Union itself is said to be protected from any hostile nations on its western and southern anks. This feeling of security will naturally create a peaceful atmosphere in the region. (p. 32) Corrig Il va sans dire que ce qui suit nest quune suggestion. Si possible, llve doit prendre conscience de la date de larticle, donc le rendre dans une langue soutenue adapte la priode. A very important part of American history is about to be written: the merging of the Republic of Texas with the United States of America; the former becoming the 28th State. President Polk has made his inaugural speech, putting forward all the positive aspects of this political change. The merger means that Texas can now reap the benets of the US constitution, something that could not happen while it was ruled by Mexico. Both the United States and the Republic of Texas afrm their independence and their right to act independently, thereby depriving Mexico of any right to interfere in the matter, which is a peaceful unication with the accord of both parties.
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 25

2 Manifest Destiny?
The USAs strength will enable Texas to develop the incredible potential offered by its climate and its fertile soil. In return, Texas will add to the security of the USAs southern frontier, giving extra protection against foreign aggression. (p. 32) Corrig wordle-p32-1a, 1b A. 1. republic, 2. desire, 3. blessings, 4. unwisely, 5. ceded, 6. whole, 7. merge, 8. consummate, 9. elected, 10. miseries, 11. genial, 12. hostile. B. 1/b, 2/c, 3/a/c (mais cet nonc aurait t impossible lpoque du Prsident Polk !), 4/a/c, 5/a/c, 6/a/b, 7/a/b/c, 8/a/b/c, 9/a/b. wordle-p32-2 California (2), Florida (10), Kansas (4), Louisiana (6), Maine (8), Michigan (7), Nevada (3), Pennsylvania (9), Texas (5), Washington (1).
WORDWORK PRONOUNCE

Script (Track 5) Category 1: another, government, nothing. Category 2: both, open, over. Category 3: confederation, consent, dominion. Category 4: congress, foreign, product. (Track 5) 1. Don, 2. shot, 3. caught, 4. cord, 5. warned.

(p. 32) tapescript5-6-p32

blessings well-being or good fortune secured reassurance guaranteed reassurance 3. assent, has been given, agree, terms to consummate, so important. Assent and agree suggest that the act has been harmonious. 4. have no right to interfere, take exceptions, do not seem to appreciate. 5. War: military ambition, burdens and miseries of war, conquest, arms and violence. PEACE: peace, pacic, peaceful acquisition. SECURITY: nothing to fear, diminishing the chances of war, strong protecting arm, safety. Polk wants to reassure. There is obviously a threat of war and he wants to put peoples minds at rest. 6. Between the lines: Polk is really sending a strong message to the foreign powers not to stand in the way of annexation or America will have to use her strong protecting arm to intervene.

American Progress

(p. 33)

Corrig 1/a/b/c/e/f 2/a/d 3. annexation 4. fertile soil and genial climate

(p. 32) teamle-p32-1

teamle-p32-2 1. Liberty. 2. Because they do not appreciate the true nature of the government. 3. Confederation/independent. 4. Peace with each other (the independent states) and all the world. 5. Military threats. 6. a. pacic, b. peaceful, c. strong; protecting. teamle-p32-3 1. The blessings of liberty. 2. dominions, peace, territories, increasing millions. If America extends its limits it will be able to bring peace to a larger area and larger numbers. 3. The chances of war. 4. Commercial benets. 5. The strong protecting arm. 6. New Orleans and the southwestern frontier. teamle-p32-4 1. desire, enjoy, blessings, secured, guaranteed. 2. desire pleasure or ideological commitment enjoy pleasure or well-being
26 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

(p. 33) Il sagit ici, travers ltude dun tableau assez explicite malgr sa valeur allgorique, daborder le thme de la conqute de louest en envisageant divers aspects de celle-ci, des plus connus et strotyps aux plus implicites et controverss. Il sera intressant de faire exercer aux lves leur sens critique quant la situation propose par le peintre et de leur faire mettre une opinion argumente, sur luvre dune part, et sur ladite conqute de louest et ses consquences. Noublions pas de rappeler aux lves de faire usage de la che mthodologique p. 159 pour dcrire et interprter une image, en loccurrence un tableau. Corrig This painting shows a landscape reminiscent of the Great Plains of America. There is not much vegetation and very few (wooden) constructions to be seen, which means that it had been either untouched by civilisation until then or considered as hostile. It is clearly in the process of being colonised. What tells us that this is America is the presence of Native Americans with horses and buffalo on the left-hand side of the picture, and settlers in typical wagons. They are all looking westwards, towards the coast of California. It almost looks like a Biblical scene. In this painting, Columbia seems to be oating through the air. In a white dress that symbolises purity, she is like a classical goddess sweeping across the land, bringing civilisation, hope and order to the west, opening up the way for the settlers. The star that can be seen on her forehead gives her an air of majesty. Many elements highlight the notions of progress and the modernisation of the west in this work of art, for example the introduction of the telegraph as a major new link between east and west. Also, the railroad (on the right-hand side) highlights the modernisation of the transportation system. Columbia is holding a schoolbook in her right hand as a symbol of culture,

livre du professeur

learning and enlightenment, and a telegraph wire in her left hand as a symbol of the spread of civilisation. The way in which the Native Americans are contrasted with the settlers is exaggerated: the Indians are half-naked and running in panic whilst the settlers are walking slowly and steadily in their mission to spread civilisation. The central presence of Columbia makes the painting as a whole more metaphorical than realistic. Also, although the elements are treated realistically, they are representative and symbolical: you would not nd them all in the same place at the same time... The weather is also more symbolic than realistic: a bright sky enlightens Columbias endeavour, whereas a storm threatens the uncivilised Rocky Mountains in the background where disorder, ignorance and mayhem are prevalent. The painting is in praise of the expansion of the United States towards the West. Expansion is shown as totally positive, with no mention of Indian massacres or harm to the environment. Not a single drop of blood can be seen and no hint of violence either. Nowadays, in a post-colonial era when respect for minorities, for other cultures and for the environment is the order of the day, it would be impossible to voice such an opinion. (students own answers) Useful expressions: I nd this painting absolutely fascinating/stunning/amazing/ mesmerizing because... It is extremely impressive in that it... It makes me really uncomfortable/confused/angry because... It doesnt appeal to me because... I really cant relate to this painting because...
PROJECT

Corrig artle-p33 In 1845, journalist John OSullivan was one of many who believed that the United States was destined to expand across the North American continent, from the Atlantic seaboard to the Pacic Ocean. For him, it was both inevitable and obvious. Therefore, he coined the term Manifest Destiny, a phrase which has stuck over the years. It was this concept that was used in the 1840s to justify the war with Mexico and is now linked to a more recent belief that it is the mission of the USA to promote and defend democracy throughout the world. Manifest Destiny was always a general notion rather than a specic policy. The term combined a belief in expansionism with other popular ideas of the era, including American exceptionalism, Romantic nationalism, and a belief in the natural superiority of the English-speaking peoples (at the time often called the Anglo-Saxon race). However, because of OSullivans inuence as a political journalist, it did play a part in government policy, notably in the annexation of Texas. However, OSullivans original conception of Manifest Destiny was not a call for territorial expansion by force. He believed that the expansion of the United States would happen without the direction of the US government or the involvement of the military. After Anglo-Saxons emigrated to new regions, they would set up new democratic governments, and then seek admission to the United States, as Texas had done. In 1845, OSullivan predicted that California would follow this pattern next, and that Canada would eventually request annexation as well.

Language Corner
Le double comparatif

(p. 34-35)

(p. 33) Le travail propos ici permet de rutiliser tous les aspects envisags travers le questionnaire prcdent, le tout dans une perspective actionnelle. En effet, il implique une tche narrative dans la peau du narrateur , ou plutt ici, de la narratrice, laquelle nvoquera, bien videmment, que des aspects positifs et politiquement corrects de son rle dans le processus dexpansion vers louest. Toutefois, pourquoi ne pas envisager des aparts narratives entrecoupant les diffrentes parties du discours passionn et enthousiaste de Columbia visant mettre en perspective les faits relats, la lumire des connaissances historiques accumules depuis lors ? Les lves ont sans doute tous dj eu un audio guide sur les oreilles lors dune visite de muse ou dexposition et doivent pouvoir en imiter le style narratif commenant de la sorte : Approchez, approchez, et venez dcouvrir luvre suivante... Vous me reconnaissez ? Non ? Eh bien, je suis Columbia...

La che dinformation
Une che dinformation est tlchargeable : bonusle-p.33. Elle fournit des renseignements sur le peintre, le background et le tableau. Pour ceux qui disposent du manuel numrique, ces textes sont disponibles galement en version enregistre.

Lactivit supplmentaire
Une che de travail est tlchargeable : artle-p.33. Il sagit dun texte trous sur John OSullivan.

Utile, voire indispensable pour dcrire lvolution des choses ou argumenter. Corrig (Observation) richer and richer adjectif court (rich) + er x 2 fatter and fatter. En proter pour rappeler les rgles de doublement de consonne nale : a. elle doit tre seule (non prcde dune autre consonne) ; b. elle doit tre prcde dune voyelle unique et courte ; c. le tout dans une syllabe accentue (open opening vs begin beginning) America keeps getting wealthier and wealthier/heavier and heavier America keeps getting more and more violent/more and more dangerous. application stricte des rgles de formation et d'orthographe du comparatif des adjectifs. Le franais ne dispose que d'une tournure ( de plus en plus ) et ne rpte pas l'adjectif. (Application) a. Over the years the USA has grown larger and larger/bigger and bigger. b. The gap between rich and poor is getting wider and wider. c. Our enemies are getting more and more numerous.
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 27

2 Manifest Destiny?
d. I have been having that dream more and more often./That dream has become more and more recurrent. e. As we suck up an ever bigger share of the worlds resources, these become scarcer and scarcer/rarer and rarer. f. ... our lifestyle is getting better and better. g. ... and yet people seem ... happier and happier. h. As colonisation advanced, Native Americans became fewer and fewer. g. Once he realised his countrys responsibility, he started to help poor nations. (Il ne lavait pas encore fait.) h. He would like to say that he still loves his country. (On na pas encore fait ce quon voudrait faire.)

Whose et la traduction du relatif dont


Problme dautant plus pineux que la matrise de lemploi de dont en franais est parfois (souvent ?) loin dtre acquise... Corrig (Observation) Notre Union est une confdration dtats indpendants dont la politique est celle dune relation pacique entre eux et avec le reste du monde. dont : complment du nom politique (dont = tats indpendants + de) whose nest pas suivi darticle. (Application) a. Texas was a vast territory whose resources aroused many peoples envy. b. Polk, whose intention in fact was to nd an excuse to grab more Mexican land, hoped that the annexation would incite Mexico to go to war as in 1830 and to avenge those who had fallen at the Alamo. a. Texas was a vast territory whose (sheer) size guaranteed/ meant greater protection for the other states of the Union. b. Such was the argument that President Polk used to justify the annexation of this territory. c. This annexation is presented as a natural extension of the territory of the USA which no one has anything to fear from/ which no one has any reason to feel threatened by. d. The inhabitants of Texas, whose vast resources were just waiting to be tapped/exploited as a consequence of its joining the Union, could only benet from this association. e. But it was an association which Mexico had always felt threatened by/had always been wary of/uneasy about.

Verbes suivis de V-ing, verbes suivis de to + V


ternelle question de la traduction de linnitif franais. Proter de loccasion pour rappeler quen franais galement linnitif se rencontre sous trois formes : V + innitif ; V + / pour + innitif ; V + de + innitif. Rappeler cependant quon ne peut pas dire que /pour + innitif dune part et de + innitif de lautre se traduiront toujours respectivement par to + V et V + V-ing. Le travail de raisonnement a pour but de faire comprendre aux lves que to + BV indique que laction dsigne par linnitif nest pas ralise au moment de parole ou de rfrence, alors que celle dsigne par V-ing ou son commencement sont antrieurs ces moments. Corrig (Observation) keep/hoard et want/happen. Nous ne cessons daccumuler les richesses du monde. Je ne veux pas que cela se produise. Faire remarquer que laction qui nest pas ralise ici est traduite par un subjonctif (mode de lirrel) en franais. hoarding (pour ne cesser de, il faut avoir commenc !). happen (ce que lon veut au moment de parole nest (forcment !) pas encore acquis). (Application) a. Buchanan stopped speaking and stared for a moment in silence. (Il faut avoir commenc pour... sarrter.) b. For a large fee, she agreed to wear underwear designed by that couturier. (Elle ne portait encore rien [!] quand elle a donn son accord.) c. In fact, she earned $10 million wearing that underwear! (Elle a d porter les vtements pour tre paye). d. Buchanan cant begin to imagine what may happen to his country. (Sil ne peut pas commencer, il na a fortiori rien imagin encore.) e. Neither can he bear to think (about)/thinking what his country is doing to the world. (Discussion ici. Contrairement ce que lon croit souvent, cant bear nest pas uniquement suivi de V-ing. Deux situations sont possibles ici qui correspondent deux traductions possibles : il ne peut commencer penser, la simple ide denvisager de le faire est impensable. Il ne pense pas ! les penses qui lui viennent lesprit quand il envisage la situation de son pays lui sont insupportables). f. Danny stopped a moment to collect his thoughts. (Il sest arrt pour... : il navait pas encore rassembl ses ides au moment o il sest arrt.)
28 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

Les composs de there


Nous sommes ici la limite entre la grammaire proprement dite et le lexique. Mais compte tenu du rle syntaxique que jouent ces composs, nous souhaitons aborder le problme et nous le dvelopperons dans le manuel de terminale en pensant en particulier aux classes littraires. Corrig (Observation) therefore, thereby thereby therefore (I think therefore I am Descartes) (Application) thereafter = par la suite ; thereby = de ce fait, par ce moyen ; therefore = donc, par consquent ; therefrom = de l ; therein = cet gard, en cela ; thereof = de cela, en ; thereon = l-dessus ; thereto = y ; thereupon = sur ce. a. Le prsident annona solennellement que le Texas faisait partie intgrante des tats-Unis. Sur ce la foule se mit pousser des hourrahs. b. Tout le monde est libre dtudier les attendus de ce trait dannexion et de relever tout problme qui en ressortirait. c. Certains Texans taient impatients dentrer dans lUnion.

livre du professeur

Ils ne comprenaient pas que la guerre claterait peu aprs. d. Les Mexicains nont pas compris que lUnion ne tolrerait que la moindre action soit mene contre le nouvel tat ou de toute partie qui le constituait.

Pushing Back the Frontiers

(p. 36-37)

(p. 36) Le but des documents supports proposs p. 36 est dattirer lattention sur la faon dont les 13 colonies qui bordaient la cte est du continent sont devenues en moins dun sicle un empire continental. Les pages magazine nont pas pour but de donner lieu des cours traditionnels mais dapporter des connaissances culturelles (essentiellement historiques ici) tout en faisant travailler les comptences habituelles. On sattachera donc faire parler les lves pour quils rendent compte des faits qui leur sont proposs, et donnent leur opinion sur les vnements voqus. Nous suggrons de coner les diffrents composants de cette page plusieurs groupes dlves an de crer nouveau le besoin de communiquer et dchanger. Le professeur pourra passer de groupe en groupe pour aider la formulation des rponses attendues. Corrig The map shows that the USA became what it is today in several stages and through different means. The rst part of the expansion was achieved through colonisation and the painting reminds people that this was not done peacefully as the native populations were either exterminated or forcibly moved to other parts of the continent. The vast territory west of the Mississippi was acquired by purchasing it from Napoleon I who needed money to nance his European wars. Most of the other territories such as Florida or the south west of todays United States were acquired following wars. Finally some were acquired after settling land disputes peacefully, in particular with Great Britain with regard to the northwest. The painting illustrates the human consequences of this expansion on the native populations and in this respect looks less idylic than the expansion shown on page 33. The rst text is a modern one explaining what the phrase manifest destiny really means. It is objective, as any historical text should be. The second text is by a famous Frenchman who travelled extensively throughout the USA in the 19th century, trying to understand how the country functioned and describing how democracy worked there. But, in this particular extract, the author is obviously moved by what is happening to the Indians whose displacement he witnesses. And the use of the word expulsion can hardly be called objective. (p. 37) Le but est de donner ici aussi quelques dates repres nos lves qui considrent sans doute dj les dbuts de la conqute spatiale comme recule... Nous suggrons de coner les photographies et les parties crites divers groupes dlves.

Corrig One must keep in mind that Nasa was rst created as a response to the Soviet lead in the space race at the time of the Cold War (1945-1991). NASAs ofcial mission statement sounds as if it is for the universal good and few people would nd fault with its phrasing. Yet, it seems difcult not to believe that the rst and foremost goal of the United States in this affair was to further its dominance at a time when it was threatened by the spread of Communism throughout the world. So the ethical question is whether the USA was working for the benet of mankind as a whole or for American interests only. NASAs goals have certainly not changed from the time it was rst established but nowadays the cost of space research is so astronomical (!) that NASA is more or less obliged to work with many other nations. (p. 37) Lobjectif de cette activit est de permettre aux lves de ractiver le lexique abord depuis le dbut de la squence tout en le transposant une activit orale sous forme de pair work. Le projet permet aussi aux lves de simpliquer de manire plus personnelle en faisant appel leur imagination. Les deux situations proposes (astronaute et pionnier dans le grand ouest) sont la fois trs diffrentes lune de lautre et trs similaires. Ces similitudes et diffrences ne sont pas complexes, ne font pas appel un lexique ou un domaine grammatical vari. La prise de parole en interaction est facilite par la varit des ides possibles et le fait que les lves nont pas besoin de construire un discours long et bien organis. Voici quelques exemples dides. Des aides lexicales pourront tre donnes aux lves pour les aider sexprimer et amliorer leur vocabulaire. Corrig (exemples) Similarities between the two situations Dangers: the pioneer may end up in the desert with no water and dying of thirst/the astronaut on the moon may also die if the spacecraft is incapable of taking off. The terrain is hostile in both cases. Objectives: discovering a new landscape/discovering the planet Earth from the moon and discovering the moon itself; feeling the thrill of being all alone in the middle of nowhere. Qualities needed: being able to control oneself in the face of danger, enjoying the pleasures of living in extreme conditions, relying on oneself and only oneself in order to survive. Differences between the two situations Dangers: the pioneer did not have to fear that his means of transportation might explode in ight (no shuttle taking off from the ground). His fear was mainly about getting lost, encountering an enemy or a dangerous animal (snake bites) or of having to ght for his life. The astronaut is never really alone as he is accompanied by his fellow astronauts and is constantly monitored by ground control. The pioneer could always nd food by killing animals or eating berries growing on the land. The pioneer had to fear the presence of Indians whereas the astronaut has very little chance of meeting an alien! Objectives: more people have been pioneers than have set foot on the moon. The pioneers objective is often to settle in
PROJECT
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 29

2 Manifest Destiny?
a faraway land. He builds his own home and grows crops, or looks for gold. The astronauts goal, on the other hand, is not to settle down, but to observe, analyse, take samples and go back home. The astronaut does not acquire wealth because of the discoveries he has made. He is paid by a government agency to do this work. The pioneer is paid by no one. He is independent and lives from his own labour. Qualities needed: the astronaut has to be able to live for a certain period of time in a conned environment (the shuttle or a space capsule). He has to enjoy ying and must be able to physically resist the pressure from take-off and re-entry. Astronauts are often scientists with specic expertise in either ying the shuttle or in conducting certain experiments on board. Expressing danger danger (n.): insecurity, menace, peril, exposure, precariousness, risk, thin ice, threat, uncertainty, vulnerability. be/put in danger (v.): be exposed to danger, run into danger, incur danger, encounter danger, be in deep trouble, place in danger, put in jeopardy, endanger, expose to danger. in danger: endangered, fraught with danger, hazardous, perilous, unsafe adventure (v.): risk, hazard, venture. Expressing fear and awe fear (n.): awe, dismay, distress, dread, foreboding, fright, panic, phobia, uneasiness, worry fear (v.): apprehend, be anxious, be apprehensive, be frightened, be in awe, break out in sweat, dread, feel concern, lose courage, tremble, worry bravery (n.): fearlessness, courage, heroism awe (n.): admiration, astonishment, consternation, dread, fear, horror, wonder. deserted (adj.): bare, isolated, solitary, uninhabited extraordinary (adj.): amazing, curious, fantastic, inconceivable, incredible, marvelous, outstanding, phenomenal, remarkable, stupendous, unimaginable, unique, unthinkable. astonishing (adj.): amazing, bewildering, breathtaking, impressive, marvelous, spectacular, striking, stunning, stupendous, wonderful. coasted around to the back side of the moon and there, while out of direct communication with the Earth, it red its engine to slow its descent to a touchdown on the near side of the Moon. Collins in Columbia continued in orbit, awaiting their return. ARMSTRONG: 60 seconds... Lights on. Forward... 30 seconds... Contact lights. OK. Engine stopped. HOUSTON: We copy you down, Eagle. ARMSTRONG: Houston, Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has landed. COMMENTATOR 1: Then nothing more happened for a while as the crew rested. COMMENTATOR 2: And the world waited. July 20th, 1969. It is said that 500 million people gathered at TV sets around the world to wait for the rst earthling to set foot on the Moon. Countless millions more listened on the radio to the voices from the Moon. ARMSTRONG: Houston, this is Neil. Radio check. HOUSTON: Neil, this is Houston. Youre loud and clear. COMMENTATOR 2: Never before had so many people been attuned to one event at one time. COMMENTATOR 1: And then came the great moment. ARMSTRONG: And I step off the ladder. Thats one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind. Corrig (questions du manuel) (students own answers) a. The two parts of Apollo 11: the command module, the lunar module. The astronauts: (Neil) Armstrong, (Buzz) Aldrin, (Michael) Collins. The NASA communications center: Houston. The rst base on the moon: Tranquility. b. The Eagle has landed. c. 500 million people watched the event on television. d. Thats one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind. It is suggested that he left out the word a before man. It was undoubtedly his intention to compare his own personal step (= a step for a man) with the leap for mankind in general, but, if you leave out a, it is no longer a real comparison, but two different ideas concerning man or mankind, i.e. literally a small step, guratively a large one. e. (students own answers) dvdle-p38 A. 1/d, 2/f, 3/h, 4/c, 5/g, 6/a, 7/b, 8/e. B. 1. Apollo went into orbit around the moon. 2. Eagle was given a checkout. 3. The lunar module was sealed off from the command module. 4. The two craft pulled apart. 5. Eagle coasted around to the back side of the moon. 6. Eagle slowed down. 7. Columbia continued in orbit. 8. Eagle landed on the Moon. 9. The crew rested. 10. Armstrong went down the ladder. 11. Armstrong stepped off the ladder. 12. A man stepped on to the Moons surface for the very rst time. C. (exemples) 1. End of transmission from Houston.

Ateliers
Atelier 1

(p. 38-39)

(p. 38) Script dvdscript-p38 COMMENTATOR 1: In 1969, the space race was about to take a dramatic turn as Apollo 11 approached the Moon. COMMENTATOR 2: Apollo went into orbit around the moon. The journey that had taken a lifetime of mankind was nearing its crucial moment. HOUSTON: Houston to Apollo 11. Apollo 11 Eagle. Over COMMENTATOR 2: The lunar module Eagle was again given a thorough checkout to ensure the functioning of all systems. As Armstrong and Aldrin prepared to seal themselves off from Collins in the command module and for the two craft to pull apart. HOUSTON: (numbers, then...) Houston out. Over. COMMENTATOR 2: On its own now, but with Columbia near at hand, it
30 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

livre du professeur

2. Your turn to speak. 3. We conrm that you have landed, Eagle. 4. We are receiving your transmission loudly and clearly.

Atelier 2 (p. 39) Lintrt de cette nouvelle poste sur internet rside dans le changement de perspective auquel lauteur veut nous sensibiliser. Le point de vue impos au lecteur est celui du native, qui apparat comme lhomme civilis, et lhomme blanc, le sauvage qui a tout apprendre. travers les questions qui lui sont poses, llve apprhende progressivement la situation et la tche nale qui lui est propose permettra de mettre en vidence toute loriginalit de ce texte. Corrig
the man physical brown hair cut short appearance brown skin black tailor-made suit clothes polished leather shoes weapons bow the people the man encountered long black hair unhealthy white skin loin cloths long, slender instrument, made of metal and wood

The man had a European- or Western-style appearance, but was carrying a bow and had a dark skin The people he encountered had a primitive appearance, yet had white skin and carried guns (slender instrument made of metal and wood). savage/uncivilied strange: strange instrument, strange creatures, strange language. Hello. This is my land. What brings you here? (l. 19). It shows that he is ready to welcome the newcomers/his sense of hospitality. Land, customs and manners, clothing, weaponry, hunting. The people described as the strange creatures shoot him dead. The writer is trying to make the reader question preconceived ideas about what is primitive and what is civilised. He gives the reader only the mans perspective. His peaceful intentions contrast with the brutality of the people depicted as savages, uncivilized and strange creatures. We cant really say the title is appropriate insofar as Manifest Destiny was a term used in the 19th century to refer to the time period when the white Americans were signing treaties with the Native Americans. Such encounters do not really reect that concept. 10 (students own interpretations)

Corrig The poster can be divided into two parts. The upper part shows characters from the lm: on the left-hand side a test pilot is walking with his helmet in his left hand and what looks like a parachute in his right hand. There is a column of smoke in the background suggesting that the pilot has had a lucky escape from a plane crash. In the other part of the picture we can see seven men facing right and a rocket in the top righthand corner. In the lower part of the poster, the title of the lm is printed in blue letters above a red line divided by a blue star, symbolising the American ag. The tag line below (How the future began) is a clever, snappy phrase in typical marketing style to indicate to the reader that this is a lm which retraces the history of something which is still relevant when talking about our future. (Les lments suivants pourront tre voqus lors de cette activit dexpression orale en continu, tout en gardant lesprit le fait quil sagira dtablir des comparaisons ralistes.) Reaching the unknown and making it ones own/home. Showing rare qualities of adventurousness and resilience. Believing in ones unique destiny and the ability to do great deeds. Discovering new lands, new landscapes, other life forms. Obtaining fame and recognition. Showing extreme courage/bravery and pushing oneself (or science) to ones (its) limits. Proving that you can do anything and overcome any obstacle if you really want to. Broadening the scope of mans knowledge. Bringing (American) civilisation to uncivilised lands.

Atelier 4

(p. 40)

Corrig Il nest videmment pas possible de donner un exemple de ce que seront les changes entre lves sur ce thme. Mais il est primordial de les aider trouver des arguments pour lune ou lautre des deux thses et pour cela ltude des nombreux sites internet qui traitent du problme sera incontournable. Il y a donc avantage proposer aux lves de faire des recherches la maison ou au CDI et de rserver larchivage et lorganisation des informations recueillies ainsi que des opinions au cours danglais, et ce sous la direction et avec laide du professeur. (p. 40) Lexpansion vers lOuest a oblig le gouvernement amricain mettre en place un certain nombre de mesures pour grer le problme indien. Les premires mesures ont consist dplacer des tribus entires dans des rserves. Face au dsastre de telles mesures et limpossibilit de respecter les promesses quelles contenaient, lassimilation des Indiens est perue comme la solution. De nombreuses lois visent ainsi lamlioration des conditions de vie des Indiens. Lobjectif afch est avant tout de permettre aux Indiens de proter des richesses dont bncient les Blancs. Corrig The aim of the writer is rst and foremost to enable the Indians to live peacefully with their fellow-citizens. So it would
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 31

Atelier 5

Atelier 3 (p. 40) Le document propos ici est lafche du lm amricain The Right Stuff (1983), Ltoffe des hros en version franaise, tir du livre de Tom Wolfe. Consultez http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/The_Right_Stuff_(lm) pour plus de renseignements sur ce lm qui traite de la vie des pilotes dessai (1947-1963, en pleine priode de Guerre Froide ) dont certains deviennent des astronautes.

2 Manifest Destiny?
seem at rst that the writer is indeed defending the rights of Indians. However, a closer reading of the extract shows that the goal is not to help the Indians live according to their traditional ways but to assimilate them and encourage them to live like white men. For the writer, education is the means by which Indians can improve their living conditions, and enjoy the luxuries and benets of a modern society. Education is also the way in which people discover new pleasures such as travelling or reading. (exemple) From my point of view, education is about preparing young people for their future role as citizens and for their future jobs. According to the writer, it is important that education should give everyone the same values. The aim is to assimilate the Indians, to Americanize them by absorbing them into white society. However, this point of view, which was common in the nineteenth century, is regarded today as lacking in respect for the culture of the Indians. (exemple) I believe that it is important to respect the past and that education is the best way to explain the past in order to prepare for a better future. (exemple de lettre rdige par un chef Indien) We know that you highly esteem the kind of Learning taught in those Colleges, and that the Maintenance of our young Men, while with you, would be very expensive to you. We are convinced, therefore, that you mean to do us Good by your Proposal; and we thank you heartily. But you, who are wise, must know that different Nations have different Conceptions of things; and you will therefore not take it amiss, if our Ideas of this kind of Education happen not to be the same with yours. We have had some experience of it. Several of our young People were formerly brought up in the Colleges of the Northern Provinces; they were instructed in all your Sciences; but, when they came back to us, they were bad Runners, ignorant of every means of living in the Woods, unable to bear either Cold or Hunger, knew neither how to build a Cabin, take a Deer, or kill an Enemy, spoke our Language imperfectly, were therefore neither t for Hunters, Warriors, nor Counsellors, they were totally good for nothing. from Touch the Earth, A Self Portrait of Indian Existence compiled by T. C. McLuhan
CLASS PROJECT

aux propos de leurs camarades. En effet, les deux avocats doivent pouvoir prsenter leur cas et rpondre ladversaire. Chacun des membres de la Cour Suprme doit pouvoir justier sa dcision. Le reste de la classe doit tre encourag reprer les aspects positifs de chaque intervention tant sur le plan de largumentation que sur le plan de la prise en compte de la parole de lautre. Dans un premier temps le professeur doit donc aider les lves choisir leurs rles dans le projet. Il veille la comprhension de la tche nale et la comprhension des points de vue des parties adverses. Lors du procs lui-mme, le professeur doit tenter de ne pas couper la parole pour corriger les lves. Lessentiel est la transmission dinformations, la comprhension des ides avances. Enn, une fois le procs termin et le jugement nal donn, le professeur peut faire un bilan dnitif en saidant des remarques fournies par les lves observateurs. La russite du projet est dautant plus facile que les lves ont lhabitude de communiquer entre eux. Une interaction russie demande un travail rgulier tout au long de lanne. Il ne faut donc pas se dcourager si le dbat nest pas parfait en dbut danne. La persvrance dans ce domaine est fondamentale.

Checkpoint
Comprhension de lcrit

(p. 42-43) (p. 42) (p. 42)

(p. 41) Ce projet de classe vise le dveloppement de la prise de parole en continu et en interaction autour dun thme culturel fort : lappropriation par les blancs des terres appartenant aux Indiens. Pour ce faire, il faut bien rappeler que lobjectif dun procs est avant tout de convaincre un jury. Les lves doivent prparer le dbat : comprendre le problme, faire des recherches complmentaires, mobiliser les connaissances acquises depuis le dbut de la squence, noter les ides importantes et les prsenter de manire argumente. Mais une fois la premire prsentation effectue, il convient galement dcouter les arguments avancs par ladversaire et de veiller y rpondre de manire claire. Le projet de classe propos oblige les lves comprendre les arguments avancs par les deux parties, scouter et ragir

Corrig The war against Florida was justied by the politicians and statesmen of the time as an act of self-defence. Yes, the Yale history professor John Lewis Gaddis agrees with the theory of self-defense quoting Adams who said that Expansion, we have assumed, is the path to security. John Adams said that Expansion, we have assumed, is the path to security. George W. Bush warned that Americans must be ready for preemptive actions when necessary to defend our liberty and to defend our lives. Chomsky explains that a failed state is a dangerous power vacuum, in other words a country without government, or deprived of a democratic government. Chomsky mentions Florida in 1818 and Iraq in 2001. The Pilgrim Fathers back in the early 17th century used the term American empire. Chomskys theory is that the danger represented by Florida was that, as a Spanish colony, it resisted integration into the United States and so was an obstacle to the development of the American empire. It was also a refuge for Indians and runaway slaves, the victims of the American expansion.

Comprhension de loral

(p. 43)

(p. 43) Lvaluation de la comprhension de loral permet ici de revenir sur la dclinaison dans une priode contemporaine et par un prsident relativement rcent du concept de Manifest Destiny. Les lves seront dautant plus laise quils auront pratiqu un entranement rgulier la comprhension de loral.

32 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

livre du professeur

De nombreuses pages du chapitre font par ailleurs allusion la conqute spatiale amricaine. Corrig a. The speech was delivered on September 12, 1962 at Rice University, Houston, Texas. b. The US took part in the industrial revolution from the early days and many major inventors were Americans such as Benjamin Franklin, Graham Bell and Thomas Edison. Quite naturally, the US seems to be meant for the next innovation: space travel. c. Space conquest does not aim at starting wars. On the contrary, the principles mentioned by President Kennedy include peace and freedom, and a scientic quest for more knowledge. President Kennedy pays homage to those who kept moving, travelling, searching, inventing, and by doing so contributed to make the US a great nation. His speech is an incentive to American citizens to fully support the nations effort to be the rst in space. Script tapescript7-p43 This city of Houston, this state of Texas, this country of the United States was not built by those who waited and rested and wished to look behind them. This country was conquered by those who moved forward and so will space. Those who came before us made certain that this country rode the rst waves of the industrial revolution, the rst waves of modern invention, and the rst wave of nuclear power, and this generation does not intend to founder in the backwash of the coming age of space. We mean to be a part of it we mean to lead it. [...] For the eyes of the world now look into space, to the moon and to the planets beyond, and we have vowed that we shall not see it governed by a hostile ag of conquest, but by a banner of freedom and peace. We have vowed that we shall not see space lled with weapons of mass destruction, but with instruments of knowledge and understanding. Yet the vows of this Nation can only be fullled if we in this Nation are rst, and, therefore, we intend to be rst. In short, our leadership in science and industry, our hopes for peace and security, our obligations to ourselves as well as others, all require us to make this effort, to solve these mysteries, to solve them for the good of all men, and to become the worlds leading space-faring nation.

in the eyes of some people or countries. It is no longer what it used to be... The title evokes the fact that the US is no longer the international leader it used to be. Condence, once lost, is difcult to regain. But does it mean that Americans themselves are losing their self-condence or that other countries no longer trust them? With the Watergate scandal (1972-74), many people came to think that the US government and politicians were corrupt. But the rst sign of real weakness of the USA or of decline in condence in it was probably their defeat in the Vietnam war (1975). More recently, the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have been disappointing, very different from military operations undertaken in the past, which were brilliantly led and successful. (p. 43) Lobjectif de ce document iconographique est damener les lves rchir aux multiples formes de Manifest Destiny et aux consquences pour les populations locales. (p. 43) Corrig This cartoon is set in Iraq during the war. The character on the right is an American soldier. The colours of the helmet and backpack clearly represent the American ag and contrast with the desolate landscape in the background. The clouds in the rubble and the destroyed building suggest that the country is in ruins. The soldier is an older man and is dressed in neat military clothes whereas the character on the left is a poor child dressed in rags. The two characters are portrayed so as to suggest the power of the soldier over the young boy. First, physically, the man is much bigger than the child and takes up the entire right-hand side of the cartoon. Then, the power of the man is seen in his gesture as he holds out a broom to the young boy suggesting that he is supposed to clean up the mess caused by the war. Finally, the soldier calls the young boy son which reects the paternalistic approach the soldier has for the child but also the general paternalistic approach Americans have of conicts abroad (cf. Manifest Destiny). The words that are spoken by the soldier are ironic because the American soldier has left nothing behind but ruins and rubble. The broom emphasizes the discrepancy between the extent of the damage and the help given by the Americans. The cartoonist is a Canadian and as such, his point of view is an external one. If he had been American, the cartoon would have been an excellent example of what some Americans think about the involvement of American troops abroad. The cartoon is a perfect illustration of the quote from Saving Faith (p. 30) as the crushing and trashing is illustrated by the rubble in the background. We never look back is ironically translated in the words and the gesture of the soldier who refuses to look at the present (the future is yours, son) and does not realise the extent of the damage (the futility of the broom).
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 33

Expression crite

Expression orale

(p. 43) (p. 43)

Corrig The picture shows a chipped plate which has been painted as the American ag. For Americans, the US ag generally evokes patriotism, pride, and glorious moments of its history. For others, it may represent the positive values of democracy, the rule of law and the free market, or of negative things, such as imperialism, the assumption of a moral high ground or interference in other nations affairs. The chipped plate represents the tainted image of the USA

2 Manifest Destiny?
Running with Indians
(p. 44-45) (p. 44-45) Corrig The rst person narrator is witness to what looks like a military assault against Indians. He tries his best to prevent the murder of an Indian boy. The present tense which is mainly used throughout the text conveys an impression of immediacy and strengthens the realistic aspect of the passage. The different actions described by the narrator have therefore a greater impact on the readers and may give them the impression that they are experiencing the same things he is. Bow Boy is an Indian child who is being pursued by a white soldier. First the narrator thinks that the white soldier is going to kill the child. The narrator realises that he has misinterpreted the white soldiers intentions. The verb cradle shows that the soldier wants to protect the child. In fact, he is racing after Bow Boy to save him. Small Saint is the name that the narrator gives to the white soldier who is trying to save the Indian child. By calling him a saint, the narrator honours his bravery. When General Mustache realises what is going on, he points his gun at Small Saint with the intention of shooting him. General Mustache is unlikely to be his real name; it has been invented by the narrator. It could also be a way to hint at a historical character without mentioning his name. (General Custer had a moustache.) In General Mustaches opinion, soldiers are traitorous when they refuse to kill people and/or when they run away. This is my punishment. Yes, this is Gods nal punishment for me (l. 12). I wonder if the other escaping Indians see this [...] face death (l. 26-28). What does that mean, gone Indian? (l. 55). Line 23 highlights the narrators admiration for Small Saint. My tools. I need my tools. My tools of war (l. 40) conveys turmoil. The repetition of the verb hate (l. 65-67) conveys fear. 10 From the start, the narrator wanted to help Bow Boy but felt physically too weak to do so and found himself on the ground unable to react. I have to help him (l. 34) could be seen as a turning point because the heroic act that he is witnessing seems to have given him enough strength to do what he wants to do. I stand and run limp (l. 39)/I dont even know if it works (l. 45)/crawl painfully (l .49) show that it was not an easy task. (p. 45) Pour aider les lves respecter le style du texte initial, leur demander dutiliser les rponses aux questions 1, 2, 8 et 9 ou leur proposer de rpondre au pralable au questionnaire suivant : Before writing what happens next and to imitate Alexies style you will have to make some choices. Tick the elements that you will use. 1. Type of narrator rst person narrator third person narrator 2. Tense present past 3. The way you will describe the scene with long detailed descriptions with short sentences with a lot of adjectives with a lot of adverbs with modals (can, will...) 4. Speech reported speech dialogues free indirect speech 5. Literary style (several options are possible) poetic realistic comic tragic ironical satirical
WRITERS WORKSHOP

3 Breaking Out
Laltrit. La diffrence oppose la norme. Tel est le thme gnral de ce chapitre qui enveloppe aussi les sous-thmes de la tolrance (ou de son contraire !), des prjugs et des diverses formes de discrimination que les hommes imposent leurs... semblables. Les divers documents que nous avons slectionns lont t pour aider les lves rchir (en anglais) sur le sort de ceux quon dit appartenir une minorit ou une autre. Mais, comme le lecteur le verra, toutes les formes de discrimination sont passes en revue, ainsi que lvolution des mentalits. Tout en traitant ces problmes le plus srieusement du monde et avec le plus grand respect possible pour tous, nous avons
34 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

nanmoins essay de ne pas laisser lhumour de ct. Le titre mritera quon sy arrte et quon aide llve bien isoler le sens que prend ici le phrasal verb qui sert de base ce grondif.

Pages douverture (p. 46-47)


Les yeux se porteront tout naturellement vers la partie droite de cette double page. La mise en page est bien entendu tout sauf le fruit du hasard, le drapeau arc-en-ciel tant l pour faire identier demble la thmatique gnrale du chapitre. Les questions de la partie Speak viennent ensuite guider llve dans la dcouverte des divers thmes dvelopps dans le chapitre.

livre du professeur

(p. 47) Corrig Picture 1 illustrates the discrimination that existed in the southern states of the USA before the sixties and the Civil Rights Movement. At that time African-Americans as they have come to be called nowadays were not allowed to use the same restrooms as whites. Neither could they enter the same restaurants or use the same swimming-pools*. Picture 2 refers to the condition of women in some modern societies. The look on the womens faces in this picture speaks volumes in this respect. Picture 3 illustrates the way overweight people are considered in many places. Picture 4 reminds people that ethnic origin or religion does not necessarily mean danger or evil intent. And nally picture 5 illustrates the title this chapter has been given and the mass of people in the street brings back to mind a still larger demonstration held in Washington D.C. in August 1963 by those who demanded equal rights. As hinted at before, these pictures refer to various types of discrimination racial, religious and sexual as well as that due to the way some people look, which often includes the disabled. (students own answers) Although civil rights have been granted, one cannot say that racial prejudice has disappeared or is even on the way out. Many reports point to the fact that women are still not treated like men especially in the workplace. It is also obvious that people with weight problems or physical handicaps do not feature in the media in any positive way. As for homosexuality, things are changing but has prejudice really disappeared? These pictures show that even though a lot remains to be done, some progress is being made to put an end to discrimination and that those who suffer from it have found enough strength to come out and claim respect and equality.
* Le roman de Kathryn Stockett, The Help, 2009, traite prcisment de cette priode et de la condition des Noirs dans les tats du Sud, ainsi que du combat men au jour le jour pour faire changer les choses.

Script Ce reportage ne laissera pas les lves indiffrents. Il convient nanmoins den manipuler les diffrents aspects avec prcaution an de ne heurter aucune sensibilit ou conviction. Cest un excellent prtexte une discussion sur la notion de tolrance. dvdscript-p46 REPORTER: Homosexuality is a preventable and treatable condition. Thats the message seven hundred people heard Saturday at the Love Won Out conference. It was held at the Bell Shoals Baptist Church in Brandon*. Among the speakers, those who gave up the gay lifestyle through religion. WOMAN: And (but) as time went on I began to see that my gay friends were also in deep emotional pain from their past and many were in conict over their own homosexual feelings. We were all looking for that perfect love, that perfect relationship, and never seeming to nd it. REPORTER: Those attending the conference could also purchase

literature explaining how gays can be changed. Steve Boyle has a brother whos gay. He told us why he came. BOYLE: Well (what) I hope to get out of this is a better understanding for his needs and his hurts so I can reach him and help him to understand there is a redemption and what better way to do that [is] than to come to a conference like this and to listen to ex-homosexuals who have been changed. REPORTER: Controversy surrounded this conference weeks before it started. Grafti was sprayed on the walls and walkways of a Bay area Baptist church. Sponsors of the conference said their welcome in Tampa Bay was more hostile than in other cities. And Fox 13 News was asked not to show faces of those attending the controversial meeting. Mike Haley is another speaker who says he turned away from the gay lifestyle. HALEY: Homosexually, your chance(s) of contracting HIV is 1 in 165, not 165,000 165. Why is that homophobic? Why is that bigoted? I think if were going to truly allow freedom in our society and tolerance, lets teach kids these things so that then when they do invest in homosexuality, at least they know what theyre in for. REPORTER: The next Love Won Out conference will take place in Dallas in May. PROTESTOR: Turn to Christ. Stop hurting yourselves! REPORTER: Things get a little touchy as a man shouts his sermon at a crowd of gays, lesbians and their supporters. The folks gathered here say this is an example of the intolerance preached by the religious right. PROTESTOR: Be holy! SPEAKER 1: I am sick and tired of ignorant people telling me and my son that the person who God made should reject what God made. My son is not evil. REPORTER: Equality Florida sponsored the Love Comes Out rally, a response to focus on the families Love Won Out gay conversion to Christianity seminars. They applauded, carried signs and waved the rainbow-coloured ag of the gay and lesbian rights movement. All of them here to denounce the Colorado religious group that preaches homosexuality can be cured through Christianity. PROTESTOR: The law of the Lord is perfect, converting the soul. SPEAKER 2: Were drawing a line in the sand now. Were not going to let them come into our communities and tear our families apart and abuse our children without having us stand up and say no. Youre not wanted here. We dont want you here. Go back home. REPORTER: Leadership from the National Conference of Christians and Jews also showed their support for the demonstrators. The organisation shortened its name to just the National Conference as a symbol of tolerance for all people.
* Bell Shoals is the name of a road in Brandon, a town in the Tampa Bay area of western Florida.

Corrig dvdle-p46 a. Love Won Out, b. homosexuality is an illness that can be cured, c. used to have a gay lifestyle, d. to help someone in his family, e. they were frightened of reprisals by opponents of the conference.
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 35

3 Breaking Out
The folks gathered at the Love Comes Out demonstration are sick and tired of the intolerance of the religious right. One man says he cannot believe his son is evil simply because he is gay. Many demonstrators are carrying the rainbow-coloured ag of the gay and lesbian rights movement. They all denounce the Colorado religious group that says that Christianity can cure homosexuality, and they refuse to let them interfere in their lives. Support for the demonstration has also come from an organisation that preaches tolerance and that is made up of both Christians and Jews. to the older law. The journalist, as is often the case in American newspapers, takes a real-life example before reporting on the situation at a certain time. He also refrains from commenting and sticks to the facts. The ofcer in question is a Lieutenant-Colonel who has served 18 years in the USAF. He is highly decorated and has risked his life in combat. Up to his suspension, he was in charge of an air force squadron in the North West of the USA. The dont ask, dont tell law prohibits people serving in the military from making their sexual preferences known. This ofcer could be considered a hero because hes been under re on several occasions in various parts of the world. He might simply be discharged from the air force and lose the benets any soldier is entitled to, including pension rights. Aubrey Sarvis was striving to get the ban on gays in the military repealed. She expected a lot from the new president. Patrick J. Murphy is a former ofcer, now a member of Congress, who also fought to have the ban overturned. Elaine Donelly argues that the changes in civilian mentality should not interfere with the prevailing sentiment within the military. The ag and general ofcers for the military is a rather conservative group that opposed any change to the 1993 law. The change was made possible because a new president had been elected who had promised, among other things, to remedy this situation and repeal the dont ask, dont tell law. (p. 48) Corrig Il est conseill denvoyer les lves sur des sites que le professeur aura pralablement reprs ou visits. Encore une fois, on peut donner des tches diffrentes aux lves, y compris si cette activit est exporte du cours lui-mme (homework par exemple). Ainsi, certains listeront les pays o lhomosexualit est encore considre comme un crime, dautres les pays o le mariage homosexuel est reconnu, dautres encore les pays o lhomoparentalit ne pose pas de problme lgal... Ce travail apporte galement des ides sur les questions et les thmes aborder dans le project de la page suivante.
WORDWORK (p. 48)

Dont Ask, Dont Tell (p. 48-49)


Dans ce chapitre consacr aux diffrences, il ne sagit pas de se contenter de signaler quelles existent, mais bien aussi de pointer que certaines amnent des discriminations. Larticle propos en comprhension crite a t publi en 2009, avant que le prsident Obama ne fasse voter labolition de la loi DADT ( Dont Ask, Dont Tell) qui ninterdisait pas lhomosexualit, mais contraignait les homosexuels taire leur orientation sexuelle sils souhaitaient garder leur emploi et servir leur pays. Larticle sattache raconter lhistoire dun homme, Victor Fehrenbach, et rend le dbat sur la loi DADT plus accessible que des discours de principe sur le sujet. Par ailleurs, le pilote dont il est question ici est loin des clichs rducteurs et intolrants sur les homosexuels. Larticle est associ aux rsultats dun sondage ainsi qu un dessin humoristique. La mise en rseau de ces trois supports permet aux lves daccder facilement linformation essentielle contenue dans larticle. Le sondage fait lobjet dun traitement spcique visant dvelopper lautonomie des lves dans le commentaire de donnes chiffres. Les questions des rubriques Speak et Read peuvent tre traites de faon frontale avec lensemble de la classe. Si les lves sont peu laise avec ce fonctionnement, le recours aux ches Interact est une solution. (p. 48) Corrig The photograph tells us the person in question is in the armed forces. The statistics and the cartoon make it clear that the topic is that of homosexuality in the armed forces. The statistics show that a majority of the people polled (whatever their age, sex, or region) is in favor of allowing people who are openly homosexual to serve in the armed forces. The proportion even grew signicantly between 2004 and 2009, which shows that tolerance is making progress and that prejudice seems to be ghting a losing battle. It is interesting to note however the rather important differences between the South and the rest of the country. Also, the younger people are, the more tolerant they seem to be. And women seem to be less prejudiced than men. (p. 49) Corrig This article was published in 2009 in the Washington Post, about a year before the new law came into being. The title refers
36 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

Corrig wordle-p48-1a, 1b A. 1/p, 2/i, 3/l, 4/g, 5/m, 6/a, 7/d, 8/k, 9/b, 10/o, 11/h, 12/c, 13/e, 14/q, 15/j, 16/f, 17/n, 18/s, 19/r. B.
English discharge (n) charge (v) resign (v) disappoint (v) English dump (ordures) renvoi dcharge shock (lectrique) load (chargement) accuser (ici) charger charge (cavalerie) dmissionner (se) rsigner resign oneself dcevoir dsappointer disconcert take back (remarque) take off (vtement) take out, remove, extract, ... French French

retire (v)

prendre sa retraite

retirer

livre du professeur

benets (n) avantages (sociaux) morale (n) le moral

bnces morale

prots moral (dune histoire) morality, morals (conduite)

Flag and General A group For Ofcers representing DADT for the retired ofcers Military President for Elaine the Center Donnelly for Military Readiness For DADT

Lifting the ban would harm the morale, discipline, unit cohesion and overall military readiness as well as undermine recruitment and retention. Civilian culture has changed, but the unique culture of the military has not changed.

wordle-p48-2 A. services: navy, marine corps, air force, coast guard, army. units: squadron, battalion, brigade, company, division, platoon. corps: artillery, medical, ordnance, signals, intelligence, engineering, transportation, armoured, administrative. B. Britain got rid of military service in 1960 and, for a long time, Britain was not under attack from any enemy; joining the regular army just meant learning a trade and having a secure job. But, more recently, with the conicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, things have changed. Young men who enlist in the army these days know they will be doing a tour of duty abroad and may be killed or wounded in action. And, although todays military is equipped with sophisticated weaponry, the ordinary infantryman is still up against snipers and landmines, much as he was fty years ago. (p. 49) Corrig teamle-p49-1 A. 1. a pilot, 2. an aircraft. B. Name: Fehrenbach. Years serving in the military: 18. Operations abroad: Afghanistan, Iraq, Bosnia. Current situation: assistant director of operations, Idaho. Problem: may be red because he is gay. C. the policy about homosexuality in the US military The act prohibited any homosexual or bisexual person from disclosing his or her sexual orientation while serving in the United States armed forces. teamle-p49-2 A. 1. who has nine Air Medals, including one for heroism under re during an enemy ambush (l. 13-14) 2. He intended to leave the armed forces. He didnt want to pursue his military career. 3. He hoped that the new president would change something. Barack Obama had promised to do away with the Dont ask, dont tell law. 4. a. Because he does not want to lose $50,000 a year, which will be the case if he is red. b. Because he feels t and ready to ght for his country. teamle-p49-3
position Executive Director of the Service members Legal defense Network opinion arguments Against Weve heard the right DADT words from the president.

teamle-p49-4 A. 1. USA Today, Gallup. 2. DADT, 2004, 2009. 3. 7, 64, 57. 4. younger, older, 69, 52. 5. 70, 50. B. The 2009 Gallup Poll revealed that support among Americans for repealing Dont Ask, Dont Tell had grown in recent years. Repealing the policy was a promise Obama had made on the campaign trail and was one that gay rights groups were vocal in urging him to full. The poll indicated that public opinion favored such a move. (p. 49) Ce project sera loccasion de rebrasser le lexique de la diffrence et de la discrimination, ainsi que dacqurir de lautonomie dans le commentaire de donnes chiffres. Il sera judicieux dinsister auprs des lves pour que le commentaire des rsultats de lenqute ne se borne pas la vido-projection ou lafchage de pourcentages : il faudra prendre la parole, signaler des carts, exprimer des surprises...
PROJECT TRANSLATORS WORKSHOP

(p. 49)

Aubrey Sarvis

Patrick Murphy

Seeing great soldiers Democrat of the Representative Against being thrown out of their military because for DADT sexual orientation was Pennsylvania disheartening and wrong.

Questions poser aux lves Comparez la longueur du texte anglais et celle de sa traduction franaise. Que remarquez-vous ? Comment expliquez-vous cela ? Corrig (Les numros renvoient aux procds de traduction tels quils sont dcrits dans la che p. 164.) Cet (5) ofcier charg (8) des systmes darmement intgrs (6) (qui pendant 18 ans de service actif (8)/carrire a effectu (7) des missions de combat (8) aux commandes (8) davions de chasse (8) F-15E et dautres appareils au-dessus de lAfghanistan, de lIrak et de la Bosnie, et qui prsent (8) occupe un poste de commandant en second des oprations dans une escadrille de larme de lair (6)/de lUS Air Force (1) base (8) dans lIdaho) est aujourdhui menac de rvocation aprs quun civil a rapport lan pass aux autorits quil (10) tait homosexuel (3). Alternative syntaxique : Cet (5) ofcier charg (8) des systmes darmement intgrs (6) a, pendant 18 ans de service actif (8)/carrire, effectu (7) des missions de combat (8) aux commandes (8) davions de chasse (8) F-15E et dautres appareils au-dessus de lAfghanistan, de lIrak et de la Bosnie et il occupe prsent (8) un poste de commandant en second des oprations dans une escadrille de larme de lair (6)/de lUS Air Force (1) base (8) dans lIdaho. Il est aujourdhui
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 37

3 Breaking Out
menac de rvocation aprs quun civil ait rapport lan pass aux autorits quil (10) tait homosexuel (3). for a way to get rid of her for some time: she is the only female driver on the payroll and she isnt popular with her male co-workers. PRESENTER: So how did the company go about trying to dismiss her? KAREN: Well, she broke her ankle a few months back and the company said that passing a PAT was a condition for coming back to work. PRESENTER: PAT, thats...? KAREN: A Physical Aptitude Test. PRESENTER: Well, that seems fairly logical. KAREN: Yes, except that this test is only used by the company when hiring employees, never on people already working there. Besides, its a general test of physical ability and agility, not specic to any particular job. PRESENTER: And she failed? KAREN: Yes, but not because of her ankle. She failed because she was unable to place a box on an overhead shelf. She was too short. But being unable to do that has absolutely nothing to do with being a good driver. PRESENTER: So she was red because she was a woman, because of her gender. KAREN: Yes, thats what she believes. So we have led a lawsuit claiming that the dismissal was in violation of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. PRESENTER: What are your chances of winning? KAREN: Oh, excellent. As long as my client tells her story simply and truthfully, she will certainly win. PRESENTER: And is this an important case in your view? KAREN: Yes, denitely. It will help women in similar circumstances: reghters, police ofcers, construction workers and so on all those in male-dominated physical professions who still face widespread discrimination because they are simply not wanted. PRESENTER: Sounds like it could be the beginning of the end for a certain macho attitude. KAREN: We certainly hope so. Cette phase du cours peut tre avantageusement remplace par la phase Interact et le travail en groupes. Corrig The presenter and the attorney are discussing new legislation about discrimination at work and unfair dismissal. Occupation: delivery driver. Work environment: male drivers only. Physical details: short. Medical problem: broke her ankle. Consequences: was dismissed and had to pass a Physical Aptitude Test to be hired again. 3. The 1964 Civil Rights Act. 4. Its outcome might help women who suffer from gender discrimination at work. (p. 50) Corrig Ici, lexercice peut tre envisag en deux temps. Dabord, la rdaction du discours demand : il conviendra de rappeler aux

Women Drivers

(p. 50)

Un aspect intressant de la discrimination est voqu ici : celle des femmes dans le monde du travail. On peut renvoyer les lves des sites qui donnent quelques statistiques : http:// www.urbanministry.org/sexism-and-gender-discriminationstatistics. Comme dans chaque sous-chapitre de ce type, liconographie est au service de lanticipation. On pourra passer quelques instants sur le titre malicieusement donn ce sous-chapitre... (p. 50) Corrig The cartoon shows three people in an ofce: a woman who has applied for a job and two men who are interviewing her. The men are informing the applicant that she hasnt got the job. The argument put forward is that she does not t their requirements. She is not the right man for the job, an expression still currently in use but obviously inappropriate in this case. Old habits die hard... The expression the right man for the job, a set expression still very much in use, is sometimes transformed into the right person for the job to cover both sexes. However, either the man speaking has made a slip of the tongue, or else he is revealing the fact that the job is actually open to men only even though, by law, this would be an illegal form of discrimination. The cartoonists intention is to denounce sexual discrimination in the workplace. Statistics show that most women dont have the same job opportunities as men. (p. 50) Script tapescript8-p50 PRESENTER: With us today is Karen Delgado, a New York attorney specialising in labor law who is here to discuss new legislation about discrimination at work and unfair dismissal. Now, Karen, what will happen when the government brings in this new legislation? Will it stop employers from ring people unjustly? KAREN: Well, you know, in spite of an increasing amount of legislation, employers are still nding ways of ring employees whenever they want to. PRESENTER: How are they managing to do this? KAREN: Well, they invent reasons for dismissing the employees that will appear to be justied when they are cited in court. PRESENTER: But these reasons are just a... a smokescreen, is that right? KAREN: Yes, exactly. Let me give you an example. I am handling an interesting case at the moment of a female delivery driver who has been dismissed for being too short. PRESENTER: Too short? KAREN: Yes. Well, for not having the necessary physical qualications to do her job. PRESENTER: And is this true? KAREN: Not at all. The truth is that the company has been looking
38 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

livre du professeur

lves quun discours est destin tre dit, par dnition. Les phrases doivent tre plutt courtes et percutantes. Dans un deuxime temps, un lve sera choisi pour dire son discours. La classe jouera donc naturellement le rle de la cour. (exemple) Katie Jenkins was a woman working in a mans world: the only female driver for a haulage company. Now, some time ago, she broke her ankle and had to take time off work. After six weeks off, she was ready to go back to work but before going back to work, her employers insisted she should pass a Physical Aptitude Test rst: a general test of physical ability and agility. Now, this test had never been imposed before on employees already working for the company, but Katie agreed to take it anyway. And she failed. Why? Because she couldnt place a box on an overhead shelf! Yes, she was too short. Katie Jenkins was dismissed. But what has being a delivery driver got to do with being short? The answer is, nothing at all. This test was just an excuse, a way to get rid of Katie who was the only female driver and not popular with her male co-workers. Here we are faced with a case of gender discrimination: Katie Jenkins was not dismissed because she failed the Physical Aptitude Test. Katie Jenkins was dismissed because she works in a macho, male-dominated sector. So, let us remind the company of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, which makes any kind of discrimination at work unlawful. This act has clearly been violated in this case and I ask the court to order that Katie Jenkins be reinstated in her job without further delay. (p. 50) Corrig wordle-p50-1a, 1b A. 1. law, 2. ring, 3. amount, 4. dismissing, 5. handling, 6. short, 7. trying, 8. ankle, 9. fairly, 10. led, 11. claiming, 12. winning. B. 1/e, 2/h, 3/k, 4/n, 5/b, 6/g, 7/j, 8/m, 9/d, 10/f, 11/c, 12/o, 13/a, 14/i, 15/l. C. 1. truthfully, 2. claimed, unfairly, 3. overhead, 4. cited, 5. attorney. wordle-p50-2 A. 1/d, 2/b, 3/h, 4/j, 5/a, 6/e, 7/k, 8/f, 9/l, 10/c, 11/i, 12/g. B. Although her lawyer defended her very well, the accused was found guilty by the jury at yesterdays trial. The judge sentenced her to three years in prison. She will probably be released after two years. Her family was in shock though. They had thought she would be acquitted. Her mother left the courtroom in tears.
WORDWORK

Corrig A. 1.
rst name surname occupation area of specialization place of work Karen Delgado attorney labor law New York

(p. 50) teamle-p50-1

2. a. labour, b. law, c. new, d. legislation, e. discrimination, f. work, g. unfair, h. dismissal, i. government, j. ring, k. unjustly, l. dismissing, m. employees. 3. ring = dismissing. 4. smokescreen 5. a. True, b. False. teamle-p50-2 A. 1.
gender of the person in the case occupation physical characteristic medical problem consequence details about the test female delivery driver short broke her ankle had to pass a PAT before coming back to work

general test of physical ability and agility, used by companies to hire employees, not for people already working in the companies results of the test failed was unable to place a box on an overhead say why shelf companys dismissed the employee decision

(p. 50) Corrig pronle-p50 A. (exemple) The table illustrates the fact that the same vowel or combinations of vowels can be pronounced in different ways (e.g. great, heavy) and that different vowels or combinations of vowels can have the same sound (e.g. fail, great). B. (see the Tapescript)
PRONOUNCE

2. The company dismissed the woman for having failed the PAT because she was too short. 3. Being short has nothing to do with being a good driver. 4. She is the only female driver on the payroll. She isnt popular with her male co-workers. 5. The decision was unfair. This seems to be a case of gender discrimination at work. teamle-p50-3 A. 1. Gender discrimination. 2. She has decided to le a lawsuit/take legal action against the company. 3. The test she had to pass before coming back to work is used when hiring employees and never on people already working. Its a general test, not specic to any particular job: being too short has nothing to do with being a good driver. 4. The 1964 Civil Rights Act. 5. a. Fireghters, police ofcers, construction workers. b. Male-dominated physical professions. c. Politics, company management, all jobs with high responsibility. 6. The case will help women in male-dominated physical professions who still face widespread discrimination. It could mark the beginning of the end for a certain macho attitude. teamle-p50-4 A. 1. The Civil Rights Act is about asserting citizens rights.
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 39

3 Breaking Out
2. An act: a written ordinance of Parliament, Congress, etc. (Oxford English Dictionary). 3. In 1964 Congress passed an act which forbade discrimination on the basis of sex as well as race in hiring, promoting, and ring. The word sex was added at the last moment. The Act made it unlawful for an employer to fail or refuse to hire or to discharge any individual or otherwise to discriminate against any individual with respect to his compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges or employment because of such individuals race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. 4. The Civil Rights Act was passed by Congress in 1964 to combat any form of discrimination at work. 5. The woman was clearly dismissed because she was the only female driver in a male-dominated professional sector. Therefore, the 1964 Civil Rights Act was violated. The house looks rather frightening and inhospitable. It reminds us a little bit of the house in the movie Psycho. A house often represents protection and safety, providing shelter from the hostile world outside. But in this painting the house seems to be associated with fear, mystery and uncertainty. It may or may not be Christinas house. She may be trying to join her parents or relatives or else is desperately looking for help from strangers who live there. The colour of the ground in the foreground is a warm tawny shade, a mixture of green and red grasses that are not in themselves disquieting colours. However, the treeless ground takes up so much space that the landscape looks bleak and uninviting. The dark grey and brown house with its barn and other outhouses are not lit up by sunlight and look sinister and mysterious. The general air of cheerlessness is not improved by a pale blue and white sky that signies unsettled weather. The girls pink dress is the only element in the picture that is in a different spectrum, but it is lit by a pale white light that brings no warmth. This painting belongs to the realist style because it accurately represents a person and a landscape in considerable detail (if you were to see the painting in real life you would notice that the artist has even painted individual blades of grass...). The fact that there is an air of mystery and that the reason for the girls position is unexplained, does not affect the fact that the style is gurative. (students own answers) Christina Olson suffered from Polio, a muscular deterioration that paralysed her lower body. She was 55 at the time Wyeth created the work. Wyeth had a summer home in the area which he represented in this art piece and knew Christina. They were neighbours. He used her and her brother as subjects of paintings between 1940 and 1968. He was inspired to create Christinas World when through a window from within the house he saw her crawling across a eld. He may have felt sorry for her. (students own answers) Il peut tre intressant dhabituer les lves rpondre aux questions suivantes : What do I think of this painting? What do I like or not like about it? Do I relate to what it portrays, to the style of painting, or to the point of view of the artist? Would I like this painting to be in my home? What kind of artistic effect would it create in my home/room? Would I consider buying it as part of an art collection? (p. 51) Dans ce projet actionnel de type saynte jouer, laccent sera mis sur la spcicit de chacun des trois rles : lartiste parlera principalement de sa technique et de son art travers ce tableau, son pouse voquera et reprsentera laspect humain travers Christina, sa situation, et ce quelle est susceptible de ressentir par rapport celle-ci, notamment dans la scne reprsente. Enn, le petit-ls ou la petite-lle dAndrew et Betsy sera le liant de la conversation et aura pour tche dinterroger massivement ses grands-parents sur lart, la technique, le pourquoi et le comment du tableau, lidentit de Christina, etc.
PROJECT

Christinas World

(p. 51)

(p. 51) Cest probablement le ct mystrieux de ce tableau qui interpelle en premier lieu, avant de nous interroger sur la particularit du personnage fminin montr ici de dos. En quoi cette femme ou cette lle voque-t-elle le thme du chapitre (Breaking Out) ? Que cherche-t-elle faire et quest-ce qui la diffrencie de la masse, masse ici clairement absente. Cette uvre dAndrew Wyeth est bien connue et a donn lieu nombre dinterprtations, mme si nous disposons dlments sufsamment clairants quant ladite gure fminine centrale. Noublions pas que ne prime pas une vrit absolue en art, mais linterprtation quon en fait, en loccurrence celle quen feront les lves, et qui fait quils sapproprieront luvre ou pas, grce aux aides mises leur disposition mais surtout leur envie den interprter le sens et de dvelopper leur culture artistique. Corrig (lments inclure) A green-brown eld lls most of the painting A house and outbuildings stand in the background/in the distance. There are two cart tracks on the right-hand side. There is a clear horizon between the top of the eld and the sky. A thin girl in a pink dress, seen from behind, is crawling up towards the house. (exemples) She seems to be trying to get to the house in the top right-hand corner of the picture. She may have had an accident and not be able to walk any more, or she may have a bad/broken leg. Alternatively, she may be trying to hide from someone and is crawling along the ground in order not to be seen. Another explanation could be that she has escaped from someones supervision from a kidnapper perhaps and, as she is hurt and frightened, she may be hoping to reach the house to nd shelter and be rescued. The painter may have wanted to keep an air of mystery about the picture, painting the woman from behind so the spectator can only imagine what she looks like, how old she is and what her facial expression is fear, exhaustion, anger or despair.
40 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

livre du professeur

Un apprentissage de la vie et de ses difcults, en quelque sorte, travers lexprience de ses grands-parents. Une transmission, en somme. Le ton de chacun sera donc essentiel. Comme toujours, il sagira de rinvestir un maximum dinformations apprises et manipules lors de ltude de ce tableau. Le travail sur le questionnement est, quant lui, toujours utile... mme en classe de Premire ! La che dinformation Une che dinformation est tlchargeable : bonusle-p.51. Elle fournit des renseignements sur le peintre, le background et le tableau. Pour ceux qui disposent du manuel numrique, ces textes sont disponibles galement en version enregistre. Lactivit supplmentaire Une che de travail est tlchargeable : artle-p.51. Il sagit dun texte trous sur Andrew Wyeth. Corrig artle-p.51 Andrew Wyeth was a very delicate child. His fragile health meant that he had tutors at home and did not go to school. His father was a distinguished illustrator who introduced him to draughtsmanship how to construct a picture. He began by using watercolours and rst exhibited when he was only 19. The success of these early watercolours won him an offer from the Saturday Evening Post to do some front covers for them, but he refused: he wanted to be an independent painter, not just an illustrator. When his father died in 1945 in a railway accident, Wyeth was devastated and a melancholy note came into his work. This is notably apparent in Christinas World. As Wyeth said of the painting: The challenge to me was to do justice to her extraordinary conquest of a life which most people would consider hopeless. And it has to be said that the intricate detail of the blades of grass and individual strands of hair did indeed do justice to the plight of this woman, a neighbour of Wyeths who was crippled with polio. Throughout his life, Wyeths style and subject matter changed little, and it was always earth colours that dominated his work. He gained enormous popularity in the USA, and was given a large retrospective in 1976 at the Metropolitan Museum in New York, the rst time a living American artist had been granted such an honour. However, he was less than a favourite with most of the art critics, largely because his art was very mainstream and not at all avant-garde.

Une relative dnissante est celle sans laquelle lantcdent reste indni, indtermin. Cest le cas dans le second nonc : It doesnt make sense to throw out someone [who is ready, willing and able...] Une relative non dnissante apporte un renseignement supplmentaire, nullement indispensable, voire superu lidentication de lantcdent. Elle est (le plus souvent) prcde dune virgule. Le premier ne peut ltre car il est le premier mot du groupe mis en apposition lantcdent dune part et sujet du verbe qui le suit de lautre. Le second ne peut ltre non plus car il a lui aussi la fonction sujet . NB. Les pronoms relatifs sujets ne sont omis que dans la langue parle trs relche. (Application) a. The weapons system ofcer who during 18 years of service has own combat missions in F-15E ghters and other aircraft over Afghanistan, Iraq and Bosnia and now serves as assistant director of operations for an Air Force squadron in Idaho faces discharge after a civilian reported to authorities last year that Fehrenbach is gay. (Les tirets pourraient tre ici remplacs par des virgules.) b. Rep Patrick J. Murphy (D-Pa), who was a captain in the Armys 82nd Airborne Division in Baghdad and was the rst Iraq war veteran elected to Congress, took the lead last month in the House by sponsoring the Military Readiness Enhancement Act which would repeal the ban. c. Elaine Donnelly, president of the Center for Military Readiness, a group that opposes gays in the armed forces, said in a statement last week that most in the military do not want the restrictions lifted.

Les mots se terminant en -ing


Le but : aider les lves distinguer les diffrentes natures de ces mots. Corrig (Observation) adjectif verbal : increasing (en position dpithte) participe prsent : specialising (a un sujet : attorney) ; nding (participe prsent dans la forme be + V-ing, dite continue) nom dnombrable ordinaire, driv dun verbe : beginning (commencement, nom driv du verbe begin) grondif (ou nom verbal indnombrable), indiquant le fait de faire quelque chose : ring (le fait de licencier, le grondif a ici un quasi complment dobjet : employees) (Application) a. At the beginning of the interview, the presenter announces what the topic will be. b. When one listens to this story, one realises that ghting discrimination is no picnic. c. Being short or the only woman in a team cannot justify ring the person. d. Following her dismissal/after being red, the delivery woman hired a lawyer. e. How did the company manage to nd a way of ring her?
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 41

Language Corner
Les propositions relatives

(p. 52-53)

Corrig (Observation) who has nine Air Medals who is ready, willing and able... Introduites par le pronom relatif who . La premire relative est encadre par deux virgules, pas la seconde. La premire. Le second. La premire.

3 Breaking Out
f. The president is trying to have a law passed forbidding unfair dismissals. g. This situation is really disturbing/worrying. h. Finding a new job was not going to be easy. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alan_Reich http://www.asaecenter.org/Resources/EUAr ticle. cfm?ItemNumber=11632 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Wellesley,_1st_Duke_of_ Wellington http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/PRwellington.htm http://www.takver.com/history/sydney/greer.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gloria_Steinem http://www.feminist.com/gloriasteinem/ http://topics.nytimes.com/topics/reference/timestopics/ subjects/s/stonewall_rebellion/index.html http://www.forerunner.com/forerunner/X0474_Roe__v._ Wade.html On peut, bien entendu, coner divers groupes ltude des diffrents points soulevs dans cette double page, enregistrements et extrait DVD inclus. (p. 55) Corrig (students own answers) (La prise de parole ne doit pas ce stade donner lieu un dbat mais une prise de parole libre, sans tabous et dans le respect dautrui.) If you have to have a disability, the United States is the place to have it. The US is the best place in the world for a disabled person to live (because of measures introduced to prevent discrimination and give disabled people access to private and public places). I didnt ght to get women out from behind vacuum cleaners to get them onto the board of Hoover. Although I fought for women to be able to have equal opportunities in the labour market, I didnt mean that I simply wanted to see a few women in overpaid jobs. I was ghting for all women, not just a few. If the shoe doesnt t, must we change the foot? If our laws are no longer suited to womens situation today, lets change the laws. It was like the last straw. It was time to reclaim something that had always been taken from us. It was high time the gay community got equal rights. Enough was enough. The right to privacy [...] is broad enough to encompass a womans decision whether or not to terminate her pregnancy. The right to privacy recognised by law includes the right for a woman to have an abortion if she wishes to do so. The Stonewall Riots started in June 1969 after the police raided a gay bar in Christopher Street, Greenwich Village, NYC. The Stonewall bar was accused of selling liquor without a license. After at least four people had been arrested, a series of riots followed and marked the beginning of gay liberation. 2009 was the 40th anniversary of the Stonewall Riots and NYC was promoted the city for gay tourists with the slogan Rainbow Pilgrimage. The recording is about disabled people in the USA. In 1975 Congress passed the Education for All Handicapped Children Act to integrate disabled children into the public education system. The deaf, the mentally and physically disabled and the blind are also mentioned with regard to their integration into society. The

Les subordonnes de temps


Le but : attirer lattention des lves sur le fait que les subordonnes de temps nadmettent pas les formes dites de futur (will/would). Corrig (Observation) avenir ...when the government brings in this new legislation As long as my client tells her story simply and truthfully... when et as long as, deux conjonctions de temps le prsent simple certitude (ou incertitude dans le premier cas !) 1. Bon, Karen, que se passera-t-il/que va-t-il se passer quand le gouvernement prsentera cette nouvelle lgislation ? 2. Tant que ma cliente racontera son histoire avec simplicit et honntet, elle sera sre de gagner. Le franais emploie des formes de futurit et dans la principale et dans la subordonne. On parle de concordance des temps. Si lon considre, comme le veut la tradition scolaire, que will est une forme de futur, cette concordance est absente en anglais. Mais... Will est un auxiliaire modal de forme prsente qui indique ici la certitude de lnonciateur au moment (prsent) de parole. Si lon raisonne ainsi, on saperoit que langlais lui aussi applique une certaine forme de concordance des temps... voir supra. Les linguistes et les grammairiens nont pas ni de se chamailler. Laissons nos lves en dehors de ces chicaneries et aidons-les retenir que lon nemploie ni will ni would dans les subordonnes de temps. (Application) a. As soon as the judge takes a good look at Karens case, he will realise she is a victim of gender discrimination. b. Until I study your case, I wont be able to tell you what chances we have to win. (ou : After I study your case, I will be able...) c. They wont be obliged to hire you again until we prove they have unfairly dismissed you. d. Im sure that once we prove our case they will try to nd a settlement. e. But we wont know for sure until the judge rules. f. As soon as the judge rules I will give you a call. (Autant dnoncs qui pourraient servir dans le cas dune mise en situation dans le cadre dun projet...)

They made the difference

(p. 54-55)

Double page magazine ddie un certain nombre de personnalits qui ont combattu pour faire tomber les barrires et faire avancer la cause de lgalit des droits et de traitement. Des informations supplmentaires sont disponibles sur de nombreux sites, parmi lesquels, lheure o ces lignes sont crites :
42 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

livre du professeur

1990 Americans with Disabilities Act ofcially recognised the right for disabled people to be given equal opportunities in the USA. (students own answers) Example of a website to be consulted: http://womenshistory.about.com/od/abortionuslegal/p/roe_v_ wade.htm Il conviendra peut-tre de rpartir le travail lintrieur du groupe responsable de la question : un groupe cherchera des informations sur lhistoire du catholicisme en Grande-Bretagne et en dgagera les grandes tapes. un groupe pourra galement se concentrer sur la visite exceptionnelle du pape Benot XVI Londres le 17 septembre 2010 et sur son discours adress au peuple anglais. Script tapescript11-p55

who wanted reform were pushing for mentally-disabled people to be deinstitutionalised... But it was the physically disabled who were probably the most visible and effective in their actions. A group called Americans Disabled for Accessible Public Transit (ADAPT), took to the streets as well as to the halls of legislatures to win the right to and the enforcement of disabled access to public transport. And the blind too were very, very active. All this culminated in the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 whose aim was to provide the disabled with an equal opportunity to participate fully in society.
PROJECT

The Stonewall Riots. July 3rd 1969


At least four persons were arrested last night in the Sheridan Square area of Greenwich Village, where the police dispersed a hostile crowd for the third time in the last week. The confrontations resulted from a police raid last week on a local bar, the Stonewall Inn at 53 Christopher Street, which the police said was well-known for its homosexual clientele and was allegedly operating without a liquor license. Last night a chanting crowd of about 500 persons was scattered by members of the Tactical Patrol Force and police from the Charles Street station who were the targets occasionally of bottles and beer cans. A few res were set in trash baskets along Christopher Street. April 2009. On Friday evening, June 27th, 1969, the New York City tactical police force raided a popular Greenwich Village gay bar, the Stonewall Inn. Raids were not unusual in 1969; in fact, they were conducted regularly without much resistance. However, that night the street erupted into violent protest as the crowd in the bar fought back. The backlash and several nights of protest that followed have come to be known as the Stonewall Riots. Prior to that summer there was little public expression of the lives and experiences of gays and lesbians. The Stonewall Riots marked the beginning of the gay liberation movement. Over the past thirty years the USA has witnessed an astonishing owering of gay culture that has changed the country and beyond, forever. This year, New York City ofcials are marking the 40th anniversary of the uprising by promoting the city as a must for gay tourists under the slogan Rainbow Pilgrimage. tapescript12-p55

(p. 55) Les lves peuvent se tourner vers leur professeur dducation civique pour les aider faire leur choix. On les incitera utiliser des supports varis sur le thme before et after. (p. 55) wordle-p55

WORDWORK

Corrig A.
tolerance tolerant

acceptance, open-mindedness, broad-mindedness easy-going, broad-minded, unbiased, open-minded, understanding, liberal, lenient, unprejudiced, lax, permissive tolerate bear, permit, put up with, stand, accept tolerable acceptable intolerant uncompromising, prejudiced, narrow-minded, biased, small-minded, partial, discriminatory intolerable unbearable, too much to bear, more than esh and blood can stand

B. 1/b, 2/c, 3/d, 4/a. Script dvdscript-p55 REPORTER: Vivid red lip-shaped purses dotted the landscape as members of the Florida National Organisation for Women held a rally in support of equal pay. The group, which is holding events throughout the state this week in commemoration of Womens Equality Day is angry that the Florida Fair Pay Act guaranteeing pay equity did not pass. WOMAN: And were out here today with our red purses to say we see red when we see our paychecks and know theyre about a quarter less than a mans [inaudible] in his paycheck... REPORTER: The National Organisation for Women says one of the prime opponents of equal pay for women is the Florida Chamber of Commerce. That organisation says, however, theyre for equal pay just not excessive business costs. MAN: Such a deal would be costly to our membership and nothing to do with equal pay. There may be some verbiage in the Act to that effect but equal pay is covered by the Florida Civil Rights Act. REPORTER: But representative Tommy Hill who sponsored the Fair Pay Act, doesnt buy that explanation. HILL: Its gonna cost them, yeah, because you gotta pay women
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 43

Disabled people in the USA


It was my parents generation who began the lobbying back in the early fties. They wanted children like me to be integrated into the public education system as far as possible. It took a while... but eventually Congress passed the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975. Of course there were other campaigns going on too: advocates for deaf people, for example, were demanding rights to sign language. Parents groups and professionals

3 Breaking Out
the same thing a mans making. Of course its gonna cost something. REPORTER: Now events around the state will continue thru Saturday. In Talahassee, Chase Scott reporting. Corrig dvdle-p55 a. The Florida National Organisation for Women, b. Womens Equality Day, c. The Florida Fair Pay Act, d. The Florida Chamber of Commerce, e. The Florida Civil Rights Act, f. Tommy Hill, g. Talahassee, h. Chase Scott. a. some legislation was not passed, b. they are all carrying red purses in the shape of lips, c. see red, d. a member of the Chamber of Commerce, e. for new legislation for equal pay. (students own answers) REPORTER: The school board says the Principal has offered Youngblood a quarter-page ad in the senior section for a photo any way she wants it. NIKKI: Nope, I decided that if they didnt want to have me with my classmates in the senior section, (then) I didnt want to be in their yearbook at all. REPORTER: The only memory shell have of her senior year will be her class ring and the stand shes taking. Corrig (questions du manuel) (exemple) The yearbook is a souvenir for students, parents and teachers and helps create, in some ways, the image of the school. This is why it is in the interest of the parties concerned for the students to be as attractive as possible. For most schools, who hope to project an image of seriousness and stability, this means that the poses and clothes of the students in the photograph should be classic and formal. (students own answers) a. Hillsborough County in Florida. b. Apart from the reporter, the speakers are: Nikki, a high school student; The editor of the Yearbook; A representative of Equality Florida, a human rights organisation. c./d. (students own answers) (exemple) The meaning of the saying is that not only your appearance, but your behaviour and the way other people see you are all affected by what you wear. Because of this, your choice of clothes will reect your social background and position, your political and sexual leanings, and your aspirations. Whether you like it or not, other people judge you on your appearance (cf. the movie Working Girl). dvdle-p56 Robinson High senior yearbook picture. a. Girls often wear a black velvet drape. b. If a girl wanted to wear a colour like hot pink, someone might object. c. Boys wear a white button-up shirt, and a black jacket and tie. d. Girls cannot wear attire that is reserved for boys. (exemples) a. He or she puts together all the material that makes up the yearbook: photos, articles, etc. b. He or she is the person in charge of running/managing the school. c. They are the people who determine policy and appoint the principal. d. It is an organisation that ghts for equal rights for minority groups. a. an unconventional way of life, b. say what you have seen or heard, c. the sex you belong to, d. a souvenir of your year in a certain class. (exemples) Proposal: The Principal offered Nikki space in the yearbook where she can put any photo she likes (but not in the portrait section). Response: Nikki refused because she wanted to be in the same section of the yearbook as her classmates.

Ateliers

(p. 56-58)

Atelier 1 (p. 56) Script dvdscript-p56 REPORTER: Nikki Youngblood says she knows exactly who she is and it isnt someone dressed in a black velvet drape for her Robinson High senior yearbook picture. NIKKI: I dont want to wear anything like hot pink or anything like that, I just want to wear what the boys wear: the white button-up shirt, black tie, black jacket. That was it, they wouldnt let me. REPORTER: Robinson High School says that attire is reserved for male students only and, if she wanted to appear in the yearbook, shed have to dress like the girls. NIKKI: This is exactly what I wear and if I would have [sic] worn the drape it would have been a joke, a big joke, for all my friends. They would have laughed... REPORTER: What goes inside the yearbook is supposed to be a reection of the student body but, much like a newspaper it has an editor. But the publisher is the principal. He makes the nal decision as to what goes in and what does not. EDITOR: We support the Principals position that the yearbook portrait photo is not the place to make a statement about alternative lifestyles or a political statement or any other statement for that matter. NIKKI: And Im not trying to make a statement in the yearbook as Hillsborough County believes that I am and its not that. This is who I am; this is what I want to wear. REPORTER: Equality Florida, a human rights organisation, believes Nikkis freedom of gender identity is being taken away. WOMAN: How people express themselves through clothes, you know, really isnt the issue. The school should have respected who she was, respected her wishes and respected her parents wishes and let her be in the yearbook in the garb that was appropriate to her.
44 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

livre du professeur

(p. 57) Lextrait propos ici est extrait dun roman adapt au cinma en 2000, do lillustration qui laccompagne, montrant Juliette Binoche dans le rle du personnage principal (Vianne Rocher). Pour plus dinformations concernant lauteur et son uvre rcente, consulter : http://www.joanne-harris.co.uk/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chocolat La thmatique du chapitre est strictement respecte : il sagit de se dmarquer du groupe, ici prcisment daccepter de servir des vagabonds, des gens du voyage et de sopposer aux prjugs de la majorit des habitants du village. Les questions proposes apparaissent sous le titre guidelines dessein. Ce sont des pistes destines aider les lves dans la comprhension du texte. Corrig The characters are the narrator (whose name is not mentioned in the extract), her daughter Anouk, who is of school age, an unnamed boy (presumably of about the same age) and his mother, Caroline Clairmont. Ms Clairmont has come with cards she would like the narrator to display in her window. The card is meant to inform unwelcome strangers either tramps/vagrants or people selling something that they wont be served in the shop. Later in the text Caroline is more specic about it: she does not want gypsies to settle near the village. Those People refers to the strangers, pedlars, hawkers... in fact to the gypsies. an expression of envy and disapproval (l. 13-14), her voice is light and falsely cheery (l. 14-15), Caroline sent me a look of pity and contempt (l. 28), she made an elegant moue of disgust (l. 37). The narrator disagrees with Caroline Clairmont. She says: Why do I need this?, and later Can we refuse to serve them?, if they have the money to spend, can we refuse?. She therefore refuses to associate herself with Carolines prejudiced arguments. (p. 58) Lexploitation de ce cartoon peut tre envisage comme suit : Les livres restent ferms pour une partie de la classe qui travaille un autre atelier (E.E ou E.O). Lautre partie de la classe travaille sur ce document et rpond aux questions proposes. Lors de la prise de parole en continu, les lves concerns dcrivent les trois premires images lautre partie de la classe. Une fois leur description termine, ils demandent ceux qui nont pas vu le cartoon dmettre des hypothses sur la chute attendue de ce moment dhumour... srieux. Leffet de surprise que cre la dernire image facilitera lexpression orale lorsque toute la classe devra sexprimer sur limpact du cartoon. Livres ferms. On peut aussi envisager de dcouper lexploitation du cartoon en quatre, les vignettes tant fournies une par une quatre groupes dlves, chaque groupe ayant pour tche de dcrire la vignette qui lui a t cone des

Atelier 2

ns de prsentation ultrieure aux autres groupes. Ne donner la parole au groupe qui sest vu remettre la quatrime vignette quen n de parcours. Cette approche a le mrite de forcer chaque groupe mettre des hypothses quant la place de la vignette qui lui a t cone dans la chronologie de lensemble. Une approche plus classique consiste coner, lensemble du cartoon toute la classe, mais de rpartir les questions en plusieurs groupes. Corrig They refers to people in general and our refers to the man who is speaking and somebody else (his wife). The man on the left is the son of the two other characters. (On pourra faire dire ici que le cartoonist a un peu trich pour ne pas casser la chute prvue en ne reprsentant pas ce que les lois de Mandel nous ont appris.) Most people are now used to the idea of mixed marriages, so the reader may be surprised to see that the man was talking about being one half of an interracial couple and not one half of a homosexual couple, which is easily assumed from the rst three pictures (the man on the right is assumed to be talking to his partner about their relationship). When this mixed couple got married, many people thought that the union between a white man and a black woman was abnormal. Until 1967, interracial marriages were banned in many states in the US. (See Loving v. Virginia when the US Supreme Court declared that state laws banning interracial marriages were unconstitutional.) The cartoonist is drawing a parallel between mixed-race couples and homosexual couples. When the man and woman in the cartoon got married, many people disapproved of mixed marriages but things have changed. Things may well change in the same way with regard to peoples views on homosexual marriage.

Atelier 4

Atelier 3

(p. 58) Corrig Difcile ici de proposer un modle puisque le but est de laisser libre cours lexpression des lves et de leurs opinions, mais on notera quon se place dans un cas plus que plausible et que la rexion des lves est guide par les quatre solutions proposes. Il leur restera trouver des arguments pour dfendre telle ou telle position ou contester celles dfendues par les autres groupes. On terminera en demandant la classe quelle solution la majorit retient.

Atelier 5 (p. 58) Les lves sont en mesure de traiter la question mme sils nont pas travaill lextrait de roman de la page prcdente. Ceci tant, leur comprhension du sujet sera facilite, et leur production plus pertinente, si le travail de comprhension crite sur le roman Chocolat page 57 prcde lentranement la production crite ici. Corrig The community refers to the people of the village where the action of the novel takes place. According to Caroline, who is
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 45

3 Breaking Out
not open-minded at all, the community is more than reluctant to see strangers (she calls them hawkers, vagrants, pedlars in the extract) in the village streets and shops. She calls the inhabitants the community meaning they share the same values, and obviously the same fears. But its also a way of putting pressure on the narrator by implying that the whole village thinks the same. She refuses to give itinerants, thieves, Arabs the same rights as the inhabitants of the village. She denes them as second-class citizens. She is clearly a racist. It seems that Caroline insists on the word Arabs in her list of unwelcome visitors to the village. The italics express some kind of grading system, implying that thieves are worse than itinerants, and that Arabs are worse than thieves and itinerants. The narrator stresses the word anybody, voicing her exasperation if not her anger. It shows she is not prejudiced against any group or minority. (exemples) Caroline judges by appearances: she does not actually know the people she is prejudiced against. She considers the world is divided into two groups: good people the villagers and bad people the strangers; this is obviously a ridiculously simplistic way of looking at things. The most important thing is what each individual is ready to give to the others: the patriotism of the gay pilot (page 48) and the contribution to society of the people who made the difference (pages 54 55).
CLASS PROJECT

ayant eu le mme rle que lui. La grille dvaluation peut tre construite avec les lves (en particulier les membres des jurys de chaque groupe qui auront moins de prparation que leurs camarades en amont).
CHECKPOINT

(p. 60-61) (p. 60)

Comprhension de loral

(p. 59) Ce projet vient de manire assez logique conclure ce chapitre sur les discriminations de toutes sortes auxquelles nous pouvons tre confronts. Toutefois, nous avons souhait que les diffrents cas de discrimination soient accrocheurs. Il est noter que certains de ces cas sont tirs de la ralit tel le cas B (cas qui sest produit en France en 2010), dautres purement imaginaires mais qui devraient motiver les lves car drles ou tellement injustes : lide est de librer la parole des lves. Pr-requis Nous avons choisi un projet sous forme de procs. Un travail en amont sur les termes techniques juridiques et le droulement dun procs semble judicieux an que les lves sapproprient pleinement leur rle. Organisation Diviser la classe en 4 groupes de 8 lves minimum et rpartir les diffrents cas. Les lves travaillent ensuite par groupe, sattribuent les rles, dcident du nom de la compagnie, des noms des divers acteurs, leur prol psychologique et de la ligne directrice de leur procs. Puis les lves travaillent individuellement leur rle, ce qui permettra un effet de surprise et un aspect plus authentique lors du passage devant la classe (rserv aux lves laise). Ils peuvent aussi travailler ensemble et sapprocher de la ralisation dun scnario quils joueront ensuite devant leurs camarades (rserv aux lves plus faibles). Evaluation Il semble judicieux de faire valuer chaque lve par un lve

(p. 60) Cest un extrait du journal dun lve dans The Freedom Writers. Llve est le jeune garon blanc que lon voit sur le still tir du lm. Cette photo devrait aider les lves identier le narrateur. Corrig The speaker is a white teenager of high school age. Hes thinking aloud. No one answers him and he doesnt sound as if he were talking to anyone in particular. He is sitting in a corner of a classroom lled with what he calls troubled kids from bad neighborhoods. He doesnt feel he belongs here because he is the only white person in the class and because the other students seem rather rowdy to say the least (chaos, disaster waiting to happen). He feels she is doing what she can to keep the situation under control but he is rather pessimistic as to her chances to last. If the class is a disaster waiting to happen, it means that tension is high. In this case, it is probably tension between the various races who refuse to mix. He is planning to try to be moved to another class in the school with other white and better students. Because, as he says, he sucks in English, meaning that he is very bad at it. And he seems to be suffering from a learning disability. He thinks his chances are good that his counsellor will believe his lie about a computer error being responsible for his being in this class. He thinks she will believe him just because hes white. We dont know whether the person in question is white too but, from the way the boy presents things, it would seem she is. Script tapescript13-p60 What the hell am I doing in here? Im the only white person in this English class! Im sitting in the corner of this classroom (if thats what you want to call this chaos), looking at my schedule and thinking, Is this really where Im supposed to be? Okay, I know in high school Im supposed to meet all kinds of different people, but this isnt exactly what I had in mind. Just my luck, Im stuck in a classroom full of troubled kids who are bused in from bad neighborhoods. I feel really uncomfortable in here with all these rejects. There arent even enough seats. My teacher, Ms. Gruwell, is young and determined, but this class is out of control and I bet she wont last very long. This school is just asking for trouble when they put all these kids in the same class. Its a disaster waiting to happen. I had lunch before class in the high school quad and noticed that, like everywhere else, it was really separated by race. Each race has its own section and nobody mixes. Everyone, including me, eats lunch with their own kind, and thats that. All my friends are across the hall in the Distinguished Scholars

46 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

livre du professeur

class. Its almost all white. The only people Id have to worry about in that class are the really cool and popular people who think that theyre better than everyone else is. Other than that, Id be safe with my own kind. In here, I already know its going to be survival of the ttest. Im just waiting to get jumped. As soon as possible, I need to get out of this class and into the class across the hall with my friends. Right after the bell rings, Im going to talk to my counselor and make her move me out of here. Ill lie and insist that theres been a computer error and that I am supposed to be in the Distinguished Scholars class, even though I suck in English and have a learning disability. I know shell believe me cause Im white. I cant believe all this noise. I just want out of here. I hope the bell rings soon. I dont want to spend another minute in this room. If I stay in here, one of two things will happen: Ill get jacked or Ill die of boredom.

Expression orale

(p. 60)

(p. 60) Corrig The poster is part of a campaign launched by discriminatie. nl, probably a Dutch gay rights organization. Two men are posing in front of a greyish background. One is bald and wears a moustache and a beard. Hes holding the hand of another man next to him wearing a white vest/undershirt/ wifebeater and a studded leather bracelet. He is holding a photograph of a womans face that hides his own face. The slogan reads, Should you have to hide the real you to be accepted? The slogan implies that we should not have to hide ourselves in order to be accepted. In other words being gay is not anything to be ashamed of. (students own answers) (students own answers) Such a campaign could be useful to help certain gays assume their sexual identity without having any guilt feelings. It can also get homophobes to think twice before discriminating against gays. It might however provoke counter-productive reactions from some people.

Comprhension de lcrit

(p. 61)

(p. 61) Le lm Brokeback Mountain ralis par Ang Lee en 2004 a eu le mrite de faire redcouvrir la nouvelle dAnnie Proulx qui prsentait une belle mais inattendue histoire damour entre deux cow-boys dans les Wyoming et Texas archi-conservateurs des annes 60. Lextrait propos ici sintgre fort bien dans le thme de lunit en cours, dans la mesure o il dmontre, avec nesse et tout en retenue, lamour impossible mais inextinguible de deux hommes qui nont toutefois pas russi dplacer des montagnes, les mentalits peu tolrantes de lpoque. Corrig Jack Twist seems to be a discreet, reserved man who stays in the background but at the same time someone who cherishes friendship, as his letter to Ennis proves. He apparently does not write often, but when he does, it is meaningful and sincere. He probably comes from a humble background, shown by the

mistakes in his English (you was instead of you were, Id stop instead of Id stop, if your there instead of if youre there). Ennis wrote back, you bet (l. 8-9). This implies that he was thrilled Jack wrote to him in the rst place. Ennis wearing his best shirt (l. 12). This means that he wanted to look his best in order to make a good impression on Jack. c. Ennis [...] had taken the day off (l. 12-15). He couldnt wait to see Jack and wanted to spend the whole day with him. While waiting for Jack, Ennis appears to be rather nervous: he paced back and forth (l. 15) and was looking down into a street pale with dust as if Jack could arrive any minute and he wouldnt want to miss his arrival for the world. The sentence A hot jolt scalded Ennis and he was out on the landing [...] (l. 19-20) shows Enniss impatience: he is almost out of control because he cant wait for his friend to get there. When they actually meet, the emotion is intense: They seized each other by the shoulders, hugged mightily, squeezing the breath out of each other (l. 22-23). The two friends are nally reunited and are extremely moved after not seeing each other for four years. The weather echoes the events: The day was hot and clear in the morning, but by noon the clouds had pushed up [...], Late in the afternoon, thunder growling, lightning lit the window. This mirrors the successive emotions described. The morning wait can be seen as full of hope, the midday atmosphere being more stressful as things were coming nearer and nally the thunder could be the confused situation and harbinger for a troubled future for Enniss family and both mens lives. The lightning can be construed as a sudden revelation or a situation getting clearer in a violent way. Hope you get [this letter] [...] Drop me a line if you can (l. 4-7) Jack took the stairs two by two (l. 21-22). Enniss wife is only mentioned at the end of the passage, as if relegated to a position of secondary importance. Regarding Enniss relationship with his family, we learn that he has children (daughters in line 27 and the baby cried in line 37) but we also nd out that he speaks in the same way to his horses and daughters (lines 26-27), which seems to imply that he either cares about his horses a lot or does not care that much about his children... When Enniss wife nds out about Jack and her husband, she seems resigned to turn a blind eye to the whole thing: She had seen what she had seen (l. 34-35) probably in a desire to keep up appearances.

Expression crite

(p. 61)

(p. 61) Pas de corrig type ici. Mais on peut attirer lattention sur le fait que les deux citations offrent la mme possibilit dorganisation de la rponse puisquelles contiennent toutes deux des situations contradictoires. Un rappel sur lutilisation des mots de liaison qui permettront dopposer ces deux attitudes se rvlera utile.
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 47

3 Breaking Out
Leaving Everything Behind
(p. 62-63) Le texte prsent ici est extrait du rcit de John Krakauer rcemment remis au got du jour travers la magnique adaptation cinmatographique de Sean Penn. Il sagit ainsi du parcours dun jeune et brillant Amricain qui dcida de sexiler en ermite dans de somptueux mais inhospitaliers paysages dAlaska pour y mener une vie monacale en harmonie avec la nature. Lissue de cette aventure fut tragique puisque Chris y mourut seul, vraisemblablement empoisonn par des baies non comestibles. Nous ne saurions que trop conseiller de faire (re) dcouvrir ce lm aux lves en parallle de ltude du texte propos ici, les thmes dvelopps (le questionnement sur le sens de la vie, le partage, lamiti, la solidarit, le renoncement au matriel) tant susceptibles de susciter un rel intrt chez eux. (p. 63) Corrig Chris McCandless was a very bright student who had excellent/brilliant results in college with a 3.72 GPA (gradepoint average), that is to say a very high one (the mark given being out of 4): Gradewise things went pretty well and I ended up with high cumulative average (l. 53-54). He studied and graduated (meaning he passed his 3-year degree) in history and anthropology, i.e. the study of humankind, societies and cultures. He was involved in the university newspaper too, so he seemed to be rather well integrated in life on campus. He was doing so well at the university that he was given the opportunity to join one of the most prestigious students clubs. He considered prestige and honors to be irrelevant (l. 6), i.e. uninteresting and useless, meaning that he didnt care about what people thought of him because of what he had achieved but was interested in what people meant as human beings rather than what they represented through the various successes they attained, the knowledge or even the money they had. For him, no ones respect could be bought (l. 37). Money actually didnt matter to him at all (he had a well-stocked bank account and a lot of money which he easily got rid of). What mattered most to him was helping others, getting involved in charities or nding ways to make a difference in the world, doing something really useful. He considered most peoples actions as worthless and ineffective since people mostly care about themselves. Therefore he decided that he would no longer give or accept gifts (l. 24) in this approach to eliminate everything trivial and material from his everyday life. He upbraided [his parents] for expressing their desire to buy him a new car (l. 25-26), which means that he even rejected the very idea of making a disproportionate use of money, while millions of people throughout the world didnt have anything to eat on a daily basis. Chriss departure was anything but acting on impulse. Indeed, there were a certain number of signs that he was thinking about it beforehand: he spent the year prior to his leaving in monkish (l. 62) living conditions, leading a very simple life devoid of superuous elements, maybe to get used to what he was going to experience in Alaska. In the meantime he gave all of his money to Oxfam America because he wanted to make sure that it would be used well and given to people in need, which he obviously didnt consider himself to be. Chris wanted to change everything (l. 78), that is to say his entire lifestyle. By leaving the civilized world, he would disappear socially, familywise, academically, and, by extension, professionally. He considered his life up to then as futile, senseless and boring. He was longing for other perspectives and activities that would be more profound and fullling to him. Both his studies and his family seemed to be a burden that he wanted to free himself from. Contrary to such a dull and repulsive existence, living in the wild would be more interesting and more rewarding, he thought. His parents misread (l. 12) his intentions (nobody knew [l. 14]), meaning that he managed to hide the plan which he had undoubtedly hatched up in advance. When he announced I think Im going to disappear for a while, nobody thought that he was actually contemplating leaving for good: Neither parent made anything of this announcement at the time (l. 44), which shows how unexpected the news was for his relatives. His parents even joked about it. His sister Carine might have been a little less surprised since he had written her a letter in which he expressed the way he was thinking. Last but not least, he arranged for his mail to be held by the local post ofce for more than a month in order not to arouse suspicion, which left him enough time to leave. The fact that he hid his plan from his parents probably means that Chris didnt want them to be worried, but it also means that he didnt trust them enough to tell them the truth and that they were not so close. Chris being so surprisingly thoughtful on Mothers Day shows that he usually wasnt. He apparently felt closer to his sister Carine than to his parents, as can be seen in the extract from the letter he sent her. When he met with his parents, they often argued and rarely found they had any values or ideas in common. For instance his parents wanted to please him by offering to buy him a new car, which Chris took as an insult and interpreted as their being ashamed of his old beloved car. His parents are described as being stiing, so Chriss journey can also be seen as a way of escaping from them. Once Chris had made his decision, there was apparently no turning back. He prepared every detail carefully to make sure everything would go the way he planned. This new adventure of his is described as something he had to do to get inner peace, away from the corrupt and worthless society that had surrounded him up to then. Donating all the money in his college fund clearly shows that he thought he wouldnt need it any more. It was a big decision to make. The verb disappear

48 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

livre du professeur

(l. 43), the adjectives monkish (l. 62) and emancipated and the nouns odyssey and journey (l.s 77-78) could be used to describe his adventure into the unknown.
WRITERS WORKSHOP

(p. 63) Pas de corrig-type ici, mais quelques lments de logique : la conversation devra faire apparaitre des faons trs contradictoires denvisager la vie, des attitudes clairement marques ou bien hsitantes, selon le contexte. On encouragera les lves, autant que faire se peut, rinvestir le lexique manipul et appris travers le travail ralis en amont sur le contenu du texte. Les qualits littraires individuelles des lves doivent pouvoir sexprimer au mieux travers cet exercice. On peut envisager un poetry contest et ainsi en dramatiser la prsentation orale.

On songera pour cela construire avec la classe, en amont, une grille de critres utiliser en inter-valuation. Pourquoi ne pas demander chaque lve de se munir dun objet de son choix (livre, photo, vtement, masque...) reprsentant selon eux le pome crit pour mieux sen imprgner ? Concernant le fond, rappelons-leur que leur pome doit avoir une valeur universelle : il faudra donc utiliser le contenu du texte et de la leon bon escient en vitant tout calque ou recopiage inlgant et paraphrastique et toute valeur particularisante, par exemple le fait dvoquer Chris lui-mme. Enn, les rimes doivent tre partie intgrante du pome produit et lapprentissage du pome doit tre effectu avec srieux, les lves pouvant bien videmment, en cas de blanc , conserver une copie de leur pome proximit lors de la rcitation.

4 Rocking the Boat


Ce quatrime chapitre renvoie aux ractions non-conformistes, ce qui choque les us et coutumes solidement tablis, voir le pouvoir en place. Nous avons essay de couvrir un champ le plus large possible des situations dans lesquelles les gens font des vagues volontairement ou non. Les photographies de la double page douverture illustrent ces deux types de situations. On ne manquera pas non plus de faire le lien, si lon procde chronologiquement dans lexploitation du manuel, avec les contenus du chapitre prcdent. Nous avons essay de ne pas oublier lhumour... comme un certain nombre de documents vont le rappeler. Notons galement au passage que ce chapitre, lui aussi, fait la part belle au devoir de mmoire. demonstrators look aggressive certainly, but they must surely realise that any violence in a demonstration advocating the end of a war would destroy the demonstrators credibility. Picture 4 is unusual and not without humour. There are several famous photographs of demonstrators offering owers to the soldiers or riot police who have been brought in to quell the demonstration. It may just be a photo opportunity, or it may be a sincere gesture: offering a symbol of peace to those who may receive orders to be violent in the hope that they may think twice before obeying their orders. When the British press published Picture 5, taken during a visit to Britain by Barack and Michelle Obama, it supposedly scandalised and shocked the British public. The British tabloids had a eld day because protocol does not permit anyone to address or touch the monarch unless invited to do so. However, other pictures taken at the same reception and showing the Queen with her arm around Michelle Obama seem to indicate that the shock expressed in the tabloid press was typical gutter-press hype. To rock the boat means to do something to change or provoke a change in the status quo. All of these pictures show this in some way, either in a protest against something (pictures 1, 3 and 4), or in treating icons of the establishment in a new or unconventional way (pictures 2 and 5). Picture 1 shows the talent of the English for using humour and/or provocation to make a point. Picture 2 shows not only a car which, in its normal state, is representative of traditional English quality and workmanship, but also shows the way in which Londons youth culture of the mid and late 1960s its clothes, music and way of life came to be the image that England presented to the world at that time. Script dvdscript-p64 JANIS: Your own music, you obviously get into it, feel it and enjoy it. Thats what its all about.
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 49

Pages douverture

(p. 64-65)

De la provocation la rvolte ouverte en passant par la maladresse due une mconnaissance des coutumes ou de la culture daccueil, ces cinq photos illustrent chacune les vagues produites par lattitude des uns aux yeux des autres. (p. 65) Corrig (students own answers) Picture 1 the streaker at a football match is the sort of thing that is now considered amusing, although when the rst streakers appeared in the 70s, it was scandalous and shocking. Picture 2 John Lennons Rolls Royce shows an unusual and unconventional way of painting a car which is one of the symbols of the establishment. Demonstrations like the one in Picture 3 still shock many people, but they are no longer unconventional or shocking to most of the population. Neither does this one appear to be violent: the

4 Rocking the Boat


VOICEOVER: This female vocalist is consistently counted as one of the best artists of all time. Welcome to watchmojo.com and today well be learning more about the life and career of Janis Joplin. Born January 14th 1943 in Port Arthur Texas, Janis Joplin grew up as a self-described mist. INTERVIEWER: How were you different from your schoolmates when you were in TJ*? JANIS: I dont know. Why dont you ask them? VOICEOVER: It was her fellow outcasts who originally introduced her to the music of Leadbelly and Bessie Smith. She credited these African-American blues artists as being part of her inspiration to become a singer. JANIS: Billie Holliday, Aretha Franklyn, they are so subtle, they can milk you with two notes. They could go no farther than an A to a B and they could make you feel like theyve told you the whole of the universe. VOICEOVER: Joplin moved to San Francisco in 1963. It was there she met up with future Jefferson Airplane guitarist Jorma Kaukonen and the pair recorded several blues standards together. This period also saw an increase in Joplins drug and alcohol use. JANIS: My advice is everyone come to California and Ill buy you a drink. VOICEOVER: Worried friends convinced the singer to return to her home town. She nally agreed. However, she continued to practise the blues vocals that eventually got her noticed by rock band Big Brother and the Holding Company. Joplin ofcially joined the psychedelic rockers in June 1966. JANIS: I got in the band just because of... they were my friends and the scene that was happening was all my scene and my people. It was a familial thing, you know, I didnt set out to be a singer. That came after I was already a singer. VOICEOVER: By 1967 the bands self-titled debut album was ready for release by Columbia records just two months after their breakthrough performance at the Monterrey pop festival. As the band began receiving more media attention, the spotlight was primarily on Joplin and this created tensions within Big Brother. INTERVIEWER: Do you have any explanation why youre so popular? VOICEOVER: The bands sophomore record Cheap Thrills was released in August 1968. Soon after, Joplin announced she would be leaving the band and, following some fall tour dates, she played her last performance with Big Brother and the Holding Company in December of 1968. As she embarked on her solo career, Joplin formed a backup band called the Cosmic Blues Band that helped underline her funky blues style. The Cosmic Blues album came out in September 1969 to mixed reviews. By this time Joplin was heavily addicted to heroin. The group did manage to tour Europe and North America for a few months including a stop at Woodstock in August. The band broke up at the end of the year. By May 1970, Joplin was already touring with her new band, the Full Tilt Boogie Band. Joplin and Full Tilt joined the Canadian leg of the Festival Express tour later that year, playing next to such acts as the Grateful Dead, the Band and Rick Danko. Joplins last public set with Full Tilt was in Boston on August 12th 1970. The next month the band
50 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

began recording what would ultimately be Joplins nal album. Pearl was released posthumously in 1971 as a complilation of the songs Joplin was able to nish prior to her death. On Sunday October 4th 1970, Joplin was scheduled to record the vocal track for the song Buried Alive in the Blues. The bands road manager became concerned when she failed to show up for the session. Joplin was later found dead in her room at the Landmark Motor Hotel. The ofcial cause of death was a heroin overdose which may have been aggravated by alcohol. Despite her short career and untimely death, Joplins legacy is still going strong today. INTERVIEWER: What is it you think young people are looking for today? JANIS: Sincerity and a good time. INTERVIEWER: Are they nding it? JANIS: I dont know about you, Daddy... Im ne. At least Im having a good time. * Thomas Jefferson High School Corrig dvdle-p64 1. 1/f, 2/l, 3/k, 4/b, 5/c, 6/j, 7/d, 8/e, 9/h, 10/i, 11/g, 12/a. 2. (students own answers) 3. (exemple) Janis Joplin did not t into the mould of female singers of the day, who tended to be either well-groomed conventional pop stars or love and peace folk singers like Joan Baez. She was wild, vulgar, uninhibited, bisexual, a heavy drinker and a drug addict. All of this shocked a lot of people. But her voice and her style of singing made her popular especially with the rebellious youth of the day who saw in her a symbol of their revolt against conservative values.

The Uncommon Reader

(p. 66-67)

Le passage tudi ici en comprhension crite est extrait du livre The Uncommon Reader, publi en 2007. Nous avons ici un exemple de plus de la fascination que la monarchie langlaise exerce sur Bennett. On peut en introduction demander un lve volontaire de dresser un portrait rapide de lauteur, clbre pour ses productions au thtre et lcran. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alan_Bennett http://www.screenonline.org.uk/people/id/504794/ (p. 66) Corrig 1. The person in the photo above is Queen Elizabeth II. (She has a great many ofcial titles, but the most frequently used is queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.) 2. (Pour davantage dinformations, on peut renvoyer les lves ladresse internet suivante : http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ historic_gures/elizabeth_ii_queen.shtml) 3. The text is obviously going to be about Queen Elizabeth, but maybe (because of the photo from the lm) we should expect a touch of humour or satire.

livre du professeur

(p. 66) Corrig The Queen, the Prime Minister and the Home Secretary. The other characters are probably members of the government, prominent politicians, other members of the Royal family and ofcial guests. They are celebrating the Queens 80th birthday. At the end of the extract we learn that the Queen has become an avid reader over the last few years. A long reign has mainly brought the Queen experience and a sense of perspective. She dislikes waste. Becoming a writer.
WORDWORK

The Prime Minister: b/e/h/j/k/p. The Archbishop of Canterbury: i/q. The Speaker: d/l/m/n/o. teamle-p67-3 A. 1. 80. 2. No one is shocked if one dies at her age: one can die without people being shocked (l. 17). She can put things into perspective: one has a long perspective (l. 40-41) She is no longer surprised at events: At eighty things do not occur; they recur (l. 41-42) She has had a lot of experience: all the experiences I have had (l. 49). 3. When you are eighty, you have seen so many things happen that no event is new but just the repetition of something you have lived before. 4. a/c. 5. tea, corgis, reading, writing. 6. Reading has become one of her favourite activities and has highly enriched her life. Writing is what she considers doing now. teamle-p67-4 A. 1. a/B, b/B, c/C, d/A, e/A, f/A, g/A. 2. She uses the third person pronoun one or the rst person pronoun I to refer to herself. French kings often used the rst person plural but also the pronoun I 3. placidly (surveyed) (l. 1) Dont lets get carried away (l. 12) There was polite laughter at this (l. 18) The question [...] was rhetorical (l. 58) He sank back (l. 59) 4. It refers to the crown so, by extension, to the monarchy. 5. He would politely have answered that the monarchy was not in danger. 6. The sentence implies that the Prime Minister is not the one who makes decisions about the future of the monarchy and, therefore, no answer is expected. 7. distant, of mutual respect, polite, courteous. (p. 67) Les lves pourront consulter les sites suivants avant dorganiser leurs notes: http://www.sovereignty.org.uk/features/articles/casemon.html http://members.shaw.ca/len92/abolish_monarchy.htm Pour rendre le dbat plus vivant, il faut que les lves mmorisent leurs arguments et sentranent les reformuler. Le dbat peut avoir lieu en classe mais pourra galement faire lobjet dune squence lme la maison, remise au professeur sous la forme dun DVD. Cest souvent la forme que nos lves donnent ce type de mission.
PROJECT

Corrig A. 1. 1/d, 2/a, 3/f, 4/e, 5/g, 6/b, 7/c. 2. 1/c, 2/f, 3/b, 4/e, 5/a, 6/d. 3. 1/b, 2/c, 3/a. B. 1/c, 2/a, 3/a/b, 4/b.

(p. 66) wordle-p66-1a, 1b

wordle-p66-2.pdf A. 1. are supporting, 2. front runner, 3. turnout, 4. held, 5. raise, 6. is running, 7. policies, 8. polling card, 9. ballot papers, 10. polling stations. B. 1/e, 2/c, 3/a, 4/b, 5/h, 6/d, 7/f, 8/g, 9/j, 10/i. (p. 67) http://www.rogerdarlington.me.uk/Britishpoliticalsystem.html donne une vision assez complte du systme politique au Royaume-Uni. Il faut imprativement que les lves slectionnent linformation et la reformulent. La che lexicale Wordwork aidera galement les lves dans lacquisition du lexique ncessaire. (p. 67) Corrig teamle-p67-1 A. 1. The Uncommon Reader plays on words in that a common reader has two meanings. It is not only a book prescribed to be read by a group, it can also refer to a person who reads for pleasure (in contrast with a critic, for example). Moreover, common also means vulgar, not well-brought-up, from commoner, used to refer to anyone other than royalty or nobility. The uncommon reader here is Queen Elizabeth II. 2. novella, fantasy, reading, fan, interest, people, nature, hobbies, corgis, library van, conversation, borrow, hooked, obsession, private, briefed, antithesis, opens it up, enjoyable, highly. teamle-p67-2 A. 1. (Il convient de rappeler aux lves que les informations cidessous sont tires de lextrait et taient donc pertinentes aux 80 ans de la reine, cest--dire en 2006.) Buckingham Palace 50 years and more 10 Prime Ministers 6 Archbishops of Canterbury 8 Speakers 2. The King or Queen: a/c/f/g/r.

(p. 67) Corrig (Les numros renvoient aux procds de traduction tels quils sont dcrits dans la che p. 164.) La Reine suivait sereinement/Sereine, la Reine... (!) suivait/du regard tous ces prparatifs, assise (1) non pas tout fait sur un trne mais
TRANSLATORS WORKSHOP
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 51

4 Rocking the Boat


en tout cas (2) sur un sige plus grand que celui de quiconque/de toute personne prsente (3*). Elle avait apport sa tasse de th quelle sirotait tout en bavardant (3*) jusqu ce quenn tout le monde se soit confortablement install (5)/attendant (3*) quenn tout le monde soit confortablement install. Ne nous emballons pas (2), dclara Sa Majest. Bien quil soit exact que nous (2) ayons 80 ans et que cette runion soit une sorte de rception danniversaire. Mais je ne suis pas sre de ce quil y a vraiment fter/ce que quil faille vraiment fter (3*). Je suppose quune des choses que lon peut dire pour la justier cest (4) que nous avons pour le moins atteint un ge auquel on (5) peut mourir sans que cela ne choque/bouleverse/surprenne (3*) personne. * Ladaptation peut-tre lexicale ou syntaxique. time John Adams had become President. Now, through here is the Green Room with some superb mid-nineteenth century furniture... MAN: Excuse me. Has it always looked like this? I mean, has anything been changed since 1800? GUIDE: Oh, a lot has changed, sir pretty much everything really, except the exterior walls. There was a big re in 1814 and another one in 1929; a lot of damage was done on both occasions. And then, in the late forties, President Truman had most of the place gutted and renovated. Then in the early fties, ceilings were lowered for the purpose of air conditioning... MAN: Air conditioning? WOMAN: So the wall hangings, the curtains... theyre all recent. GUIDE: Well, this room, for instance, was last refurbished in 1971; the Blue Room, next door, in 1995. Its just through here... another reception room distinctive for its oval shape. WOMAN: Beautiful. MAN: Its a shame they arent the original furnishings though. GUIDE: Well at least most of the furniture in the house is of the right period. For that we have to thank Jackie Kennedy. Before she gave the place a makeover in 1963, quite a lot of the furniture was reproduction. WOMAN: What about the Lincoln Bed? Is that period or reproduction? MAN: Whats the Lincoln Bed? GUIDE: Its on the upper oor that we call the Family Floor, in the Lincoln Bedroom. Well go up there in a few minutes. MAN: Ill bet Lincoln never actually slept there. GUIDE: No, he never slept in the Lincoln bed, sir, but he did buy it and he did sleep in that room. Now, next we have the Red Room, refurbished by Hillary Clinton in 2000, a perfect example of American Empire style... MAN: American Empire? When did America have an Empire? GUIDE: It simply means the American variant of Empire style, sir. MAN: Sorry, just kidding. GUIDE: Now, if you look at the painting by the window... Corrig We can hear three people talking. The rst person is the tour guide, the other two are visitors. The tour guide is presenting and commenting on the different rooms and what they contain (items of furniture and decoration etc.). She is also telling some anecdotes about the place and the presidents who lived in the White House. The two visitors are asking the guide questions and giving their personal impressions. There is a central building and two wings (the East Wing and the West Wing). The central building has at least two oors (two of them are mentioned on the recording) and there are 132 rooms in all. The White House was designed in 1792 and its construction was completed in 1800. It was built in neo-Classical style. George Washington, the rst President of the United States, is mentioned. The guide says that he never lived here because the building wasnt completed until 1800, meaning that he died before then. (In fact he was president from 1789 to 1797.) John Adams is mentioned as his successor. (He

A Tour of the White House

(p. 68)

(p. 68) Corrig (students own answers) possible expressions to use: impressive, imposing, majestic, magnicent, huge, massive, well-kept, well-maintained, planted with trees, spacious, well-designed. (exemples) The White House is the ofcial residence and workplace of the President of the United States of America. It is located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington DC. It was built between 1792 and 1800. It has six oors/storeys, the Ground Floor, State Floor, Second Floor and Third Floor, as well as a two-storey basement. The complex includes the Executive Residence, West Wing, Cabinet Room, Roosevelt Room, East Room and the Eisenhower Executive Ofce building which houses both the ofces of the President and the Vice-President. (p. 68) Script tapescript14-p68.pdf GUIDE: Good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen, and welcome to the White House. So, lets start off with a few particulars. The White House has 132 rooms and was designed in 1792 by James Hoban, an Irish-born architect. It is in the neo-Classical style, and was inspired, some say, by Leinster House in Ireland, which is now the seat of the Irish Parliament. It is essentially the Presidents home, although as you all know from movies and TV, a lot of work goes on here too, mainly in the West Wing where the famous Oval Ofce is. That, Im afraid, is off-limits for security reasons and because the President is working over there right now! Notice that we entered from the Visitors Center in the East Wing and we are now standing in the Entrance Hall on what is called the State Floor, one oor above the Ground Floor. On your right is the North Portico at the front of the building facing Pennsylvania Avenue. Now if youll follow me... Here we are in the East Room which is usually used for large parties and receptions. Note the portrait of George Washington, the rst President of the United States of America, who supervised the design of the house but never lived here because it wasnt completed until 1800, by which
52 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

livre du professeur

was in ofce from 1797 to 1801.) President Truman is also mentioned. The guide situates him in the late forties. (He was elected to ofce in 1945.) Lincoln is also referred to, but there are no indications as to his dates of ofce. (He served between 1861 and 1865.) Two Presidents wives are mentioned: Jackie Kennedy and Hillary Clinton. Jacqueline Kennedy ne Bouvier was one of the most popular First Ladies ever. She was known for her style and elegance. Her husband John Fitzgerald Kennedy remained in ofce only two years and a half, between 1961 and his assassination in November 1963. Hillary Clinton is married to Bill Clinton who served two terms of ofce between 1993 and 2001. A former Senator for New York between 2001 and 2009, she ran for the Democratic presidential nomination in 2008 and became Secretary of State (= Minister of Foreign Affairs) in the Obama Administration in 2009. The building has been renovated and refurbished several times because of two big res in 1814 and 1929 and for modernisation purposes, for instance for an air conditioning system to be added. There were also several makeovers for various reasons in 1963, 1971, 1995 and 2000. (p. 68) Le parti-pris dans cette expression crite au contenu et aux contours clairement dlimits est bien entendu lacceptation de la demande formule par les lves ctifs (amricains ou pas, dailleurs) en question. Il sera ainsi ncessaire dadapter le style, quoiquil en soit formel puisqutant celui du secrtariat de la Rsidence dun Chef dtat, au public mentionn plus haut. Il nest pas demand ici de faire des recherches factuelles, mme si cest une ventualit pouvant tre sanctionne par un bonus dans la grille dvaluation construite par le professeur, dans la mesure o les dtails ajouts sont cohrents. Les informations se trouvant dans lenregistrement audio et restitues travers la mise en uvre propose sur cette mme page, pourront servir de base limagination des lves. Il sagira donc de rinvestir les informations glanes ici et l, de les transformer, den inventer de nouvelles et de les mettre en forme de manire veiller la curiosit et lintrt des destinataires. Il sera demand aux lves dinsrer un maximum dadjectifs dans leur lettre. Pourquoi ne pas, entre autres, rutiliser certains des adjectifs proposs dans le corrig de la partie Speak question 1 ? La mthodologie de la lettre aura t pralablement travaille, et ce pour des raisons videntes. On demandera aux lves de dactylographier leur lettre et de crer, le cas chant, le logo de leur Maison Blanche imaginaire . (p. 68) Corrig wordle-p68-1a/1b A. 1. particulars, 2. architect, 3. off-limits, 4. gutted, 5. wall hangings, 6. furnishings, 7. makeover. B. 1/b, 2/c, 3/c, 4/b, 5/b/c. wordle-p68-2.pdf The President and Vice-President of the United States of America are elected for a four-year term of ofce on leap years. Since 1933, the inauguration of every new President has taken place
WORDWORK

on 20th January following the year of election. As head of the executive branch of government, the President appoints the Administration, which Congress has to approve. There are twelve government departments whose heads are usually called Secretaries such as the Secretary of Defence and the Secretary of the Interior or have special names like the Attorney General (for justice), and the Surgeon General (for health). The rst appointment is usually that of the Secretary of State, who is head of the State Department, the equivalent of the Foreign Ministry of most other countries. Congress is the legislative branch of government and is made up of the House of Representatives and the Senate. It is also the branch that initiates impeachment procedures in cases of serious misconduct by high-ranking ofcials or by the President. The 435 Representatives are elected in November, on the same day as the President, and two years later at a mid-term election. Senators 2 from each of the 50 states are elected for six-year terms. With only one or two exceptions, Representatives and Senators belong to the Republican or the Democratic parties. Each state has a constitution and a complete system of government with a Governor and a legislature of two houses. The county is the smallest administrative unit. The Supreme Court is the highest judicial authority. The justices are appointed by the President with the Senates approval. (p. 68) Corrig pronle-p68 A. It is normally the nal gure that is stressed in a year, i.e. the 9 of 1929 (nineteen twenty-NINE), the 4 of 1984 (nineteen eighty-FOUR). However, when comparing two years that each have one similar digit, you stress that digit, i.e. 1929 (nineteenTWENTY-nine) as opposed to 1939 (nineteen THIRTY-nine). When the year ends in 00 (=hundred), it is hundred that is normally stressed. B. When the number stands alone, particularly when it concerns a date or someones age one normally stresses -teen. (sentences 1 and 3). However, when counting, you stress the rst syllable (sentence 4) When the adjective comes before a noun (or another number), it is the rst syllable that is usually stressed. (sentence one: nineteen twenty-nine... ; sentence 2 rst part) For emphasis, surprise, etc. the -teen syllable is stressed. (sentence 2, second part)
PRONOUNCE

Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 53

4 Rocking the Boat


Corrig
place mentioned number of rooms date when it was designed name of the architect place of birth of the architect architectural style a comparable building function of this other edice function of this building two signicant sections of the place (where a lot of work goes on!) two reasons why they cant be seen by visitors area from which visitors enter the White House the area where the visitors are now (name, oor) architectural feature seen on the right name of the street in front of the building specic place mentioned function of this place specic decorative item mentioned identity and ofcial function of this person link with the building

(p. 68) teamle-p68-1


the White House 132 1792 James Hoban Ireland neo-Classical Leinster House in Ireland seat of the Irish Parliament the Presidents home 1. the West Wing 2. the Oval Ofce 1. security reasons 2. the President is working there right now! the Visitors Centre in the East Wing the Entrance Hall on the State Floor the North Portico Pennsylvania Avenue

teamle-p68-3
two things in the White House that are recent dates when refurbishment was done logical deduction of the meaning of the term refurbished function of the Blue Room shape of the room comment made by a visitor on this room something which is not original in this room a characteristic of most of the interior person who saw to it that most of the pieces in the house are original ones identity of this woman date when she changed things here term used to describe her action characteristic of most of the furniture before she changed it wall hangings, curtains the Green Room: 1971 the Blue Room: 1995 redecorated and given new furnishings reception room oval Beautiful! the furnishings Most of the furniture is of the right period. Jackie Kennedy

John F. Kennedys wife 1963 a makeover It was reproduction.

teamle-p68-2
the East Room used for large parties and receptions a portrait of George Washington the rst President of the USA He supervised the design of the house. 1800 specic piece of furniture mentioned place where this piece is located ironical detail despite the name of this piece what Lincoln did with this piece of furniture name of the next room mentioned something which happened in 2000 identity of the person mentioned style of this rooms decoration question asked by a visitor tone of this visitors question the guides reaction the guides answer to the visitors question other item mentioned by the guide location of this item the Lincoln Bed

teamle-p68-4

1. Upper Floor (Family Floor) 2. the Lincoln Bedroom He never slept in this bed. He bought it. the Red Room Hillary Clinton refurbished it. Bill Clintons wife and Secretary of State from 2009 American Empire When did America have an Empire? mocking surprised, annoyed it means the American variant of Empire style, sir. a painting by a/the window.

date when the building was completed name of the President at the John Adams time second specic place mentioned the Green Room type of decoration mid-nineteenth century furniture two events which explain why 1. a big re in 1814 the place has changed a lot 2. a big re in 1929 since it was built consequences of these events pretty much everything had to be changed the only thing which has not the exterior walls changed name of the President who had Truman the place renovated decade when this was done 1940s another decade when changes 1950s were made specic changes Ceilings were lowered, air conditioning was added; the place was gutted and renovated.
54 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

livre du professeur

The Ermine Portrait

(p. 69)

(p. 69) Corrig a. Ancestry. She was the daughter of King Henry VIII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn who was executed for treason, meaning that Elizabeth was thought by some to be born of bad blood. She was, at different times in her youth, removed from the line of succession to the throne, as was her elder sister, Mary whose mother, Katharine of Aragon, Henrys rst wife, had been divorced by him. b. Importance. She reestablished the Protestant religion as the State religion (her sister Mary had been a Catholic and had persecuted Protestants, hence her nickname Bloody Mary). Relative religious peace and devious diplomacy, together with increased sea power (leading to the establishment of New World colonies, the growth of international trade and a general feeling of safety from invasion) brought prosperity. The Elizabethan Age saw the rise of the middle classes and the owering of the arts. c. Important events. The execution of Mary Stuart (Mary Queen of Scots) in 1587 removed the possibility of a Catholic succession and put a stop to Catholic plots to assassinate the Queen. The defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 removed the threat of Spanish hegemony in Europe. There is an ermine on the Queens left arm. The ermine, which is the name for the stoat in winter when its coat is white, can symbolise royalty and/or chastity. In many European countries, ceremonial robes were trimmed with ermine. It took a great many furs to trim just one robe and the furs were sewn together with dark thread, leaving dark spots as on the ermines fur in the painting. Here, it is wearing a crown, the symbol of majesty and purity. The sword on the table is the sword of state which symbolises justice. The Queen also holds an olive branch which symbolises peace. It is obvious from the portrait that the image that the Queen wanted to put forward was one of grandeur, magnicence, distance and power. She was putting herself on a pedestal to be admired and obeyed, in the belief that the more magnicent she was, the more her subjects would look up to her. The English fashion of the period (of which she was the leader) almost dehumanises her and her features are those of a mask rather than of a woman of 51. The dark colours emphasise the solemnity of her position. Nowadays, most Heads of State try for exactly the opposite effect: to be as human as possible and close to their subjects rather than distant.
PROJECT

programme du cycle terminal du 28 aot 2010 et qui sadaptent parfaitement lexercice propos ici en project : prendre la parole devant un auditoire, mettre en voix un texte , expliquer un projet, exposer une dmarche, prciser un mode demploi , exprimer des sentiments, une opinion personnelle , argumenter pour convaincre . Une grille dvaluation simple et prcise peut ainsi tre construite en intgrant ces points, la crativit des lves restant au centre du projet. Deux tapes sont donc demandes : tout dabord, logiquement, crire, modier et afner un discours, comme cela se fait pour tous les discours publics. Le visionnage dextraits du rcent lm The Kings Speech pourra ici dtre dune relle utilit et proposer une piste intressante pour les lves. Ensuite, simprgner du discours ainsi produit et sapprter le prononcer en public. On pourra bien entendu jouer sur les motions et la thtralisation du discours pour rendre le message plus raliste et crdible et mme crer quelques critres dvaluation en lien avec cet aspect. Le rinvestissement des connaissances, du lexique et des structures manipuls et appris (= le travail sur les ches Wordwork page 66, le texte pages 66-67 et le tableau page 68) sera bien videmment comptabilis dans lvaluation individuelle et enrichira les productions des lves. Certains dtails nanmoins importants devront tre rapidement choisis et raliss (identit, photo en tenue de couronnement, insignes...) grce loutil informatique, laissant ensuite la place la crativit verbale des lves. Des photos-types peuvent tre consultes titre indicatif (taper 1953 Elizabeth II coronation regalia sur Google par exemple). Enn, un travail de vrication phonologique est envisager en amont, an de mettre les futurs monarques en conance pour la dimension rhtorique de leur discours, la trace crite pouvant tre conserve, tout en vitant bien sr une oralisation pure et simple du discours crit.

La che
La che dinformation Une che dinformation est tlchargeable : bonusle-p.69. Elle fournit des renseignements sur le peintre, le background et le tableau. Pour ceux qui disposent du manuel numrique, ces textes sont disponibles galement en version enregistre. Lactivit supplmentaire Une che de travail est tlchargeable : artle-p.69. Il sagit dun texte trous sur Elizabeth I. Corrig artle-p.69 The cult of personality was extremely important for all Renaissance monarchs so it is not surprising that all the courtiers at the court of Elizabeth I were expected to wear miniatures of the Queen. This demand for miniatures kept Nicholas Hilliard in work, although he also produced full-size paintings and items of jewellery. When the Ermine portrait was painted in 1585, the Queen was 51 years old and wore a wig and heavy make-up to as to present an image of unchanging beauty to the world. This makeup, used on both face and hands, was white. A white skin was highly prized in those days, since it meant that one did not work outdoors or do manual labour.
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 55

(p. 69) Il sagit ici dun projet actionnel mettant en vidence lactivit dexpression orale en continu tout en visant le niveau d utilisateur indpendant B1. Le travail fait en amont autour du document visuel de cette mme page est capital. Citons ici quelques descripteurs au niveau B1 du CECRL repris dans le

4 Rocking the Boat


Elizabeth recognised how important it was to dress richly at all times, so as to impress both her own subjects and foreign dignitaries. Towards the end of her life, she had over 2,000 dresses in her wardrobe. She was always setting new fashions at court and, like Diane de Poitiers, her favourite colours were black and white. Bearing all this in mind, it is no accident that the painting pays great attention to the detail of Elizabeths dress and jewels. Her hands are shown as ne, delicate and very white, and her face is almost a mask: getting a good likeness of the Queen was much less important than conveying the power and majesty of her position. avait a visitors center car dans ce cas a se rapporte Center et visitors joue quasiment un rle adjectival (gnrique). Faire comparer : the boys school et a boys school. (Application) a. Since 1909 the Oval Ofce has been the presidents ofce. (spcique : son bureau) b. Wow! Thats what I call a presidents house! (gnrique : prsidentiel) c. Most presidents went to boys schools. (gnrique : for boys) d. What uniform is the guard wearing? A Marines. (gnrique : facilement identiable la fonction) a. Elizabeths reign has not yet been as long as Queen Victorias. b. The Queens chair seemed clearly much larger than the Prime Ministers. c. Few people live in a house as big as the Queens.

Language Corner

(p. 70-71)

Le gnitif incomplet et la notion de possession


But de la rexion sur la langue : montrer que s ne marque pas toujours la possession mais que, par contre, il indique un rapport troit entre les deux mots quil relie. Le contexte indique de quelle nature est ce rapport. galement dans la ligne de mire de On Target, lide que cest le premier des deux mots qui possde le second (voir le prcis grammatical ce sujet). Une rexion sur les diffrentes natures des complments de nom en franais pourrait se rvler utile, en particulier dans le cadre des problmes de traduction. Notons rapidement au passage quelques exemples : le jardin de mon pre (complment de nom caractre possessif [gnitif]) ; le saut de la haie (complment de nom caractre objectif [la haie est lobjet du saut]) ; le saut de lathlte (complment de nom caractre subjectif [cest lathlte qui saute]) ; lan de la famille (complment de nom caractre partitif) ; le plus haut btiment du monde (complment de nom caractre circonstanciel). Corrig (Observation) the Presidents home; the Visitors Center; anyone elses. N1 au singulier + s + N2 N1 pluriel + + N2 Ns (pronom) + s et effacement de N2 car facilement identiable. En 1 et 3, bien que lon puisse arguer que la Maison Blanche nappartient pas plus au Prsident en exercice que la chaise sur laquelle les invits de la Reine sont assis. Dans Visitors Center on a davantage affaire un complment de nom caractre attributif : le centre rserv aux visiteurs, le centre construit pour les visiteurs. En 1 et 3, les N1 peuvent trs bien dire : cest chez moi, cest ma rsidence ou cest ma chaise. Pas dans lautre cas. En 1 et 3. The home of the President nest pas agrammatical en soi. Et that of anyone en rfrence aux chaises non plus. Nous ninigerons pas dexplication linguistique aux lves de ce niveau. en 2 : the Center (built) for the visitors. Dans les deux cas on peut arguer que the se rapporte respectivement President et Visitors. On a donc affaire des gnitifs dits spciques . Mais il en serait autrement si on
56 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

Le pronom indni one


But : aider les lves manipuler ce pronom utile et pas toujours traduit littralement en franais, et ce en commenant par observer son fonctionnement. Les aider distinguer le pronom qui remplace un nom dj mentionn et celui qui sert dsigner la personne qui parle ou parler en gnral ( on ). Enn, ne pas confondre lindni (variable : one/ones) et le numral cardinal invariable. Corrig (Observation) one is eighty : pronom indni sujet one of the things : adjectif numral cardinal one has achieved : pronom indni sujet one can die : pronom indni sujet sujet (Application) l. 25 : valeur n 5 ; l. 37 : idem ; l. 40 : idem ; l. 44 : valeur n 3 (Attention ! numeral cardinal ici, pas pronom indni) ; l. 47 : valeur n 5 ; l. 51 : idem ; l. 54 : idem ; l. 62 : idem mais aussi n 4 ; l. 63 : valeurs n 5 et/ou n 4. a. valeur n 1 ; b. valeur n 3 ; c. valeur n 2 ; d. valeur n 4. a. l. 15 ; l. 44. b. ones birthday (l. 37) c. books can only take one so far d. I have had (l. 25) ; and since this is my birthday (l. 37) ; for I have a long perspective (l. 40) ; I am mean (l. 47) ; in which I have been (l. 51) ; and I wouldnt want (l. 54) ; in a way that I could never have expected (l. 62) ; but books can only take me (l. 63). e. one knows that one has been well advised [...] but one hadnt realized (l. 6-7) but what there is to celebrate one is not sure (l. 15) One supposes (l. 15) one thinks (l. 19) one has gone through [...] one does not say (l. 26) one has always disliked waste (l. 43-44) has one going round (l. 45) but disliking waste as one does (l. 49) all the experiences one has had (l. 50) one has become an avid reader (l. 61)

livre du professeur

books have enriched ones life (l. 62) now one thinks [...] one becomes, or tries to become (l. 63-64)

Les composs de one


Corrig (Observation) anyone : toute autre personne prsente dans la salle everyone : toutes les personnes prsentes dans la salle someone, no one anyone : noncs afrmatifs, interrogatifs ou ngatifs someone : noncs afrmatifs, plus rarement interrogatifs no one : noncs ngatifs everyone themselves (Application) a. The Queen was addressing everyone and no one in particular. b. Does anyone want to ask the Queen a question? c. Lets not get carried away, she said to someone in the rst row. d. There is someone no one speaks about in this extract and thats the duke.

B. 1. Edward VIII had to renounce the throne to marry the one he loved because she was (twice) divorced. 2. She was longing to see him again but leaving him was the right thing to do. She gave up all plans of sharing his life. C. (exemples)1. He relinquished the throne in order to marry Wallis Simpson, the woman he loved. 2. Once in exile, the former king of England may have yearned for home. (p. 73) On fait travailler ici deux comptences de comprhension, puis lexpression orale. Corrig The reasons for the abdication were that (1) It was impossible for a British reigning monarch to marry a divorcee, (2) Edward felt he could not carry out his royal duties without the woman he loved beside him, (3) Edward thought his brother would be an excellent king because of his experience in public affairs and his happy home life. The people involved were King Edward VIII, his mother Queen Mary, Mrs Wallis Simpson, the Duke of York (George VI) and his family, the Prime Minister Mr Baldwin, and the British people. The consequences were that the Duke of York succeeded his elder brother and became George VI, and that Edward, as the Duke of Windsor, went into voluntary exile. ( ce stade, on peut encourager les lves imaginer la dcision quils auraient prise sils avaient t confronts de tels choix. Le professeur peut galement diversier les activits langagires et proposer un sujet dexpression crite du type : To what extent should professional duties prevail over private interests?) Script tapescript17-p73 At long last I am able to say a few words of my own. I have never wanted to withhold anything, but until now it has not been constitutionally possible for me to speak. A few hours ago I discharged my last duty as King and Emperor, and now that I have been succeeded by my brother, the Duke of York, my rst words must be to declare my allegiance to him. This I do with all my heart. You all know the reasons which have impelled me to renounce the throne. But I want you to understand that in making up my mind I did not forget the country or the empire, which, as Prince of Wales and lately as King, I have for twenty-ve years tried to serve. But you must believe me when I tell you that I have found it impossible to carry the heavy burden of responsibility and to discharge my duties as King as I would wish to do without the help and support of the woman I love. And I want you to know that the decision I have made has been mine and mine alone. This was a thing I had to judge entirely for myself. The other person most nearly concerned has tried up to the last to persuade me to take a different course. I have made this, the most serious decision of my life, only upon the single thought of what would, in the end, be best for all. This decision has been made less difcult to me by the sure knowledge that my brother, with his long training in the public
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 57

Love vs Duty

(p. 72-73) Parmi les monarques qui ont dfray la chronique ou fait des vagues leur poque, nous avons retenu la reine Elizabeth I et le roi Edward VIII. Dans le second cas, le lm rcent The Kings Speech peut aider les lves apprcier la mesure des situations respectives.

(p. 72) On pourra avantageusement inviter les lves visionner le lm Elizabeth, dans lequel lactrice Cate Blanchett campe une reine trs plausible. Corrig Chief advisor Sir William Cecil and Parliament pressured Queen Elizabeth I to get married in order to secure the realm and form an alliance with a European power. Getting an heir to the throne would secure the line of succession. Elizabeth and the rest of her kingdom didnt want a Spanish Catholic ruler in England. Elizabeth couldnt marry a French Catholic either. After Queen Marys attempt to restore Catholicism in England, it was important to secure religious stability. Her nal decision was to devote her life to the welfare of the country by giving up the idea of getting married. Elizabeth I was known as the Virgin Queen. Part of the truth is that she was in love with the Earl of Leicester. Whos Who? The previous monarch: Mary I, the Catholic Queen of England, Elizabeth Is half sister and Henry VIIIs rst child by Katharine of Aragon. The suitors: Philip II of Spain, The Duke of Anjou. The favourite: the Earl of Leicester. The advisor: Sir William Cecil (p. 72) Corrig wordle-p72 A. Verbs expressing wishes: wish for, desire, want, crave, long for, yearn for, cry out for, hope for. Verbs expressing renunciation: renounce, give up, abandon, resign, surrender, relinquish, abdicate, sacrice.
WORDWORK

4 Rocking the Boat


affairs of this country and with his ne qualities, will be able to take my place forthwith without interruption or injury to the life and progress of the empire. And he has one matchless blessing, enjoyed by so many of you, and not bestowed on me a happy home with his wife and children. During these hard days I have been comforted by her majesty my mother and by my family. The ministers of the crown, and in particular, Mr. Baldwin, the Prime Minister, have always treated me with full consideration. There has never been any constitutional difference between me and them, and between me and Parliament. Bred in the constitutional tradition by my father, I should never have allowed any such issue to arise. Ever since I was Prince of Wales, and later on when I occupied the throne, I have been treated with the greatest kindness by all classes of the people wherever I have lived or journeyed throughout the empire. For that I am very grateful. I now quit altogether public affairs and I lay down my burden. It may be some time before I return to my native land, but I shall always follow the fortunes of the British race and empire with profound interest, and if at any time in the future I can be found of service to his majesty in a private station, I shall not fail. And now, we all have a new King. I wish him and you, his people, happiness and prosperity with all my heart. God bless you all! God save the King!
PROJECT

(p. 73) On peut orienter les lves vers les domaines du show business, de la politique, de lhistoire ou de la tl ralit, galement vers la recherche de couples que lge, le milieu social, la couleur de peau ou la religion loignent a priori. On peut galement avoir recours des uvres de ction. Sites consulter : http://www.gracekellyonline.com/ http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soraya_Esfandiari_Bakhtiari http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Side_Story http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romeo_and_Juliet (p. 74-76)

Ateliers
Atelier 1

(p. 74) Script dvdscript-p74 In this age of protests, one of the most recent nds 4,000 Londoners decrying British support for US action in Vietnam. There were a few minor scufes but no arrests. The demonstrators were stopped from approaching Prime Minister Wilsons Downing Street home. Organised by the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, mimics of Queen Elizabeth presented mock medals and said the war was a wicked obscenity. Madrid University, scene of the largest anti-American rally in recent years. Posters, leaets, slogans and student speeches all carried a vehemence seldom seen here before. Some 3,000 undergraduates attended. An American ag is burned at the height of the demonstration. Both President Johnson and Francisco Franco were vilied. A new low in public protest. Added strain on Spanish-American relations. Over 4,000 anti-hate people jammed Detroits Belle Isle Park in another example of the recent social phenomenon thats
58 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

sweeping the country. Its a giant Love-In, close relative to the Be-In, sort of a happy happening laced with the rites of spring. The slogans were just as frank as ever. Hippies, would-be hippies and just plain folks made a colourful scene with wild costumes, uninhibited dancing and general high frolic. Group therapy like this outdrew the Detroit Tigers that day. The end, man! Corrig (questions du manuel) (students own answers) All the pictures are from the late 60s. A and B were taken at outdoor rock concerts; B at an antiVietnam War demonstration in the USA (the banners say dont draft our sons...) and C at a similar demonstration in England (the banners mention Wilson, a reference to Harold Wilson, Prime Minister at the time [his rst term of ofce was 19641970], Johnson, a reference to US President Lyndon Johnson [1963-1969] and to U Thant, UN Secretary General [1961-1971]. a. The rst event is a demonstration in London against British support for US action in Vietnam. The second is an Anti-American rally in Madrid, Spain. The third is a Love-in in Detroit. The second event is related to picture D. The third event to pictures A and B. b. Prime Minister Wilson: see 1 above. CND (Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament): a powerful antinuclear lobby who organised many protest marches. Queen Elizabeth: the British monarch. President Johnson: see 1 above Francisco Franco: the General who was Spanish head of state from 1936 to 1975. c. (exemple) He has a rather condescending, mocking tone but it is the indulgent amused tone of an older person who doesnt mind letting the young have a good time. It is clear, though, that he doesnt take Love-ins very seriously. (students own answers) dvdle-p74 a. London, Vietnam, b. no one, c. Prime Ministers, d. vilied. a. a ght, b. an organisation against nuclear weapons. (exemple) the vehemence of the speeches, burning an American ag, vilifying President Johnson and Francisco Franco. a. Detroits Belle Isle Park, b. 4,000, c. Love-In. a. anti-hate people, b. Love-In, Be-In, happening, c. would-be hippies, d. The end.

Atelier 2

(p. 75)

Corrig The narrator is a woman. We do not know how much time has elapsed/passed between the moment of the events and the moment of narration. We only know her last/family name: Latham. She was 16 years old. She was a (US) high school student in 1966 when the main events took place. John Latham is her father. He is/was a college or university professor. He was ideologically opposed to the Vietnam War, he was clearly a pacist. He organized a huge student protest which meant the university executive business couldnt function.

livre du professeur

This was one of the rst student protests against the war and John Latham looked very respectable, a typical member of the university establishment so it was shocking to see him being taken off to jail. No. But what he did made him a delinquent. He was seen as being very cool, a hero or student idol, a sort of role model. The narrator found it difcult to establish her own identity and felt inadequate, because her father had such a big reputation among all the people she met. However, she still loved him as her father. The passage is clearly about a member of the academic establishment who suddenly decides to break the rules and challenge the status quo. head (v.) = lead ; standstill (n.) = arrt total ; dwarf (v.) = make something look small, craser. (p. 76) Les questions portant sur ce cartoon sont en fait des guidelines que llve peut/doit suivre pour construire sa description et son commentaire. Il pourra nanmoins tre encourag improviser sa prsentation de limage de faon personnelle. Corrig He is a political candidate and is hoping to be elected as a Member of Parliament. He is holding a folder entitled MP expenses claims. The cartoon plays on the word run which has a double meaning: to literally run (here meaning to run away with), and to run as a candidate which means present oneself as a candidate in an election. The idea is that in politics, once you have been elected, you become corrupt. The gure in the background is the stereotype of the burglar, with a mask, a striped sweater and a bag of loot or swag (= butin). The cartoonist is showing how corrupt politicians can be, and how easy it is for their corruption to go unnoticed. In the cartoon, the burglar has to run to make his getaway after committing a crime, but the politician feels quite safe... The cartoon is referring to the 2009 MPs expenses scandal, when it came to light that many MPs were putting in exorbitant expenses claims. Because of the lax system in operation, and the (unofcial) encouragement given to MPs to claim as much as possible, many MPs considered their claims legitimate. Some, however, had to repay large sums of money. (p. 76) An daider les lves bien prparer le dbat, on peut leur proposer les ches de travail suivantes. Selon le niveau de la classe, on peut dcider de guider ou pas les lves sur les sujets que les hommes politiques devront aborder. The Journalist Before the debate, think about the questions that you will ask the politicians about public issues (e.g. the environment, the death penalty, urban violence...) and about their private lives (e.g. their income, how they spend their leisure time, where they usually spend their holidays, if they support any charities...). During the debate:

1. Introduce yourself (ex: Good evening everybody! I would like to welcome you to this election debate. Im ...... and today well be hearing from 2 politicians running for ofce, each hoping to be the future leader of our country); 2. Introduce the candidates; 3. Introduce the main topics (ex : This debate will focus on...); 4. Put your questions about public issues. 5. Put your questions about personal matters. 6. Interview the voters in the audience to see who they will vote for. Politician A Before the debate, prepare to answer questions about your private life and about three issues. Here are your views on them. A. The environment There are more important issues to be discussed. We are not the worlds worst offenders. Concentrate on the emerging economies. Saving endangered species may be as unnatural as genetically modifying them: let nature take its course. B. The death penalty Capital punishment is morally wrong and barbaric. It does not deter criminals from murdering people. Sometimes the death penalty is applied unfairly. C. Urban violence Reducing urban violence is important. More powers must be given to the police. Unemployment is at the root of the problem and must be reduced. Remember! A good politician is a good public speaker. To convince people that youre the best, you need to speak loudly and clearly, and with condence. You have to show that you believe in what youre saying, even if youre lying. Useful expressions Hang on a minute! Hold on! Please let me nish. But the issue here is... Ill be perfectly honest with you, ... Politician B Before the debate, prepare to answer questions about your private life and about three issues. Here are your views on them. A. The environment An environmental tax should be created in order to reduce carbon emissions. You are ready to sign international treaties to limit carbon emissions. You will promote initiatives to reduce trafc congestion and promote free public transport in big cities. B. The death penalty Capital punishment can prevent future murders. It is fair an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth. The victims family feels better if the murderer is executed.
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 59

Atelier 3

Atelier 4

4 Rocking the Boat


Executing a prisoner is less expensive than life imprisonment. C. Urban violence Reducing urban violence is important. More powers could be given to the police. Raising educational standards would help. Remember! A good politician is a good public speaker. To convince people that youre the best, you need to speak loudly and clearly, and with condence. You have to show that you believe in what youre saying, even if youre lying. Useful expressions Hang on a minute! Hold on! Please let me nish. But the issue here is... Ill be perfectly honest with you, ... Voters in the audience Before the debate, think about your idea of a perfect politician. Make notes on these points: physical appearance; the way he/she expresses himself/herself; values; promises. What is your stand on these issues? Are they important? What solutions would you like to see? Make notes: the environment; the death penalty; urban violence. During the debate take notes on what is said: Candidates names How they stand on environmental issues How they stand on the death penalty How they stand on urban violence Details about their private lives After the debate say if you would vote for either of the candidates or not, giving your reasons. Useful expressions His/her tone was generally speaking... uninteresting/persuasive/ordinary/... His/her arguments were generally speaking... lame (= poor)/relevant (pertinent)/... He/she seems... reliable/trustworthy/honest/dishonest/corrupt/easily inuenced/ready to do anything to be elected It is critical of politicians. Dnitions des deux termes dans le Oxford Advanced Learners English Dictionary : oxymoron: a phrase that combines two words that seem to be the opposite of each other, for example a deafening silence paradoxical: said of a statement containing two opposite ideas that make it seem impossible or unlikely, although it is probably true. Example He was a paradox a loner who loved to chat to strangers. Expressions like these are perfect examples of something that sounds clever and thought-provoking but, in fact, is just a load of rubbish: pure wind. (students own answers)

Class Project

Atelier 5 (p. 76) Lobjectif de cette citation de George Orwell est de faire rchir les lves aux discours des hommes politiques. La citation est facilement comprhensible par tous. Les questions servent de guide une analyse plus ne et la rdaction dun paragraphe de 180 mots environ. Corrig The topic is the way in which politicians manage to sound truthful but in fact are hiding the truth from the people.
60 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

(p. 77) Ce projet qui conclut un chapitre dans lequel la monarchie et la royaut en particulier sont secous a pour but de dclencher la parole travers un jeu de rles trs motivant. Le thme (trouver le premier monarque amricain) sera source de motivation (car trs dcal par rapport limage que lAmrique peut avoir en tant que dmocratie), ainsi que la forme, qui se rapproche des missions comme Pop Idol, etc. A lheure de la tlralit, ce projet soulvera lenthousiasme et encouragera les lves prendre la parole. Commencez par le petit article qui met en place le contexte : aprs un rfrendum, les Amricains ont vot pour lintroduction de la monarchie dans leur pays. Des candidats au poste sont slectionns travers un grand casting et il nen reste plus que quelques-uns. Un travail sur la tlralit pourrait tre envisag en amont et on pourrait en proter pour mettre en place le dcor et les acteurs du show que sera le casting. An que tous les lves aient un rle, divisez la classe en deux : un groupe dont les membres seront les candidats au poste, et un groupe qui fera ofce de jury (un sous-groupe valuera la premire moiti des candidats, un autre le reste des candidats). Les candidats devront travailler leur rle individuellement et trouver des arguments convaincants. Une utilisation des ides exploites au l du chapitre serait un excellent moyen de ractiver le contenu. Exigez une rutilisation du vocabulaire et des expressions vus lors de lexploitation du chapitre ou de certains de ses composants. Les membres du jury se regroupent pour dnir des critres dobservation qui leur permettront de choisir le meilleur candidat, et de faire une valuation des candidats si vous souhaitez que les candidats soient valus en expression orale (lvaluation des membres du jury semble difcile car leurs interventions seront limites vu le nombre de membres). Chaque membre du jury se voit coner un des critres dobservation (valuation) et doit prparer individuellement des questions poser au candidat lors de la phase dinteraction. Le jury doit prendre des notes pendant que les candidats exposent leurs arguments et ses membres peuvent ensuite poser une question chacun au candidat. Lorsque tous les candidats seront passs, le jury aura quelques minutes pour dlibrer et annoncer le choix nal.

livre du professeur

CHECKPOINT

(p. 78-79)

Expression orale

(p. 78) Un petit clin doeil aux annes hippies mais lenvers ici, la gnration la plus jeune ayant retrouv des habitudes assez conservatrices et lancienne tant apparemment reste ge une autre poque... (p. 78)

(exemple) The author uses irony and humour to portray politicians. He questions their honesty and asserts that if those public gures told the truth, they would never be elected. In other words, if they want to have a successful political career, they have to tell lies. Saying such a thing may rst appear paradoxical, but it seems to sum up very well what most people think of politicians. But maybe people do not want to hear the truth... for fear of what it might cost them.

Corrig The scene takes place in a meeting room, during a meeting precisely, perhaps between the CEO (Chief Executive Ofcer) and the company executives of the board of directors. While the people sitting around the table are wearing very traditional shirts and ties, the CEO is dressed rather surprisingly. He has got a ower in his very long hair. No shirt, no tie, no suit for him but a ashy tunic and red bell-bottomed trousers. He is wearing a bracelet. He has brought his guitar and put it on his armchair. The other people around the table look surprised/astonished/ abbergasted because this is really a most unorthodox situation. They can hardly believe their eyes. I personally like the cartoon because the situation is amusing. Yet I would not say the CEO is rocking the boat because, as the proverb goes, you cant judge a book by its cover, meaning that it is more important what you do than how you look. Since the CEO ditched the philosophy (presumably of love and peace, etc.) his ideas are probably the same as his very businesslike subordinates. It is only his appearance that is unconventional. There is a paradox here: generally it is the younger generation that tends to rock the boat in terms of fashion. Here, the CEOs younger colleagues seem quite conservative as far as dress code goes.

Expression crite

(p. 79)

(p. 79) Corrig Il nous a sembl intressant dans cette partie denrichir la rexion des lves sur le discours politique en introduisant les notions de responsabilit et de censure. Le court paragraphe introductif permet aux lves qui nont pas vu le lm de comprendre le contexte gnral et de lancer le dbat. Les questions 2, 3 et 4 sont loccasion de demander aux lves dutiliser les expressions abordes depuis le dbut de lanne pour exprimer leur point de vue, complter ou prciser leur argumentation, mettre deux lments en parallle ou exprimer une contradiction. On peut renvoyer les lves la partie Mthodologie , la n du manuel ( Organiser et lier son discours ) pour trouver de nombreux exemples dexpressions utiles qui pourront tre facilement rebrasses lors de sances ultrieures ou exiges lors dune valuation. Pour la question 3, voici quelques exemples : wiretapping after the 9/11 attacks in the USA; bringing in curfews in poor neighborhoods to stop violence; the imprisonment or execution of political opponents in foreign countries.

Comprhension de lcrit

(p. 78) (p. 78)

Comprhension de loral

(p. 79)

Corrig According to A. Rooney, a good politician should be able to answer questions about public matters concisely. The author would like to question politicians about their private life. He would like to get information about their faults, about the books theyve enjoyed, about their pets, about the time they wake up on Sundays, about the person who prepares their breakfast and about the way they drive. He also would like to know if they are superstitious. According to the author, politicians should give their opinion about religious freedom, about the amount of money that the government should spend on defence, about capital punishment, about the way the government should help people in need, about the minimum legal age for alcohol consumption, about abortion, about nuclear power, about sex equality and about gun control. a. tough, b. budget, c. murderers, d. freedom, e. hinder, f. able. b. a. Politicians never seem to tell the truth. b. If they were honest, nobody would vote for them.

(p. 79) Le texte de cet enregistrement est extrait de la bande originale du lm The Boat that Rocked. Corrig Part One Twatt. (NB. a twat is a colloquial noun meaning a complete idiot...) Twatt is subordinate to the other character because he calls him sir. The other character also threatens to re Twatt. They are talking about Radio Rock, a pirate radio station. Twatt: polite, rened, servile, crafty. Home Secretary: ruthless, intolerant, narrow-minded, bossy. The task is to make Radio Rock illegal. It has to be sorted out in a fortnight (two weeks) and the radio has to be off the air in twelve months. If the mission is not successful, Twatt will lose his job and the Home secretary will make sure that Twatt never works again. In the ofce of the Home secretary. Part Two Twatt hasnt managed to nd a loophole in the law to make Radio Rock illegal but he has found what he calls a noose (i.e.
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 61

4 Rocking the Boat


something to put guratively around Radio Rocks neck to strangle it with) which will be a solution. Radio Rocks waveband blocked a distress call from a shing vessel. His report will show that Radio Rock is endangering the lives of shermen and the countrys economy. a. Hes delighted and doesnt care about the shermen. He even regrets that none of them died because of the blocked distress call! b. Enthusiastic. This is obviously a government department, probably the Home Ofce (= the ministry of internal affairs) and he has he power to hire and re people so he must be either a high-ranking civil servant (like the Permanent Private Secretary) or the Home Secretary (= ministre de lintrieur) himself. Script tapescript18-p79 HOME SECRETARY: Come in. TWATT: Sir? HOME SECRETARY: Ah! Yes... Very impressive references here. TWATT: Thank you, sir. HOME SECRETARY: Very unusual name... Twatt? And thats with two Ts? Have you heard of pirate radio, Twatt? TWATT: Like Radio Rock, sir? HOME SECRETARY: Indeed, exactly like Radio Rock. Ever listened to it? TWATT: Not often. Im not really a pop person. I prefer classical music. HOME SECRETARY: Well, who doesnt? TWATT: The listeners of Radio Rock, sir? HOME SECRETARY: Precisely. The drug-takers and the law breakers and the bottom-bashing fornicators of our recently great country. Well, heres your little task. I want Radio Rock off the air in 12 months, and I want you to be my private assassin. Sort it out in a fortnight. Find me a loophole in the law so that I can make them all illegal or you are red. And when I say red, I do not only mean that you will lose your job. I mean that you will never work again. TWATT: Sir. The two weeks are over, and Im afraid I havent really been able to nd you a loophole. HOME SECRETARY: What a shame. Time for you to move on, then. TWATT: But what I have done is nd you a noose. I have a report here that says that last week the distress call of a shing boat wasnt heard because its radio waveband was blocked by Radio Rock. Men were dying, and they couldnt be saved because of this rock n roll pornography. I think, sir, we have our smoking gun. HOME SECRETARY: Very good, indeed. Did the shermen die in the end? TWATT: No, sir. HOME SECRETARY: Thats a pity. So tell me, Twatt, whats the plan? TWATT: I think we should work to get public opinion on our side. Then, January the 1st, we make pirate radio totally illegal on the grounds that they are endangering the lives of the brave men and women of the nations shipping community, upon whom the economy and sh and chip shops of the country
62 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

depend. And if they try to defy the law, we take them out. HOME SECRETARY: Splendid. TWATT: I think we can call it the Marine Offences Act. HOME SECRETARY: The Marine Offences Act. I like it. And I think the Queen will like it, too. TWATT: We have them on the ropes. HOME SECRETARY: God, I love ropes. You must come over to dinner sometime. Meet the family.

Pillars of Society

(p. 80-81)

(p. 81) Corrig From what we are told, Mr Outrage is Prime Minister and, from his title, Father Rothschild is a Catholic (or High Anglican) priest. Lord Metroland could be a hereditary peer, but, because his name suggests city rather than country, and business rather than leisure, he is almost certainly a life peer who has been rewarded with a title for services to industry or commerce. The name Rothschild is an odd and humorous choice for a priest, since the name is usually associated with the banking family of Jewish origin. Outrage is obviously an impossible surname and suggests that the character is either outrageous (i.e. totally unsuited to his position) or constantly outraged. Most people would assume that a Prime Minister has to have a strong personality, take control of situations and be the rst to be aware of any events affecting the nations welfare. However, we learn that Mr Outrage is very insecure, is bullied by his colleagues, not at all conscientious about his job, and not at all well-informed about international events. Waugh makes him into a ridiculous gure of fun, showing him up as naive and foolish. (students own answers) (exemple) The Prime Minister has become successful by managing to put as little effort as possible into his work. This suggests that society rewards its least worthy members. He is also the last person to nd out about the coming war. This suggests that British society is being run so badly that the country could end up totally unprepared for war. (exemple) Waugh was clairvoyant in that he saw that a war was coming, and that the social changes going on in the 1930s due to disenchantment with a social structure that seemed obsolete would in fact lead aided by the Second World War to even greater changes in society. The book is timeless in that every single generation sees the next generation as wayward, threatening and unconventional. Human nature never changes. (exemple) He talks about a radical instability in the world and seems to think pacists are not realists. This is a very conservative point of view and could, if taken to extremes, lead to thinking that being militaristic and aggressive could bring better order in the world. (p. 81) Pour faire cette activit, nous vous conseillons dabord de rpondre aux questions de comprhension. En effet, une lecture supercielle du texte ne permet pas de dceler les traits de caractres des diffrents personnages. Il y a peu dadjectifs
WRITERS WORKSHOP

livre du professeur

et dadverbes dans le texte qui permettent de visualiser facilement les personnages. Lanalyse plus ne des noms, des positions sociales de chacun, permet en revanche une approche beaucoup plus riche des personnalits. Ce manque dadjectifs et dadverbes en revanche est un atout prcieux pour lactivit que nous proposons car les lves peuvent imaginer pleinement les aspects physiques, les traits de caractres de chacun en toute libert. Gageons que limagination des lves entranera des propositions varies et amusantes. Lactivit peut se drouler sur une seule sance : prsentation de lobjectif du cours ; rpartition des groupes et des personnages lintrieur de chaque groupe ; rexion sur le casting de chacun des trois personnages avec laide lexicale ci-dessous ; bilan en classe entire.

Aide lexicale
Personality Positive affable (adj.) agreeable (adj.) amiable (adj.) amusing (adj.) charisma (n.), charismatic (adj.) charm (n.), charming (adj.) diplomatic (adj.) easy-going (adj). enchanting (adj.) friendly (adj.) generous (adj.) likeable (adj.) mild-mannered (adj.) pleasant (adj.) polite (adj.) Negative bizarre (adj.) comical (adj.) crazy (adj.) curious (adj.) disagreeable (adj.) eccentric (adj.) extravagant (adj.) foolish (adj.) grotesque (adj.) naive (adj.) odd (adj.) peculiar (adj.) pretentious (adj.) ridiculous (adj.) rude (adj.) strange (adj.) uncouth (adj.) unfriendly (adj.) unpleasant (adj.)

General appearance Positive beauty (n.), beautiful allure (n.) attractive (adj.) charm (n.), charming (adj.) class (n.) elegant (n.), elegance (adj.) fascinating (adj.) fashionable (adj.) glamour (n.) good looks (n.), good-looking (adj.) grace (n.), graceful (adj.) handsome (adj.) renement (n.) stunning (adj.) style (n.), stylish (adj.) virile (adj.) Fat big broad corpulent gargantuan heavy large obese overweight paunchy plump Thin emaciated lean skin-and-bone skinny slender slim

Negative bald (adj.) disgured (adj.) disgusting (adj.) gaunt (adj.) ghastly (adj.) ghostlike (adj.) graceless (adj.) grotesque (adj.) hideous (adj.) not t to be seen ordinary (adj.) plain (adj.) repellent (adj.) repulsive (adj.) rough (adj.) ugly (adj.) Tall big giant huge immense large towering Small dwarf-like minuscule short tiny

Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 63

5 Legacy 5 Legacy
Espaces et changes, lieux et formes de pouvoir, devoir de mmoire... Que reste-t-il de la prsence britannique dans ce qui fut lempire sur lequel le soleil ne se couchait jamais ? Telle est la thmatique de ce cinquime chapitre qui va permettre aux lves de voyager aux quatre coins du monde anglo-saxon pour dcouvrir lhritage culturel des anciennes colonies. passed on for tens of thousands of years. BLAYLOCK: Darwin is unique because its in a very unique part of the world. Its in the northern part of Australia, its right on the top edge of Australia, and the two things that make it really unique is the enormous amount of indigenous art from this area and so there are some quite remarkable musicians and visual artists and theatre artists and dancers. Its really quite remarkable, both traditional and also contemporary work. The Darwin Festival, its about Darwin and what there is to offer in this particular place. And this is a festival where black and white mix very happily and very successfully. And I think that that leads to... that that exposure and people getting together in a festive atmosphere like this leads to greater understanding. Corrig dvdle-p82 The Darwin Festival is a celebration of music. It draws diverse and talented musicians from all over Australia and neighbouring countries like Papua New Guinea. The Festival also highlights Aboriginal art, which is known and admired worldwide. The art, whether modern or ancient, portrays life itself. Traditional laws, social customs, and creation stories which are called dreamtime by the Aborigines are represented in these works. Each clan or indigenous group maintains its own language of symbols passed on for tens of thousands of years. a. on the northern edge of Australia. b. musicians and dancers, people who work in the theatre, painters. c. all races mix well together, its like a party: everyone has a good time, people manage to understand each other better.

Pages douverture

(p. 82-83)

Cette double page douverture illustre parfaitement ce voyage dans lespace et dans le temps, les photos et la vido servant descales cette dcouverte. (p. 83) Corrig (exemples) Picture 1 shows a man, almost certainly an Aborigine, wearing a T-shirt with a provocative slogan on it. The slogan is written on the Aboriginal ag, one of the ofcial ags of Australia, but not the national ag. By playing on the word black, the slogan implies that white Australians did some terrible things to Aborigines (= blacks) in the past. Picture 2 shows the now traditional haka, a warlike dance that derives from Maori culture in New Zealand, and which the New Zealand national rugby union team, the All Blacks, perform before international matches. It is one of the few examples of an element of indigenous culture that has come to be associated with the dominant, non-indigenous culture. Picture 3 is of an Independence Day celebration in Ghana. Ghana could be called one of the few successful post-colonial parliamentary democracies in Africa. Its separation from Britain in 1957 was relatively painless and good relations have been maintained by means of the Commonwealth. Therefore, it is not as paradoxical as one might think to see the British ag being waved on Independence Day. Picture 4 is of two Chinese men from Hong Kong wearing kilts. Different explanations may be imagined, but it seems obvious that this is an outdoor event of some kind and these men have some ofcial function. The uniforms or styles of dress of colonial rulers have inuenced local dress in several parts of the world; a strange legacy of colonialism. (see above) (students own answers) Script dvdscript-p28 REPORTER: The Darwin Festival is a celebration of music. It draws diverse and talented musicians from all over Australia and neighbouring countries like Papua New Guinea. The Festival also highlights Aboriginal art, which is known and admired worldwide. The art, whether modern or ancient, portrays life itself. Traditional laws, social customs, and creation stories which are called dreamtime by the Aborigines are represented in these works. Each clan or indigenous group maintains its own language of symbols
64 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

Maori Values

(p. 84-85)

Lextrait littraire prsent ici, et notamment illustr par lafche du lm ralis en 1994 daprs le roman dAlan Duff publi en 1990, nous prsente le personnage de Beth. Celle-ci, mre de six enfants, marie un homme inculte, violent et alcoolique, est lhrone du roman et livre ici ses rexions quant lvolution du style de vie de ses congnres maoris face la modernisation de la socit no-zlandaise notamment. Lauteur, Alan Duff, de mre Maori et de pre Pakeha (cest--dire dorigine europenne), relate sa vision de lentre-deux travers un style oral, pour se faire lcho le plus raliste possible du monde quil dpeint, la fois touchant et complexe. (p. 83) Corrig The rst picture is a photograph showing two young Maori women. They present an idyllic image of harmony and peace. Dressed in traditional black, white and red clothes, they are sitting outside a wooden house which could be a marae, a spiritual house and ceremonial centre used for all types of gatherings and rites, or a wharenui, a meeting house. They may be dancers or musicians, as we can see them holding things that look a bit like castanets. The second picture is a lm poster which shows three Maoris, presumably a mother and father and

livre du professeur

their daughter. The atmostphere is a long way from the idyllic charms of the other picture: we get the impression that there is some sort of underlying violence and unpleasantness attached to this particular familys life. In the third picture we can see a traditional Maori sculpture in wood portraying a tattoed man. The face shown seems to be that of a warrior. The three pictures make it obvious that the text is going to involve the Maori culture, and maybe not just the good side of it... (Il sagit ici de mettre en commun les connaissances, mme supercielles, des lves en lien avec la NouvelleZlande. Envisageons galement des cartes vido-projetables permettant aux lves de mieux visualiser la gographie du pays ainsi que sa position exacte sur le globe terrestre et poursuivons ventuellement le brainstorming par des recherches sur les diffrents aspects de la culture Maori sur internet. Les points suivants pourront tre voqus par les lves et/ou apports par le professeur dans la mise en commun.) New Zealand is located in the South-Western Pacic Ocean, 1,200 miles southeast of Australia. It is made up of two main islands and a number of smaller islands. It is liable to earthquakes (the last one was in 2011!) and volcanic eruptions. It is a former British colony and has been a member of the Commonwealth since 1947. The majority of the population is of European descent, followed by Maoris, Asians and non-Maori Polynesians. English is the principal ofcial language, and is spoken by 98% of the population. The Maori language, spoken by 4% of the population, became the other ofcial language in 1987. Aotearoa is the Maori name for New Zealand, meaning Land of the Long White Cloud. It is a constitutional monarchy (with the British monarch as its Head of State, though the monarch has a purely ceremonial role) and a parliamentary democracy. Maori culture is known for its traditional crafts of carving, weaving and painting, and for its tattoo art (moko). Rugby is the most popular sport, the All Blacks the national team being one of the best in the world. At international matches, they perform the famous haka, a Maori dance and chant which offers up a challenge to adversaries. It could be a reference to the Maori war culture and the various wars Maoris had to ght in the past to retain their land and culture in the face of colonisation. Or else it may allude to the various Maori protest movements against so-called Eurocentrism and for a better recognition of their civilisation and values. The preterite in the title may imply that the present situation is much more peaceful and harmonious than it used to be... or that the warriors have grown tired of ghting and have more or less accepted their lot. (p. 84) Corrig Beths Maori origins are suggested by the use of verbs such as own, collect, inherit and retain, which are in keeping with the Maori way of contemplating the past as opposed to the modern stuff (l. 6). She hardly knew a European (l. 12) tells

us more directly that she is a Maori. Europeans are said to be strangers (twice in l. 14) and from another country (l. 15), therefore the speech is not necessarily aggressive towards them, but neither is it friendly: behind the indifference, there is obviously some resentment. Beth implies that, unlike Maoris, Europeans are materialistic not a quality she admires. Beth seems to have mixed feelings about the future of Maori culture as, for example, she undeniably prefers the music from the past and rejects the modern stuff (line 6). She clearly feels nostalgia but seems rather condent about the future as she explains that Maori culture is a real passion (l. 26), something deep inside the people, in their guts, in their heart and in their belly (l. 34 & 36) and that, despite the negative elements, it is something that cannot fade away. To dene Maori culture, the following terms are used: melody, harmony, romance and sentimentality. Maoris are also depicted as being a musical people (l. 9-10). However, the narrator seems to be rather pessimistic and worried in the sense that the positive values associated with Maori culture (music, solidarity, generosity, passion, spirituality and humour) are apparently being absorbed by violence and heavy drinking (beer and sts in line 42).
Past (with positive connotations) those times the forties/the fties and sixties melody, and harmony, and romance No Maori I ever knew ever lusted after having things Present (with negative connotations) this modern stuff it lack[s] romance and sentimentality crime [...] breaking the law youd grow hard along the way its bad Cept when were drunk our trouble: beer and sts

Crime is shown to be a new negative trend among some Maoris, associated with heavy drinking. The narrator condemns it, while Beth who is well aware of it explains the reason for it, even though she doesnt endorse it: must be something in the Maori make-up makes us wilder, more inclined to breaking the law. Pine Block must be a predominantly Maori neighbourhood, where people grow hard along the way and where crime is rampant among young Maoris. (p. 84) Corrig wordle-p84-1a/1b A. 1/b, 2/h, 3/k, 4/g, 5/j, 6/i, 7/d, 8/a, 9/e, 10/f, 11/c. B. 1/2. wordle-p84-2 A. 1/e, noun, 2/d, verb, 3/h, verb, 4/j, noun, 5/a, verb, 6/g, verb, 7/c, noun, 8/f, noun, 9/b, verb, 10/i/noun. B. 1. to keep up, 2. upkeep, 3/kept on, 4. in keeping with, 5. to keep down.
WORDWORK

(p. 85) Corrig teamle-p85-1 A. 1. melody, harmony, romance, sentimentality.


Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 65

5 Legacy
2. (exemples) powerful sounds, harmonious spiritual music, may create introspection in the listeners... 3. musical, wild, good, instinctive, laid-back. 4. romance, music/musical, strangers, good, passion (three times!), humour/laughing, possessions, food, laid-back. Most of these repetitions are part of the narrators rhetoric and are used in order to emphasise some key points of the Maori culture and way of life at the expense of other secondary elements. 5. We share things. Wed give our shirt off our back to another. (l. 21-22). The idiomatic expression means that a Maori person would not hesitate to give something they own to someone in need. 6. were a good people. Basically, were good. (l. 20-21) 7. Humour: it always is the best medicine when youre in trouble! (Also food is common to all cultures and a way to make your own culture better-known.) teamle-p85-2 1. she hardly knew a European, not to talk to go to their house see how they lived. Theyre like strangers they are strangers, to most Maori I know (l. 12-15). Living together harmoniously and peacefully implies respect for and interest in one another. 2. crime (l. 17), breaking the law (l. 20), drunk (l. 42), beer and sts (l. 42), that is to say uncontrolled violence and heavy/ binge drinking. 3. Hell, I dunno, must be something in the Maori make-up makes us wilder, more inclined to breaking the law (l. 18-20). The narrator seems to accept this reality, resorting to humour to show impotence in the face of violence and crime. 6. cool, laughing, laid-back. 7. It is a slum/a ghetto/an inner-city area, i.e. a deprived area. 8. Alcoholism/heavy drinking is one specic problem. It leads to violence and may be due to a feeling of being rejected by modern society. 9. (exemple) The Aborigines of Australia have similar problems maybe because they either gave up their lands or had their lands taken away from them, and were placed on reservations a long way from centres of trade and industry. teamle-p85-3 1. It implies a comparison to the European approach to music, assumed by the writer to be less intense, less emotional, even less physical. 2. Beth does not have any contact with Europeans. She stays away from them, maybe ignores them, or is afraid of them: Beth [...] hardly knew a European, not to talk to go to their house see how they lived. 3. (students own answers) Chacune des propositions est recevable, avec plus ou moins de nuances, sagissant seulement dhypothses tayer toutefois. 4. Maoris: waves of immigration from Eastern Polynesia before 1300 AD. Europeans: colonisation by the Netherlands but mostly by Britain, starting in the 17th century. (+ students own answers) 5. They are less showy when compared to blacks the sort of blacks seen, presumably in American-made movies in that their clothes are more sober, they wear less jewellery, they dont speak as loudly, they dont want to stand out in a crowd; etc.
66 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

The implication is that Europeans and Maoris are closer than Europeans and blacks (from the USA). 6. According to the narrator, the blame should be put on Maoris for being too hot-blooded/ery/quick-tempered and for drinking too much (all the crime [...] is committed by us [...] must be something in the Maori make-up makes us wilder, more inclined to breaking the law). Also, they do not make enough of an effort to communicate with Europeans, which creates barriers between the two communities. teamle-p85-4 1. Old records have a real cultural signicance for her. They mean a lot to her, as if they were an embodiment of part of her family history or part of her life: variously owned and collected records [...] inherited from her parents generations and retained.... 2. ...considerable sentimental value because they are a huge part of her parents and grandparents life. 3. None whatsoever! (But things, we aint got things. Meaning possessions. Material possessions. [l. 31-32]) Maoris are more spiritually-inclined people. 4. (students own answers) 5. Maori culture is a culture in which people do not attach much feeling to material belongings. Their wealth is much more spiritual and transmitted from generation to generation with no connection to money or tangible things. 6. (exemple) It is unrealistic in todays world which is based on monetary values: you have to work to earn money, which is the only way of providing your family with a sufcient standard of living. You are more or less obliged to be active members of the consumer society. (p. 84) Pas de corrig-type ici, bien sr, mais quelques pistes. Pour viter la monotonie dexposs individuels, voire mme en groupe, assnant des faits et des exemples tirs de recherches et parfois mme copis-colls depuis des sources diverses et varies, nhsitez pas rajouter des contraintes spciques ce travail. Par exemple, demandez certains lves de se concentrer sur certaines communauts diasporiques, les deux principales tant tablies Alice Springs en Australie et Londres. Envisagez aussi laspect guerres mondiales du vingtime sicle au cours desquelles des Maoris ont t amens se dplacer pour participer leffort de guerre. Ces pistes-l peuvent restreindre le champ des recherches. De mme quun travail plus ax sur le haka des All Blacks ou bien encore sur la musique traditionnelle (ou pas...) des Maoris, travers des albums ou des concerts. Dautres lves peuvent galement concentrer leur recherche sur les diverses grandes expositions qui furent consacres aux Maoris travers le monde ces dernires annes. (On en retrouvera facilement trace sur internet). Enn, comment ne pas songer au Muse du Quai Branly Paris pour, au mieux, une visite guide de lexposition permanente consacre lart Maori, sinon une visite virtuelle des collections sur internet. Autant de travaux varis qui peuvent donner lieu une exposition en classe ou au CDI et une courte restitution orale de chaque lve, sans notes sur lesquelles sappuyer...

livre du professeur

PROJECT

(p. 85) Avant toute chose, il sera demand aux lves de faire intervenir leur part de crativit dans cette activit vise actionnelle, tout en faisant un usage immodr des structures, connaissances et donnes lexicales quils auront intgres travers ltude de cette double page. Le thme de ce chat show interview est, comme dans le texte tudi, la musique et sa valeur dans la culture Maori, le propos devant ici tre novateur : celui dune musique qui se donne comme objectif de rassembler les cultures (on dpasse donc la dimension un peu rsigne du texte), un journaliste tant charg de poser lagent de ce nouveau groupe toute une srie de questions ralistes, provocantes, amusantes... En terme de mise en uvre, on imposera une part dimprovisation en tirant au sort un agent dans le groupe 1 et un journaliste dans le groupe 2, lesquels auront bien videmment prpar leur intervention mais seront forcment surpris par les propos de lun ou de lautre de temps autre, ce qui ne manquera pas de pimenter les choses. Comme alternative ce schma, on peut envisager de coner dautres rles dautres lves, notamment ceux des membres de ce groupe musical, chacun faisant montre de sa particularit culturelle et expliquant ce quil/elle apporte au groupe et la socit no-zlandaise (a priori...) par extension... (p. 85)

her subjects overseas and wants to make sure they see how committed she is to the Commonwealth. (p. 86) Script tapescript19-p86 PRESENTER: As the Queen celebrates her 80th birthday, our correspondents across the Commonwealth look at how the monarch is viewed. First to Australia and Peter OConnell. REPORTER 1: Queen Elizabeth has been a key gure in Australias recent political history and the respect she has enjoyed has stied the republican movement. However, like this doctor from Sydney, most people believe change will come when Prince Charles is crowned king. WOMAN: There is a sense of affection towards the Queen, but that affection and familiarity wont be transferred by the Australian people to Charles. PRESENTER: Over now to Canada and our correspondent, Mark Villiers. REPORTER 2: For the majority of Canadians, the Queens birthday will simply be a passing news story. Canada broke its last constitutional ties with the United Kingdom in 1982 but seems content to have the British monarch as its ofcial head of state. I interviewed a shopkeeper in Toronto about how she felt about the Queen. WOMAN: Well, a lot of people of my generation whose families emigrated from Britain still have a sentimental attachment to the Old Country, but my kids, well, for them, shes just irrelevant. And, you know, nearly 50% of people in Toronto originally came from Asia or the Middle East, so you cant expect them to feel anything for the Queen. As for the Frenchspeakers in Quebec, well you can imagine what they feel! PRESENTER: Things are a little different in the Caribbean, as Jennifer Walsh reports. REPORTER 3: The English-speaking Caribbean sees the Queen as a rare point of stability in a region that has changed rapidly since World War II. A local journalist reminded me that, even today, British inuence is still strong. MAN: The English-speaking Caribbean can never get away from its British past. The language is English, and the traditions, the political systems and so on. Theyre very British in orientation. However, the kind of dependence and the kind of feeling that we were part of the British Empire that has gone. As for the Commonwealth, there is a general feeling that it holds together because of personal admiration for the Queen rather than for any other reason. So, when she goes, who knows what might happen. PRESENTER: Finally, India. It used to be the jewel in the crown of the British Empire, but what of present-day ties between this huge country and the Royal Family? Over to John Percival in New Delhi. REPORTER 4: India views its former colonial ruler with some ambivalence. Many believe that India owes some of its enduring institutions including parliament, the legal system, the bureaucracy and its communication and transport systems to Britain. But many others say that colonial rule is a dark chapter in Indian history that must quickly be forgotten.
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 67

TRANSLATORS WORKSHOP

Corrig (Les numros renvoient aux procds de traduction tels quils sont dcrits dans la che p. 164.) 1. Beth passa en revue (1) les disques quelle possdait et avait accumuls de diverses faons (4), singles (8) ou albums (5), qui couvraient plusieurs dcennies depuis les annes quarante (9) et qui venaient (7) (de la gnration) (3) de ses parents. Elle les avait gards parce quen ce temps-l les airs taient mlodieux, harmonieux, romantiques (4) ... 2. Comment ils appellent a, dj (1) ? Dcontract. Oui, (2) cest a (1) le mot. Nous sommes une race dcontracte. Sauf quand on (5) est saols. Dans ce cas (1), on cogne. Sur (2) les autres, jveux dire. On les assomme (9) ds quon les voit. Cest cqui (2) cause la moiti de nos ennuis : la bire (6), les poings et la passion. a fait pas bon mnage, tout a. (1)

Queen and Commonwealth (p. 86)


Que pensent les habitants des anciennes colonies de la royaut britannique aujourdhui, sachant que le monarque est encore le chef dtat dun certain nombre de pays indpendants ... (p. 86) Corrig This map shows the members of the Commonwealth throughout the world and names some of the largest ones. The Queen is shown during two ofcial visits: to a Caribbean island and to Canada. She meets local people with a bright smile on her face and. The inhabitants seem extremely happy to see her. This would suggest that they are proud to have her as their ofcial sovereign. She probably has a genuine attachment for

5 Legacy
Corrig The presenter introduces two topics: that of the Queens eightieth birthday, but more importantly and seriously, the way the monarch is viewed in some Commonwealth countries, that is to say what the locals think of her. Apart from the United Kingdom, ve countries are mentioned: Australia, Canada, India, Kenya and Nigeria, and four areas: Asia, the Middle East, Quebec and the Caribbean. Three cities are also referred to: Sydney, Toronto and New Delhi. They mostly feel some kind of affection and attachment to her, and usually respect and admire her. They recognise the importance of her function and her inuence (a key gure) in the English-speaking world. The historic event mentioned is World War Two (1939-1945) in connection with the huge changes that have taken place in some Commonwealth countries since then. Colonial rule is referred to as being a dark chapter in the history of the former colonies. (p. 86) Corrig Il y a ici un rel choix oprer parmi les 54 tats-membres ! Il pourrait y avoir une concertation an que chaque lve sintresse un pays en particulier et quun pays ne soit pas trait deux fois. On prconise un schma identique pour la cration de cette factsheet : un format A4, la prsence de catgories bien prcises : population, langue(s) ofcielles/parles, histoire, gographie, conomie, culture, sport, avec soit des informations trs condenses, soit un choix (que les lves pourraient ainsi brivement expliquer loral) dinformations marquantes, surprenantes et anecdotiques dans certains cas, pour que la classe puisse apprendre des choses nouvelles en samusant galement, tout en vitant le copier-coller dinformations sans intrt. Cette collection de ches pourrait ensuite faire lobjet dun afchage dans la salle de classe qui donnerait lui-mme lieu des visites dautres classes commentes par les lves concepteurs des ches, les lves visiteurs prenant des notes et posant des questions pralablement prpares, dans le cadre dun travail men avec leur professeur. (p. 86) Corrig wordle-p86-1a/1b A. 1. Commonwealth, 2. viewed, 3. gure, 4. stied, 5. ties, 6. irrelevant. B. 1/c, 2/d, 3/f, 4/g, 5/b, 6/a, 7/e. C. 1/a/b, 2/b/c, 3/b/c, 4/a, 5/b. wordle-p86-2 A. 1/e, 2/h, 3/b, 4/c, 5/g, 6/a, 7/j, 8/d, 9/f, 10/i.
WORDWORK

B.
The United Kingdom England a constitutional monarchy four countries allegiance to the Crown an island country the seat of government in London a parliamentary system the House of Commons Scotland OUT a Prime Minister Wales the Conservative Party a member state of the European Union a G8 member the GBP as a common currency the House of Lords the Labour Party 646 constituencies Westminster, London 61 million people Northern Ireland
PRONOUNCE

The Commonwealth of Nations fty-four member states an intergovernmental organisation former colonies overseas territories South Africa Pakistan membership criteria the 1931 Statute of Westminster 2.1 billion people

(p. 86) Corrig pronle-p86 A. Rule 1 (exemple) The stress in words of three syllables or more ending in -al is usually on the antipenultimate syllable two syllables before the nal syllable. Rule 2 (exemple) Words ending in -tion are stressed on the penultimate syllable: the one before the nal syllable. B. Sentimental and universal are stressed on the penultimate syllable, not antipenultimate one. (p. 86) teamle-p86-1

Corrig A. 1. respect. 2. It was stied by the respect felt by the people towards the Queen. 3. Prince Charles when he is crowned King. 4. affection and familiarity. B. 1. low-key fashion, in a discreet manner. 2. supporters, raising a glass, celebrating. 3. Head of State. 4. ...she prevents too much power from falling into the hands of any other person. 5. ceremonial. 6. respected and admired. teamle-p86-2 A. 1. Canadians, passing news story, unimportant event for them. 2. 1982. 3. They seem happy to have the Queen as Head of State (content to have the British monarch as its ofcial head of state). 4. sentimental attachment. 5. the Old Country.

68 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

livre du professeur

6. woman, Toronto. 7. irrelevant. 8. Asia, the Middle East, they dont feel anything for the Queen. 9. 50%. B. 1. coins and banknotes (currency). 2. a. approve. b. regarded, domination. teamle-p86-3 A. 1. stability. 2. World War II. 3. strong. 4. traditions, language, the political system. 5. a. False: the kind of dependence and the kind of feeling that we were part of the British Empire that has gone. b. False: when she goes, who knows what might happen. 6. admiration. B. 1. between the 1960s and the early 1980s. 2. Dominica, Guyana. 3. calming, enduring. 4. relaxing, long-lasting. teamle-p86-4 A. 1. jewel, crown. 2. former colonial ruler. 3. ambivalence 4. a. parliament, b. legal, c. bureaucracy, d. transport systems. 5. It is called a dark chapter in Indian history that must quickly be forgotten. B. Victoria, Queen, 130, faded, hundred, status, former, 1947. teamle-p86-5 A. 1. It was here that she learned that she had become Queen (It was in Kenya in February 1952 that Princess Elizabeth learned that she had become Queen). 2. Treetops Hotel, Buckingham Palace, George VI, died. 3. four. 4. Older people feel some affection for the Queen but younger Kenyans dont know much about her (there are strong links and some affection for the Queen, but the young, modern Kenyan knows little of the British monarch). 5. 1962. teamle-p86-6 A. Queen Elizabeth has been to Nigeria twice. Nigeria is Africas most populous nation. It is located in Western Africa and its capital city is called Lagos. The Queen rst visited Nigeria in 1956, which was four years before its independence. The second time was in 2003 for a Commonwealth summit. For most Nigerians, the British Queen has little relevance to their lives but she is perhaps the best salesman Britain has, which means that she helps Britains image abroad. In her function as a monarch she is above politics, which means that she is viewed with respect and dignity because she takes her role more seriously than any other head of state. Script tapescript20-p86 The Queens birthday will be celebrated here in a low-key fashion. However, she still has some die-hard supporters here and they will be raising a glass or two in her honour. They believe she is

a sort of safeguard. As the legal Head of State, in theory she prevents too much power from falling into the hands of any other person. Her post is, of course, only ceremonial, but she is widely respected and admired. Its doubtful if Australia would have kept the monarchy if anyone else had been on the British throne. tapescript21-p86 Canada broke its last constitutional ties with the United Kingdom in 1982 but it seems content to remain a constitutional monarchy with the Queen as its legal head of state. Her image still appears on some of Canadas currency and the word royal is an integral part of many of the countrys institutions. Feelings and opinions about the Queen in Canada seem to depend on whom you talk to. Those in the countrys easterly Atlantic provinces, where the descendants of the original United Empire Loyalists reside, seem to approve of her the most. By contrast in Frenchspeaking Quebec she is regarded at best as an irrelevance and at worst a symbol of English-Canadian domination. tapescript22-p86 Independence came to the English-speaking Caribbean between the 1960s and the early 1980s. Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago and Dominica* went a step further and became republics with their own presidents, but most other islands retain the Queen as head of state. And the Queen is almost universally admired for her perpetual calming and enduring presence. She is also respected for her sobriety, especially in the light of the behaviour of some of her children and grandchildren... * Pronounced [demInIke] here, it is also pronounced
[dAmInIka]

tapescript23-p86 Nearly 130 years after Queen Victoria was crowned Empress of India, the ties between Britains once former prized colony and the Royal Family have all but faded. Most Indians would be hardpressed to recognise the Queen, fewer still can grasp the role of the monarchy in a functioning democracy. Perhaps this has something to do with the shifts in Indian society. Its own kings and princes, once numbering several hundred, have lost their status in independent India with their former kingdoms having merged with the country in 1947. The impact of more than 200 years of British rule is something that is still often hotly debated in the country. tapescript24-p86 It was in Kenya in February 1952 that Princess Elizabeth learned that she had become Queen. She was staying at Treetops Hotel when she received word from Buckingham Palace that her father, King George VI, had died. She has returned to Kenya on four subsequent occasions and members of her family are regular holiday visitors. So there are strong links and some affection for the Queen, but the young, modern Kenyan knows little of the British monarch. But Kenyans look back on the nal 10 years of British rule, her rst decade as Queen, with anger. The uncompromising suppression of the Mau-Mau uprising, when thousands of Kenyans were killed, and hundreds of thousands imprisoned and abused, provokes bitter memories. tapescript25-p86 Queen Elizabeth has twice visited Nigeria, a former British colony and Africas most populous nation. First in 1956, four
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 69

5 Legacy
years before its independence, and for a second time in 2003 to attend a Commonwealth summit. For most Nigerians, the British Queen has little relevance to their lives. But she is a great ambassador for Britain, perhaps the best salesman Britain has. The fact that shes a monarch who is above politics means that in todays world she is viewed with respect and dignity. She has played her role with seriousness, much more than any other head of state. le/la descendant(e) de lartiste sera vraisemblablement dans le registre motionnel ; le commissaire de lexpo sera dans un registre plus technique et prsentera une rapide rtrospective de la carrire de BourkeWhite ; le concepteur de lafche de lexposition (dont limportance est souvent considre comme capitale car assurant la visibilit de lvnement) relatera ses choix et les tapes de son travail ; le journaliste aura le choix dtre soit relativement dtach, soit totalement enthousiaste lide de voir souvrir cette exposition majeure de photographies, et en particulier celle de Gandhi et son rouet. La che dinformation Une che dinformation est tlchargeable : bonusle-p.87. Elle fournit des renseignements sur la photographe, le background et la photographie. Pour ceux qui disposent du manuel numrique, ces textes sont disponibles galement en version enregistre. Lactivit supplmentaire Une che de travail est tlchargeable : artle-p.87. Il sagit dun texte trous sur Margaret Bourke-White. Corrig artle-p33 From the moment she rst held a camera as a young girl growing up in New Jersey, it was clear that Margaret had a talent for photography. Her father was an enthusiastic photographer and he passed on this enthusiasm to his daughter. Her hobby turned into her profession after she left university and settled in Ohio. She opened a commercial studio and worked mainly for architects and industrialists, notably for the steel industry. Her eye for precision and lighting quickly earned her a reputation nationwide. She then left the world of commercial photography and went to work for the press, not just as a photographer but as a photojournalist, combining reporting with taking pictures. She started with Fortune magazine, and then moved to Life where her determination, courage and commitment soon made her one of the best-travelled and most-talked-about photographers in the USA. Not only was she the rst woman to work as a photojournalist for Life, but during the Second World War she also became the rst woman war reporter, the rst woman allowed to work in combat zones and the only foreign photographer in Moscow when the Germans invaded. She was always in the right place at the right time and always concerned about making the public aware of the amount of human suffering and injustice in the world.

Gandhi at his Spinning Wheel

(p. 87) (p. 87)

Corrig This is a black and white photograph showing a spinning wheel in the foreground on which the eyes focuses rst and Gandhi a little further back and to the right. Placing him to the rear makes him seem less important than the spinning wheel. There is also a carpet and what must be Gandhis bed. The room is suffused in a very bright white light, almost supernatural in that it seems to naturally highlight the essential elements. The photo is perfectly balanced between left and right, foreground and background, and gives an impression of harmony. Gandhi is shown shirtless, apparently with no qualms about showing his scrawny body. He is sitting cross-legged on the oor in front of a whitewashed wall, reading some papers. The impression given is one of utter simplicity. The photo does not seem to be posed. Gandhi is doing what he usually does and does not interrupt his daily routine to be photographed. Gandhi was known for his ascetic lifestyle, dressing, eating and living simply. He praised the simple virtues of the people: industry and frugality, and wanted to revive traditional crafts. This photo shows many of these aspects: an almost bare room, the minimm of clothing, a tool with which to practise a traditional craft... The spinning wheel is the symbol of a traditional way of life that was in danger of disappearing. Gandhi fought against imported manufactured goods which were destroying domestic industry. Thats why he advocated making ones own clothes. This picture was called the photograph that almost wasnt because Gandhi wasnt particularly willing to cooperate with the photographer that day. It was his day of silence and BourkeWhite was not allowed to talk to him, which made conditions very difcult. The picture became famous, however, because the spinning wheel itself became the emblem of Gandhis ght for Indias independence in 1946-1947. It even became a symbol for the Indian people and is part of the Indian ag. (students own answers)
PROJECT

Language Corner
Leffacement des relatifs

(p. 88-89)

(p. 87) Lessentiel de ce projet se trouve dans la cohrence des interventions prvues lors de ce vernissage mettant en lumire le travail ralis par Margaret Bourke-White au cours de sa longue carrire. Chaque participant doit parler dans le registre appropri :

Ce phnomne est sans doute connu des lves de premire, mais cest leffacement du relatif sujet dans une langue relche dont nous souhaitons les rendre conscients ici, laccs la comprhension du message tant notre souci majeur. Corrig (Observation) ...and not this modern stuff the kids liked, soul and reggae and rap...

70 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

livre du professeur

I dunno, must be something in the Maori make-up makes us wilder, ... ...and not this modern stuff that the kids liked, soul and reggae and rap... I dunno, must be something in the Maori make-up that makes us wilder, ... they are strangers to most Maori I know (l. 14-15) the contact the two races have (l. 15-16) Not like that Negro style you see... (l. 27) No Maori I ever knew (l. 33) NB. Attirer lattention sur le fait que le that omis dans when you see all the crime [...] is committed by us (l. 17-18) nest pas un relatif mais une conjonction. (Application) 1. a = non, sujet ; b. oui, COD ; c. non, sujet ; d. oui, complment circonstanciel ; e. non, gnitif. 2. a. I got a nephew who hollers like that. b. No, no, its the smoke that affects my eyes. London smoke do [sic] that c. Shes got another place at the beach where she stays most weekends. d. Ill tell you straight away that I wont be there on the day when* he nally comes. * e. And now, suddenly, there came to him [...] a distant recollection of something, somewhere, that he had seen before. f. Its only the lthy rich who can afford to celebrate in this manner. Take all you can nd. * Discussion possible ici sur la nature de when qui est bien un relatif (le jour o), comme why lest dans the reason why ; mais lemploi du prsent simple dans la subordonne tend faire penser que lauteur a trait when comme une conjonction de temps...

Bilan : (track 23) the ties between Britains once former prized colony and the Royal Family have all but faded. [...] Its own kings and princes [...] have lost their status in independent India. (track 24) She has returned to Kenya on four subsequent occasions. (track 25) Queen Elizabeth has twice visited Nigeria [...] She has played her role with seriousness. 2. a. Hes (has) reached a respectable age. b. Hes (has) received good and extensive advice. c. His reign has been one of the longest in the country. d. In 50 years ten Prime Ministers have succeeded one another. e. Hes (has) owned 22 hunting dogs/hounds. f. Hes (has) always fought waste. g. Hes (has) witnessed numerous events that are now looked upon as historic.

Les prpositions et les particules adverbiales


Corrig (Observation) (Les prpositions sont en italiques ; les adverbes/particules/ post-positions sont en gras.) Beth sorted through the variously owned and collected records. Even when we know its bad for us Not that kind, but a cross between that and the less showy whites Then we lay out. Lay (th)em out as soon as (we) look at (th)em. Beth thinking hard, trying to match up instinctive understanding with a suitable word passion. (Application) Lier la thmatique de ce texte celle du lm dont lafche apparat p. 97. I would not tell lies to you (introduit complment dattribution) Like the promises they did not keep (introduit complment de comparaison) And how they fenced us in like sheep. (place du COD entre verbe et adverbe ; introduit complment de comparaison) Sent us off to mission land (place du COD entre verbe et adverbe ; introduit complment de lieu) Then they took the children away (place du COD entre verbe et adverbe) Snatched from their mothers breast (introduit complment de lieu) Then they split us up again (place du COD entre verbe et adverbe) Sent us off to foster homes (place du COD entre verbe et adverbe) As we grew up we felt alone (phrasal verb intransitif)

Bilan prsent ou fait pass ? Emploi du present perfect


Opposition prtrit/present perfect, les deux exemples choisis tant traduits par le pass compos franais dont la traduction vers langlais pose toujours le mme problme de choix : sert-il renvoyer un fait pass ou faire un bilan ? Corrig (Observation) 1. le pass compos. 2. le present perfect, puis le simple past 3. le simple past 4. le present perfect (Application) 1. b. Faits passs : (track 22) Independence came to the English-speaking Caribbean between the 1960s and the early 1980s. [...] Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago and Dominica went a step further and became republics with their own presidents. (track 23) Nearly 130 years after Queen Victoria was crowned Empress of India... (track 24) It was in Kenya in February 1952 that Princess Elizabeth learned that... [...] She was staying at Treetops Hotel when she received word from Buckingham Palace... [...] when thousands of Kenyans were killed.

Out of Keeping

(p. 90-91)

Script dvdscript-p90 LEILA: Hi, welcome to watchmojo.com. Im your host Leila. Today we get the chance to sit down with prominent Kenyan author Binyavanga Wainina who won the Caine prize for African Writing for his short story Discovering Home. Why have
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 71

5 Legacy
you remained so attached to Kenyas politics and economic situation? WAININA: I was born and brought up in Kenya and somebody spent a lot of time telling me to sing the national anthem every day, so Kenya is real in that sense, right, and so Im invested. But the truth is its just a forty-year-old country and theres a lot it hasnt done, places it hasnt gone, questions that have to be asked of it. Being a writer who has a certain name in certain places, I can talk to economic people and I can say: OK, whats a useful position that we think we should try and push? Its (then) that people start to understand that theres a narrative view we want to write for ourselves and we dont want the New York Times to be writing it and that sort of thing. LEILA: Would you please tell us what you mean by the term equity generation? WAININA: I think I was referring to a generation of people who were born after independence. Most of them are under the age of 50. Many of them managed to get to a certain place because Kenya did provide a reasonably decent education for some of its people, but what happened was the country was so badly being mismanaged that the economy was declining and so when they hit majority which is 18, 21, or came out of college, they were just hanging about, either doing innovative things in the informal sector or doing [inaudible] jobs and doing things on the side. And so what happened ve years ago with a mixture of euphoria and growth-style politics, and especially in Nairobi, a new generation of people started to do very well. But to have purchasing power sort of thing, they started to get loans, having to be loan givers, having to start banks, schools and IT businesses and all kinds of things, there was an idea of a return of something and, for me, belonging to a generation like that, it was amazing to see my peers and what they could do with just a little bit of a boost in the sense of possibility. And for me, talking about that particular generation is very important because there is a sense of fatalism amongst us, Africans and other people, that somehow, whatever it is that ails our countries, is unxable, is unknowable, is unmeasurable, and when you see examples like that, you realise that, really, its very much about arranging a political and economic structure well enough that people get to do the things they need to do and given the chance they will. Corrig dvdle-p90 1. a. Discovering Home, b. 40 years old, c. The New York Times. 2. a/T, b/F, c/T, d/T, e/T. 3. For me, belonging to a generation like that, it was amazing to see my peers and what they could do with just a little bit of a boost in the sense of possibility. And for me, talking about that particular generation is very important because there is a sense of fatalism amongst us, Africans and other people, that somehow, whatever it is that ails our countries, is unxable, is unknowable, is unmeasurable. 4/a. (p. 91) Corrig (exemples) Some of these pictures are strongly related to the pictures on the opening pages. We see the colonial legacy in terms of architecture (Kenya and India), place names and language (Hong Kong), sport (Pakistan), uniforms (the Bahamas and Sri Lanka), transport (India), and the urban environment (Malta). During the colonial period, there was a great deal of give and take between conqueror and conquered. Many of the changes brought to countries like India and Pakistan were thought of as improvements and have had a lasting effect on those countries infrastructure and culture. In some countries, the indigenous upper classes very often identied with the aspirations of the British upper class, hence their desire for children to be educated in the British way, and, by extension, wear British-style school uniforms. Building Gothic revival public buildings in India and Elizabethanstyle country houses in Kenya is, in some ways, eccentric and even arrogant, and would probably be out of the question nowadays when it is no longer acceptable to talk about grafting one culture onto another. However, such buildings were a comfort to the colonists who found themselves surrounded by unfamiliar exteriors and interiors, and who wanted to recreate the security of their home surroundings in what was often a very insecure environment. The map shows which countries drive on the left and which drive on the right. The link to the pictures is that driving on the left is, in most cases, a legacy of British rule and not something that is easy to change: it means a great deal of expense and is a logistical nightmare. (Sweden, Iceland and Ghana managed it, however.) Japan is an interesting exception: it was never a colony, but developed its driving habits in the Edo period when it more or less cut itself off from the rest of the world. Burma was a colony for 62 years (1886-1948). The Bahamas was a colony for 255 years (1718-1973). Hong Kong, special administrative region of the Peoples Republic of China since 1997, is not now a sovereign nation.
WORDWORK

Corrig A. 1/h, 2/e, 3/i, 4/b, 5/j, 6/g, 7/c, 8/d, 9/a, 10/f. B. 1/d, 2/f, 3/g, 4/h, 5/b, 6/e, 7/c, 8/a, 9/j, 10.i.
PROJECT

(p. 91) wordle-p91

(p. 91) Une variante possible du script voqu en deuxime tche serait de raliser un vritable spot publicitaire. Lorsquon leur en donne la possibilit, les lves aiment se prter au jeu de la vido et lensemble de leur production en anglais est bien meilleure, notamment au niveau phonologique.

Ateliers
Atelier 1 (p. 92)

(p. 92-94)

Script dvdscript-p92 VOICEOVER: The underlying agenda of the annual Garma Festival is both cultural and intellectual.

72 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

livre du professeur

The Festival is held in a bark forest in Gulkula to the north-east of Arnhem Land in the Northern Territory. This is the country as the Aborigine refer to their land of the Yolngu people. The Yolngu people cherish the Gulkula forest since it was here that their ancestor Ganbulabula brought them the didgeridoo. The Yolngu people are the original owners of this land. They established the Yothu Yindi Foundation here to create economic opportunities for the community and to preserve their traditional dance or bunggul, song or manikay and art: unmenichi. The Garma Festival is the Foundations way of sharing knowledge and culture for a better understanding between indigenous and non-indigenous people in Australia. YUNIPINGU Because we come from different walks of life and different countries and different languages and the thing that matters in Garma is to set out where we go and what we can achieve. MARTIN-FANNING: People are wanting to look and experience Aboriginal culture for maybe the rst or second time but to have an understanding of Aboriginal culture and to understand where we come from as Aboriginal people. We have one of the oldest living cultures in the world and were very proud of it. VOICEOVER: Garma in the Yolngu language means the exchange of knowledge. BALDERSTONE: The Garma Festival and the Yothu Yindi Foundation pretty much have three primary aims. One is to share knowledge and culture and we hope that by people sharing knowledge and culture, Australians and... non-indigenous Australians and indigenous Australians get a greater understanding of each other. Secondly were very keen on maintaining and preserving and presenting traditional cultural practices little kids come and theyre watching their parents and their grandparents and their cousins and their aunties and they learn from doing it with them, and these things are nurtured and maintained through it. And the third one is really to create economic opportunities for Yolngu and other indigenous Australians through education, training, employment, developing their work skills and just getting them up to where we hope and our overall mission is to give indigenous Australians the same level of well-being and life opportunities as non-indigenous Australians. Corrig (questions du manuel) 1. (see the dvdscript) 2. a. They want to preserve their traditional dance, song and art. b. Garma means the exchange of knowledge. The festival is designed to develop a better understanding between cultures. (Although the festival is termed an exchange, students may be astute enough to point out that it is mostly about making white Australians aware of Aboriginal culture, not the reverse.) c. 1. to share knowledge and culture, 2. to maintain, preserve and present traditional cultural practices, 3. to create economic opportunities for Yolngu and other indigenous Australians.

dvdle-p92 1. 1/e, 2/f, 3/d, 4/g, 5/a, 6/h, 7/c, 9/b. 2. (students own answers) 3. a. to share knowledge and culture, b. maintain, preserve and present traditional cultural practices, c. create economic opportunities for Yolngu and other indigenous Australians. 4/c.

Atelier 2

(p. 93) Corrig The pun in the title implies that Great Britain has lost its greatness. Great Britain played a dominant role in the world not just in cultural terms but also in terms of economic and military power. The way the country developed nuclear plants and the close ties it managed to forge with the USA can also be seen as important assets. It was said that the sun never set on the British Empire because Britain had colonies all around the world. The journalist uses this well-known sentence to show that Great Britain is not as powerful and as inuential as it used to be. China and India have more and more weight on the economic scene. They have also widened or improved their partnership with the USA. The journalist blames Tony Blair for doing whatever the USA wanted Great Britain to do. Many British people thought that Blairs submissive attitude weakened their country. The journalist qualies his statement asserting that Blairs policy alone cannot explain the fall of the UK. The world keeps changing and Britains downfall could not have been prevented.

Atelier 3

(p. 94)

Corrig This is a lm poster for the movie entitled Michael Collins. At the centre, presumably, is Collins himself. He is brandishing a rie, and seems to be delivering a ery speech to the people waving their hands in the foreground. The Irish ag is oating in the background over what looks a like a sky tinged by the smoke of battle. The mans face expresses fury, anger and rebellion. (The way the poster is designed really makes Collins look like a leader.) We cant actually see the faces of the people around him, but their raised hands show that they are ready to follow him: he is obviously extremely popular; his charisma has got him a lot of followers. Collins was an Irish revolutionary leader who fought for the independence of his country. He must have played a major part in the independence of Ireland. Pour davantage dinformations sur Michael Collins et le lm, on peut envoyer les lves sur : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Collins_(Irish_leader) http://www.allocine.fr/lm/chelm_gen_clm=13638.html

Atelier 4 (p. 94) Comme toujours pour ce genre de travail, il est difcile danticiper ce que sera la production des lves. Mais on peut les encourager dans un premier temps aller chercher des
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 73

5 Legacy
informations sur le thme qui leur est propos, puis trier les ides avant de choisir leur camp et leurs arguments. Le fait que cette discussion reste dactualit dans de nombreuses rgions de France devrait les aider. On peut aussi leur demander sils connaissent des villes ou lieux clbres ou mme des pays entiers dont le nom a rcemment chang pour redevenir ce quils taient il y a plusieurs sicles. (Mumbai, Beijing, Zimbabwe, Uluru...) http://geonames.nrcan.gc.ca/education/native_f.php http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geographical_renaming 950607republic-speech.shtml http://www.australianpolitics.com/issues/republic/95-06-08_ howard-republic-speech.shtml

Checkpoint
Comprhension de loral

(p. 96-97) (p. 96) (p. 96)

Atelier 5 (p. 94) Les guidelines proposes la rexion de llve sont l pour laider construire son dveloppement. Il va sans dire que le mot cl dont il ne faut pas ngliger le sens est shrink. Mais limage est assez parlante pour le faire deviner. Corrig The picture is the cover of an issue of Newsweek from August 2009. It shows a tiny British ag held between the thumb and forenger of one hand. On the ag is a man in a bowler hat the stereotypical Englishman. The picture illustrates how small British inuence on world affairs has become. (exemple) It is obvious that France has gone through a similar process, which started in the early 19th century and has continued right up to the present. It has lost its colonial empire and no longer plays a major role in world affairs, although taking the lead in UN action during the Libyan crisis and being instrumental in the downfall of President Gbagbo of Ivory Coast were both golden opportunities for France to occupy the world stage once again, if only for a short time. The causes for such a situation are many, but one could say that there is a universal law that states that everything is born, grows and nally dies, and that this applies to countries and empires as well as to living organisms. And, as some nations decline, others rise to power: at present, the rising stars are Brazil, China and India. The fact that both China and India used to have great empires in the distant past before falling into centuries of decline suggests that perhaps there is some sort of cyclical force at work: food for thought for optimists in Great Britain and France...

Class Project

(p. 95)

Lessentiel de ce quil convient dorganiser et la faon dont ce projet peut tre mont sont dtaills dans les consignes donnes p. 95. Ce qui risque de poser le plus de problme, exprience lappui, est le manque de connaissances globales sur lAustralie et son actualit rcente (rfrendum de 1999 pour ou contre une rpublique). Outre la possibilit de rcouter lune des parties de lenregistrement propos p. 86, nous conseillons denvoyer les lves visiter les sites web qui traitent du problme pos an dy trouver des ides et des arguments pour ou contre le changement, en mettant bien en garde contre le copier-coller qui ne remplacera pas la rexion individuelle. http://www.mostlyction.com/world/levy.htm http://www.australianpolitics.com/issues/republic/ http://www.australianpolitics.com/executive/keating/
74 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

Corrig The elders of Yirrkala wanted the government to know that the mining company had damaging effects on their spirituality and their cultural practices. In 1963, the clan members decided to produce a bark painting. They did not sign an ordinary petition, they used Aboriginal art as a means to express their disagreement. They wanted to assert their native rights to their land. For the clan members it was a real cultural statement. The government of the day did not legally recognise this petition as a title deed. They only saw it as a work of art. The Bark Petition is now displayed in the Australian parliament in Canberra. It is the symbol of Aboriginal identity. With this petition, Aboriginal people asserted their rights to the land and non-Aboriginal people listened to them. Script tapescript28-p96 Back in the sixties, a piece of land near Yirrkala in the Northern Territory was going to be sold by the government to a mining company. Now the Aborigines considered this was their land and no one elses and, whats more, it was sacred land; so the elders of Yirrkala the ones with the most power in that community decided to make a statement to the government to say, Look. This is our country. It is important to us. You are interfering with our spirituality and our cultural practices. And in 1963 they produced what is referred to as the Bark Petition which is a bark painting produced by all of the powerful clan members in Yirrkala and which was presented to the government. It was a way of saying, These are our title deeds to our land, but they did it in an Aboriginal way in a painting and not in a legal document; they didnt have lawyers putting forward a legal case. Now, Aboriginal art has always been connected to ceremony connected to land and so when an Aboriginal person does their paintings in a traditional style they are asserting their native rights. And so, in 1963, the people from Yirrkala presented the government with this bark petition to say, This is our country, and these are our rights to this land. It didnt stop the mine unfortunately, and a lot of people just saw it as a nice piece of Aboriginal art. However, it did make the government take notice, and a report was produced about compensation and the protection of sacred sites. If you go to Canberra and visit Parliament, you can see the Bark Petition; its on display there not just because its aesthetically pleasing but because its a very important document. Its Aboriginal peoples language, its their written texts, its their identity and their rights to this country. Its their way of saying these are our rights and of getting nonAboriginal people to listen to them.

livre du professeur

Comprhension de lcrit

(p. 96)

(p. 96) Pour plus dinformation sur lauteur et son uvre, on peut consulter les sites suivants : http://www.andrealevy.co.uk/bibliography/index.php http://www.mostlyction.com/world/levy.htm Corrig Several details contribute to making Tommy Atkins a stereotyped version of a working-class soldier*: he is very pale his shoes are kept impeccably clean, with a shine on them he uses hair oil he rolls his own cigarettes he doesnt know much geography (because he hasnt had much schooling) He doesnt seem very well-educated: he has no idea where Jamaica is, he doesnt know its an island and he thinks its a country in Africa. She is the stereotype of the upper class, the landed gentry. The questions show that her geographical knowledge is vague and limited to what she may have been told or what she may have read and what images her reading conjured up in her minds eye afterwards. He is the typical Jamaican schoolboy attending classes in his Jamaican school and learning everything there is to know about the mother country (Great Britain) and obviously enjoying it. What the author is saying in fact is that the Jamaicans attachment for and interest in the mother country was not reciprocated. And the disappointment that this realisation brought about is quite palpable here. * It has to be said that Small Island is set in post-war Britain. Stereotypes have changed a lot since then.

At that time, many Europeans had little or no respect for local cultures. The name given to these children is the stolen generation which reects the Aborigine view that the children were indeed stolen from their families. Having been brought up in a European environment, this generation was made to realise they were different from whites but were not allowed to attach any value to their own culture. This can obviously create major identity problems which will take several generations to overcome. (On peut toutes ns utiles envoyer les lves en dehors du contrle bien entendu au texte intitul Apology du 13 fvrier 2008, disponible sur Internet, dans lequel la nation australienne prsente des excuses ofcielles pour les torts causs aux Aborignes.

Expression orale

(p. 97)

Expression crite

(p. 97) (p. 97)

Corrig The story takes place in the western part of Australia in the 1930s. It tells about three young Aborigine girls who were taken from their families to be placed in a re-education camp where children were taught to forget their origins and were trained to become servants for the white families. The poster shows two young girls in the foreground, the elder in her early teens carrying the younger. They are wearing only long shifts. The young girls face shows determination. On the left we can see a fence, echoing the title which can be read in big white letters; the sky in the background is cloudy and yellowish. In the top right-hand corner an Australian eagle is shown, representing freedom in the lm. The girls could have been taken away to be trained to do specic jobs or to be given a Western-style education. By removing them from their families, the authorities may have thought they were giving the children a better opportunity to make their way in life because they would learn European ways.

(p. 97) Corrig The map shows part of the Republic of South Africa. Both the map and the quotation concern the recent renaming of South African cities. The old names dating back to the European settlements include Lady Frere, Keiskammahoek, King Williams Town, Adelaide and Port Elizabeth while the new names include Cacadu, Doboqobo, Khobongaba and Nelson Mandela City. With the exception of Nelson Mandela City, the new names represent a return to the original African names, before the arrival of colonialism, while the old names used by the European settlers and which only date back 150 years or so sound either British or Dutch. For many South Africans, the old names still evoke injustice, oppression and state racism because of their association with events during the colonial and apartheid era. These are the reasons given by the Deputy President to support the campaign in favour of new names. On the one hand, changing place names can be seen as a good way of asserting a countrys identity and moving on from a troubled and painful past into a brighter future. If names are chosen that already exist or predate the names that are to be changed, the effects are mostly positive. However, the trap is to choose new names that honour current heroes. Who knows how long their popularity will last? Name-changing, though, is a purely cosmetic measure, a crowd-pleaser. Real change can only come with economic and social measures. (exemples) Paris used to be called Lutetia by the Romans, before the tribe called the Parisii took it over in the 4th century. A city in In Brittany used to be called Condate (a Gallic word meaning the conuence of two rivers), then the Romans called it Civitas Riedonum (the city of the Redones) which turned later into Rennes. The name Montpellier probably comes from the mountain where a certain plant was grown.

Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 75

5 Legacy
Going Home to Teach
(p. 98-99) metaphors a stew of races and a jumble of delicate cheekbones [l. 35]). The use of direct speech makes the scene even more realistic; readers may have the impression that they are listening to what the people are saying. There is growing unrest among the passengers. Cathy seems to be confused and scared. The way the author portrays Jamaicans is quite negative. He maintains that three hundred years of colonialism deprived the people of their own identity and gave birth to a hybrid population and that this could only engender chaos. According to the narrator, Americans are so disciplined that they may give the impression that they are not alive (cf. the simile like a shbone [l. 44]), they are as rigid as geometric things. On the other hand, in Jamaica, people are full of life. The way the narrator describes what is going on at the airport seems to epitomise what is going on in Jamaica (It is all here in this airport [l. 53]). Everybody is leaving Jamaica because tensions and disorder prevail in this country. 10 The extract is related to the title of the chapter because it reveals the negative impact that three hundred years of colonialism had on Jamaica. (p. 99) Cet exercice de rcriture impliquant un changement de narrateur vous permettra dvaluer si les lves ont bien compris ltat desprit dans lequel se trouvent les diffrents personnages du texte.
WRITERS WORKSHOP

(p. 98) Corrig We are immersed in a throng (l. 3), a milling crowd of passengers (l. 4) The accumulation of examples and the rhythm of the sentences in the rst paragraph emphasise the feeling of confusion and chaos generated by the large crowd of people who are at the airport. Another example: are pawing through open suitcases, lling out declaration forms, and levying nes as the mood takes them (l. 8-9). Customs ofcials are usually rigorous in their work and should be respected by passengers, which is not the case here (l. 10). The customs ofcers portrayed in the extract do not seem to pay much attention to what they are doing and seem rather unconcerned about what they are supposed to do. They look bored (l. 7) and levy nes as the mood takes them (l. 9). The verbs used to describe the landing of the plane have connotations of violence and uneasiness. Jamaica is compared to an invisible land (l. 22). This image is reinforced by the following simile: a light [...] that could have been the illumination of a lost rey. The people at the airport are coloured people. The narrator lays stress on the fact that the population is very mixed (cf. the

6 Time Off
Que font les gens de leurs loisirs de nos jours ? Telle est la thmatique de ce chapitre. Nous essayons donc de couvrir tous les champs qui permettent de se distraire ou de se cultiver en dehors du monde du travail et nous tudions ce que ces choix et ces comportements rvlent de la direction dans laquelle nos socits avancent... (ou reculent ?). Picture 2 is from the reality TV show Big Brother. One can comment on the very showy, glitzy set, suggesting that this sort of show attracts big audiences, and the sort of audiences who want spectacle. Watching TV is, of course, the main leisure activity in most Western countries. Picture 3 is of a young man playing a video game. The screen shows a hand holding a dagger and a cobbled street. It could be a heroic-fantasy-style video game or simply one involving historical events. Video games are attracting more and more players nowadays and are designed for both children and adults. Playing video games is one of the main leisure occupations of young people, particularly boys. Picture 4 is of supporters at an international football match (in Spain). Football has become the most important spectator sport in the world and generates passions that sometimes degenerate into violence and hooliganism. Here we see the good side: the joy of supporters urging on their winning team. The categories are (for pictures 1 and 4) spectator activities which you take part in with other people outside the home, and (for pictures 2 and 3) activities that you can do alone and at home. (students own answers)

Pages douverture

(p. 100-101)

Les loisirs plus particulirement illustrs ici sont le thtre, le cinma, les jeux vido, le sport et la tlvision avec un accent sur lvolution des missions ou des spectacles qui sont proposs aux masses. (p. 101) Corrig Picture 1 is a scene from the lm Shakespeare in Love, but even if students do not know this and do not recognise the actors, it is obviously a scene from a play. The fact that the people in the stalls are standing up suggests an Elizabethan theatre (or the present-day rebuilt Globe Theatre in London). The relevance to the theme of the chapter (Time Off = leisure time) is that going to the theatre is enjoyed by a great many people in their leisure time.
76 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

livre du professeur

Script dvdscript-p100 What kind of decade was it? Well sitcoms and dramas were replaced with reality programming while a desperate Hollywood turned to any and all sources of inspiration it could nd. Yep, thats the kind of decade it was in entertainment. In 2000, the millennium began with a sweeping change of the TV landscape with the launch of Survivor. This quickly began an industry-wide reality craze that prioritized cheap, unscripted programming above plot or production values. That same year Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon ew into theaters to become the highest-grossing foreign language lm in American history. At the same point Marvel Studios released X-Men, a success that would cause other superheroes like Spiderman to quickly swing into cinemas. In 2001, movie studios realised that fantasy novels garnered a huge following. As a result, the lm versions of J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings went head to head with J. K. Rowlings Harry Potter while Shrek spoofed fairytales and collected animations rst Oscar for best-animated feature. 2002 saw Hollywood nally break the mold by awarding African-American actors in the best actor and best actress categories. Meanwhile American Idol premiered to the delight of the countrys worst singers who got to screech in Simons face*, as well as provide a launching pad for the truly talented such as Kelly Clarkson and Carrie Underwood. In 2003 we saw Disney ip a ve-minute ride into a threemovie franchise while Martha Stewart decorated a prison cell. It was also the year we lost a neighbour. 2004 gave us Michael Moores Fahrenheit 9/11, a failed attempt to block President Bush from being re-elected. This coincided with the popularisation of a new lm category called torture porn as seen in Saw and Mel Gibsons The Passion of the Christ. The world lost a hero this year when the man known as Superman passed away as did the man who portrayed his father. Marlon Brando passed away in July. In 2005, a new dawn for entertainment began with the YouTube explosion which made celebrities out of ordinary people well, sort of ordinary people. That same year, the nation mourned the passing of comedians Richard Pryor and Johnny Carson while Steve Carell redened outrageous adult comedy with The 40-year-old Virgin. Meanwhile The Colbert Report invaded late-night television and movie-goers were spared as those dreadful Star Wars nally came to an end with Revenge of the Sith. 2006 was the year that gay cowboys rode into the sunset in Brokeback Mountain and Borat showed us how gullible and racist we all really are. Perhaps most shocking of all was not the fact that crocodile hunter Steve Irwin was killed. Its that he was killed by a sting ray and not a crocodile. The Inconvenient Truth: former vice-president and Democratic nominee Al Gore lost the election but won an Oscar. Bond went blonde and Balboa came back for round six. In 2007 Paramount and Hasbro transformed a toy line into big money with Transformers. It was a dark year for television as the Writers Guild of America went on strike, which meant no

new TV and the seasons of existing shows were cut short. This was also the year Anna Nicole Smith ended her reign as the tabloid queen when she passed away from an accidental overdose in February. In 2008 darker superhero movies nally became popular with The Dark Knight, a movie that beneted from the stellar performance of the late Heath Ledger. In the realm of TV, Sex and the City got a movie adaptation that lured tons of women and their poor boyfriends to movie theaters. Meanwhile reality programming became legit when three Emmyaward categories were created to honour the genre. And the Blue-Ray high denition disk nally won its two-year struggle with HD DVD to become the next gen video format of choice. 2009 was the year of celebrity deaths. Ed McMann, Walter Kronkheit, David Carradine. Even Charleys Angel Farah Fawcett died, though no one noticed as Michael Jackson passed away the same day. In the movie world however, sci- took centre stage as Star Trek was given a new lease on life with the help of a younger cast. The decade nally came to a close with James Camerons Avatar, the most expensive and visually-impressive lm ever to combine live action, CGI and 3-D experience. * Simon Cowell, producer of talent shows, as well as one of the judges. Corrig dvdle-p100 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Year 2004 2005 2009

Survivor, Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon, X-Men The Lord of the Rings, Harry Potter, Shrek American Idol Pirates of the Caribbean Fahrenheit 9/11, Saw, The Passion of the Christ The 40-year-old Virgin, The Colbert Report, Star Wars: Revenge of the Sith Brokeback Mountain, An Inconvenient Truth, Casino Royale, Rocky Balboa Transformers The Dark Knight, Sex and the City Star Trek, Avatar
Name Christopher Reeve Marlon Brando Richard Pryor Johnnie Carson Walter Kronkheit Farah Fawcett Michael Jackson Occupation actor actor, director actor TV presenter newsreader actress musician

Note This video clip has a fast commentary with no less than 58 names of people, TV programmes, lms and organisations, many of which students will not recognise. It is only by seeing some of these names written down (cf. the dvdle activities) that students of average ability can deal with the video as a comprehension activity.
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 77

6 Time Off
The Audition
(p. 102-103) Will: I was getting really bored with hearing the same audition piece over and over again when a rather handsome actor came out onto the stage. Hugh: What was he like? Will: Oh, very handsome, but maybe a bit effeminate. Anyway, he auditioned with one of Valentines speeches from my play Two Gentlemen from Verona. I was completely dazzled by his performance: I couldnt have asked for a better interpretation. Naturally, I wanted to see his full face and asked him to take his hat off. He seemed struck down with terror and ignored my question, asking me if I was Mr Shakespeare. I repeated my wish to see him with his hat off and he ran off the stage. Hugh: What strange behaviour! He must be hiding something! Will: I ran after him and grabbed his arm, but he slipped out of my grip and then I lost sight of him altogether. (p. 102) Corrig wordle-p102-1a, 1b A. 1/a, 2/d, 3/i, 4/f, 5/h, 6/b, 7/j, 8/g, 9/l, 10/K, 11/e, 12/c. B. 1. auditorium, 2. give, 3. bellows, 4. unexpectedly, 5. outrage, 6. handsome, 7. a nod, 8. amazement, 9. gives way to, 10. bewilderment. wordle-p102-2 A. 1/e, 2/d, 3/i, 4/a, 5/f, 6/h, 7/c, 8/b, 9/j, 10/g. B. 1/d, 2/f, 3/h, 4/g, 5/b, 6/j, 7/e, 8/c, 9/a, 10/i. C. 1. la scne, 2. en coulisses, derrire la scne 3. les coulisses (ct cour et ct jardin), 4. la salle, 5. le guichet (de location), 6. lorchestre, 7. le foyer.
WORDWORK

(p. 102) Limage est tire du lm Shakespeare in Love (1998), une comdie romantique qui met en scne une histoire damour ctive entre Shakespeare et une jeune femme de la noblesse au moment o le dramaturge crit Romo et Juliette. Corrig (exemple) The two people in the photo are actors Gwyneth Paltrow and Joseph Fiennes who star in the lm Shakespeare in Love. Since they are both dressed in Elizabethan clothes and are looking intently and lovingly at each other, we can assume that they are in love and therefore, that Joseph FIennes is playing the part of Shakespeare. The title suggests that some people are going to be auditioning for a play and taken together with the caption we can assume it is a play by Shakespeare. (p. 102) Corrig The extract is from the screenplay of Shakespeare in Love. The italics are stage directions for the actors. The quotation marks are used when one of the characters quotes Shakespeare or Marlowe. The scene is set on stage and in the auditorium of the Rose Theatre in London. We can see Will and Henslowe sitting in the gallery and auditioning a young actor. Henslowe and Will are faced with the problem that the actors auditioning arent very good. The other characters are aspiring actors. Viola, the woman auditioning for the role of Romeo, gives the false name Thomas Kent because women werent allowed to be actors in those days. Valentine and Sylvia from Two Gentlemen of Verona; Romeo from Romeo and Juliet. Shakespeare and Marlowe wrote the lines in quotation marks. Helen is the legendary Helen of Troy. Firstly, for his audition, Thomas uses a speech from one of Shakespeares own plays and not an extract from Marlowe, and secondly he acts the part very well indeed. (p. 102) Corrig (exemples de production vers laquelle on peut guider les lves) 12th February 1594 I auditioned today at the Rose Theatre. I dressed as a man, of course. I had prepared one of Valentines speeches from William Shakespeares Two Gentlemen in Verona and Mr Shakespeare was there in person, auditioning. I didnt know at rst, and it took me by surprise. I think he rather liked my performance and asked me to take off my hat, which I couldnt possibly do or I would have revealed I was a woman. He insisted and I took fright, and ran offstage. Mr Shakespeare ran after me and caught up with me, but thankfully I escaped his grip and ran out into the street. William is sitting in the York Tavern with his friend Hugh. They are talking over a tankard of ale.
78 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

(p. 102) Corrig teamle-p102-1 A. 1. They are stage directions and indicate what and how the actors must perform. 2. The action takes place on the stage and in the auditorium of the Rose Theatre. We are introduced to Henslowe and Will who are auditioning actors. 3. They were Philip Henslowe, owner of the Rose Theatre in London, and William Shakespeare, playwright, poet and actor. 4. They are deated because the actor has given a dull audition. 5. The second actors performance is probably even worse (l. 18 despairing). 6. He is in fact a tailor and one of Henslowes creditors. He has a stutter. 7. Valentine is a character in Shakespeares Two Gentlemen of Verona, Thomas is the pseudonym under which Viola is hiding, Viola is her real name and also a character from Twelfth Night, and Romeo comes from Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet. teamle-p102-2 A. 2./b. 3. Its very popular indeed: the fact that so many actors use it as a source of audition pieces bears witness to this. 4. Henslowe shouts Thank you to interrupt the speech because he cant bear it any longer, hes being dismissive and means Ive heard enough. Bellows means shouts.

livre du professeur

5. Wabash can hardly utter a word because hes got a stutter and so Will cannot believe that Henslowe is hiring him. 6. Wabash is Henslowes tailor who wants to become an actor and Henslowe owes him money, so its a way of paying off his debt. 7. He is asking Will if he has seen an actor suitable to play the part of Romeo, not if he has seen a person called Romeo. 8. He is praying that he will get inspiration to produce the pages that Henslowe is asking for. 9. Will thinks Viola is referring to Christopher Marlowe. teamle-p102-3 A. 2. Christopher Marlowe in the play Faustus. 3. According to Greek mythology, she was Helen of Troy, daughter of Zeus and wife of Menelaus. Famed for her beauty, she was abducted by Paris and taken from Athens to Troy. Another name for Ilium is Troy. 4. We can deduce that she was extremely beautiful. The expression means that it was the desire to have this beautiful woman return to Athens that started a war. 5. The urchin says immoral instead of immortal. 6. Shakespeare (in Two Gentlemen of Verona). 7. Valentine. 8./c. 9./a. 10. Sylvia. 11. (exemple) If I am not near Sylvia at night, the nightingale wont sing. teamle-p102-4 1. 5 What light is light, if Sylvia be not seen? What joy is joy, if Sylvia be not by? Unless it be to think that she is by And feed upon the shadow of perfection Except I be by Sylvia in the night, There is no music in the nightingale. Unless I look on Sylvia in the day, There is no day for me to look upon. 2./b. 3. They were often written in blank verse. 4. Marlowe was assassinated in 1593. Marlowe was born rst but Shakespeare lived longer. Shakespeare wrote more plays. 5. Two Gentlemen of Verona 7. Twelfth Night 8. Viola disguises herself as a man in Twelfth Night.
PROJECT

Acteur N 2 : Je souhaiterais (vous) interprter (6) un passage tir (8) du Faust de (6) Ch. Marlowe. Henslowe : Hmmm, comme cest original. (8) Acteur N 2 : tait-ce l le visage qui lana sur les ots (8) un millier (4) de navires Et rduisit en cendres (8) les tours dcapites (7)* de Troie ? Henslowe et Will le laisse dclamer encore quelques vers tout en changeant des regards dsesprs. Toute une srie de candidats au rle dacteur se succdent et offrent leur version personnelle des vers de Marlowe; toutes les versions sont aussi lamentables les unes que les autres. Parmi ces acteurs se trouve un gamin des rues. * alternatives si lon comprend que topless fait rfrence des tours si hautes quon nen voit pas le sommet : Et rduisit en cendres les gigantesques (10) tours de Troie ; Et rduisit en cendres les tours de Troie dont le sommet disparaissait dans les nuages (7 & 8) ; dont lil ne voyait pas le sommet (7 & 8), etc. (p. 104) Pour nombre dlves time off voque non seulement une pause confortable lcart de lunivers scolaire mais aussi une fuite loin de la ralit. Pour certains dentre eux, un ordinateur, un jeu vido sont dj devenus de vritables addictions. Lenregistrement propos a pour objectif linguistique un entranement la comprhension orale en harmonie avec la thmatique de lunit ; il a aussi le dessein de faire prendre conscience certains lves quen matire de jeux vido, la modration est de mise. La partie Speak sert dexercice dchauffement et permettra de renseigner le professeur en amont sur le rapport quentretient la classe avec les nouveaux mdias, et les jeux vido en particulier. Le travail lexical (che Wordwork) peut tre commenc en amont de lentranement la comprhension orale propos dans cette page, et poursuivi par exemple aprs lexercice dcoute. Il sera indispensable davoir travaill ce lexique avant lentranement la production crite. (p. 104) Corrig The photograph shows a computer screen on the left and the face of a child or teenager on the right. The background is dark, the only source of light comes from the PC screen. The childs face is very close to the screen: it seems to convey the idea that the child is fascinated by what he or she is looking at. (exemples) Yes, I do. I play about 1 or 2 hours a day/a week, etc. No, I dont. I prefer reading /I dont like wasting my time, etc. (students own answers) (p. 104) Script tapescript29-p104 PRESENTER: Today were talking to Professor Catherine Lindstrom of the Harvard Medical School who also works in close association with the Center on Media and Child Health in
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 79

The Problem with Games

(p. 103) Le nombre de personnages a t dlibrment limit an que lexercice ne devienne pas interminable. Il faudra souvent encourager les lves se lancer, mais lexprience montre quils se prtent en gnral bien au jeu. Les metteurs en scne devront tre capables de justier leurs choix. (p. 103)

TRANSLATORS WORKSHOP

Corrig (Les numros renvoient aux procds de traduction tels quils sont dcrits dans la che p. 164.)

6 Time Off
Boston. Professor, I believe you have been working on the way in which video games affect childrens abilities. LINDSTROM: Yes, thats right. You see, the skills you need in order to excel at video games that take place in a virtual world are not always the same as the ones we value in the real world. When you play a game, your brain is often rewarded not for staying on task but for jumping to the next thing. If you get good at constantly switching tasks, then your brain becomes wired differently to that of someone who believes that perseverance is what brings rewards. PRESENTER: And this results in... ? LINDSTROM: Well, you can lose touch with the traditional values of the real world, which is a big problem if youre going into the job market or want to get a college degree. PRESENTER: I see. So you mean gameplayers tend to be impatient? LINDSTROM: Not always of course some games need a great deal of patience. But impatience is linked to Internet use because the Internet gives us immediate gratication. If a website or a game cannot sustain your attention for more than ve minutes, you move on to something else. And this can have a really adverse effect on school work. You ask high school students to read a novel over a period of four weeks and youll often nd they give up after only a few pages. This is because on the Internet they can get whole stories in minutes, which naturally reduces their attention span. A book simply takes too long to read. PRESENTER: But spending time on the Internet is not all bad, surely? I mean, it can be a great way to learn new skills... LINDSTROM: Yes, but kids need a good all-round education in order to get anywhere. Like it or not, thats the way our society functions. I know of one very bright student, for example, who plays video games 10 hours a week. But through the Internet hes also discovered a passion for lm-making and has made quite a name for himself among his friends and his teachers with videos made with digital cameras and editing software. But, last semester, although he got an A in lm critique, he only got a D-plus in English and an F in Math. His average is not up to standard. He might not make it to graduation. PRESENTER: So whats the solution? LINDSTROM: Well, rst of all, technology has to be used in the classroom: its a way to connect with students and give them essential skills. This is why teachers are building their own websites and using technology to get back students attention from their BlackBerrys and video games. Students have to realise that there are two separate worlds one that is virtual and one with real-life demands. Corrig She is a professor, which means she works in a university, Harvard university in this case. She works in association with the Center on Media and Child Health in Boston. Some skills are different from those required in the real world. She mentions the capacity to anticipate on the next step, and the ability to switch tasks. Players are so accustomed to the quick response of their computers and the Internet that they tend to be impatient in real life as humans do not respond as fast as machines.
80 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

One problem mentioned is that learning takes more time than playing: she gives the example of reading books. On the Internet you can have access to the plot of a novel in one click, in only a second. In real life, reading the whole book takes much longer. She encourages teachers to use modern technology in class or on the net, so as to show the students there are two different worlds: the real world and the virtual one. (p. 104) Il est prfrable que lenseignant se rende lui-mme sur les sites signals (et dautres) et guide ensuite les lves an de reprer le lexique thmatique et r-utilisable des jeux vido, ainsi que la typologie de lnonc de rgles de jeu. Ensuite seulement on invitera les lves produire un premier jet de leur propre jeu vido, seuls ou en groupes.
WORDWORK

(p. 104)

Corrig wordle-p104-1a A. 1/p, 2/e, 3/j, 4/c, 5/b, 6/o, 7/m, 8/f, 9/i, 10/d, 11/l, 12/n, 13/g, 14/k, 15/h, 16/a. B. 1/s, 2/s, 3/z, 4/z. wordle-p104-1b A. 1/b, 2/a, 3/c, 4/a, 5/c. B. 1/l, 2/h, 3/b, 4/k, 5/i, 6/d, 7/g, 8/c, 9/j, 10/e, 11/f, 12/a. C. B. 1/s, 2/s, 3/z, 4/z. wordle-p104-2 A. 1/b, 2/h, 3/e, 4/a, 5/f, 6/j, 7/d, 8/c, 9/g, 10/i. B. 1. platform, 2. Handheld gaming, 3. PC game, 4. console game. (p. 104) Corrig pronle-p104 A. 3. ll, 10. feel, 2. leap, 8. lip, 1. sin, 6. scene, 5. this, 7. these, 4. week, 9. wick. [I] ll, lip, sin, this, wick. [i:] feel, leap, scene, these, week. (plus students own answers) B. Degree [dIgRi:] and believe [bIli:v] both contain both sounds (but not always, since the short i sound [I] can sometimes become a schwa [e]). Minute [mInIt] only contains the short i sound [I].
PRONOUNCE

(p. 104) Corrig teamle-p104-1 A. 1. You see, the skills you need in order to excel at video games that take place in a virtual world are not always the same as the ones we value in the real world. When you play a game, your brain is often rewarded not for staying on task but for jumping to the next thing. If you get good at constantly switching tasks, then your brain becomes wired differently to that of someone who believes that perseverance is what brings reward. And this results in... ? Well, you can lose touch with the traditional values of the real world, which is a big problem if youre going into the job market or want to get a college degree. 2./a/b/d.

livre du professeur

teamle-p104-2 A. 1. deal, immediate, attention, school work, give up, too long. 2./a/c. teamle-p104-3 A. 1. a. T: through the Internet hes also discovered a passion for lm-making b. T: kids need a good all-round education in order to get anywhere c. T: He might not make it to graduation d. F: plays video games 10 hours a week e. F: made quite a name for himself among his friends 2. (students own answers) teamle-p104-4 A. 1. Well, rst of all, technology has to be used in the classroom: its a way to connect with students and give them essential skills. This is why teachers are building their own websites and using technology to get back students attention from their BlackBerrys and video games. Students have to realise that there are two separate worlds one that is virtual and one with real-life demands. 2./b. Un exercice de synthse peut conclure cet entranement : par exemple on peut demander aux lves de rsumer lessentiel de lenregistrement - lcrit ou loral, en homework ou en classe - laide des parties What Catherine Lindstrom says... qui concluent le travail de chaque groupe, en indiquant (ou rappelant) aux lves quil faut utiliser des marqueurs logiques et/ou chronologiques : Weve been listening to an interview about video games. The interviewee is a professor, Ms Lindstrom. First she says that... Then she adds... The main problem caused by the Internet is... Then Ms Lindstrom mentions an anecdote about a student... Finally the professor concludes by saying...

The resemblance between Michael and Bubbles is obvious: both look like dolls or toys wearing costumes: ludicrous and pathetic. This could be seen as a disparagement of Michael Jacksons talent, since he is reduced to the same intellectual level as a monkey. Worse still, because of the pose reminiscent of a Madonna and child, Koons seems to be saying that there is some sort of family resemblance... Jeff Koons probably chose Michael Jackson because, at that time, he had a huge impact on music, entertainment and advertising worldwide. He was undoubtedly fascinated by Jackson whose own image of himself was something he played with. Here, in a sort of role reversal, Jackson is being submitted to a symbolic transformation of his image by another artist. That the sculpture (of which there were several) provoked controversy must have delighted Koons who loves being in the middle of controversies since, to him, any publicity is good publicity. (students own answers) (p. 105) Les consignes donnes dans le manuel tant trs explicites, nous attirerons juste lattention de nos collgues sur limportance de faire faire des recherches supplmentaires aux lves impliqus dans ce projet, lequel sera laboutissement logique de ltude de la sculpture prsente sur cette mme page et qui aura donn un avant-got de lart de Jeff Koons aux lves. Nous conseillons la visite des sites internet suivants : http://www.jeffkoons.com/site/index.html http://www.damienhirst.com/ https://www.othercriteria.com/browse/hirst/ Ces pages web ne sont, bien entendu, pas limitatives. Les deux prsentateurs/modrateurs du dbat seront dsigns par le professeur : il ne sagira pas forcment dlves de trs bon niveau, mais dlves tant trs laise loral et tant mme doccuper lespace et de grer la parole des uns et des autres, tout en posant des questions provocantes et naves an de susciter les prises de parole et les ractions des uns et des autres. Les prsentateurs sassurent du bon droulement de lactivit, le professeur restant trs en retrait au fond de la classe et soccupant, par exemple, de lvaluation des lves. Autre ventualit, la classe peut tre scinde en deux parties pour des dbats comportant un nombre de participants plus restreint, ce qui favorisera les prises de parole sereines, chacun des autres lves de la classe tant charg dvaluer le/la camarade ayant le mme rle que lui dans lautre dbat de demi-classe. On peut pousser la chose jusqu demander aux lves de prparer leur prestation en amont par paires/binmes, ce qui facilitera linter-valuation de la prestation du/de la camarade. Insistons auprs des lves sur le fait que leurs arguments doivent tre extrmes et provocants pour que le dbat soit vivant, passionn et drle. La che dinformation Une che dinformation est tlchargeable : bonusle-p.105. Elle fournit des renseignements sur lartiste, le background et la sculpture. Pour ceux qui disposent du manuel numrique, ces textes sont disponibles galement en version enregistre.
PROJECT
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 81

Michael Jackson & Bubbles

(p. 105) (p. 105)

Corrig This is a 1988 life-size sculpture of the pop music icon, Michael Jackson, holding his pet chimpanzee Bubbles on his lap. It was made at the peak of Jacksons success as a singer. The fact that Jeff Koons chose porcelain as the material and gold as the main colour could suggest his desire to portray the singer in a noble, almost regal way, but the use of white also reects Jacksons obsession with that colour and echoes the skinwhitening process he used on himself. The pose is reminiscent of Renaissance paintings and sculptures of the Madonna and Child, suggesting that Jackson was a God-like gure. This is underscored by the golden rose petals. Jacksons face looks like a mask: heavy eye make-up and lipstick on a white base, whereas his hair is white with gold highlights obviously not a natural colour. The effect is to make Michael Jackson into something that is not really human: a toy, or maybe a monster... He looks like something that has been fabricated.

6 Time Off
Lactivit supplmentaire Une che de travail est tlchargeable : artle-p.105. Il sagit dun texte trous sur Jeff Koons. Corrig artle-p105 Jeff Koons (b. 1955) is an American artist known for his reproductions of banal objects such as balloon animals produced in stainless steel with mirror-nish surgaces. Koons work has sold for substantial sums of money including at least one world record auction price for a work by a living artist. Critics are sharply divided in their views of Koons. Some view his work as pioneering and of major art-historical importance. Others dismiss his work as decadent. As a teenager, Koons revered Salvador Dal, to the extent that he visited him at the St Regis Hotel in New York City. Koons studied painting at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago and the Maryland Institute College of Art. After college, he worked as a Wall Street commodities broker while establishing himself as an artist. He gained recognition in the 1980s and subsequently set up a factory-like studio in a SoHo loft on the corner of Houston and Broadway in New York. It was staffed with over 30 assistants, each assigned to a different aspect of producing his work in a similar mode to Andy Warhols Factory. Koonss early work was in the form of conceptual sculpture, an example of which is The Equilibrium Series (1985), consisting of three basketballs oating in distilled water that half-lls a glass tank. Koons then moved on to Statuary, large stainless-steel blowups of toys, followed by the Banality series that culminated in 1988 with Michael Jackson and Bubbles, a series of three life-size gold-leaf plated porcelain statues of the sitting singer cuddling Bubbles, his pet chimpanzee. Three years later, one of these sold at Sothebys New York for $5.6 million. On November 14, 2007, a magenta Hanging Heart, one of ve in different colors, sold at Sothebys New York for $23.6 million becoming, at the time, the most expensive piece by a living artist ever auctioned. Among curators and collectors in the art world, Koonss work is labeled as Neo-pop or Post-Pop as part of an 80s movement in reaction to the art of Minimalism in the 1970s. Koonss crucial point is to reject any hidden meaning in his artwork. Koons has caused controversy by the elevation of unashamed kitsch into the high art arena. (4) Will interrupts him. (5) Thomas begins to panic. Will jumps down to ground level. Thomas runs offstage, to Wills bewilderment. Will hurries after him. We go with Will as he crosses the stage, then backstage, then... Mettre la scne en place : prsent en be + V-ing (description de la situation). Narrer une srie dvnements : prsent simple (simple numration). Indiquer aux personnages quils doivent faire quelque chose tout en disant leur texte : prsent simple (sorte dimpratif en fait [faire ceci, faire cela...]) Indiquer que les diffrentes actions se produisent aprs que le texte a t dit : prsent simple. Dans le dernier cas. (Application) Retiring room which is crowded with actors and Henslowes lieutenant, property manager, copier, and general factotum who is a new character, Peter. Actor: What are we playing? Ned: Where are the pages? Will enters into the middle of this. Will: (shouts) Wheres the boy? Nobody knows what he is talking about. Wabash, the stutterer, grabs Wills hand and shakes it excitedly. Wabash: B-b-b-b-b-break a l-l-l-leg! The street door is swinging shut. Will sees it. He ghts his way through the men to get to the door. Ext. The Rose Theatre. Bankside. Day. Will emerges from the theatre into a street throbbing with nefarious life [...]. It is some time before Will spots Thomas, way ahead of him in the crowded street. The chase is taking them to the riverbank.

Le passif et be + V-ing
Corrig (Observation) (he) is being addressed be + being + participe pass premier be : auxiliaire de la forme en be + V-ing (puisque le verbe qui le suit porte cette dsinence) ; being : auxiliaire de la forme passive. He = William, lobjet, cest lui que lon interpelle/qui est interpell. Il ne fait rien, il reoit lappel. Viola/Thomas Kent. Elle sert mettre laccent sur lobjet, le bnciaire ou la victime dune action. On insiste sur la situation (passive) dans laquelle se trouve le sujet. (Application) a. Theyre being auditioned. b. Hes being made fun of. c. Hes being dismissed bluntly.

Language Corner

(p. 106-107)

Le prsent simple ou le prsent en be + V-ing ?


Corrig (Observation) Aider les lves dans cette tche. Prsent simple soulign, prsent be + V-ing en gras : (1) Henslowe and Will are sitting in the gallery listening to a young actor auditioning. (2) Henslowe and Will look a bit deated. The young actor leaves and is replaced by a second actor. (3) Will sits brooding alone for a moment. Then he realises he is being addressed from the stage.
82 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

livre du professeur

d. Hes being unexpectedly praised. e. Hes being pressed into handing his play the next day. f. Hes being praised too.

Where Will It End?

(p. 108-109)

Le present perfect en be + V-ing


Cest une forme verbale introduite en palier 2 du collge mais avec laquelle la plupart des lves ont des difcults. La rexion propose ici vise faire comprendre que cette forme verbale ne sert pas uniquement dcrire une action en cours qui a commenc dans le pass . Corrig (Observation) (you) have been working have + participe pass de be (auxiliaire de la forme dite continue) + participe prsent. Professeur, il me semble que cela fait quelque temps que vous tudiez les effets des jeux vido sur les capacits des enfants. La personne interviewe est un(e) expert(e) dans le domaine en question. Professor, how long have you been working on the subject? Avec cette question lnonciateur se contente de dire les faits, sans commentaire. (He/she states the facts. Period.) La prcdente question lui permet dinsister sur le fait que cette tude dure depuis quelques temps et que par consquent la personne interviewe en sait long sur le sujet en question/a une longue exprience. (Application) Woman: Whats wrong with my child, doctor? Doctor: I think hes been spending too much time recently playing video games. Woman: And why doesnt he care about his schoolwork any more? Doctor: Hes gradually been losing touch with the values of the real world. Woman: Is that enough to explain his poor results lately? Doctor: At least it explains why he has been suffering from lack of concentration. Woman: What other effects does Internet use have on children? Doctor: Since children started using the Internet its been gradually reducing their attention span. Woman: Do you have any other patients like him? Doctor: Yes, an 11th-grader who has been making excellent video lms for some time has also been doing very poorly in school. a. How long have you been working on the effects that video games have on children, doctor? b. And yet we have been using computers in schools for decades. c. So far my students havent been showing any specic attention problems. d. Its probably because they have been following my advice closely.

(p. 108) Lobjectif de cet activit est damener les lves rchir lune des formes les plus populaires de distraction chez les jeunes aujourdhui : les jeux vidos. Au del de cette rexion, lenjeu est le dveloppement en parallle des comptences de comprhension de lcrit (les courts textes prsentant les avantages et les inconvnients des jeux vidos) et dexpression orale (le dbat). Les deux premires questions permettent au professeur dintroduire le sujet. Les possibilits dinteraction ou de prises de parole en continu sont multiples. Pour n 1, des questions cibles permettront de bien faire la diffrence entre les diffrents jeux qui peuvent pour les noninitis paratre tous identiques : What is the aim of the game ? How do you win the game? Where and when does the action take place? What type of character are you? Wheres the fun in this game? In what way are these games different? Do you play all of these games? Why? Why not? Pour n 2, il est tout fait envisageable de demander aux lves de dcrire les volutions dans les jeux reprsents et ensuite de diviser la classe en groupe et de leur demander dimaginer les volutions probables/possibles sous forme interactive dans un premier temps puis sous forme de prise de parole en continu face la classe. Voici quelques mots et expressions utiles : fast-paced : au rythme rapide a multiplatform shooter game : un jeu vido dont lobjectif premier est dliminer le plus grand nombre dadversaires et qui peut se jouer sur des formats diffrents (PC, Xbox, Playstation...). platform games : jeux plateformes (jeux dadresse o lon passe dune plateforme une autre en sautant des obstacles) life-simulation games : les jeux qui permettent de crer des personnages (SIMS) a virtual society : une socit virtuelle opponents : les adversaires the skill level : le niveau de difcult du jeu a single-player/multi-player game : un jeu que lon joue seul ou plusieurs the battleeld : le champ de bataille perks : des avantages equipment : le matriel, lquipment you have to pay your way : il faut payer pour pouvoir avancer dans le jeu earn points : gagner des points experience points : des points gagns aprs avoir russi une action gambling against other players : parier contre les autres joueurs a four-player cooperative mode : le mode qui permet quatre joueurs de jouer en mme temps en ligne Pour n 3, il est conseill de diviser la classe en groupes : un petit groupe dlves qui devra dfendre lide que les jeux vidos sont utiles ; un petit groupe dlves qui devra dfendre lide que les jeux vidos sont dangereux ;
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 83

6 Time Off
les membres du jury qui devront voter et justier leur vote ; les autres lves de la classe qui devront prendre des notes et souligner les lments positifs et les points de progrs au niveau du dbat. Corrig (exemple) The covers of the two video games at the top of the page give us the impression that the games are violent and that the main goal is to eliminate as many opponents as possible. Most players will probably be teenage boys. The Sims cover on the other hand is completely different. The characters on the cover suggest that it is a game mainly for girls. The goal is to be creative. The Donkey Kong game looks as if its for children or for the family as it uses cartoon animal characters. There will almost certainly be no violence. The aim is to get from one platform to the other as quickly as possible. (students own answers) (p. 109) Jade Goody a dfray la chronique. Cest lmission britannique de tl ralit Big Brother qui la rendue clbre. Atteinte dun cancer incurable, Jade Goody dcide de mdiatiser sa maladie et monnaye ses apparitions publiques pour mettre labri nancirement ses deux enfants. Elle dcdera quasiment en direct lge de 27 ans. De nombreux sites web lui ont t consacrs : http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7925719.stm http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/celebritynews/jadegoody/5104308/Jade-Goody-legacy-of-a-reality-TV-star.html (p. 109) Corrig wordle-p109 A. 1/a, 2/l, 3/f, 4/b, 5/e, 6/g, 7/j, 8/d, 9/n, 10/h, 11/m, 12/c, 13/o, 14/i, 15/k. B. TV talk shows (more often called chat shows in Britain) began in the 1950s when they were quite serious and politicallyoriented. They developed in the 1970s and 80s into the tabloid talk show (e.g. Oprah Winfrey in the USA and Michael Parkinson in the UK) which marked the beginnings of celebrity culture and attracted more low-brow viewers. Then, in the 1990s, a new sort of talk show came along, hosted by people like Jerry Springer. These shows involved humiliation and emotional pain, paving the way for reality TV as we know it today.
WORDWORK PROJECT

(p. 109) On encouragera les lves ne pas prparer leur production de faon exhaustive mais sous forme de prises de notes an de garder une certaine spontanit. Le professeur peut galement dcider, au moment de la restitution et condition que certains groupes aient choisi le mme thme, dclater les groupes de travail pour fonder de nouveaux groupes de restitution. Cela vite des productions de groupe apprises par cur en amont. (p. 110-112)

Ateliers

Atelier 1 (p. 110) Script REBECCA: This is the most popular sport in the world and its fans will be the rst to tell you that. Hi, Im Rebecca Brayton and
84 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

welcome to watchmojo.com and today were speaking with soccer expert and fan, John Doyle. DOYLE: The World is a Ball is a book about soccer and Ive covered two World Cup tournaments and two European championships for The Globe. Its about me travelling to the tournaments, describing them and telling people about the kind of things you dont see on television when you watch the World Cup or big international soccer tournaments. Describing what happens in the streets, in the cities, in the places where the big games happen. REBECCA: Tell us about the correlation between soccer and national identity. DOYLE: Its one of the clichs about soccer that a national team sort of represents the country, elements of the country, the countrys character, in the way the team plays. Now theres actually some truth in this, I think. The English play with a kind of doggedness, with a sort of bulldog spirit. They dont necessarily play with a lot of air, but with a determination. The German team tends to play with precision and efciency. A country like Spain plays with great panache, with a sort of Latin air to it, and you sometimes see Spanish players on the eld and they almost look like matadors. But one of the interesting things about the big tournaments is how, for some reason at the big tournaments, people feel empowered to make fun of the stereotypes about their own country. Ive been at big games in Europe where France is playing, and some of the French supporters, you will see guys wearing a beret and carrying a plastic baguette. The Irish, for instance, sometimes they will dress as leprechauns. REBECCA: Why is soccer such a global phenomenon? DOYLE: Its one of the few international languages that we have. Its one of the few things that every culture, no matter where in the world, no matter what your background, if youre a Catholic, a Jew, a Muslim, anywhere in the world you understand soccer. REBECCA: And why would you say North America has only recently jumped on the bandwagon? DOYLE: I dont ever expect that soccer will become the number one sport in Canada and the United States. If youre interested in soccer in the US, that kind of signals you as an outwardlooking, forward-thinking person, a person whos interested in the world outside the United States, whereas if you despise soccer, and some people do in the United States, despise it as being, you know, European and foreign and alien, then that signals you often as a Republican, somebody who believes that North American sports like baseball and NFL football are superior because they are the American game. What is going to happen, I think, is that cultural diversity, waves of immigration, thats slowly changing the role of soccer. But a number of young people are playing soccer in both countries, I think, in the case that eventually it will become the third, fourth most popular sport here. REBECCA: Thank you very much. DOYLE: Youre welcome. Enjoy the World Cup. Corrig (questions du manuel)

livre du professeur

(exemple) The pictures show how professional football has become more than just a sport, especially when played between national teams. Picture 1 shows how one particular crowd is guided by a drum in its cheers and chants, slightly reminiscent of armies on the march... Pictures 2 and 3 show the amusing and joyous side of football: it has become so important for some people that they will wear the most absurd wigs, clothes and make-up to bear witness to their allegiance and will show excesses of emotion that verge on hysteria. Picture 4 is more menacing: there are policemen in riot gear, probably because violence is expected at this match, and there are fans saluting their team with something very similar to the Nazi salute. All the pictures suggest that football can drive people to extremes of emotion and behaviour. a. England plays with determination and doggedness, Germany with efciency and precision, Spain with air and panache. b. They sometimes appear as stereotypes of their own countries. c. All types of people like it, whatever their culture or background. In the USA, outward-looking, forward-thinking people like it. d. Football (soccer) is associated with the Democrats (for the reasons given in c), whereas American football is associated with the Republicans because its the national sport and not related to Europe or the rest of the world. (The Republican party is a very conservative party.) e. He does think so, because of the amount of immigration from countries where football (soccer) is the most popular sport. (students own answers) dvdle-p110 1/a/c/d, 2/c, 3.
England bulldog determination doggedness Germany efciency precision Spain air panache

The matches/footballers seen, in order are: Germany v. France Spain (Torres) Brazil (Pele) v. France Italy Denmark (Colding) v. Nigeria (p. 111) Lintrt du document rside dans le paradoxe central : lms are for real. En effet, le personnage principal est un acteur de thtre mais ne trouve pas de travail et ne gagne pas dargent. Il souhaite intgrer lindustrie du cinma. Nous sommes en Inde, un pays o le cinma est un art trs populaire alors que le thtre classique est incomprhensible par la majorit des Indiens. Le document est galement intressant parce quil prsente deux genres dacteurs prsents dans cette unit : les acteurs de cinma et les acteurs de thtre. Les questions poses commencent par des questions de comprhension globale puis des questions plus dtailles. Avec des lves en difcult, nous conseillons daider dans le domaine culturel en montrant des exemples de lms Indiens ( laide de bandes annonces ou dextraits proposs sur Youtube, par exemple). Cela leur permettra de mieux rpondre la partie explain de la question 2. Une aide sera aussi ncessaire pour la question 5. Corrig The scene takes place in India. The two characters are Malini, an accoutant executive who believes in the value of putting on English plays in India. The other character is Asok. He disagrees and defends the point of view that even the acting in Indian lms is less articial. Malini thinks that Hindi lms are not art. They are just actors running around trees, chasing heroines. She says this because Bollywood musical lms are love stories in which the actors often sing in an attempt to seduce the girls around them. Ashok believes the English-langage theatre is reserved for a minority as the language is not understandable by the majority of Indians. It was written by English playwrights for English people who could understand the language. As such, in India, English plays are articial. Moreover, Indians do not go to the theatre, they go to the cinema (a language and a medium that guarantee both irrelevance and minorityhood [l. 20-22]). Ashok wants to enter the lm business because he wants to perform for his people but also because he wants to go into a profession which is a real profession in India and that can help him earn some money. Films are for real. This is a paradox because lms are generally ctional stories and everything in Bollywood lms is articial (everybody sings, there is always a happy ending...). The pleasure in watching Bollywood lms comes from this escapism. However, for Ashok, the Bollywood lm industry is real because it is a popular and prosperous industry. (students own answers)

Atelier 2

A US soccer fan is thought of outward-looking and forwardthinking, whereas if you despise soccer as being you know European and foreign and alien, then that signals you often as a Republican, somebody who believes that baseball and NFL football are superior because they are American. Additional information The ags/colours of countries shown in the video, in order of appearance: Cameroon: vertical stripes of green, red and yellow, with a yellow star in the middle. Republic of Ireland: vertical stripes of green, white and orange. Brazil: a blue sphere in a yellow lozenge in a green rectangle. Nigeria: two vertical green stripes on either side of a white one. South Korea: a blue and red Ying/Yang symbol on a white background, with black lines. Burkina Faso: a red rectangle above a green one, with a yellow star in the middle. New Zealand: a blue background with the Union Jack (ag of the UK) in one corner and four stars. South Africa: a geometric design of black, yellow, green, white, red and blue.

Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 85

6 Time Off
Atelier 3
(p. 112) Corrig The scene takes place in a living-room of an ordinary house. The two characters are an elderly couple sitting on a sofa and watching TV. The man is drinking from a can which could be beer. Neither of them is smartly or fashionably dressed. The cartoonist wants to show that, given the growing number of TV reality shows, it may occur that viewers get all mixed up and may no longer be able to tell the difference between serious news programmes and low-brow reality shows. (exemple) It is a potentially worrying problem that viewers may get more interested in reality TV than in what is happening around the world. They may gradually get distanced from the real social, political and economic problems of the world. 1. Une prsentation la classe du projet, de lhistoire de la pice, suivi de la constitution des groupes. Chaque groupe est constitu de 4 lves : un lve prsente le lieu et lpoque ; un autre prsente le dcor ; un troisime dtaille les costumes et les objets prsents sur scne ; le quatrime lve explique les effets spciaux, le cot ventuel de la production et peut conclure sur le lien entre les choix effectus et le sens de la pice. 2. Une sance destine une premire rexion sur les choix de mise en scne, des dcors... 3. Une ou deux sances pour la prsentation des projets face la classe avec le vote nal pour le meilleur projet. Un travail la maison peut savrer ncessaire pour donner loccasion aux lves damliorer les dtails de chaque projet et de prparer la prsentation visuelle. En effet, la russite du projet dpendra de la capacit des groupes faire imaginer et comprendre les choix effectus. Ceux-ci seront dautant plus comprhensibles quils seront accompagns de supports visuels. Il ne faudra donc pas hsiter encourager les lves prparer des supports qui peuvent tre raliss sous diverses formes (panneaux, diaporama...). Certains apprcieront galement de pouvoir amener quelques costumes ou un simple chapeau et une charpe pour mettre la classe dans lambiance. La prise de parole seffectue de deux manires : en interaction pendant la prparation du projet et le vote nal ; sous forme de prise de parole en continu pendant la prsentation du projet face la classe. Le site internet suivant offre un rsum simpli de la pice : http://absoluteshakespeare.com/guides/romeo_and_juliet/ summary/romeo_and_juliet_summary.htm Lobjectif nest pas davoir une vision exhaustive de la pice mais de permettre aux lves den avoir une vision globale. Si votre classe est alle voir une pice de thtre anglophone dans le courant de lanne, il peut tre intressant de demander aux lves de proposer dautres mises en scnes. Un travail en collaboration avec les professeurs darts appliqus, arts plastiques, de thtre est aussi possible si les options existent dans ltablissement. Des critres dvaluation explicites peuvent aider les lves mieux travailler leur projet. Chaque professeur aura ses propres critres en fonction du travail effectu depuis le dbut de lanne, mais il peut tre envisageable de proposer aux lves dvaluer chez leurs camarades les points suivants : la prsentation globale du projet (Les lves ont-ils parl clairement ? Tout le monde a-t-il compris le projet ? Les lves ont-ils lu leurs notes ? ...) ; le projet en lui-mme, (son originalit, lattention porte aux dtails, sa pertinence par rapport au sens de la pice) ; la capacit des lves sexprimer en anglais (la prononciation, laccentuation, le lexique et les structures).

Atelier 4

(p. 112)

On pourra lire aux lves lanecdote suivante : England was the last of the European countries to accept women on the stage. In the year 1629 a visiting company of French players gave performances at Blackfriars, with actresses. An English writer of the time called these women monsters and the audience would have none of them. They were hissed and pippin-pelted from the stage. (Source : http://www. theatrehistory.com/british/bellinger001.html) Un peu de lexique utile : Adjectifs : unfair, unequal, discriminatory, unjustied, narrowminded, small-minded, shocking, out of place, highly immoral, scandalous, outrageous, disgraceful, repugnant, morally wrong, sinful, unchaste, dissolute. Noms : gender discrimination. Verbes et expressions verbales : be prejudiced against, be discriminated against, not be open to change, not be on an equal footing with, differentiate, discriminate, draw/make a distinction, treat differently/unfairly, put at a disadvantage, favour.

Atelier 5

(p. 112)

Corrig (exemple) Do not listen to people who try to dissuade you from fullling your dreams. Those who try to prevent you from fullling your ambitions or who belittle you in your attempts to achieve your objectives are not people to look up to. On the other hand, people who are themselves very successful and motivated will often encourage you to accomplish things and be of great help. (students own answers)

Class Project

(p. 113) Cette activit a pour objectif damener les lves rchir la mise en scne dune des pices les plus clbres de William Shakespeare. La classe reprsente le Shakespeare Memorial Theatre et elle doit choisir, parmi les propositions des lves, la meilleure mise en scne pour une reprsentation prvue lhiver prochain. Le projet fait donc essentiellement appel limagination des lves, leur capacit faire visualiser des dcors, des costumes, les effets spciaux ncessaires. Lactivit pourra se dvelopper en trois temps.

86 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

livre du professeur

Checkpoint
Comprhension de loral

(p. 114-115) (p. 114) (p. 114)

Corrig This is a slow song in folksong style, with a message. The tone is very serene/gentle/relaxing/comforting/soothing and, to this extent could be said to have a peaceful tone. However, underlying the calm is a desperate voice hoping for a solution to the problem. The main theme is the effect of television violence on violent crime, mainly with regard to crimes committed by children and teenagers who take everything at face value without thinking about whether or not what they see is good or evil. The singer mentions several groups: young criminals parents of young criminals television producers (media men) singers and movie-makers (exemple) The problem is that no one wants to be held responsible for violent crime (committed by teenage boys): weve all got blood on our hands. Young criminals blame their upbringing and their surroundings for their own misdeeds and say that they are too young to be judged. Parents of young criminals place all the blame on violence on TV. Television producers (media men) say that they are merely giving the public what they want. Singers and movie-makers are used as examples of those who actually create images, but they wont accept responsibility because they believe audiences should be able to tell the difference between ction and reality. The solution he proposes is turn[ing] that thing [i.e. the TV] down, turn[ing] it around! (i.e. turning the volume down or simply not watching the TV any more). The cartoon expresses the same radical solution which a father has resorted to in order to put an end to the evil inuence exerted by television on his child. The irony, of course, is that in doing so, the father has used exactly the sort of extreme violent action that he condemns; he cant see that by being violent hmself, he is being a bad inuence on his son and must therefore share in the responsibity if his son develops violent tendencies. Script tapescript32-p114 I would turn on the TV but its so embarrassing To see all the other people; I dont know what they mean. It was magic at rst when they spoke without sound. But now this world is gonna hurt, youd better turn that thing down, Turn it around. Look, it wasnt me, says the boy with the gun. Sure, I pulled the trigger but it needed to be done Because lifes been killing me ever since it begun [sic]. You cant blame me cause Im too young.

You cant blame me; sure the killer was my son But I didnt teach him to pull the trigger of the gun. Its the killing on this TV screen. You cant blame me; its those images he seen. Well, you cant blame me, says the media man. Well, I wasnt the one who came up with the plan. Well, I just point my camera at what the people want to see. Man, its a two-way mirror and you cant blame me. You cant blame me, says the singer of the song, Or the maker of the movie which he based his life on. Its only entertainment and as anyone can see The smoke machines and make-up, Man, you cant fool me. It was you, it was me, it was every man. Weve all got the blood on our hands. We only receive what we demand, And if we want hell then hells what well have. And I would turn on the TV, But its so embarrassing To see all the other people. Dont even know what they mean. And it was magic at rst But it let everyone down, And now this world is gonna hurt; Youd better turn it around, Turn it around.

Comprhension de lcrit

(p. 114) (p. 114)

Corrig The scene takes place during the night. (l. 8, it was 3 a.m/l. 20 By 4...) Tanya is a producer. She produces television documentaries. She wants to produce a lm now. She lay awake thinking about the forthcoming meeting, playing the events over in her mind. (l. 2-3) Worst case scenario: she would forget everything shed rehearsed and he would laugh her out of his ofce. (l. 5-7) By 4 a.m. she was convinced that it would be all right. Fifteen minutes later, she was convinced it would all end in disaster. (l.20-22) She is stressed out because she keeps thinking about the interview she will have with Mr Cannon. Mr Cannon works in Hollywood and must be an inuential man in the lm industry. According to the narrator, Hollywood men are well known for making women sleep with them before hiring them. This sentence shows that Tanya is not completely against the idea of having sex with someone to get the job she really wants and to full her ambitions. The writer uses modals and adverbs to show how uncertain Tanya is. The repetition of the question Couldnt she?conveys Tanyas hesitations.

Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 87

6 Time Off
Expression orale
(p. 115) (p. 115) La consigne est claire, il sagit de convaincre quelquun. Activit dexpression orale ici, mais qui pourrait trs bien tre ralise dans le cadre dune activit dinteraction orale galement, mme si le rle de linterlocuteur sera beaucoup plus limit que celui du locuteur principal. Ce dernier va devoir exercer une rhtorique de persuasion forte. Il sagit donc de trouver les arguments et le discours (le fond et la forme) pour vendre un spectacle une personne rticente. Nous nous concentrerons donc ici sur la stratgie discursive et argumentative mise en uvre pour dcider cet ami aller ce spectacle ne rater sous aucun prtexte ! Proposition de corrig ci-dessous, sachant videmment que celui-ci na pas valeur de modle, sagissant dun exercice dexpression orale dans lequel, bien plus que les erreurs commises, le ton, les arguments, le dynamisme et la force de conviction seront pris en considration, et dans lequel un style oral et relch est donc attendu. Corrig (exemple) Come on, its going to be so cool! I mean, you cant miss it, its the King of Pop! Plus its gonna cheer you up! Forget about your essay for school and come have fun with me! You wont regret it! It is set to be the show of the year. Plus its a good way to pay tribute to this huge star who left us way too soon! And its revolutionary, you know, since its the rst multimedia show ever produced! Were you aware of that? Im sure you didnt even know such a thing existed! There are going to be lots of TV screens everywhere, dance oors and a great atmosphere for sure! You wouldnt want everybody around you talking about this show tomorrow and not being there, right? You wouldnt want to miss it for the world! Its at 7:30, so dont tell me you have class or you are supposed to have dinner with your parents because I wont take no for an answer! Youll thank me afterwards, Ill bet you! Look, I know you didnt really like Michaels last albums and that you found his personality kind of annoying but, I mean, he was the King of Pop. He had the most incredible career and an amazing voice, even though people made fun of him because of all the plastic surgery he had and stuff like that. And you know what? I heard that Janet Jackson will be there too, hosting the show and performing some of her brothers songs, as well as some of Michaels very own musicians and backing singers. Come on, its going to be so much fun!!! So, are you coming along? All right, Ill pay for your ticket! Groucho Marx was an American comedian and lm star of the 1930s who made thirteen feature lms with his siblings The Marx Brothers. Walt Disney meant that his job was to entertain people, to produce cartoons and movies that would make them forget about their daily worries. He acknowledges he is no teacher or philosopher. Yet producing cartoons and movies does not prevent him from teaching things to his audience. Hence he clearly says that his priority is entertainment. The second quote refers to the opinion of some people that Americans are more like children than adults in this instance, in their need to be kept entertained; they are always looking for the most extraordinary video game, the most fantastic movie, etc. The last quote from Groucho Marx is a (sarcastic) joke: when he says that he agrees that television is very educating, he means that it is so bad that he never watches it, and educates himself instead by reading books. Other possible phrasings: (Walt Disney:) People may learn a few things while being entertained and thats quite OK, but I would not confuse education and entertainment, unlike whats happening today in some classrooms. (Groucho Marx) If I wanted to do away with education and knowledge, Id throw all my books away and buy a TV set. (students own answers)

Peep Show

(p. 116-117)

Expression crite

(p. 115)

(p. 115) Suggrez aux lves de consulter les sites consacrs aux personnes nommes. Corrig Walt Disney was a famous American lm producer, director, and screenwriter. His most famous creation is probably Mickey Mouse.
88 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

(p. 116) Le roman de Faith Bleasdale pousse le reality show lextrme ! An datteindre la clbrit dont elle rve dans le domaine de la production tlvisuelle, Tanya, lhrone, imagine un scnario incroyable : lmer ses quatre co-locataires et elle-mme, les premiers leur insu, dans leur vie de tous les jours. Des camras minuscules ont donc t installes dans les pices communes et dans celles rserves chaque co-locataire. Tanya a install une vritable rgie secrte et inaccessible dans la partie personelle de la demeure quelle partage avec ses amis... On imagine la suite. lire ! Corrig Harvey got the idea to make a y-on-the-wall lm when he realised that people can really get addicted to reality TV. Harvey may have done some acting and knows how to catch peoples attention. Here, the author uses the double meaning of the adjective dramatic (the way Harvey expresses himself is both striking and theatrical.) Harvey does not plan to write a script for his lm; neither does he want to employ professional actors. He intends to lm peoples lives without their knowing it. The lm will focus on the people who live in the same house as Tanya. They are all in their twenties. Tanya is a producer and she will be the only one to know what is going on in their house. Leighs nickname is LeeLee and she only wears pink clothes. She is interested in fashion. She is secretly in love with Gus who does not seem to be attracted to her.

livre du professeur

Gus is a good-looking, sentimental doctor. David is a computer geek whose private life amounts to online dating. Eric is a pharmacist who thinks that cannabis should be legalised and used as a cure in some medical cases. Cherry is at rst surprised at the absurdity of Harveys idea (Cherry tried to digest what she had heard [l. 64-65]). Even if she is used to Harveys weird ideas she seems dubious about the project.

Cherry raises a legal question at the end of the passage. Since the actors will not be aware of the fact that they are acting in a lm, they might not give their consent to release it. (p. 117) Avant de demander aux lves de faire la premire activit, il est possible dexploiter avec eux des bandes-annonces de lms pour quils travaillent sur lintonation et la prononciation. Ils pourront ensuite enregistrer leur propre bande annonce et la faire couter la classe qui lira la meilleure bande annonce.
WRITERS WORKSHOP

7 Our Changing World


Le changement est une constante de lvolution de la civilisation humaine, mais notre monde change une vitesse telle quil est difcile de suivre, mme si les jeunes gnrations semblent sadapter plus facilement que les plus ges ces transformations incessantes. Avant de nous demander si les choses changent pour le meilleur ou pour le pire (voir le chapitre 8), nous voquons dans ce chapitre les changements qui se produisent dans les domaines scientique et socital. Notre proccupation, ce faisant, est dinciter discrtement les lves aussi regarder en arrire an de ne pas perdre le sens de la perspective ou nos repres humanistes... view of the way some grown-ups see todays teenagers or of the way they are heading. This view is not altogether attering to say the least and is rather a stereotype of what some adults think of teenagers. This one is represented as very sloppy, suffering from a typical lack of sustained attention span as he is doing three things at the same time: watching one of the grossest cartoons ever produced on TV, while watching what looks like a movie on his laptop and listening to music coming from his smartphone. He has apparently been given a book to read but looks and sounds as if hed never seen such a thing in his whole life, wondering how it works... This cartoon is obviously meant to make people laugh and shouldnt be taken seriously. Or should it?

Pages douverture

(p. 118-119) Les photos choisies pour cette double page douverture illustrent ces changements, mais le dessin, lui, laisse entrevoir une vision inquitante de leffet quils pourraient avoir sur les gnrations venir en particulier. (p. 119)

Script

Corrig (exemples) Picture 1 is of two people apparently discussing photo-sharing on a social network. The development of internet social networks such as Facebook and Twitter has had a huge inuence on the way people interact and the speed with which information travels. Picture 2 is a smartphone. The arrival of the mobile phone and particularly of the iPhone and its competitors with Internet access and a host of applications has radically changed our patterns of communication. Picture 3 is the celebrated double helix of human DNA. The identication of DNA is probably the most signicant scientic breakthrough of the late 20th century. It is most frequently associated with crime investigation and genetic modication. Picture 4 is (at the time of publishing) the smallest TV set in the world. It is an example of the extent to which miniaturisation has become part of our world, bringing with it the whole eld of nanoscience. The cartoon shows (as cartoons naturally do) an exaggerated

dvdscript-p118 SCHWARCZ: Vaccination is probably the greatest scientic advance that has been introduced in medicine in the history of the world in terms of the number of lives that have been saved. Its surprising there should be any opposition. REBECCA: While most experts say vaccination is the best way to protect yourself against dangerous illnesses, some people still argue against it. Hi, Im Rebecca Brayton and welcome to watchmojo.com and today well be learning more about the vaccination debate. First of all, could you kind of outline what the debate actually is? SCHWARCZ: With the H1N1 now were up to about 9,000 people whove died around the world. You constantly hear stories of that... well theres 30 or 40,000 people in North America who die every year just from regular u, so why are we squawking so much about a few thousand people dying? PRESENTER 1: Well now, how many people have died this year already from the regular normal u? SCHWARCZ: Its a silly argument. PRESENTER 2: If you had to choose, youd probably choose at this point the swine u over the regular seasonal u SCHWARCZ: Well these are not mutually exclusive problems. Those 9,000 people are on top of the people who are dying from seasonal u not instead of them. So of course we want to reduce that. Jenny McCarthy, an actress and Jim Carrey, an actor a very good actor, but nevertheless an actor, with no scientic background are not the people to be listening to.
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 89

7 Our Changing World


CARREY: What happened after 1989? [inaudible] 26 more vaccines. Are all of them absolutely necessary? INTERVIEWER: They want to make money? MCCARTHY: Of course. SCHWARCZ: These are the ones who are swaying public opinion, and alarming people about quote the dangers of the vaccine. Well, those dangers have to be put into context, relative to the benet that the vaccine brings. REBECCA: In terms of the H1N1 vaccine, theres some debate as to whether or not its been tested enough. Whats your take on that? SCHWARCZ: The vaccine is made exactly the same way as the regular seasonal u vaccine weve made... weve had now for over a dozen years. The technologys exactly the same, the concept is exactly the same. This vaccine doesnt need any special testing that, you know, hasnt already been done. REBECCA: Why would you say this debate is gaining steam right now? SCHWARCZ: People love conspiracies. To think that some company has developed rst something to cause a disease and then something to solve that disease just for, you know, their own coffers. The reason that it sells... sometimes there is some truth to it, you know, governments have not always done the right thing and companies have not always done the right thing. And that, of course, just feeds into this. The bottom line is: if you want to turn a prot, whats the best way to do that? By producing a product thats good and that works, and that doesnt kill your customers. Even if you dont have any kind of morals at all, if all youre looking for is the bottom line, well your bottom line is going to be increased if you produce good drugs that help more people. REBECCA: Thank you very much. SCHWARCZ: Thanks. Corrig dvdle-p118 A. 1, 5, 7. B. Opponents to vaccines think that drug companies are being alarmist and are simply bringing out more and more vaccines in order to make money. They are exaggerating the danger of viruses like H1N1 so as to sell more vaccine. Whats more, they say the vaccines are not always properly tested, which adds to the risk. C. 1/b/c/e, 2/c. recherches partir de ses cellules. Ce nest que par hasard que les enfants ont dcouvert que les cellules de leur mre avaient permis de gurir des milliers, voire de millions de personnes. Le fait quHenrietta Lacks soit une femme noire nest pas dnu dintrt et permet daborder ainsi non seulement le respect de la personne mais galement la problmatique du racisme aux Etats-Unis dans les annes 50. Lordre des activits proposes sur ces deux pages permet aux lves dacqurir le vocabulaire de manire progressive (ils lisent puis crivent et enn sexpriment sur le sujet). La partie Speak permet dintroduire le texte et le thme de la recherche mdicale en gnral. La dcouverte des cellules immortelles est annonce ainsi que le problme thique pos par le fait que ni Henrietta Lacks ni sa famille nont t mises au courant de ces recherches. Les questions dans la partie Read sont assez simples, suivent lordre du texte et facilitent la comprhension. La partie Wordwork comprend une srie dexercices qui ont pour objectif daider les lves comprendre et mmoriser la fois le lexique du texte et le lexique de la recherche mdicale en gnral. La partie Interact que vous trouverez dans les Teamles est destine ceux qui souhaitent aborder le texte de manire plus prcise : le style de lauteur, les relations entre les personnages, les problmes thiques. Write et Project font appel limagination des lves, abordent le problme mdical sur le plan de limpact sur les familles et approfondissent galement laspect thique de la situation. (p. 120) Corrig The title suggests that we are going to deal with scientic research and medical research in particular. The book cover shows the picture of a woman by the name of Henrietta Lacks, which doesnt give many clues as to what the book is about. But the title of the book does and so does the small print under the title: they almost summarise what the book is about. (p. 120) Corrig The biggest problem faced by Margaret Gey when dealing with cell culture is the fact that she did not know exactly what nutrients they needed to survive or how best to supply them. She was also very much afraid of contamination as bacteria and a host of other microorganisms could nd their way into cultures-from peoples unwashed hands...(l. 7-14). Her previous experience as a nurse helped her because this experience meant that sterility was her specialty (l. 15-17). Once she was sure she had followed all the sterilizing rules she picked up the pieces of Henriettas cervix, sliced them into one-millimeter squares, sucked each square into a pipette, dropped them onto clots, and placed them at the bottom of dozens of test tubes (l. 22-32). Les lves miment les gestes. At rst nothing happened. Then, the cells started growing but just a little. Finally, they grew with a mythological intensity (l. 39-42). George did not believe that anything extraordinary would

Unstoppable Cells

(p. 120-121)

Lintrt du texte rside dans le fait quil prsente de manire claire et chronologique la manire dont une dcouverte majeure a eu lieu. Le lexique mdical anglais est trs similaire celui utilis en franais. Le texte ne pose donc pas de difcult de comprhension crite majeure. En revanche, sur le plan des dtails, les lves risquent davoir du mal comprendre de manire prcise les gestes des chercheurs. Cest la raison pour laquelle nous avons concentr les questions sur cet aspect prcis. Par ailleurs, au-del de lextrait prsent ici, lintrt du livre se situe sur le plan thique puisque les chercheurs nont jamais prvenu Henrietta Lacks ou sa famille quils effectuaient des
90 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

livre du professeur

happen. When the cells did not develop, he was not surprised (l. 36). When they started to develop, he refused to be enthusiastic about it, believing that they could die any minute (l. 48-49). Finally, he realized that he might have grown the rst immortal cells, talked to his closest colleagues about it and gave them cells when they asked him for some (l. 47-59). (p. 120) Corrig wordle-p120-1a A. 1. nutrient, 2. surgical, 3. glassware, 4. slice, 5. test tube, 6. plug, 7. rubber stopper. B. 1. trained, 2. patrolled, 3. drill. C. 1. sterility (caractre strile), 2. dust particles (poussires), 3. deadly infections (infections ltales), 4. spots (petites taches), 5. smudges (bavures). D. 1/e, 2/d, 3/j, 4/b, 5/i, 6/f, 7/g, 8/c, 9/h, 10/a. wordle-p120-1b A, B, C. (voir 1a ci-dessus) D. 1. for starters, 2. host, 3. could nd their way into, 4. key to, 5. prevent, 6. didnt think much of it, 7. for a while, 8. werent merely surviving, 9. spreading, 10. unstoppable. wordle-p120-2 A. Medical research has greatly improved over the past decades. As a result, patients live longer and healthier lives. New surgical techniques have been developed such as microsurgery which requires a microscope for surgery and is notably effective in helping the repair of blood vessels and the re-attachment of severed parts after an accident. The safety and effectiveness of new drugs have been increased by the development of clinical trials where a number of patients are given a treatment or their normal medication while a certain number of other patients are given a placebo. The number of patients can vary from a few to several hundreds or thousands. Pre-clinical research involves the invention of new treatments based on theory or on animal experiments. Sometimes, healthy people volunteer to test new drugs. The result of all this research has been wide-ranging, from the development of vaccines against polio or measles to improved treatments for patients with AIDS. B. 1/b, 2/g, 3/d, 4/f, 5/a, 6/e, 7/c.
WORDWORK

(p. 121) Il nous a sembl intressant au-del de la simple comprhension du texte de proposer aux lves une activit qui leur permettait de sinvestir de manire plus personnelle tout en rinvestissant le lexique abord depuis le dbut de la squence. On peut apporter aux lves linformation suivante : You should know that Henrietta Lacks family (or Henrietta Lacks herself) was never aware of the use of their mothers cells. They were never asked permission to do the research and were never told how the cells helped cure many people. They only discovered the fact by pure chance as one of the children was having a conversation with a researcher who told her what had happened to the cells. It is also important to know that the medical profession in the United States makes a lot of money out of research and that the children of Henrietta Lacks do not even have full medical cover.

(p. 121) Corrig teamle-p121-1 A. 1. It is paradoxical because nobody is immortal. The author probably chose the title for two reasons. First, the story is about the cells of a woman which never stop growing and that we can hence qualify as immortal. Also, the paradoxical nature of the title is meant to intrigue readers into buying the book. 2. For the next few days/Soon. These expressions show that the scientic experiment is being described meticulously and chronologically. They also underline the style of the author: the discovery is meant to be revealed little by little, as in a thriller. 3. These expressions reveal that the authors style is closer to an oral account of what happened than to a written account. Of course for starters and still are also used in novels but they are more the type of words that we nd in dialogues. I believe the author chose the style because it makes it easier for the ordinary reader to understand the scientic aspects of the discovery. 4. This conjunction is the word but. The author uses it often as a mark of the contradiction between what was expected (the cells were not growing [l. 34]) and what was happening (the cells were growing [l. 34], werent merely surviving [l. 36], they didnt [l. 44]). It highlights the surprise they felt as the experiment was progressing. teamle-p121-2 A. 1. had been trained, patrolled, inspecting. These words tell us that she has been trained in a very thorough, almost military-like environment and suggest that she is not a very friendly person who likes to make people feel at ease in the workplace. She puts her work above all else. 2. Mary followed Margarets sterilizing rules meticulously. This suggests that people feared Margaret. The word wrath suggests that she could often get angry if her orders were not strictly obeyed. 3. Margaret: authoritarian, bossy, perfectionist, thorough, tyrannical. Mary: cautious, cheerful, perfectionist, professional. 4. It is because Mary obeyed Margarets instructions about sterilisation that the experiment was a success. If she hadnt followed the rules to the letter, the cells would have been contaminated. 5. The expression Big surprise is ironic. In fact, nothing has happened, the cells are not multiplying in the test tubes, which is what is expected. Mary does not believe anything is going to happen. Nothing of the sort had ever happened before anyway. 6. Marys rst reaction is similar to Georges as both believe that nothing is going to happen. Mary didnt think much of it (l. 34) and George says The cells could die any minute. He refuses to become optimistic for fear of being disappointed later on. The fact that they both changed their point of view is seen in the way Mary is obliged to notice that the cells are growing (as much space as Mary gave them [l. 42]) and the fact that George did not hesitate to give some of the cells to colleagues. teamle-p121-3 A. 1. The book cover gives the impression that the doctors were disrespectful of Henrietta Lacks rights. They seem to have no respect for people in general and to put their scientic
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 91

7 Our Changing World


experiments above all else in order to make a lot of money. 2. 1/b, 2/i, 3/d, 4/k, 5/a, 6/g, 7/h, 8/f, 9/e, 10/j, 11/c. teamle-p121-4a/b A. 1/b, 2/f, 3/f, 4/c, 5/e, 6/d, 7/a. 2. a. Can I have some? And George said yes (l. 53-54) b. no one knew exactly what nutrients they needed to survive (l. 2-3) c. George told a few of his closest colleagues (l. 50) d. Mary followed Margarets sterilizing rules meticulously (l. 15-16) 3. a. Doctors must remember that they are dealing with humans and not animals. The nature of their work obliges them to distance themselves from their patients in order to be able to work but that does not mean that they must completely forget that the object of their work is a person. b. A doctors medical knowledge can give him or her the power to cure or kill. He must put this knowledge at the service of curing people. c. Doctors can be more concerned by the scientic aspect of a disease (as in the case of Henrietta Lacks) than in the patients themselves. They must not forget that behind each case is a human being. 4. The scientic approach to the experiment is obvious in the extract as the characters must adhere absolutely to the rules about sterilization enforced by Margaret. This is fundamental to the success of experiments in labs. However, the extract also shows that there is art involved because the results had never been obtained before, which suggests that something in the manner of doing things was different.
PROJECT

de ses propres objectifs : capacit sexprimer en anglais sans faire de longues pauses capacit couter son interlocuteur et ragir de manire approprie ; correction de la langue (lexique, grammaire, prononciation). (p. 121) Corrig (Les numros renvoient aux procds de traduction tels quils sont dcrits dans la che p. 164.) (7) Les bras croiss, Margaret patrouillait (3) dans le labo, se penchait par dessus lpaule (5) des laborantins pendant quils travaillaient (3), et inspectait prouvettes, pipettes, ballons, etc. (8) la recherche (8) de la moindre (8, 11) tache ou de la moindre trace. Mary suivait scrupuleusement les rgles de strilisation dictes par (8) Margaret an de ne pas encourir sa colre/son ire (11). Ce nest quensuite quelle prlevait les chantillons du col de lutrus dHenrietta et quelle les dcoupait mticuleusement en carrs de un millimtre (3).
TRANSLATORS WORKSHOP

(p. 122) Cette photo est tire du lm The Social Network (2010), qui raconte la cration du rseau social Facebook par Mark Zuckerberg lUniversit dHarvard en 2003 et les problmes lgaux qui sen sont suivis. Cest un lm qui a reu un immense succs international et qui marque notre poque. (p. 122) Corrig The Social Network is a lm about the creation of Facebook and the case against Mark Zuckerberg for having stolen the original idea. The characters look as if they are encouraging Mark who seems to be concentrating hard, working on his computer. (p. 122) tapescript33-p122 PRESENTER : Hello, good evening, and welcome to another edition of Critics Corner with, as our guests, Miles Davidson, head of the Beetny Record label, childrens author Cathy Myers and well-known lm producer Harry Split, wholl be giving us their comments. Later on in the programme theyll be discussing the new bestselling novel, Flight by Adam Thorpe, plus the latest recording of La Traviata from EMI, but rst on the show is the lm The Social Network. A two-hour movie directed by David Fincher and produced in the USA, it stars Andrew Gareld, Justin Timberlake and Jesse Eisenberg, to name but a few. The story of the creation of the networking website Facebook and about the legal ght over who gains nancially and who gets the recognition, it has received much acclaim from the American critics. The opening scenes are shot in the prestigious university of Harvard and then the lm gradually pans out to San Francisco and later England. Cathy, what did you think? CATHY: Well, not a Facebook subscriber myself and having witnessed my daughter waste half her life on it, I was rather reluctant to go and see this lm. But, I must admit

The Social Network

(p. 121) La partie project permet de passer de lcrit loral. Le problme thique pos par le thme est nouveau exploit ici mais loral et sous forme de prise de parole en interaction. Lactivit peut se drouler dans le cadre dune heure de cours (voire deux si lon souhaite que tout le monde passe ). Pour permettre un bon droulement de lactivit, nous conseillons de diviser la classe en trois groupes : le journaliste qui prsente les invits et peut poser des questions ou exiger des rponses ; un descendant de Henrietta Lacks qui exige des explications ; un scientique qui utilise les cellules de Henrietta Lacks dans le cadre de ses recherches et qui veut convaincre le public de lintrt de ses recherches. Voici le droulement de la sance que nous proposons : 1. Prsentation de lobjectif de lactivit et division de la classe en trois groupes. 2. Les lves rchissent ce quils vont dire pour prsenter le dbat ou dfendre leur point de vue. 3. Les lves jouent le sketch par groupe de 3 face la classe et le sketch est suivi dun bilan sur la prestation globale du groupe. Nous pensons que les lves qui coutent seront plus intresss par les prestations de leurs camarades sils sont encourags couter les sketchs de manire active et sils sont encourags valuer leurs camarades. Nous proposons donc la grille dvaluation suivante, que chacun pourra modier en fonction

Script

92 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

livre du professeur

that I was very soon drawn into its lightning-fast rhythm, the Harvard setting, the intense performance of Jesse Eisenberg playing Mark Zuckerberg and the backstabbing legal rows between Mark and his co-founder and original investor Eduardo Saverin played so sensitively by Andrew Gareld and those wonderfully portrayed alpha-male Winklevoss twins. I was gripped all the way through. I thought it was an unusually relevant engagement with a major social issue of the day. PRESENTER: Miles, did you nd the lm dealt successfully with the phenomenon of Facebook and the character of its creator Mark Zuckerberg? MILES: Yes, I thought Eisenberg really captured the vacant, calculating side of someone operating on a slightly different sphere from the rest of us; it cut through Zuckerbergs nervous arrogance, revealing the way his genius level IQ and social insecurities have combined to form an almighty chip on his shoulder. HARRY: Oh, I dont think Mark came across as arrogant so much as a borderline sociopath, and someone who doesnt suffer fools gladly. For me he was an entirely sympathetic believable character who was maybe just a touch irritating at times. CATHY: What I thought the lm did so well was to show ignoramuses like me just where Facebook has come from. It was a real insight into that amazingly fast-moving world which obviously reects where the younger generation is at. I mean it explores so well how the new generation seeks an illusion of connectivity through virtual means. MILES: Yes and whats ironic is the way the comparatively ancient art form such as cinema, with its ability to connect strangers the world over, has managed to pull this off in such a spectacular way. I tend to feel that Marks to use your words Harry sociopathic behaviour is reected in the way people like your daughter, Cathy, are being socially moulded. I mean the lm is a lot about Marks revenge on his girlfriend Erica and his resentment about being barred from the Harvard social clubs. I wonder if through Facebook, hell nally inict us all with his bitterness. Thats what the lm suggested to me. PRESENTER: Well, thank you, now lets move on to La Traviata... Corrig Four people are talking. In a radio studio. The presenter, Cathy Myers (childrens author), Miles Davidson (head of the Beetny Record label) and Harry Split (lm producer). The Social Network, about the creation of Facebook and the legal action to decide who gains nancially and who gets the recognition. They are enthusiastic. (p. 122) Corrig (exemple) Holy Rollers (Kevin Asch 2010), set in the closeknit community of ultra-orthodox Jews in Williamsburg, is a

lm about how a group of them transported a million ecstasy pills from Amsterdam to New York at the end of the nineties. We follow one of them, twenty-year-old Sam Gold (Jesse Eisenberg), a shy and awkward man whose friend lures him into trafcking by pretending it is medicine. He soon realizes the bitter truth, but gets sucked into the world of big money and falls in love with the bosss girlfriend Rachel (Ari Graynor), lost like him. Critics have been unfairly negative about the lm. I didnt think it was tedious but rather it had an original cinematographic style with an unusual, relaxed rhythm. I thought the lm was compelling all the way through, with Jesse Eisenberg giving a convincing, poignant performance. The family scenes were realistic and moving; it was eyeopening to have a confrontation of two parallel worlds: on the one hand Rachel taking the pills in a whirl of smoky clubs and innocence, and on the other, the dark, unsettling truth behind all the glamour. (p. 122) Corrig wordle-p122-1a/1b A. 1. guests, 2. bestselling, 3. ight, 4. stars, 5. acclaim, 6. university, 7. Harvard, 8. waste, 9. reluctant, 10. lightning, 11. twins, 12. genius. B. 1/g, 2/c, 3/b, 4/i, 5/a, 6/k, 7/h, 8/l, 9/e, 10/j, 11/d, 12/f. wordle-p122-2 A.
WORDWORK

English appalling compelling convincing disturbing entertaining eye-opening frightening funny gripping harrowing moving poignant realistic sentimental startling striking tedious thought-provoking true to life unsettling upsetting

French pouvantable prenant convaincant troublant amusant rvlateur effrayant drle prenant dchirant mouvant poignant raliste sentimental renversant frappant ennuyeux intressant raliste perturbateur bouleversant

1. thought-provoking; 2. Startling, compelling. 3. Upsetting, harrowing. 4. Realistic, true to life. 5. Compelling, gripping, suspenseful. 6. Harrowing, upsetting.
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 93

7 Our Changing World


PRONOUNCE

Script

(p. 122) tapescript34-35-p122

(Track 34) a as in cat: Andrew, Cathy, sociopath. The rst a in arrogance, gradually and spectacular. Both as in backstabbing. a as in about: performance, relevant, reluctant, sympathetic. The second a in gradually and spectacular. (Track 35) 1. gust, 2. bat, 3. done, 4. bed, 5. bun. (p. 122) teamle-p122-1

connectivity through virtual means. 5. (exemple) No, because not only does Facebook also attract people from all ages, but also because the social site Twitter, almost as popular, is designed for adults. 6. Its socially moulding them. 7. He blames Mark Zuckerberg, the founder of Facebook, who was excluded from the social circle in Harvard and had a problem with his girlfriend and compensated for his social awkwardness by creating a network which he could then hide behind.

The Railway Station (p. 123)


(p. 123) Corrig This painting shows a very busy and, most likely, noisy scene which is set in a railway station with lots of people gathered on the platform, most of them bidding farewell to their relatives who are probably about to get on a train and leave London. It is probably winter since the people are warmly dressed. There are about a hundred people in the scene, most of them in groups and doing something in particular. On the far left of the painting, a woman holding a little dog can be seen begging a railway worker to let her take her pet on the train. Other railwaymen in the background of the picture are taking care of the travellers luggage and putting it on the trains roof. The other people present all seem to have some business to attend to before they get on the train. a. The wealthy foreigner and his wife shown holding his left arm are in the middle of the painting. The man is wearing a top hat and has a beard. The cab driver is asking him for his fare or a tip, which the wealthy man seems to be getting ready to give him. b. The fugitive and the two detectives are on the far right of the painting. One of the two detectives is putting his hand on the fugitives right shoulder, probably to restrain him. The other detective, wearing a brown jacket and a top hat, seems to be holding handcuffs which will be used in the arrest. c. The wedding party can be spotted under the two railway workers putting luggage on the trains roof. The women are wearing lightcoloured (white and yellow) dresses (two of them are probably the bridesmaids). The bride is holding the grooms arm. d. The two boys leaving for boarding school are shown kissing their parents goodbye before leaving for the unknown, away from their families. The younger boy is holding his mother tight (she stands out in her red and brown dress and coat). The other boy, wearing a black suit, is patiently waiting for the rst one. A man whom we presume to be his dad is putting his hand on his shoulder, perhaps to comfort him because hes sad at having to leave. The social classes shown here are mainly the upper and upper-middle classes the passengers as can be guessed from the way they are dressed and the luggage they have. There are also representatives of the middle classes (the detectives, for example) and the working classes (the cab driver and the railwaymen). The reason is problably because it is extremely realistic in style and could be called a story in pictures, the visual counterpart of a novel. Given that novels and serials were all the

Corrig A. 1. Two hours 2. David Fincher 3. USA 4. Jesse Eisenberg (plays Mark Zuckerberg), Andrew Gareld (plays Eduardo Saverin) and Justin Timberlake. 5. The story of the creation of Facebook and the legal ght it involved. 6. Marks revenge on his girlfriend Erica and his resentment at being barred from Harvard social clubs. 7. Harvard University. 8. San Francisco and England. teamle-p122-2 A. 1. Miles Davidson: head of a record label, Harry Split: lm producer, Cathy Myers: childrens author. 2. a. She has a daughter who is addicted to Facebook. b. She doesnt use it at all. c. She doesnt know anything until she sees the lm. d. She is reluctant. e. I was very soon drawn into its lightning-fast rhythm, I was gripped all the way through. 3. The phenomenon of Facebook. The character of Mark Zuckerberg. 4. He disagrees about the fact that Mark is arrogant. teamle-p122-3 A. 1. Intense. 2. Sensitively. 3. Wonderfully. 4. Alpha-Male. 5. I thought Eisenberg really captured the vacant, calculating side of someone operating on a slightly different sphere from the rest of us; it cut through Zuckerbergs nervous arrogance, revealing the way his genius level IQ and social insecurities have combined to form an almighty chip on his shoulder. 6. He feels that Mark Zuckerberg is a highly intelligent, rather awkward character, who doesnt t in and therefore compensates for his social inadequacies with an air of superiority. 7. a borderline sociopath, sympathetic, believable. teamle-p122-4 1. lightning-fast rhythm, unusually relevant engagement, a real insight, explores so well. 2. A waste of time. 3. Amazingly fast-moving. 4. It shows that the younger generation is seeking the illusion of
94 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

livre du professeur

rage in Victorian England, it is not surprising that a painting like this should attract such huge numbers of admirers. People could spend hours imagining what each group of people was doing. In Victorian times, railways brought considerable changes to everyday life in Britain by allowing people to travel faster and by bringing people closer, either for professional reasons or private matters. It made family reunions possible for relatives living in other regions and gave people more opportunities. Train stations became very busy places where all classes of society crossed paths. (p. 123) Il sagit ici de concocter un projet la fois crit et oral, avec une prparation en amont pour la cration dun panneau aprs avoir choisi un site digne dintrt, ltape suivante consistant justier son choix et tout faire pour convaincre un panel de juges de choisir le site (en loccurrence, la gare) prsent pour lui octroyer des subventions et linscrire sur la liste du patrimoine mondial. On pourra conseiller la consultation, titre indicatif, des sites suivants : http://whc.unesco.org/en/about/ http://www.worldheritagesite.org/ http://www.worldheritagesite.org/themehome.php (voir catgories urban landscape et human activities ) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_World_Heritage_Sites_in_ Europe On valorisera bien entendu loriginalit du choix et la pertinence, la force de conviction du propos prsent sous forme de miniconfrence argumente. Des notes peuvent tre utilises par les lves lors de leurs prsentations, dans la mesure o cela ne nuit pas la qualit de la communication. Un vote sera ensuite organis pour rcompenser les projets les plus convaincants. La che dinformation Une che dinformation est tlchargeable : bonusle-p.123. Elle fournit des renseignements sur le peintre, le background et le tableau. Pour ceux qui disposent du manuel numrique, ces textes sont disponibles galement en version enregistre. Lactivit supplmentaire Une che de travail est tlchargeable : artle-p.123. Il sagit dun texte trous sur William Powell Frith. Corrig artle-p123 William Powell Frith (1819-1909), was an English painter specialising in portraits and Victorian era narratives, who was elected to the Royal Academy in 1852. Born in Yorkshire, Frith was encouraged to take up art by his father, a hotelier in Harrogate. He moved to London in 1835 where he began his formal art studies at Sasss Academy in Charlotte Street, before attending the Royal Academy Schools. Frith started his career as a portrait painter and rst exhibited at the British Institution in 1838. In the 1840s he often based works on the literary output of writers such as Charles Dickens, whose portrait he painted. The principal inuence on his work was the popular domestic subjects painted by Sir David Wilkie. Frith created complex multigure compositions depicting the full range of the Victorian class system, meeting and interacting in public places. In Ramsgate Sands, Life at the Seaside (1854) he depicted visitors
PROJECT

and entertainers at the seaside resort. He followed this with The Derby Day, depicting scenes among the crowd at the race at Epsom Downs. Another well-known painting was The Railway Station, a scene of Paddington station. In 1865 he was chosen to paint the Marriage of the Prince of Wales. Later in his career he painted two series of ve pictures each, telling moral stories in the manner of William Hogarth. These were the Road to Ruin (1878), about the dangers of gambling, and the Race for Wealth (1880) about reckless nancial speculation. He retired from the Royal Academy in 1890 but continued to exhibit until 1902. Frith was a traditionalist who made known his aversion to modern-art developments in a couple of autobiographies. He lived a curious domestic life married to Isabelle with twelve children, whilst a mile down the road maintaining a mistress (Mary Alford, formerly his ward) and seven more children - all a marked contrast to the upright family scenes depicted in his paintings.

Language Corner
To est-il toujours suivi de la base verbale ?

(p. 124-125)

Aider les lves faire la diffrence entre ce que les linguistes appellent loprateur de vise to suivi de la base verbale, et la prposition to suivie dun nom ou de V-ing (grondif). Corrig (Observation) a. to + V-ing + COD du grondif (complment du nom verbal growing). b. to + BV. to est oprateur de vise dans le deuxime exemple (= an quelles puissent crotre). to est prposition dans le premier exemple (= obstacles la croissance...). nom verbal ou grondif : le fait de crotre, croissance. (Application) it was key to preventing deadly infections (l. 11). a. It is now over 60 years since George Gey tried to grow human cells in a lab. (intention) b. Many other scientists were looking forward to receiving some HeLa cells for their own research. (Lide de recevoir ces cellules gnre limpatience attendaient avec impatience de recevoir... Phase 2 des linguistes.) c. Many technicians in the lab never got used to being constantly under Margarets surveillance. (La surveillance prcde le fait de sy habituer ; phase 2 des linguistes.) d. But all she wanted to do was keep the cells alive. (intention, volont) e. And she preferred passing for a shrew to losing such exceptional cells. (le fait de ..) f. Many people today still object strongly to experimenting on human cells. (le fait de faire des expriences sur le vivant) g. All this research has contributed to nding new cures. ( la dcouverte...) h. George Geys whole life was dedicated to curing cancer. ( la gurison) i. He was determined to succeed. (intention)
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 95

7 Our Changing World


Linversion
Il est bien sr question dinversion dans des noncs non interrogatifs. La rexion sur la langue a pour but de rappeler que linversion se produit lorsque les phrases commencent par des adverbes ou des groupes de mots caractre ngatif ou restrictif. Linversion due la suppression de la conjonction if nentre pas dans la rexion ici. On pourra renvoyer au prcis grammatical pour une tude plus approfondie du problme. Corrig (Observation) 1. (Only then) did she pick up the pieces... 2. afrmative 3. adverbe 4. restriction (Application) a. Not only did Margaret demand that the test tubes be impeccably clean, but she also spent her time looking over her lab workers shoulders. b. Hardly had they arrived at work when she looked over their shoulders. c. Seldom did she let up on her surveillance. d. Hardly had Henriettas cells begun to multiply when requests for samples arrived from all over the world. e. Never would George have envisaged/considered refusing to share his discovery. (Application) Later on in the programme theyll be discussing... ll (= will) + be + participe prsent de discuss a. Your teenage daughter has dark rings under her eyes. She must be spending ages on Facebook at night. b. The guest tonight is a lm producer. I guess we will be hearing his comments on all the latest lms. c. We have just been informed that our guest, lm producer Harry Split has eloped to Switzerland with his favorite actress. Im afraid we wont be talking about his latest lm then. d. Its getting late and we have reached the end of our show. But we shall be seeing you next week, same time. Traduction : a. Votre jeune lle a les yeux cerns. Elle doit passer des sicles sur Facebook la nuit. b. Notre invit ce soir est un producteur de lms, jen dduis que nous allons entendre ses commentaires sur les lms rcemment sortis. c. On vient de nous prvenir que notre invit, le producteur Harry Split, sest enfui en Suisse avec son actrice favorite. Je crains bien que nous nallons donc pas parler de son dernier lm. d. Il se fait tard et nous arrivons la n de notre mission. Mais nous nous reverrons la semaine prochaine la mme heure.

Is This Progress?

(p. 126-127)

Les actions passes habituelles ou rptes


Bien faire la diffrence entre d = had et d = would. Rvision de la forme dite frquentative . Corrig (Observation) Shed peer = she would peer theyd doubled = they had doubled Would est suivi dune base verbale, comme tout modal. Had est lauxiliaire du pluperfect et comme tel est suivi du participe pass. she would peer limparfait de lindicatif (Application) a. The researchers/scientists would regularly meet with obstacles to growing cells. b. The main cause of their failures/set-backs was due to the fact they would never check that their test tubes were perfectly clean. c. Margaret would indefatigably patrol the lab making sure that the researchers/scientists heeded her advice.

Les modaux et be + V-ing


Corrig (Observation) modal will + be + participe prsent will Certitude, puisque cest pour commenter le lm que les invits sont l ! Laction en question est prvue, sans doute dassez longue date.
96 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

(p. 126) Au-del de la rexion sur les avantages et les inconvnients lis aux progrs scientiques, nous avons voulu introduire dans cette page une touche dhumour. Comme toute forme dhumour, il y a bien sr un fond de vrit et cest sur ces deux aspects que nous avons voulu concentrer lattention des lves. Lobjectif culturel est facilement comprhensible pour les lves : il sagit de dcerner toute lambigut des sites de rencontres sur internet. Le sujet est simple. Les supports iconographiques et textuels sont varis mais traitent tous du mme sujet sous des angles diffrents : il sagit de rvler le paradoxe voire les contradictions entre la ralit de son apparence (et de ses aspirations) et limage que lon souhaite donner de soi-mme. Lordinateur peut sembler tre un moyen de rapprocher les personnes entre elles. Il se rvle tre au contraire un moyen pour tromper les personnes sur sa propre vrit. Corrig (exemples) Online dating is popular because it is easily accessible from ones home. You just have to log in and you can meet anybody in the world. It is also a way for people who are shy to meet other people without having to meet them face to face. You can be sure that you have points in common, that you share important ideas before actually meeting the person. Online dating is very popular on internet sites that have chosen specic areas of interest. Those with explicit religious interests for instance are very popular. You can invent yourself and play out a role that you do not have in life (you are taller, younger, richer...)

livre du professeur

It is anonymous. You can give a false name. No one will know, whereas on Facebook, everyone can see what you have written, including your friends or your future boss. Online dating changes the perception we have of relationships because : the relationship is not actually based on a physical perception of the person (even if pictures can be attached) ; you can communicate with a person without ever having to meet him/her. You can chat with anyone in the world and so the relationship does not necessarily have to be with someone you are going to meet one day ; there is no fear of having any physical contact with the person ; the relationship can be based only on the image we want to give and not on who we really are. 3. (students own answers) Laisser les lves donner leur propre point du vue (tout en rappelant les dangers). (p. 127) Corrig Old, weak mice received a treatment that not only stopped their aging process but apparently reversed it and regenerated their cells. They think they might perform the same feat on humans and manage at least to slow down the aging process, thus making older people less dependent and avoiding a number of geriatric ailments as well as strokes. (students own answers) Guider les lves vers les consquences sociales et conomiques de lallongement de la dure de vie.
PROJECT

(p. 127) Lintrt de cette activit est damener les lves rchir aux avantages et aux dangers des diffrentes formes de progrs. Ce projet nest pas proprement parler un dbat car il ne sagit pas de demander aux lves sils sont pour ou contre le progrs. En revanche, lactivit doit amener un dbat au sein de la classe parce que les lves seront amens dfendre des champs qui sont potentiellement dangereux malgr les lois mises en place et vice versa. Nous conseillons de faire cette activit en trois temps : 1. Prsentation de lactivit, constitution de deux groupes (groupe A croit que le progrs est utile et groupe B croit que le progrs est dangereux) puis des paires (par deux les lves choisissent un exemple pour illustrer lutilit ou le danger du progrs). 2. Les lves en pair work trouvent les arguments pour dfendre leur point de vue. Ils peuvent utiliser les questions dans le projet pour les aider sexprimer. 3. Chaque paire dlves prsente son ide face la classe qui ragit en essayant dalimenter le dbat, en essayant de prouver que le point de vue exprim est partiel, limit, faux. An de dtendre latmosphre (to say the least!), nous proposons une vido hilarante qui ne laissera pas les lves de marbre!...

function: save loads of money on the purchase of a dishwasher. And there is more. With the built-in printer, the Sumsing Turbo can make professional copies of both documents and photographs. Inating the tyre of your bicycle becomes childs play. You simply remove the antenna and place the phone on the valve. In less than six seconds your tyre will be completely inated. In places where heating is not sufcient, you can heat up an entire room with the patented heating function. The Sumsing Turbo 3000 is a full(y)-edged hairdryer as well as a full(y)-edged rasor and, as if thats not enough, you can use it as a wireless iron. Create your own music with the harmonica function. And theres more. The Sumsing Turbo 3000 is supplied with a built-in toaster with which you can make delicious toasted sandwiches. If you happen to be ill, you can measure your fever. An extremely accurate thermometer is incorporated in the antenna. After youve used it, its easily cleaned. In the event of a cardiac arrest, you can administer electric shocks. Resuscitation is a piece of cake with the patented debrillation function. This way, your grandmother will live for many more years to come. Of course, with todays increasing crime rates, you dont want your phone to be stolen. You can protect your personal information with the handy self-destruct function. Order the Sumsing Turbo 3000 Xi Multitask now! Corrig dvdle-p127 A. 1/b, 2/c, 3/a. B. 1. mobile phone, 2. dishwasher, 3. printer, 4. bicycle pump, 5. heater, 6. hairdryer, 7. harmonica, 8. toaster, 9. thermometer, 10. debrillator. C. Of course, with todays increasing crime rates, you dont want your phone to be stolen. You can protect your personal information with the handy self-destruct function. Handy = easy to use, self-destruct = explode and destroy itself.

Ateliers
Atelier 1

(p. 128-130)

Script

dvdscript-p127 Brand new! The Sumsing Turbo 3000 Xi Multitask, a mobile phone with many functions such as a complete dishwashing

(p. 128) Script dvdscript-p128 ZUCKERBERG: People want to share and stay connected with their friends and the people around them. When people have control over what they share, theyre comfortable sharing more. When people share more, the world becomes more open and connected. REPORTER: It has ruined careers, is banned in certain countries and is accused of invading the privacy of its users. It is also one of the most popular sites on the Internet. ZUCKERBERG: So I just want to say thanks. Youve all made Facebook what it is today. You really have created a worldwide movement. REPORTER: Welcome to watchmojo.com and today well be learning more about the history of Facebook. Facebook was founded in February 2004 by Harvard roommates Mark Zuckerberg, Dustin Moskovitz, Chris Hughes and Eduardo Saverin. Originally designed to help people communicate effectively online, Facebook evolved to become a form for informationLivre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 97

7 Our Changing World


sharing as well. Today, Facebook is by far the largest image-sharing site in the world. Initially only offered to Harvard students, it wasnt long before Facebook expanded to Stanford, Columbia, Yale and many other universities across the US and Canada. It was nally made available to the general population in September 2006. Evolving rapidly, the site launched Facebook Platform in 2007. This allowed developers to create applications on Facebook that worked together with the sites features. 2007 also saw Facebook expand their search partnership with Microsoft. By 2008, the site launched Facebook Connect, a service that allowed users to sign in to various sites across the web using their Facebook account credentials. This project both simplied navigation and increased engagement. However, it also added to the criticism of Facebooks ever-growing reach and inuence. Since then, Facebook has become the largest social networking site in the world, surpassing rival Myspace in April of 2008. By August of 2010, Facebook leapfrogged over Google as the property on which users spent the most time. This year also marked another milestone for Facebook crossing 500,000,000 users with no signs of slowing down. ZUCKERBERG: Half a billion is a nice number but the number isnt what really matters here. What matters are all of the stories we hear from all of you about the impact your connections have had on your lives. REPORTER: Mark Zuckerberg was the last founding member to remain with Facebook. A special clause in his contract allows him to stay on as CEO for as long as he chooses. As of 2010, the wonder kid owned more than a quarter of Facebooks stock and controlled three of ve board seats. His success did come at a price, however. In 2007, a lawsuit was led against Facebook and Zuckerberg by three Harvard classmates, Divya Narendra and twins Cameron and Tyler Winklevoss. The three alleged that the idea and source code for Facebook was in fact stolen from them when they had hired a young Zuckerberg to build their website called Harvard Connection. The case was settled with Facebook agreeing to pay 65,000,000 dollars to the trio. Over the years, various start-ups have attempted to steal Facebooks thunder. Sites like Twitter and Foursquare have done little to negatively impact Facebooks popularity on line. However, they have inuenced Zuckerberg to update functions and add features to woo celebrities and organisations. ZUCKERBERG: We can create a web that is more social, personalised, smarter and semantically aware. REPORTER: ... as well as satisfy average user needs. ZUCKERBERG: The web is going to get a whole lot better. REPORTER: Despite widespread criticism, Facebook is considered one of the best tech companies to work for with the promise of an IPO payout*. Proving the site and its mythology have taken on a life of their own, a 2010 lm called The Social Network chronicled the early days of the company and its meteoric rise. However, the lm also placed the company under the spotlight as never before. Part fact, part dramatisation, the lm did nothing more than solidify Facebooks and Mark Zuckerbergs respective places in the history books.
98 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

ZUCKERBERG: On a personal note, I just turned 26 a few days ago. As I look back to when I started Facebook. Im amazed at how its evolved and how so many of you are using it to stay connected all round the world.
* IPO payout : a bonus when there is an Initial Public Offering, i.e. when shares are put on the stock market.

Corrig (questions du manuel) (exemple) It is a good advertisement for Facebook because the person using it in the picture is young, relaxed and modern (using an iPad). Using Facebook is seen as a relaxing, enjoyable leisure activity. a. He thinks he has given people the means to extend their circle of friends and contacts and feel comfortable about communicating with them because they are in control over what they share. b. Some have had their careers ruined, some feel their privacy has been invaded. c. (voir rponse B, dvdle ci-dessous) d. The three people accused Zuckerberg of stealing the original idea and source code from them. The fact that so much money was paid to the three suggests that the accusation was probably true. e. It gave an added boost to the importance of Facebook in present-day society and guaranteed it a place in the history books. (students own answers) dvdle-p128 A. People want to share and stay connected with their friends and the people around them. When people have control over what they share, theyre comfortable sharing more. When people share more, the world becomes more open and connected. It has ruined careers, is banned in certain countries and is accused of invading the privacy of its users. It is also one of the most popular sites on the Internet. B. February 2004 Facebook was founded. September 2006 It became available to the general population. 2007 The Facebook Platform was launched. 2008 Facebook Connect was launched. April 2008 Facebook surpassed Myspace. August 2010 Facebook overtook Google. C. 1. The university where the founders of Facebook were students and roommates. 2. One of the founders of Facebook. 3. One of the places included in the initial expansion of Facebook to other universities. 4. A classmate of Zuckerbergs who alleged that the idea and source code was stolen from him and the Winklevoss twins. 5. The name of the website which Zuckerberg was employed to build. 6. A social networking site, in competition with Facebook. 7. A 2010 lm chronicling the early days of Facebook.

Atelier 2 (p. 129) Lobjectif de cet atelier est bien dentraner les lves comprendre lessentiel de cet article scientique. Ce nest pas

livre du professeur

la longueur mais bien la prcision des rponses qui importe. Comme toujours, nous conseillons de faire lire les guidelines avant de lancer les lves dans la lecture du texte. Corrig The interviewee is Patricia Greeneld, a professor of psychology. She answers questions about the most appropriate way to use the new media at school. The article mentions lms, but Ms Greeneld gives the example of Powerpoint as a new medium. The old techniques evoked are mainly reading books. She acknowledges that the new media are useful and indispensable nowadays, yet she insists on the importance of reading as well. She reckons visual media should be used to teach students as they help them process the information given in a short time; visual media should also be used to test students. However using visual media only would deprive the students of the time needed for reection, and their ability to use their imagination. She advises teachers and schools to use new media more in their curriculum and classrooms; she insists parents should incite their children to read real books. Using new media in classrooms allows teachers to check more accurately what their students know. It must be said though that studies show that using the Internet does not solve all the problems in a classroom. The use of the Internet is complementary to traditional teaching methods as both approaches develop different skills.

Downloading music and lms threatens the livelihood of the thousands of people who are employed in the music and lm industries. (p. 130) On demandera un ou deux lves de faire des recherches sur le clbre tableau de Norman Rockwell qui a inspir ce dessin humoristique et den faire une prsentation rapide ses/leurs camarades. Freedom from Want or The Thanksgiving Picture is one of Four Freedoms paintings by Norman Rockwell that were inspired by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the State of the Union Address, known as Four Freedoms, which he delivered to the 77th United States Congress on January 6, 1941. The other paintings in this series were Freedom of Speech, Freedom from Fear, and Freedom of Worship. Wikipedia Corrig The scene takes place in the USA: the picture shows a family meal with the traditional Thanksgiving turkey served by the housewife to the rest of the family sitting there for that special occasion. Quelques sites ludiques, destins aux jeunes enfants amricains sur Thanksgiving : http://wilstar.com/holidays/thankstr.htm http://gmenglish.pagesperso-orange.fr/5emes/Thanksgiving/ index The scene takes place in a traditional dining-room with white curtains hanging at the window and a painting on the wall. The people are all dressed formally for the occasion: the man standing is wearing a suit, a tie and a white shirt. His wife has cooked the meal and is wearing an apron. Everything and everyone in the picture look conventional. The rst impression conveyed is that of a conventional family meal. They are supposed to be celebrating Thanksgiving and sharing family moments. However, the picture shows they are all ddling with their mobile phones, smartphones, tablet computers, handheld game consoles or portable media players: we can see a Blackberry, an iPad and an iPod. Even the grandparents seem hooked on the technology! The grandfather is not holding a prayer book any more but a smartphone tablet, and the grandmother has a cellphone device attached to her left ear. The irony lies in the discrepancy between the traditional values that Thanksgiving symbolises (giving thanks to God, having a home-cooked meal, etc.) and the modern devices that grab our attention. The cartoonists intention is to show that traditional values are coming to an end. People today have no more time for family meals or have simply lost the habit of meeting and sharing family moments. In spite of all the social networks that high technology has made possible, our era is denitely centred on the individual. More worrying still perhaps is that the modern technology shown in the cartoon and which was created to bring people closer together seems in fact to be isolating each one of us in our own little world.
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 99

Atelier 4

Atelier 3

(p. 129) Corrig Arguments for illicit downloading Downloading is not stealing: when you download a song, nobody loses it. Some music is not for sale any more. The Internet is the only way to hear this music. We live in a democracy. If people want to share les, let them do it. Anything put out on the Internet falls into the public domain. When I scan a newspaper into my PC and send it to all my friends, Im violating the law and nobody cares. The music companies are overreacting. I still buy the same number of CDs. There is no reason to buy an entire CD for one song. People who make recordings or lms are all rich anyway. Music and lms should be free. Arguments against illicit downloading Theres been a 15% drop in music sales since 2000. Creative people have rights over any original work they produce. Stealing music is like a personal betrayal of the songwriters and recording artists who create it. It takes hard work and long hours to produce an artistic creation. Making music or lms is not only about imagination and emotional commitment, it is also about earning a living. Stealing music sties the careers of new artists.

7 Our Changing World


(p. 130) Les questions proposes ici sont des pistes pour aider les lves mais dont ils peuvent bien sr se dtacher sils ont dautres lments ajouter. Lensemble de la production crite devrait comporter environ 250 mots. Corrig This is a comic strip by the famous American cartoonist Garry Trudeau, from his most famous pages in the Doonesbury series, which portray a wide range of characters. The rst two pictures are in black and white, with no frames or any background, and show only one character, while the second part of the comic strip is colourful, with more characters (up to 5), more than just a background - a breathtaking view and a conversation between the characters. The cartoonist is complaining about companies which manage to make their customers pay for each service upgrade, starting from what we would today call the very basic. In fact in any eld, any trade nowadays there are always extras to be paid: GSM operators, low cost companies (you pay more if you travel with a bag !), banking services (if you withdraw cash from any other bank than yours at an ATM)... If you want the basics, our service is the best but look at what you get for your money you will be amazed. For only a few dollars more you can have more colours, more information, and all that even faster than before. Why wait? Why is it always the same? Why are we never eligible for free upgrades? Why do we have to pay more each time for standard services your company is supposed to provide? Is prot the only thing that matters? (students own answers)

Atelier 5

classe (prparation des images, des dessins, construction de lobjet...). 3. Pendant la troisime sance, deux lves de chaque groupe prsentent leur invention tandis que les autres membres des groupes circulent pour voir ce que les autres ont cr. Chaque groupe doit choisir la meilleure invention (sans avoir le droit de voter pour son propre projet bien sr). Le groupe qui obtient le plus de votes gagne. Pendant cette phase, les lves qui prsentent les projets doivent pouvoir montrer lintrt de linvention tout en en faisant une dmonstration. Les lves qui circulent doivent couter les dmonstrations, poser des questions pour sassurer quils ont bien compris de quoi il sagit et justier leur choix. Quelques synonymes pour enrichir le lexique des lves Adjectifs Useful: convenient, functional, handy, practical, reasonable, solid, usable. Useless: harmful, impractical, unrealistic, unworkable, worthless. economical: cost-effective, protable, worthwhile. Expensive: uneconomical, wasteful, destructive, extravagant. original: imaginative, innovative, inspiring, inventive, productive, quick, ready, unusual. Verbes Create: build, construct, design, fabricate, imagine, invent, make, organise, plan, produce, shape. Operate: command, conduct, drive, handle, manipulate, play, run, steer, work.

Checkpoint
Comprhension de lcrit (p. 132)

(p. 132-133)

Class Project

(p. 131) Aprs avoir fait rchir les lves aux diffrentes formes de progrs, il nous a sembl intressant de faire appel leur imagination et de leur demander dinventer un objet utile. Les science fairs sont trs courants dans les lyces anglophones. Les lves inventent, construisent des objets, crent des maquettes reprsentant des volcans en ruption... Ils prsentent leurs projets le mme jour et un jury vote pour attribuer les premiers prix. La partie instructions dans le manuel de llve privilgie une organisation autour de trois ou quatre sances, selon lampleur que lon souhaite donner au projet. 1. La premire sance consiste dcrire les inventions reprsentes sur la page 131 du manuel puis regrouper les lves par groupe de 4 pour imaginer leurs propres inventions. Il sagit dune phase interactive pendant laquelle les lves sont amens communiquer entre eux en anglais pendant que le professeur circule pour les aider faire leur choix, fournir le lexique ncessaire la description des inventions, veiller ce que tout le monde parle bien en anglais. 2. La deuxime tape consiste en une sance dapprofondissement. Les lves ont choisi leur invention mais rchissent la meilleure manire de la prsenter la classe. Ce travail peut tre complt par un travail de groupe en dehors de la

(p. 132) Clin dil srieux une pratique qui nest pas rcente mais que linternet a permis de gnraliser... Pour le meilleur ou pour le pire ? Corrig The article is an extract from the British weekly magazine The Economist published in January 2011. There is no title. (Le professeur pourra ajouter cette dernire question Choose a title for the article and give reasons for your choice celles dj proposes dans le manuel.) Judging from the photograph and the rst lines, it is probably about electronic means of communication. They warn that people who use the Internet for making friends or getting dates tend to consider other people like consumer goods. Online dating companies agree that the system is far from perfect but so is dating in real life. Anthropologists who work for these dating sites insist that studies show that people mate according to similar backgrounds in terms of religion, education or social status. Indian dating sites provide an impressive list of data and criteria such as religion, caste, education and income. Relatives can also add any information they nd relevant.

100 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

livre du professeur

The sentence there is inevitably some magic to love (l. 44), as well as the indenable spark that triggers romance (l. 37) clearly state that there is more to love than just compatibility.

Comprhension de loral

(p. 133) (p. 133)

Corrig Phone calls seem to be dying out as a means of communication. Landline calls and mobile calls. Ofcom is the British telecoms regulator. In all rich countries, the number of landline calls has decreased contrary to the increase in mobile calls. Ofcom also found out that cost is what determines how long people talk on the phone, whether landline or mobile. Twice as high. In Germany, mobile phone rates are twice as high as landline rates. 122: German people use their mobile phones for an average of 122 minutes per month. 700: American people use their mobile phones for an average of 700 minutes per month. A third: a third of Facebooks members access the service on their smartphones. 11%: in Britain, smartphone owners talk 11% longer than owners of simpler mobile phones. 95: in the rst half of 2010, Skype, the internet phone service, achieved a total of 95 billion minutes in voice and video calls. The time spent on smartphones, Facebook, TV in the US, computers and Skype is going up. At the end of the recording the man says that conventional phone calls are not dead and will remain the most important forms of telecommunication for the majority of people. tapescript36-p133 PRESENTER: A recent entry on a blog called Tech-Crunch, which chronicles and inuences the fast-moving world of communications, was entitled: The phone call is dead. But is it? Heres a report from our international correspondents, James Morecroft and Jacqueline Erickson. JAMES: There is no doubt that landline calls are past their prime. The time people spend talking on a xed telephone has gone down in recent years in nearly all rich countries. Yet, this fall is more than offset by the increase in mobile calls, according to a recent report by Ofcom, the British telecoms regulator. JACQUELINE: Ofcom also found that cost, more than anything, determined how long people talk on the phone, and whether they prefer a landline or a mobile call. In Germany, for example, cellphone rates are twice as high as landline rates, so if this were to change, Germans would almost certainly be less reluctant to make calls on their mobiles, which they only use for an average of 122 minutes per month. JAMES: In the USA, however, the amount of time mobile subscribers talk on their phones has dropped to 700 minutes per month in 2010. JACQUELINE: But less talking does not always mean less phone use. Over the same period, texting has grown dramatically,

thanks largely to teenagers who are also buying more smartphones essentially hand-held computers that let them send messages via social networks. More than a third of Facebooks members access the service on their mobile phones. JAMES: Yet in Britain, where teenagers have been texting for longer, the smartphone phenomenon has not had the same effect. British smartphone subscribers talk 11% longer than owners of simpler handsets. JACQUELINE: And, stunning though they may be, new technologies often fail to displace old ones. Research shows that young Americans are watching more television even as they spend more time on the computer. And an old form of communication may stage a come-back in a different form. Skype, the internet phone service, is growing rapidly. In the rst half of 2010 it achieved a huge total of 95 billion minutes in voice and video calls. JAMES: So, the odds are that the conventional phone call will be with us for a while yet, as one of many forms of telecommunications. And, for most people, it will remain the most important one. That should be welcomed by all those who enjoy the gentle art of conversation and dreaded by parents who have to pay the bills.

Expression orale

(p. 133)

Script

(p. 133) Un nouveau clin dil pour interpeller les lves sur les drives engendres par les technologies de communication. Corrig This colourful cartoon shows a family driving by the Grand Canyon in their family car. The mother is driving, the children are sitting in the back seats and looking somewhat disappointed. It seems the children would like their mother to stop for them to get an opportunity to have a look at the magnicent view. But the mother seems bent on keeping on driving, arguing that she is taking pictures of the famous site with her cell phone while driving. They will have plenty of time to watch the pictures once they get back home after shes posted them on Facebook. (exemple) I would answer that seeing the real thing is quite different from seeing it on a computer screen, especially if you happen to be driving by! Besides, stopping might give you a chance to take much better pictures than you would with a cellphone while driving. The cartoonist is obviously making fun of those people, adults included, who think they can do anything with their cellphone. (students own answers) On pourra demander aux lves sils se sentent viss, ou sils envisagent de montrer le dessin ... leurs parents.

Expression crite

(p. 133) (p. 133)

Corrig The rst quote by Albert Pine means that each time we do something less for ourselves than for others, each time we are
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 101

7 Our Changing World


generous, it means we will be remembered and so live longer. Woody Allens quote is a joke saying he is afraid to die and would prefer to live on for ever. The last quote by Chuck Palahniuk seems to rephrase Pines idea that giving is more important than receiving and a means to achieve some kind of eternity. (students own answers) Bien sr chaque lve peut choisir laquelle des citations a sa prfrence, mais il est indispensable quil apporte une explication. (students own answers) Before 1776: To be perfect, a man had to be a wealthy, wellmannered, respectable and strong father gure. By the early 19th century: Masculinity meant being adventurous and brave. Later: the concept of the self-made man appeared and masculinity became synonymous with professional and social achievement. Masculinity has reached another important stage and men should get used to the new dictates of our current society. Our world is different and they have to adapt to the change. The New Macho is a man who lives in harmony with the world around him. He should divide his time equally between his work and his family. Men may feel that some countries especially developed countries have become feminised because women have recently acquired more and more inuence. For example, more and more women are elected as heads of states (Julia Gillard in Australia, Angela Merkel in Germany, Pratibha Devisingh Patil in India...) yet humanitarian organisations still express concern about gender inequalities in certain countries.
WRITERS WORKSHOP (p. 135) Pour la premire activit, on peut proposer aux lves dimiter la structure de larticle tudi : introduction/situation prsente illustre par des exemples prcis/raisons expliquant les changements ventuels/paragraphe sur lvolution de limage de ladolescent dans le temps/conclusion et dnition du concept de New Teenager .

The New Macho

(p. 134-135) (p. 135)

Corrig The image of the American woman has evolved and improved since the 1950s. On the contrary, the image of the American man tends to ossify, which is inconsistent with the social and economic values of present-day society. Working-class men deliberately conne themselves to a certain range of manly jobs. With the economic crisis, fewer and fewer positions are available and they are thus less likely to nd a job which corresponds to their expectations. These lines conrm and illustrate what was stated at the beginning of the article the image of the American woman has changed. Women can now get jobs in elds that used to be monopolized by men.

8 Making Things Better


Aprs ce monde qui change une vitesse difcile suivre, nous posons la question de savoir si ces changements se font pour le meilleur ou pour le pire et nous optons dans ce dernier chapitre pour une vue positive et optimiste de lavenir. which may also be considered an important fact in a world still seriously divided by religion. Picture 3 is a symbolical montage showing a desire to make the planet greener while still producing the energy that an ever growing population needs to survive and develop. Picture 4 shows another kind of help that is being given to the third world and focuses on the importance of education in the development of these countries. Educating people here seems to be a real challenge as there is not even a building to house the students. Picture 5 illustrates the fact that some people seem more and more attracted by a desire to live closer to nature. And Picture 6, taken from a Manhattan building, shows that efforts are being made to harness solar energy which is probably the cleanest and cheapest source of energy one can think of. (students own answers) (students own answers)

Pages douverture

(p. 136-137) Les documents iconographiques proposs ici rassemblent une grande partie des causes que dfendent ceux qui veulent faire changer le monde pour que la vie y soit plus saine et plus sereine. Ils annoncent les diffrents thmes qui vont tre dvelopps dans le chapitre.

(p. 137) Corrig The video extract and picture 1 refer to the efforts that are being made to limit pollution and possibly turn the tide and make the planet cleaner than it has become. Picture 2 shows humanitarian volunteers at work in what looks like a refugee camp; the vests that theyre wearing over their clothes show that the aid is given regardless of religious beliefs,
102 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

Script

dvdscript-p136 Protecting the environment is everyones responsibility. However, when a major corporation such as Frito-Lay, Nike, Dell

livre du professeur

or Staples takes steps to reduce its carbon footprint, the impact is not only signicant but measurable. Hi, Im Rebecca Brayton and welcome to watchmojo.com and today well be exploring green practices being implemented by several multinational corporations across multiple industries. There are a variety of innovative solutions being implemented by companies big and small, local and global, in an effort to reduce their carbon footprint. An obvious effort by car companies is the popularisation of hybrid and electric vehicles which both reduce emissions into our atmosphere. Energy Savings Conserving energy is one important step towards sustainability. Staples Business Depot, the retail ofce supply chain, was able to cut down on energy consumption in their stores by implementing a program called Lights Out, starting in 2007. During hot summer months, the lighting in their stores is moderated and, as a result, the building is kept cooler with less air conditioning. The resulting energy saving(s) from only one year of the program was enough to power 90 homes for one year. Green packaging Packaging is one of todays biggest concerns with consumer products. Attempts to reduce or eliminate packaging altogether are not always cost effective or practical. The PepsiCo subsidiary Frito-Lay has done its part by introducing a 100 per cent compostable bag for its Sun Chips brand. After four years of development, the bag was introduced in 2010. The rst packaging of its kind in the snack food world, this bag is made primarily from plant-based renewable materials derived from starch. This allows it to break down in active compost in roughly fourteen weeks. The bag was even certied by the Biodegradable Products Institute, which is the only internationally recognised labelling program. Highlighting the importance of composting, this initiative was encouragement for the entire snack food industry to develop and apply ecologically-friendly practices. Along with their efforts in sustainable packaging, Frito-Lay has also reduced waste, water and energy consumption and emissions in their manufacturing and distribution processes. Since 1999, the company has managed to save 5.4 billion litres of water. Theyve also put into place a program that sees their shipping cartons reused ve or six times before being recycled, with over 40 million cartons being recycled to date. The bottled water industry is one that is constantly working to improve their effects on the environment with regards to packaging. Biodegradable bottles made from corn break down if they end up in a landll. Another packaging effort made by PepsiCo is their Eco-Fina bottle for their Aquana water. This bottle uses half as much plastic as their previous models. Launched in 2009, this switch saves the company 75 million pounds of plastic annually. Recycling programs Computer equipment is notoriously difcult and expensive to dispose of. In 2006, Dell was the rst company in the industry to offer a recycling program for their old products. The program has expanded, and used, working computers can be donated to non-prot organisations.

Green products Textile production is also infamously rough on the environment. As a huge corporation, Nike recognise their impact on the planet. Because of this, they created a shoe made from factory scraps. Brought to market in 2008, the sole of the Trash Top shoe was ground up rubber from a shoe recycling program they had previously implemented. Reuse A Shoe, started in 1993, is a program that recovers old shoes and repurposes them into playgrounds, basketball courts, running tracks and other sports surfaces. From simply shutting off the lights to creating a product that requires less packaging to reducing carbon output, the efforts made by the worlds biggest corporations can have an immense effect on the future of the planet. Corrig dvdle-p136 1/j, 2/g, 3/e, 4/i, 5/b, 6/h, 7/f, 8/c, 9/a, 10/d. Staples. The lighting in their stores is moderated. This means the buildings are cooler and less air conditioning has to be used. Frito-Lay. Their packaging for some products is 100% compostable because its made of plant-based renewable materials derived from starch. The company has reduced waste, water and energy consumption and emissions. Dell. People can donate used computers to non-prot organisations. Nike. A program started in 1993 recovers old shoes and repurposes them into playgrounds, basketball courts, running tracks and other sports surfaces.

Someone in Need

(p. 138-139) Le texte que nous proposons dans ce chapitre, tout en faisant en quelque sorte cho au chapitre 3 de par son thme, mais avec plus de profondeur littraire et de gravit peut-tre, est issu du recueil de nouvelles rcemment publi par John Grisham. Cet crivain majeur n en 1955, notamment clbre pour ses romans judiciaires et dcrivant le sud rural des tats-Unis dAmrique, est lauteur de A Time To Kill (Non Coupable, 1989), The Firm (La Firme, 1991), The Pelican Brief (LAffaire Plican, 1992), The Rainmaker (LIdaliste, 1995), The Runaway Jury (Le Matre du Jeu, 1996), The Last Juror (Le Dernier Jur, 2005) et The Associate (LInltr, 2009), entre autres. La plupart de ces best-sellers furent ports lcran avec succs. Grisham, titulaire dune licence de droit et ayant travaill dix ans pour un cabinet davocats, tout en simpliquant dans la vie politique au Mississippi dont il a t quelque temps llu, dpeint dans la majorit de ses uvres des affaires impliquant notamment scandales, crimes et machinations, ses thmatiques-ftiches. Funny Boy est la dernire des sept nouvelles du recueil intitul Ford County. Nous nous trouvons ici plongs au milieu des annes 80. Le SIDA est quasi-inexistant dans le Comt de Ford, Mississippi, o un jeune homme issu dune riche famille de blancs revient, pour y mourir de la maladie, auprs dune vieille femme noire mandate par la famille dudit jeune homme pour lui administrer les (derniers) soins dont il a besoin. En change, la maison quelle occupe lui sera donne. De ce postulat de base bien peu charitable se dveloppe lhistoire, dans laquelle une amiti forte et relle va, contre toute attente, natre. Les
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 103

8 Making Things Better


jalousies et malveillances vont se succder et les rvlations arriver, comme autant dvnements inattendus. Jusquau tragique suicide nal du jeune homme. Dans lextrait que nous proposons, Grisham fait une large place la critique implicite de lintolrance et des prjugs de toutes sortes. (p. 138) Corrig This picture shows a white wooden church which is almost certainly located in a Southern state of the United States. Most of the people standing outside the church seem to be AfricanAmericans. Someone belonging to a local church community may be in trouble and the/some community members may have decided to support him/her in the difcult situation he/she is in/to help him/her overcome an ordeal. The person might also have turned to God/the local cleric/clergyman/minister to solve a specic problem or nd comfort/seek solace. (p. 138) Corrig The extract from Ford County is a scene between two characters in a Southern town, talking about a third character. John Grisham is the highly-acclaimed author of novels such as The Firm, The Pelican Brief and The Associate. From the title of the extract, we can assume it is about someones attempts to help someone in need. The story deals with a virus (l. 35) which is said to be sweeping across our country, across the world (l. 26). The reader naturally assumes it is AIDS, so the story may well be set in the 1980s, at the time when the AIDS virus was beginning to spread rapidly without people knowing how bad it actually was or how it was transmitted (l. 33-36). The disease was also associated with a lot of misconceptions based on fear. (l. 31-33). Ford County is located in a Southern state of the USA, or at least a traditionalist, conservative place where the elders are [easily] upset (l. 14-15) and where religion is omnipresent and part of peoples everyday life: What kind of example is that for our youth? (l. 16), this young man is paying for his sins (l. 23). An omniscient narrator is presenting the story and introduces a conversation between Emporia, an elderly black spinster, and Reverend Biler, the local minister. A third person, a young white man, is mentioned. In fact, he is the main object of the dialogue between the aforementioned characters. Emporias friend is suffering from a contagious disease caused by the AIDS virus. When you go talk to the reverend, it means that you either have something to confess (you have done something wrong) or something to ask for (a favour because you happen to be in a difcult position and need guidance). Either way, being in his ofce is not necessarily something you wish for and look forward to. But in the present case it is obvious that Emporia must have been summoned by the minister to answer some question or be given a lesson. This is what the word trouble implies.
104 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

Emporia is not easily impressed. She is experienced in the ways of the world and is not the type of person to let other people get the upper hand and run her life: she is not a pushover/ an easy target/easy prey. However, she remains polite and respectful, even though she does not accept being patronised. The reverend says that he is worried about Emporia and the risks she is running by spending so much time with this sick young man. He seems to care about her, which is nevertheless probably not his main concern. He is most likely afraid of the bad name/reputation this presence could give to his Church and to his community. Thats why he suggests that Emporia should take a leave of absence. His solution would be considered inappropriate from his own churchs point of view because it is just pandering to the prejudices of some inuential members of the community and does not reect New Testament teaching about love and charity... There is also the fact that the reverend seems to have forgotten all about forgiveness and believes that the man is rightly being punished for his (sexual) sins. This attitude would undoubtedly be considered appropriate by his self-righteous congregation but certainly not appropriate by the standards of most other people. 10. In the context, funny almost certainly means homosexual. It may even be the way a certain generation of southerners referred to gay people at that time. (p. 138) Corrig wordle-p138-1a, 1b 1/b ou c, 2/b, 3/b, 4/a, 5/c, 6/c, 7/a, 8/b/c, 9/a/b/c, 10/b voire c. wordle-p138-2 A. 1/c, 2/j, 3/h, 4/i, 5/e, 6/d, 7/g, 8/b, 9/f, 10/a. B. 1/j, 2/i, 3/h, 4/e, 5/b, 6/c, 7/g, 8/f, 9/d, 10/a.
WORDWORK

(p. 139) Corrig teamle-p139-1 Emporia is a courageous/brave/bold/daring/strong-willed/ stubborn woman. She is an elderly African-American lady from the lower classes. We know this because of the reference to wealthy white people (li. 43) and the fact that Emporia is being paid to be what amounts to not much more than a servant. a. Im older, therefore wiser and more experienced than you. b. You owe me respect! c. No one can tell me what to do or not to do! d. Im a local person so stop patronising me/giving me advice: I know this community better than you do. By that, he means that, considering her age and inuence in the community, she should be setting an example and show whats right or not. By saying our senior ladies, the reverend puts pressure on Emporia implying that she should be beyond reproach and that her behaviour involves the whole communitys reputation. First and foremost, she should not be seen buying alcohol in a liquor store. She is taking care of a young man with AIDS. She is both a nurse and a friend for him.

livre du professeur

They are members of the community. She calls them your little spies (l. 58-59) in a disparaging way. For her, they are not her brothers and sisters but rather hypocritical people. She is speechless/stunned at rst, but also humilated and insulted to be treated that way. She does her best to keep in control of the situation by reacting with courage/boldness. Her speech (l. 55-59), especially the phrases when I decide and anytime I choose, as well as the use of the modal will, show how resolute/determined and strong-minded she is to be in control of her own life. teamle-p139-2 It is a way of suggesting that his ofce is not a place where you want to spend time because it implies discussing an issue/a problem and trying to settle a problem you may have in the community. The description means that you do not go to the reverends ofce to make small talk. It is all about important and controversial matters. Reverend Biler thinks he can exert some kind of control over his parishioners, which may be true is some cases, but not in Emporias. He wants the members of the community to behave irreproachably/impeccably. He cares about keeping up appearances and doesnt want anyone to stir up any trouble because that could scare some members of the community away and he could be in trouble with his own hierarchy. The reverend probably fears that Emporia might change or be contaminated by spending too much time with the man. He is also worried that Emporias friend might give the church and the community a bad name. He doesnt seem to care about the young mans well-being. He is only interested in his churchs reputation and the evil inuence the man might have on one of his parishioners. The reverend clearly expresses his rejection of the young man and shows how prejudiced he is: You breathe the same air... (l. 31). It might be added that he doesnt care about this mans health so theres indifference on his part. He condemns his past actions as well, saying that he is paying for his sins (l. 23). He also seems to be afraid for the church itself: you bring the germs here, to the house of the Lord (l. 36-37). The author most likely wants us to feel contempt and anger towards this narrow-minded preacher who acts in such an unacceptable and inhumane/uncaring/heartless way, even alluding to death when talking about the young mans future. Instead of trying to nd the best solution for everyone, he judges and condemns the young man without even knowing him. When he says perception is everything, the reader clearly gets the impression that the reverend is a supercial/shallow man. And his Praise the Lord (l. 21) is completely disconnected from the reality of the situation. (students own answers) Rponse personnelle des lves, que nous ne saurions diriger dans un sens ou dans lautre. Toutes les ides argumentes sont les bienvenues... teamle-p139-3 We know that he is a young man (l. 23) from a wealthy white family (l. 43) and that he has no one else (l. 54) to care for him but, apart from that, we dont have much information.

He is only mentioned in this text as he probably never/rarely leaves the house where he lives with Emporia. What is referred to as his medication turns out to be whisky. Drinking alcohol may ease the pain and help him accept his condition, even though it cant be considered as real medication that will help to cure his disease. The word here is used ironically by Emporia. She means that it wont be long before he dies and that, meanwhile, she is doing the best she can with the task that she has been entrusted with. For her, it doesnt seem to be a big sacrice, but rather something she does partly to help someone in need. The man is unmistakably suffering from AIDS: the reverend says that he is paying for his sins. [...] This disease is sweeping across our country, across the world. Its highly contagious [...] because of the virus (. 23-35). Reverend Biler gives a description of the disease full of clich(d) misconceptions (l. 30-37). If we were to believe him, people suffering from AIDS should be left alone because it is unsafe to breathe the same air (l. 31) as they do. According to him, Emporia shouldnt touch what he touches (l. 30), which is very ignorant and stupid. Emporia takes care of the man as well as she can. For instance, she does his shopping (including alcohol), prepares his food and drink, does his laundry and probably spends time talking to him. (Judging from the extract, she also probably springs to his defence when other people attack him.) His family may have let him down when they learnt about his shameful condition. That must be why he had no one else to turn to and why Emporia was hired to take care of him. d. Theres a rumor youve invited him to worship with us (l. 1819); perception is everything. Some of your brothers and sisters here think youre crazy for doing this, and they are afraid (l. 39-41). teamle-p139-4 The members of the community are probably AfricanAmerican people about the same age. They share traditional values about religion and a common way of life and dont seem to be very open-minded/tolerant/charitable towards somebody who doesnt belong to their community and who happens to be different. They meet every Sunday at Church and probably in their local town once in a while on weekdays. First of all, he is white. Also, he is an outsider: he hasnt lived in town for a very long time and he is not a member of the community. He doesnt go to Church and he is considered as some kind of counter-example of the communitys morality, a pariah/an outcast. I hear youve been seen in Willie Rays whiskey store (l. 5-6), your little spies can gossip all you want (l. 58-59). Both of these quotes suggest that scandal and gossip get back to the reverend very quickly. It means that he regularly has (one of) his ock reporting to him on whats happening in town/telling tales about what they see. It is a simple present form used as an impersonal way to show that he is omniscient in the community and that no one can hide anything from him. Everything eventually comes to his ears.
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 105

8 Making Things Better


Churches in the Bible Belt (and notably the Baptist churches with a majority of black worshippers) are notoriously vociferous about the evils of drink. It would therefore be quite inacceptable for a respectable old lady to be seen in a liquor store. Wary: they are distrustful and cautious when someone new comes to town. Nosy: they cant help trying to nd out who these outsiders are and get information about them. Distant: they dont accept them easily and whole-heartedly as fully-edged members of their community. Emporia probably isnt proud to be a member of this community any more and feels that her fellow members are heading in the wrong direction. Therefore she doesnt seem to care how she acts and her actions could be interpreted as deliberately provocative. The passage beginning at line 55 clearly shows this. She talks back to the reverend and even uses irony. They are people who have nothing better or more interesting to do than poke their noses/snoop into other peoples lives. They are like informers who report back to the reverend on all the bad things they have seen or heard about in town. They should be ashamed of themselves for this unhealthy (and perhaps unChristian) interest in hurtful gossip. (p. 139) Corrig Renversement de situation : il sagit ici de faire parler une Emporia en colre. On veillera donc lemploi de formulations exprimant son emportement, son dsaccord voire son dgot face aussi peu de considration et de compassion envers son nouvel ami. Il est tout fait possible, dans un premier temps, de conseiller aux lves de recourir aux formules proposes dans la che mthodologique 11 aux pages 162-163 (notamment la partie Challenging and questioning), qui permettront Emporia, dans le dialogue laborer, de sortir de ses gonds en mettant le rvrend en position daccus, du moins dans une position dfavorable visant le faire culpabiliser. Car nestil pas, aprs tout, le reprsentant de la charit envers ceux qui souffrent ? Rappelons galement quune che de mthodologie est propose la page 160, en lien direct avec la tche demande : Rdiger un dialogue (on conseillera la lecture attentive des verbes introducteurs, des indications de gestuelle et des adverbes). galement, on nhsitera pas faire travailler les indications narratives insistant sur lnervement dEmporia. Imaginons la prsence de contraintes donnes aux lves et prises en considration comme critres dvaluation : par exemple la ncessit demployer cinq adverbes, deux indications de gestuelle et cinq verbes introducteurs. Pour sa part, cest un rvrend effac et surpris qui se retrouvera au cur du dialogue composer. Le reste appartient limagination des lves. Soyons tout de mme clairs en ce qui concerne le registre de langue employer : quoique courrouce, Emporia sadresse un homme du clerg... Conseillons aux lves de parcourir les sites internet suivants, la recherche dinformations sur les sept nouvelles que comporte Ford County : http://www.jgrisham.com/ford-county/
106 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ford_County_%28novel%29 htt p : / / w w w. w as h i ng tonpost. com / w p - dy n / content / article/2009/11/05/AR2009110504745.html http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/29/books/review/Powers-t. html Dans cette expression crite, il nest pas question que les lves racontent lhistoire de la nouvelle choisie en se contentant par exemple dun copier-coller du rsum de celle-ci, mais plutt, suite la lecture du synopsis en question, dexpliquer ce qui, dans leurs gots littraires (ou autres) les a intresss, pourquoi telle nouvelle les toucherait davantage quune autre et surtout pour quelle(s) raison(s). Le lexique likes/dislikes pourrait ainsi savrer utile, alli lexpression dopinions argumentes et la justication de choix. noter quil ne leur est pas demand de lire la nouvelle choisie, mais sils choisissent de le faire, cela sera certainement valoris.
PROJECT (p. 139) Il est demand aux lves dimaginer un quivalent anglophone de SOS amiti , en quelque sorte. Il sera intressant de leur faire concevoir une plaquette explicative, une brochure distribue, par exemple, par des lves dans leur lyce dans un premier temps an de sensibiliser leurs camarades ce problme (la solitude moderne) en donnant des pistes ralistes (faciles mettre en application) et pouvant aider les personnes seules. Des accroches et autres formules visant convaincre le public-cible de sinvestir pour changer cette triste situation seront imagines par les lves qui se pencheront sur le problme avec srieux et attention. Cette activit pourrait donner lieu une mini-campagne de sensibilisation dans ltablissement scolaire, avec des dlgations dlves allant rendre visite dautres classes en cours danglais an de leur faire partager le travail ralis et le message lanc. Cette activit susciterait ractions et interaction entre lves de classes diffrentes, en concertation avec les collgues danglais. Avant cette tape nale, chaque lve ou groupe dlves aura eu la possibilit dexposer le fruit de sa rexion la classe. Il est galement envisageable (mais pas indispensable) quune mise en commun, une sorte de best of, des meilleurs arguments et des meilleures ides soit ralise an de crer un document nal produit par la classe, communiquer ensuite aux autres classes. Il sagit donc dun projet impliquant rexion en amont, cration visuelle et crite puis exercice rhtorique loral, le but tant toujours, dans une phase interactive, de convaincre lautre dadhrer une opinion ou un projet.

(p. 139) Corrig (Les numros renvoient aux procds de traduction tels quils sont dcrits dans la che p. 164.) Il ny a aucun danger, (4, 8) Rvrend. Je sais que je nai rien craindre (4, 8). Peut-tre, mais cest la faon dont les gens voient les choses qui compte (4, 7). Certains de vos frres et surs de la paroisse (8) pensent que vous tes folle dagir ainsi, et ils ont peur. Il faut bien (8) que quelquun soccupe de lui. Mais il fait partie (4) dune famille de blancs aiss, Emporia.
TRANSLATORS WORKSHOP

livre du professeur

Il na personne dautre que moi. Je ne veux pas parler de a (6). Ce qui me proccupe (4), cest notre glise. Mais cest aussi la mienne. Je suis l depuis bien plus longtemps que vous, et aujourdhui vous me demandez de men tenir lcart ? Je veux que vous envisagiez de vous absenter pendant quelques temps, jusqu ce quil nous quitte.

Atlantic College

(p. 140)

Atlantic College est un lyce (Classes de Premire et Terminale) situ dans un chteau au Pays de Galles, faisant partie du mouvement ducationnel UWC (United World College), dont le premier lyce a ouvert en 1962 et qui en compte aujourdhui treize disperss sur cinq continents. Le but est de prparer les lycens devenir des leaders politiques dans leur pays, avec lide dy faire rgner la paix et la tolrance religieuse et raciale. Atlantic College comprend 75 nationalits diffrentes et les lycens sont au nombre de 320. Ils y prparent le Baccalaurat International, comme dans neuf autres lyces de lUWC. (p. 140) Corrig It is probably a school library, with girls and boys sitting at a long table and bookcases around them. It seems to be an old school or at least a school in old buildings because the Gothic-style windows date back to the 19th centry. Two girls are laughing together, one of them is pointing a pen at the other who is holding a book and the others seem to be concentrating on their work or day-dreaming maybe... The recording might be about the schools diversity of students, judging by the obviously diverse racial/geographical origins of the ones in the photo. (p. 140) Script tapescript37-p140 PRESENTER: Despite efforts on the part of teachers and educationalists, it cannot be denied that standards in state education are falling. So wheres the solution? Well, even though most teachers are staunch advocates of state education, they might be able to learn something from the private sector and in particular from a very special private school, Atlantic College in Wales, where we sent our reporter, Angela Harvey. ANGELA: The other day I met a young student called Peter who has just arrived here. Like the 319 others at Atlantic College, he is hoping to get his International Baccalaureate and, as long as he works hard, he stands a very good chance: very few students at Atlantic College fail the IB. Peter came a long way to be here, from war-torn Sudan, and must now face two years separated from his family who are living in a UN refugee camp. So how on earth did he get from Africa to a Welsh castle? One of his teachers told me about him and others like him.

TEACHER: We have a large number of scholarships that are provided by private or corporate donors, and one of our aims is to nd people, like Peter, who are not only gifted but have a real desire to learn, to go to university maybe in Britain or in the US and then to go back to their countries as leaders who can nd the right solutions to the problems that their countries face. ANGELA: Some people might say that what you are trying to do here is produce a breed of future world leaders who will all think the same way because theyve all come out of the same mould. Isnt there some truth in that? TEACHER: No, I cant see any justication for that argument. We teach our students to take responsibility for their own learning. The only principle we think they should all accept is that war and violence must be avoided, which is a principle I dont think anyone could object to. ANGELA: So you actually have classes about war and violence? TEACHER: Yes, you could say that. There is an International Baccalaureate exam course that we teach called peace and conict studies. Students must also take a course on the theory of knowledge and do 150 hours of community service over the two years. ANGELA: Nevertheless, all this is based on the values of Western democracies, isnt it? And you have 75 different nationalities here. Shouldnt you allow for their cultural differences? You surely cant expect everyone to take Western values on board. TEACHER: We expect students to make their own decisions, although the way the school is run naturally reects certain Western European values like religious tolerance, the condemnation of racial and sexual discrimination... ANGELA: Surely this must create problems. I mean, what about the parents? TEACHER: Some parents, yes, are initially horried by some of the aspects of what we do here. But, provided their children are happy and have the prospect of a decent future, parents will usually accept that the sort of education we offer is the best solution, even if it goes against their own beliefs. ANGELA: So this is not just another rich kids international school. TEACHER: Absolutely not. Look at Peter. No one could say he was a rich kid. His parents are refugees. He is here because he is gifted. ANGELA: And lucky. TEACHER: Yes, lucky too. Its his chance of a lifetime. Corrig A presenter, a teacher (Angela Harvey) and a reporter. They are talking about a high school. Its a private school located in a castle in Wales. It recruits motivated students who really want to make something of their lives, and who come from many countries around the world, some of them from very poor ones. It is not reserved for privileged students but they all have to make a commitment to adopt western values even if this goes against their own beliefs. 4. They mention Peter, a student who has just arrived from wartorn Sudan; his parents are living in a UN refugee camp. 5. You have to be gifted and have a desire to learn. 6. They seem to disagree on the issue of teaching Western values.
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 107

8 Making Things Better


(p. 140) Corrig (exemple) My ideal high school is in a forest in Switzerland, as natural surroundings are supposed to be very good for concentration. The forest is where there are tree houses and leisure activities for the students, enabling them to have regular breaks from academic work. The school buildings are modern but of an imaginative design that blends into the forest. The entrance exam involves an interview and an assessment of creativity where the student is placed in the art room and has an afternoon to create an original work of art. It is a boarding school, but some of the students go back home at the weekends and no one has homework so they can have a real break and come back refreshed for the following week. The students all have the same curriculum, with a mixture of arts and science, and are assessed at the end of each term with a one-to-one interview instead of tests or exams. Every single student has to attend special courses such as Music, Philosophical Debate and Film-making. The students come from all over the world and there are 250 of them. The nal exam is unique to the school but is recognised by world-class universities, as the school is very famous.
WORDWORK

dinner lady: cantinire lollipop man/woman: agent de protection pour le passage des pitons the teaching staff: personnel denseignement faculty room/staff room: salle des professeurs C. (exemples) English, Maths, Biology, Physics and Chemistry, Spanish, Italian, German, Physical Education, History, Philosophy, History of Art, Music, Drama...
PRONOUNCE

(p. 140)

Corrig pronle-p140 A. Rising: 3, 4, 6. Falling: 1, 2, 5, 7. B. (exemple) There are four types of question in these examples. 1. The Wh question , a question introduced by a question word such as What, Who... (examples 1, 2, 7). In general, these have a falling intonation. 2. The verb question beginning simply with the inversion of verb and subject) (examples 3, 6). These usually have a rising intonation. 3. Questions formed by a statement + a question tag (example 5). These questions have either a rising or falling intonation depending on whether the question is real (i.e. asking for information) or is simply asking for conrmation of something the speaker already believes to be true. In the latter case, the question tag can serve to make what would otherwise be a provocative and maybe offensive statement into something polite and acceptable. 4. Questions that have no interrogative structure, but are conveyed by stress and intonation alone (example 4). Here, you have to imagine the addition of a question tag. Most of these questions are real questions with a rising intonation. There are many exceptions to the so-called rules which only really apply to questions where the tone is neutral. As soon as you introduce surprise, anger, regret, etc. into a question, the tone will have an effect on the intonation. (p. 140) Corrig teamle-p140-1 1. Private. 2. In a castle in Wales. 3. 320. 4. 75. 5. Two years. 6. The International Baccalaureate (IB), with the aim of going to university in the UK or the USA and to go back to their countries as leaders and try to change things. 7. On the basis that they are gifted and have a desire to learn. 8. They get a scholarship provided by private or corporate donors. 9. That they are happy and have the prospect of a decent future. teamle-p140-2 A. 1. The IB is a non-prot educational foundation for children aged 3-19, with schools spread all over the world, offering three programmes: IB Primary Years Programme, IB Middle Years Programme, IB Diploma Programme.

(p. 140)

Corrig wordle1a-p140. A.1. despite, 2. standards, 3. fail, 4. donors, 5. breed. B. 1/b/c, 2/b/c, 3/b/c, 4/c, 5/c, 6/a/b, 7/a/b/c. wordle1b-p140 A.1. despite, 2. standards, 3. fail, 4. donors, 5. breed. B. 1/c, 2/a/b/c, 3/a, 4/b/c, 5/c, 6/a/b, 7/a/c. wordle-p140-2 A. 1. It means a private school in the UK and state school in the US 2. In the UK they are called Years, in the USA they are Grades. 3.
SATs reasoning Scholastic Aptitude Test test GCSE exams General Certicate of School Examination ACT test American College Testing AS levels Advanced Subsidiary level AP exams Advanced Placement Examination A levels Advanced level General Certicate of Education the IB The International Baccalaureate USA UK USA UK USA UK UK & USA 15, 16, 17 14-16 18 16-18 18 18 18

B. head teacher: directeur, proviseur class teacher: professeur principal classroom assistant: assistant bursar: intendant school nurse: inrmire janitor/caretaker: concierge deputy head: directeur ou proviseur adjoint lecturer: matre de confrence school secretary: secrtaire
108 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

livre du professeur

2. Languages, humanities, sciences, mathematics and the arts. 3. They have to complete assessment tasks. 4. The French Baccalaureate divides subject areas into three: Science, Literature, and Economic and Social Studies. Although the IB has a common educational grounding, as in History and Physical Education, a student has to choose a subject from each area. The advantage is that everyone therefore has a broad education. However, in the IB they only take six subjects whereas in the French baccalaureate students take at least ten. B. 1. Their own learning. 2. Peace and conict studies. 3. The theory of knowledge. 4. 150 hours. teamle-p140-3 A. 1. They have scholarships provided by private or corporate donors. 2. Go to university and go back to their countries as leaders to make things change there. 3. War and violence must be avoided. 4. Religious tolerance, the condemnation of racial and sexual discrimination. 5. It teaches students to take responsibility for their own learning, and expects them to take their own decisions. 6. The tools to get into university. 7. (exemple) I would, because I think its great to be made into an independently-thinking student, that the peace and conict studies course must be very interesting, and that the community service must be an eye-opener as to what normal people go through. Also, the eclectic range of nationalities must mean that most of the students there are open-minded, as they have left their family nest, and the number is very low, which means it must feel like a real community. teamle-p140-4 1. Their countries leaders. 2. They will all think the same way because they will all come out of the same mould. 3. Cultural differences. 4. That its got a Western ideology. 5. She is thinking, for example, of Muslim parents. 6. No, she says lucky, meaning that chance has given Atlantic College students a wonderful opportunity. 7. (exemple) I wouldnt like to attend Atlantic College because there are too few students there, which means that you would soon get to know everyone and feel claustrophobic. I would feel overwhelmed by the cultural diversity and nd it hard to establish my own identity. I think the college comes across as a kind of overly-politically correct sect.

2. The house is close to nature in that it seems to incorporate the waterfall in its design the cantilevered terraces project out over the waterfall itself. Also, the colour of the stone is more or less the same as that of the rock on which it is built, so it seems to grow out of the rock. The vertical pillars or girders of rough stone are made to look much more rustic than brickwork, again emphasising the natural look. From a practical point of view, the heating and much of the furniture notably the storage space was built in to the house so that the interior space was maximised. 3. When you look at the date of the house 1935 and when you compare the design with other houses built around the same time, you can understand why this particular house was years ahead of its time. That is why it is important in architectural history and therefore a listed building in the USA. 4. Although Fallingwater was revolutionary at the time, and although Lloyd Wrights concerns are shared by architects today (blending in with nature, practicality...), the house now looks a little old-fashioned because everything is so perpendicular. In a desire to become more organic, architects are now searching for rounder, softer shapes that reect nature more closely than vertical and horizontal lines: after all, there are no sraight lines in nature.
PROJECT (p. 141) Pour la ralisation de ce projet forcment unique selon les quipes dlves et qui mettra les lves en position dadultes, plusieurs tapes devront tre vises. Bien entendu, chaque famille devra mettre en avant ses priorits de vie, condition sine qua non la ralisation de ce projet utopique mais rvlateur dun choix de vie. Parmi les critres aborder, citons dans le dsordre les points suivants : location of the house, type of house and architecture, number of oors and rooms, type of heating, lighting and insulation/soundproong, type of windows, dividing walls, type of tiled oor/tted carpet, ttings, type of materials used...). Les quatre membres de la famille auront des ides diffrentes, selon leurs envies, leurs besoins et leurs proccupations et linteraction entre eux pimentera la production orale attendue. On conseillera lutilisation de connecteurs logiques (voir che de mthodologie n 12 aux pages 163-164) et/ou amorces du type First of all/As far as Im concerned, Id like to... I think that.../ Whats more,/On the one hand,... on the other hand,.../Contrary to my father/mother/brother/sister, I really want to.../The bright side of having... is I cant do without... Ce qui sous-tend le projet cest de montrer lventail dides et de possibilits, plus originales les unes que les autres, selon lge et les activits des uns et des autres... Ltude de la maison page 141, de mme que les trois pages dactivits proposes pour les groupes de comptences (pages 146-148) pourront ventuellement savrer utiles pour laborer le contenu produire. Le plus de ce projet sera la conception dun vritable plan voire dune maquette montrer et dtailler la classe, an dancrer encore plus ce travail dans le concret. Pour se faire on pourra galement orienter les lves vers les sites qui proposent de dessiner la maison dont on rve en 3D et rcompenser les travaux informatiques graphiques effectus laide de ces logiciels.
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 109

Fallingwater

(p. 141) (p. 141)

Corrig 1. It is set in the middle of a forest over a waterfall and seems to be constructed from stone, concrete and wood. It obviously dates from the 20th century, no earlier, because of its very pure vertical and horizontal lines.

8 Making Things Better


La che dinformation Une che dinformation est tlchargeable : bonusle-p.141. Elle fournit des renseignements sur larchitecte, le background et la maison. Pour ceux qui disposent du manuel numrique, ces textes sont disponibles galement en version enregistre. Lactivit supplmentaire Une che de travail est tlchargeable : artle-p.141. Il sagit dun texte trous sur larchitecture moderne. Corrig artle-p141.pdf Many people think modern architecture developed as a result of technological and engineering advances. After all, the rst skyscrapers could not possibly have been built without the widespread availability of iron, steel, reinforced concrete and plate glass, which were not in common use until the late nineteenth century. Other people, however, believe that the European and North American movement known as Modernism was a reaction to 19th century excesses of ornamentation, in what is known in Britain as the Victorian period; people were looking for homes that better reected a faster, less individualistic way of life. Whatever the cause, in about 1900 a number of architects around the world began developing new architectural solutions to integrate traditional precedents (like Gothic, for instance) with new technological possibilities. It was a struggle between old and new: traditional crafts alongside the techniques of industrial mass production. It produced interesting local movements like the Arts and Crafts movement in Britain, but, in the end, the traditional elements were overshadowed by the more functional side of Modernism. The rise of several totalitarian states in the 1920s and 30s and the increased emphasis on functionalism, favoured the development of Modernism. The clean, severe lines preferred by Modernists, their disdain of frivolous ornamentation and their desire to build ever bigger and higher, went well with the monumental projects of both Fascist and Communist regimes. In the post-war years, the need to rebuild quickly after the devastation of war, and the conviction that high-rise buildings would be the solution to an increasing lack of space, meant that thousands of tower blocks went up all over Europe in the modern style. It was only in the 80s that architects and town planners began to realise that piling people on top of one another was probably not the best way to create cohesive communities: Post-modernism was born. a. despite: prposition. b. even though: locution conjonctive. c. although: conjonction de subordination. d. even if: locution conjonctive. prpositions : in spite of. conjonctions : whereas, while, though, albeit. adverbes : yet, nevertheless, though (en n de proposition), all the same (familier), however, notwithstanding. prpositions : even with, regardless of, despite. (Application) (rponses non limitatives) a. Teachers and educationalists efforts notwithstanding, it cannot be denied that standards in state education are falling. Teachers and educationalists efforts cannot be denied, yet standards in state education are falling. Although/even though teachers and educationalists are making efforts, it cannot be denied that standards in state education are falling. b. Most teachers are staunch advocates of state education, yet they might be able to learn something from the private sector. Well, despite the fact that most teachers are staunch advocates of state education, they might be able to learn something from the private sector. Well, although most teachers are staunch advocates of state education, they might be able to learn something from the private sector. c. We expect students to make their own decisions, yet the way the school is run naturally reects certain Western European values. Although we expect students to make their own decisions, the way the school is run naturally reects certain Western European values. d. ... parents will usually accept that the sort of education we offer is the best solution, although it goes against their own beliefs. ... parents will usually accept that the sort of education we offer is the best solution, in spite of the fact that it goes against their own beliefs. a. Although teachers do their best to help their students succeed, standards seem to be falling regularly. b. In spite of the fact that the IB is an extremely difcult exam, very few students at Atlantic College fail it. c. Peter was a poor boy from a war-torn African country, yet he was given a chance to study at Atlantic College. d. Even if all the students at Atlantic College are taught the same principles, they are all expected to make their own decisions.

Language Corner
Lopposition, la restriction

(p. 142-143)

Lexpression de la condition
Corrig (Observation) As long as he works hard, ... provided their children are happy and have the prospect of a decent future as long as, provided. Les deux mots sont des conjonctions de subordination. if, on condition that, providing.

Corrig (Observation) a. Despite efforts on the part of teachers and educationalists b. even though most teachers are staunch advocates of state education c. although the way the school is run naturally reects certain Western European values d. even if it goes against their own beliefs
110 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

livre du professeur

(Application) a. They will understand how the world functions provided they go out and study what happens in the private sector. b. They will surely get an International Baccalaureate at Atlantic College if they work hard. c. They will be accepted at AC as long as they show high motivation. d. They will be allowed to take the IB on condition that they follow the peace and conicts course. e. Parents from various cultures agree to their children being taught Western values as long as this gives them the prospect of a decent future in their homeland.

2.
1 2 might (a) might (b) will (a) could (b) cant must 3 could (a) will (b)

(Application) Modaux pouvant tre compris diffremment :


1 might (a) 2 will (b) 3 could (b) cant

Propos rapports, discours direct et indirect


Corrig (Observation) I hear youve been seen in Willie Rays whiskey store = discours indirect. I told his family hed be properly medicated = discours indirect. Theres a rumor youve invited him to worship with us = discours indirect. I hear et theres a rumor sont une autre manire de dire : Ive been told that..., donc de rapporter des propos tenus. En 2, Emporia rapporte les propos quelle a tenus la famille du malade. 2. Les passages de discours rapport sont souligns. (Application) I saw Emporia in Willie Rays whiskey store, Reverend. He will be properly medicated. She has invited him to worship with us. (On remarquera que nos propositions de discours rapport sont un peu plus labores que celles que lon propose aux lves dun niveau dtudes infrieur.) a. Emporia told him that she was seventy-four years old, at least thirty years older than he (was), and if she chose to buy medication for a friend, then she would. b. The reverend answered that Emporia might call it whatever she wanted but the elders were upset about this. c. He asked what kind of example it was for their youth if one of our senior ladies was seen in a whiskey store. d. He asked how safe Emporia (herself) was. e. She answered the reverend that she was safe, she knew she was. f. He declared that they would not argue that and that his concern was the church. g. And he said they would be praying for her and for him. h. She retorted she was sure hed be pleased to hear that.

Better or Worse?

(p. 144-145)

Rexion sur le sens des auxiliaires modaux


Corrig Exercice dlicat de comprhension des ambiguts pouvant tre vhicules par les modaux. Corrig (Observation) 1. might (a), might (b), will (a), could (a), could (b), cant, must, will (b).

(p. 145) Il nous a sembl important dans ce chapitre daborder avec les lves un des points marquants de lactualit de ces dernires annes : la crise nancire. Les deux pages du Magazine permettent de donner un point de vue relatif de la crise en la comparant avec celle de 1929 et en la percevant sous langle de lavenir (discours trs positif et plein despoir de Richard Branson). Les courts textes prsents sur les deux pages ainsi que le document audio sont simples comprendre et prcis. Ils seront loccasion de dvelopper les changes entre les lves de la classe. Corrig Lactivit peut se drouler sur une sance dune heure divise en trois parties : La classe est divise en trois groupes. Le premier lit les extraits sur la crise de 1929, le deuxime lit les extraits sur celle de 2008 tandis que le dernier groupe coute lentretien avec Richard Branson. Lobjectif de cette premire partie est de concentrer lattention des lves sur un point du vue unique, ce qui facilite la comprhension. Chaque groupe prsente ensuite un rsum de sa partie tandis que le reste de la classe tente de comprendre ce qui est dit et cherche trouver les similitudes et les diffrences avec ce quils viennent de lire ou dentendre. Cette recherche des similitudes et des diffrences et la comparaison avec le discours paradoxal de Richard Branson oblige les lves bien couter leurs camarades. Nous vous conseillons de proter de cette occasion pour enrichir le discours des lves en les renvoyant vers les ches mthodologiques la n du manuel (Organiser et lier son discours p. 163/64). La troisime partie de la sance, qui correspond la question 3, vise laisser libre cours linteraction et la capacit danalyse des lves. L encore la che mthodologique organiser et lier son discours : exprimer son point de vue en n de manuel pourra vous aider enrichir le lexique et les structures.
PROJECT

(p. 127) Le projet sera dautant plus facile raliser que les textes de la double page et le discours de Richard Branson auront t
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 111

8 Making Things Better


abords en classe. Une autre solution est de demander aux lves de faire la recherche chez eux au pralable ou de sassurer quils ont dj tudi la crise en cours de Sciences Economiques et Sociales par exemple. Le travail effectu par les lves se divise essentiellement en trois parties : La premire partie peut seffectuer en classe. Il sagit de la constitution des groupes et de la recherche de solutions pour rpondre la crise nancire. La deuxime partie est plus crative. Les lves sont amens rchir aux possibilits dexploitation de leurs ides lors dune campagne prsidentielle. Cette partie peut galement se faire en cours ou la maison. Il est important dencourager les lves crer des supports visuels et/ou textuels clairs et lisibles pour tous (panneaux publicitaires, spots vidos, slogans et badges, article de presse, court discours...). Le projet en sera dautant plus intressant lors de la restitution nale. La dernire partie se droule en classe entire. Chaque groupe prsente ses solutions accompagnes des supports crs. Pendant cette dernire partie, comme pour chaque travail dcoute de groupes, nous conseillons de mettre les lves en position active an quils ne sennuient pas en attendant leur tour. On peut demander chaque groupe qui coute dvaluer le travail de leurs camarades (prononciation, vocabulaire, grammaire, qualit de la prsentation). Un bilan rapide peut seffectuer aprs chaque prsentation. Le cours peut ainsi se terminer sur le vote du projet le plus efcace. Script dvdscript-p144 Sir Richard Branson speaks to students of McGill Universitys Desautels Faculty of Management about the current economic landscape and gives suggestions for how entrepreneurs can survive the current recession. BRANSON: For the last two years [there] have been some of the most turbulent and most surprising I have encountered in my forty years in business. (How do you perceive the current economic crisis?) BRANSON: This is a truly global crisis with countries such as France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Britain, all nding demand slowing and the availability of money almost completely drying up. In the UK we have seen many of the established banks collapse and be forced into government or quasi-government ownership. Weve seen many High Street stores go out of business and weve seen government borrowing skyrocket into the billions to stem the crisis. The experience in the US has been as, if not more, dramatic with famous Wall Street names such as Bear Stearns, Lehmans and Merrill Lynch falling by the wayside. The big three US car companies have been humbled and forced to look for government bail-outs and all across American industry there has been a reassessment of the way forward. (How should entrepreneurs and businesses weather the storm?) BRANSON: Out of every crisis comes opportunity and it is now that entrepreneurs and dynamic companies can make a real impression. At times like these, business leaders need to show calm leadership and they need to remain focussed
112 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

on ways to grow their companies and their market share. It can be daunting to think of expansion when businesses are failing or faltering but a good entrepreneur will weigh up the risks and rewards of expansion and theyll nd a way through. I rmly believe in the motto that the brave may not live forever but the cautious, they do not live at all. (In what way has Virgin prevailed during trying times?) BRANSON: We founded and we grew Virgin Records in the teeth of the recession of the early 1970s and we expanded Virgin Atlantic through the storms of the late 1980s and early 1990s, and we bought Virgin Mobile after the dotcom crash of the late 1990s. So my take-away for today, given that you are the leaders of the future, is use these challenging times as a real opportunity, to try to found a business and keep focussed on your proposition and go for it. Corrig dvdle-p144 a. slowed/been slowing, b. dried up, c. collapsed, d. gone out of business, e. skyrocketed, f. fallen by the wayside, g. humbled, forced, h. reassess. a. a way that the government can help companies in trouble. b. If you never take risks, youll never be successful. At times like these, business leaders need to show calm leadership and they need to remain focussed on ways to grow their companies and their market share. a. Virgin Records, b. Virgin Atlantic, c. Virgin Mobile. (exemple) Virgin expanded when markets were in crisis: Sir Richard took a lot of risks, gambling on the fact that demand would rise again.

Ateliers
Atelier 1
Script

(p. 146-148) (p. 146)

dvdscript-p146 REPORTER: This organisation is famous and infamous for its unconventional approach to saving the world. PROTESTER: Excuse me, but please stop killing the whales. Stop killing the whales. REPORTER: Welcome to watchmojo.com and today well be learning more about Greenpeace. Founded in Vancouver, British Columbia in 1971, Greenpeace is an international environmental group. As part of its mission, Greenpeace claims itself as the voice for voiceless Mother Earth. Greenpeace was originally founded as a means to stop underground nuclear testing in an area of Alaska that was home to a number of endangered animal species. Though the grassroots organisation failed to stop the United States from detonating that original bomb, its existence initiated a ood of public interest. The group ofcially became Greenpeace in 1972 after the US government had stopped testing in that Alaskan region. By the mid 1970s, the organisation had branched out from exclusively protesting nuclear weapons to ghting other environmental causes as well. These included whaling and toxic waste.

livre du professeur

By 1977, factions of the organisation began operating across the world. Greenpeace has since evolved from its grassroots beginnings to become an organised group with ofces in over 40 countries. Today the organisation is based in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, and claims 2.8 million supporters around the world. Part of the Greenpeace mandate from the beginning has been to eliminate all nuclear weapons and put an end to our reliance on non-renewable resources. Its main goal is to stop climate change and the group is credited with raising public awareness of that issue markedly throughout the 1990s. In addition to protesting and raising awareness, Greenpeace has also used its own laboratories to research and locate alternative solutions to ongoing problems. This effort has included the invention of Greenfreeze, a technology for fridge manufacturing that eliminates the use of ozone-depleting CFCs. Today, over one third of refrigerators produced are based on this technology. Funding for the group comes in the form of donations from foundations and individual supporters. A strict screening process ensures it does not receive funds from governments, political parties or corporations. Greenpeace traditionally uses non-violent means to bring attention to environmental problems. The group utilises peaceful protests, petitions and more unconventional and sometimes disruptive means to its advantage. For example, the passive resistance technique of bearing witness uses the protesters presence as a sign of disapproval and is very popular with Greenpeace. The group is also famous for aggressive and striking advertising campaigns to get its point across. PRESENTER: You can even use the Scamwow to rehabilitate wildlife. Terric! There wont be any public rage left for those boycotts. REPORTER: In certain instances throughout its history, some members have taken their creative protests to the next level and have wound up facing prosecution for what can be considered unorthodox and extreme actions. Despite this controversy, there is no doubt that Greenpeace has become one of the most effective and successful environmental protection groups in the world. PROTESTER: We must begin to have respect for other life, for comrade dolphin, comrade whale, because without them, the oceans begin to die. And if the oceans begin to die, we all begin to die. Corrig (questions du manuel) The photos also show how Greepeace manages to attract attention by campaigns that are extremely visible and provocative. However, some of their high-prole campaigns tend to backre on them: ying a hot-air balloon over the Taj Mahal, for example, is a good ploy to get Greenpeace on the front page of newspapers, but is bound to get negative criticism as well on grounds of good taste and appropriacy. Detractors have also accused Greenpeace of being more concerned about drawing attention to Greenpeace than to the causes it supports. a. It was founded in 1971 as a means to stop underground nuclear testing in Alaska.

b. Eliminate nuclear weapons, remove reliance on non-renewable resources, stop climate change (also: ght whaling and the dumping of toxic waste). c. Greenfreeze is a technology for making fridges that eliminates the use of ozone-depleting CFCs. The result is that over one third of refrigerators are now produced using this technology. d. It is funded by donations from foundations and individual supporters. It does not receive funds from governments, political parties or corporations. e. The advertising campaigns are aggressive and striking. (students own answers) dvdle-p146 (exemples) a. Greenpeace was originally founded as a means to stop underground nuclear testing in Alaska. b. It branched out to ghting other environmental causes such as whaling and toxic waste. c. Greenpeace claims 2.8 million supporters around the world. d. From the beginning, it has been one of its aims to put an end to our reliance on non-renewable resources. e. Greenpeace has its own laboratories to research and locate alternative solutions to ongoing problems. f. A strict screening process ensures that Greenpeace does not receive funds from governments, political parties or corporations. g. It is famous for aggressive and striking advertising campaigns to get its point across. a. Go beyond oil, b. I want clean air, c. The cleaner greener freezer. I want an end to our reliance on dirty, deadly fuels. I want a world powered by the wind, the sun, and the natural forces of the Earth. I want a world free from devastating oil spills, toxic coal plants, and hazardous radioactive waste.

Atelier 2 (p. 147) Aider les lves comprendre un article au second degr ! Ce texte tir du Daily Telegraph annonce les conclusions de deux expriences visant produire de llectricit diffremment. En loccurrence, lnergie pourrait venir des poissons. Ces rsultats apparaissent comme une solution miracle car, comme le dit la journaliste, plus grande chelle lnergie emmagasine fournirait assez dlectricit pour subvenir aux besoins en lectricit de 30 000 foyers par an. Cependant cet article fut publi le 1er avril 2009 et il est noter que ce nest quun poisson davril ! Corrig Researchers have found that the energy coming from sh when they are swimming could be captured and transformed into electricity. Thus networks of prongs would be installed along the riverbeds. The former would capture the energy coming from the sh swimming upstream when they need more power and therefore make more efforts and generate more energy and be transformed into electricity. This system would enable to both produce clean energy and ensure clean river waters for wildlife to ourish and be healthy. The two main problems raised concern restricting shing and the danger that the prongs could represent for both wildlife and shermen: they could be electrocuted.
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 113

8 Making Things Better


The project is named Finetics and is based on a Japanese experiment which consisted of transforming the energy produced by people walking (over pressure-sensitive mats at train stations into electricity (l. 18-19). Scientists chose sh because they generate much more energy than bigger land animals living such as sheep or cattle, because they move much more slowly and consequently generate far less energy than, say, a salmon that can swim at a speed of 12 metres per second. Secondly, they also chose sh because they are the healthiest species thanks to improvements in water quality. Last summer a secret three-month experiment was carried out on the River Tees where the salmon population had increased tremendously. The experiment proved that, at that particular place, enough electricity had been produced to supply energy for a whole family for a year. The article was published on April 1st, which is April Fools Day. We may therefore deduce that, despite the convincing serious style, this piece of news is absolutely fake and the article is just a clever hoax. who could no longer bear to be enslaved by money. He tried to nd the real meaning of life by living in harmony with nature but died alone in the Alaskan wilderness. And in India, the town of Auroville is trying to get rid of cash but its inhabitants have to live cut off from the world. If we still want to be part of this world, it seems we have to pay the price of becoming addicted to money. (p. 148) Corrig (exemples) A Swedish company has invented an underwater kite. A turbine is attached to the kite and the kite attached to the ocean oor. The system generates 800 times more energy than if the system were in the sky and can even generate 500 kilowatts of power in calm waters. The system could boost the market by 80% and the rst model will be put off the coast of Northern Ireland. a. (reprise des phrases ci-dessus) b. (lexique utile) energy-saving, eco friendly, efcient, original, new, different, modern, economical, ecologically sound, ecologically minded, low-cost, cheap. c. (exemple) I am skeptical about a system whose efciency depends on the roughness or calmness of waters. Technically speaking, will it remain attached to the ocean oor in the long run? What will happen if something goes wrong? Maintenance will quickly turn out to be problematic. The cost might be higher than expected insofar as the protability of such a system is hard to determine. It might not be that nancially-rewarding or cost-effective. From an environmental point of view, covering part of the ocean oor with kites and turbines is debatable and serious studies should be carried out to analyse the impact on the environment and ecological balance. Atelier 5 (p. 148) Au pralable, on demandera chaque groupe (en binme par exemple) de lister sur un papier les arguments pour ou contre selon le groupe dappartenance - an de donner plus de uidit au dbat : partir des citations proposes. en rajoutant des arguments personnels. Arguments in favour of driverless cars: safer, speed controlled, fewer casualties, should be extended to buses, savings in salaries Arguments against driverless cars: money would be better spent on public transport and renewable energy to reduce fuel consumption, driverless buses would increase unemployment, man is more reliable than electronics. (p. 149) Comme pour tous les autres projets du manuel, lobjectif ici est de dvelopper les comptences orales et/ou crites des lves autour dun projet ambitieux faisant appel leur imagination. Le projet par ailleurs, permet de ractiver le lexique abord depuis le dbut de la squence et place les lves dans une situation dapprentissage plus autonome. Il nous a sembl intressant dans ce chapitre de demander aux lves dimaginer leur propre contribution un monde meilleur (Making things better). Pour cela, lactivit peut se drouler

Atelier 4

Atelier 3 (p. 147) GDP = Gross Domestic Product (produit national brut) = the total value of goods and services produced within a country in a year, not including its income from investments in other countries. Corrig This graph shows the correlation between the amount of money that people earn in a given country and their feeling of satisfaction or their degree of happiness. In most countries, the higher the GDP per person is, the better people feel/the more satised people are. In other words, the more people earn, the happier they seem to be. This conclusion is obvious in Western countries such as Denmark, Britain, France, Germany or the USA. It does not seem to be the case in Hong Kong where people earn as much money as the British but feel far less satised. For Brazilians, money is not a key factor since, even though their wages represent a fth of what people earn in Germany, they are as satised as Germans. (exemple) The graph is effective because it shows how materialistic people are in Western countries. (exemple) Benjamin Franklins words are not only another version of the saying Money cant buy everything, but also refer to the feeling of addiction that comes with money and hints at the void that it creates in peoples lives. That money is addictive can easily be seen in this world of ours which is becoming more and more materialistic and where nothing can be done without money. The problem is that the more people earn, the more they spend and the more they have, the more they think they need. It is a vicious circle that can be illustrated by what happened before the 2008 nancial crisis when traders kept speculating in the hope of making more money even if they were already billionaires. Thus abundance creates dependence: you are never satised with what youve got. Whats more, it seems impossible to eradicate money from our globalized world even if we want to. Take the example of Christopher McCandless, a young American
114 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

Class Project

livre du professeur

en plusieurs sances, selon limportance que vous souhaitez donner au projet nal. Pour la premire sance : dcouverte du projet, lecture des deux courts paragraphes (et recherches ventuelles) sur Rebecca Welsh et Greg Mortenson ; les lves sont ensuite rpartis par groupe de 4 et rchissent lorganisme humanitaire quils veulent crer. Cette sance a pour but dintroduire le thme de travail et de faire dcouvrir le projet de deux personnes diffrentes (un homme et une femme) et la manire dont ils ont russi amliorer considrablement les conditions de vie denfants. Si on amne les lves en salle multimdia, on trouvera les informations essentielles sur les sites suivants : http://www.gregmortenson.com/ http://www.haloworldwide.org/ http://www.grammerdesigns.com/halo/www/about/aboutus. htm Si le professeur est interess par le sujet et souhaite aborder des extraits plus consquents, nous conseillons louvrage de Greg Mortenson intitul Three Cups of Tea prsent sur le site suivant : http://www.threecupsoftea.com/ Louvrage existe en deux versions (une version pour les adultes et une version simplie pour les enfants). On trouvera des documents vidos sur les sites suivants : http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2011/01/27/eveningnews/ main7287359.shtml http://cnettv.cnet.com/art-therapy-orphans/9742-1_5350099365.html La deuxime sance est plus crative puisque les lves doivent inventer le nom, crer le logo et lister les objectifs de leur organisme. Ils doivent rchir aux diffrentes stratgies qui vont leur permettre dobtenir largent ncessaire pour la faire fonctionner (voir fundraising ideas dans le manuel) et mettre au point les moyens dont ils auront besoin pour sassurer que largent est utilis bon escient. Laide lexicale ci-dessous devrait aider les lves enrichir leur vocabulaire. La dernire sance consiste en une prsentation des diffrents organismes humanitaires la classe. Il est souhaitable de demander aux lves de prendre des notes sur ce que disent les diffrents groupes an quils coutent de manire active au lieu dattendre leur tour de manire passive. Vous pouvez demander aux lves dvaluer leurs camarades sur les critres suivants : lintrt de lorganisme, de son nom et de son logo ; la pertinence des stratgies pour gagner de largent ; le ralisme des moyens mis en uvre pour vrier que laide arrive bon port ; la qualit linguistique de la prsentation. Aide lexicale aid (n.) advice, assistance, care, comfort, encouragement, hand, help, relief, rescue, treatment. aid worker (travailleur humanitaire) benefactor (n.) assistant, contributor, good Samaritan, philanthropist, promoter, protector, sponsor, supporter help (v.) aid, assist, contribute, encourage, favor, hold out a hand, lend a hand, promote, relieve, subsidize, take care of.

helpful (adj.) benevolent, considerate, favorable, friendly, instrumental, invaluable, kind, productive, protable, supportive, sympathetic, valuable. humanitarian (adj.) charitable, compassionate, generous, humane, kind, philanthropic, sympathetic. humanitarian aid (aide humanitaire) humanitarian crisis (crise humanitaire)

Checkpoint
Comprhension de loral

(p. 150-151) (p. 150)

(p. 150) Corrig She went to Kibera to help the local population. Its the largest slum area in the world where up to three million deprived people are living or rather, surviving. CH is a rather recent NGO created by Chris Morrison some ten-odd years ago. He started by contributing what little money he had to help take aid to Bosnia. What is common to all CH projects is that they aim at improving health and bringing education to poor countries. She went along with many other doctors and nurses but also teachers, pharmacists and an economist. There were 32 of them altogether plus about 20 translators. They helped bring sanitation and fresh water to Kibera. The children were given medical treatment so as to eradicate such diseases as TB and malaria. They were given vitamins and basic health education. Script tapescript39-p150 PRESENTER: With a full-time career as an osteopath in Stroud, Sarah Spencer Chapman decided to take her skills and experience a little further aeld, so she travelled to Kibera in Africa. Listen to her account of the experience. SARAH: Kibera, on the outskirts of Nairobi, is reputed to be the second largest slum area in the world. Ofcial gures put the numbers at 1.5 to 2 million but, on the ground, locals estimate three million and growing. In the late 70s this area was green forest. Now its a sprawling, overcrowded, deprived slum. I went to Kibera for 10 days to work as part of a medical team with Care Highway CH a relatively small but rapidly expanding NGO, the brainchild of Chris Morrison who founded it 10 years ago. He started with a tin which he half lled with his own money to take aid to Bosnia in a lorry full of donated clothes and food. From these small beginnings, CH now supports humanitarian aid projects in Bosnia, Serbia, Panama, South America and Africa. All projects have community health and education at heart, each clinic has an orphanage or a school attached. 35 of us were on this trip 50 including local translators. 32 were Spanish. There were doctors, dentists, nurses, physiotherapists, osteopaths, pharmacists, psychologists, a teacher, an economist, and two children aged 13 and 15 an integral part of the team and invaluable as it turned out.
Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 115

8 Making Things Better


For most it was their rst time in Africa and the rst with CH. The Kibera clinic boasts one of the few ushing toilets in Kibera and has a tap for fresh water. Most of Kibera has no infrastructure at all: no water, sewerage or electricity, no rubbish collection, no free medical care or education. The average life expectancy is 30 years if children make 15 they are lucky. Many have HIV or AIDS, and addiction to glue snifng kills many children. The school takes 20 pupils funded by donations: just 15 euros a month puts one child through school, clothing, feeding, equipping and attending to their medical needs. Our team treated around 1,500 patients at the clinic in the 7 days we were there and attended to many more. We dewormed, gave vitamins to every child we could lay our hands on, treated many who had TB, malaria and other tropical diseases, supplied glasses and sunglasses and, well, educated them really giving basic health advice. know about the results of the experiment. Moreover, I think a ship looks so much more beautiful with a kite ying ahead of it. The idea is good, excellent even. Along with electric cars, such projects and experiments show greater concern for the protection of our environment and open the door to more innovations.

Expression crite

(p. 151)

Comprhension de lcrit

(p. 150)

(p. 150) Corrig Centenarians are surprisingly t and spry for their age. They keep themselves busy and are still involved in the social life of their community. When they turn fty, most people tend to suffer from a wide range of diseases that may affect their lives in the long term. On the contrary, centenarians appear to be tougher. Their bodies resist chronic diseases. They usually recover quickly and are left with fewer after-effects. The vigour of centenarians has aroused peoples curiosity. Studies show that those senior citizens have had a healthy life, have done a lot of sport and have always remained intellectually active. Scientists have discovered that centenarians are intrinsically more resistant. To extend our lifespan further, they could create drugs that would chemically imitate the natural resilience of centenarians.

(p. 151) Le support de cet exercice dexpression crite est un bref article qui rsume la situation dune famille victime de la crise des subprimes. Pour la question n 1, il est important de faire remarquer quelle poque de lanne cette expulsion a lieu et dans quelle partie des USA. La rponse la question n 2 est libre, mais on peut guider llve vers lattitude de la famille en question. Accepterait-il ce qui lui arrive avec fatalisme et rsignation ou bien se battrait-il ? Corrig (exemple) 3521 Lake Drive Belmont Il. 32587 December 18, 2009 The Manager Bank of Illinois 112 Park Avenue Belmont, Il. 32625 Sir, Following the receipt of your eviction notice we wish to inform you that we will not accept your decision to repossess our home on the grounds that we have been unable to make our mortgage payment these past three months. We feel your institution has tricked us into taking a loan whose conditions you knew would be hard to meet, should anything like the present economic crisis happen. We also feel we have been duped regarding the way the interest rate was supposed to evolve and therefore we have decided to ght your decision and have entrusted our case to Goldstacks and Aber, attorneys at law who will be contacting you shortly. Yours,

Expression orale

(p. 151) Une fois nest pas coutume, cet exercice dexpression orale dpend de la comprhension crite du court texte propos, laquelle est facilite par limage qui laccompagne. (p. 151)

The Professor and the Crank

(p. 152-153) (p. 152)

Corrig 160sq.m The area of the giant kite. 20% The expected fuel cut. 4% Fuel burnt by ships nowadays. 100-300 The height at which the kite operates. 12-74km/h The strength of the winds needed to operate the kite. The device used here is a giant kite harnessed to a cargo ship the purpose of which is to reduce its fuel consumption. (exemple) This is another clever example of what can be done to reduce CO2 emissions, respect the planet and the environment. I think the idea is excellent and I would like to
116 Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011

Corrig Professor Beard is a physicist who was awarded the Nobel Prize. He is older than the man who is driving him to an ofcial reception. He is wearing a tweed jacket. Tom Aldous is a young man from Norfolk. He seems to be scientically literate and says that he read what Professor Beard wrote about photovoltaics (l. 25). By monopolising the conversation, Tom gives the impression that he wants to impress the scientist. He shows off his knowledge about different sources of energies.

livre du professeur

Tom does not think that a nuclear plant is the best way to produce energy. He asserts that it is unsafe and costly and that it pollutes the environment. On the other hand, he mentions the existence of a nuclear plant which is a safe and cheap means to produce energy. (l. 20-21) For Tom, using solar energy would be the best solution. The story that he tells about a man who destroys trees to drink the sap instead of directly drinking the rain has a double meaning. It sounds like an allegory. We could substitute our need for energy for the mans need to quench his thirst and sunlight for the rain. Toms point is that we could find other ways to produce energy. We have here an allegory about Mans destructive impact on the environment. Tom probably thinks that using such a story may make him sound more convincing. Professor Beard is not convinced by Toms speech: unimpressed (l. 43), too optimistic (l. 46), the Norfolk lads bucolic tone [...] was beginning to aggravate Beards raw condition (l. 51), he said sullenly (l. 52). In the last paragraph, the narrators point of view seems to be biased. Ironically, this passage is not a lesson about how to protect the environment, its more about dealing with cranks. The third person narrator expresses Professor Beards thoughts here and the reader may get the impression that Professor Beard is giving a lecture about cranks. Dealing with them is like conducting a scientic experiment; the use of the adverbs rstly (l. 57) and secondly (l. 58) enhances this tone. The last two sentences can be considered as the conclusion of this lecture.
WRITERS WORKSHOP

Imagine what happens next. Pour aider les lves respecter le style du texte initial, on peut leur proposer de remplir au pralablement la grille suivante : Before writing what happens next and to imitate Ian McEwans style you will have to make some choices. A. Circle the elements that you will use:
Type of narrator Tense used for the narration The way you will describe the scene: rst person narrator third person narrator present past with long and detailed descriptions with short sentences with many adjectives with many adverbs with modals.

B. Choose your style and your words. Circle all the possibilities.
Literary style poetic realistic comic tragic ironic satiric reported speech dialogue (direct speech) free indirect speech

Speech

(p. 153) Les rponses aux questions 2, 3, 4 et 5 pourront guider les lves. Elles leur donneront des pistes concernant ltat desprit de ce personnage, ce qui leur permettra de rcrire ce passage en adoptant son point de vue.

Verbs to introduce what the chat characters say reply politely retort splutter stammer drone on snarl mumble moan rave ramble

Livre du professeur New On Target 1re BELIN 2011 117