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Contents HISTORICAL BACKGROUND ............................................................. 3 EDUCATION IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA, POLICIES FOR ADJUSTMENT, REVITALIZATION AND EXPANSION .............. 3 MEMBERS OF THE COMMISSION................................................... 4 TERMS OF REFERENCES ................................................................... 4 CONCLUSIONS ........................................................................................ 5 RECOMMENDATIONS ......................................................................... 6 CRITICISM ................................................................................................ 9

The Kamunge commission was appointed by retired president Daniel Arap Moi. It was overly charged with the task of reviewing the national education and training for the next decade and beyond and makes recommendations there too. It started its work in January 1986 under the chairmanship of Mr. James M. Kamunge thus the name the Kamunge commission. In 1985, the 8-4-4 system of education was implemented. Though this system had very good objectives, its implementation was haphazardly done leading to a number of changes for example abrupt changes in the curriculum which did not allow the teaching fraternity and the learner to adjust, heavy work load and the introduction of technical or vocational oriented subjects. The main aim of this education system was to produce a person that could employ him or her instead of waiting for an office job. Therefore, it was a commission that worked under crisis of the changes posed by the new 8-4-4 system of education, one being the high cost of education, it was because of this reason that in May 1986, it was requested as a matter of urgency to examine and make proposals on cost sharing (a strategy for financing education and training in the country). This sub report was submitted to the retired president in November 1980. It could not have been a coincidence that as the commissioners released the report in 1988, the World Bank also released a very influential document on education.


This document endorsed the user fees in recovering the cost of education. Actually it was meant partly to prevail upon the African government to move toward initiating greater liberalization of education and contentment of structural adjustment programme SAPS. This document was a turning point in education sector in Africa in general, and Kenya in particular.


Mr. James M. Kamunge Prof. Bethwel A. Ogot Dr. Benjamin E. Kipkori Prof. Philip M. Mbithi Mr. Solomon W. Karanja Dr. Julia A. Ajiambo Dr. Jared B. Kangwana Mr. Samwel S. Maneno Mr. Ambrose A. Odongo Rev. John G. Gatu Bishop Raphel Ndingi Mwana A. Nzeki Mr. Tom D. Owour Mr. Ben T. Mwangi Mr. Aron K. Kandie Mr. John W. Gichuki Chairperson Vice Chairperson Commissioner Commissioner Commissioner Commissioner Commissioner Commissioner Commissioner Commissioner Commissioner Commissioner Commissioner Commissioner Commissioner

Review generally the whole educational philosophy, policies and objectives to ensure that they are on consonance with changing social, cultural, economic and political demands. Recommend ways and means of sustaining the momentum of educational growth without sacrificing quality and relevance.

Recommend ways and means of providing at both the primary and secondary levels, greater opportunities for the majority of candidates who do not proceed for further formal education. Recommend means of improving quality of education in all institutions (public, harambee and private). Recommend means of harmonizing and coordinating curriculum, examinations and certification for all educational and training institutions. Recommend ways of making optimum use of existing facilities and personnel in education and training at all levels. To recommend ways and means of expanding and strengthening special education. Recommend ways and means of establishing and developing centers of excellence in education, training and research with a view of enhancing artistic, scientific and technical potential in Kenya. Recommend ways and means of orienting education and training towards education for life and create productivity.

There had been rapid development and expansion of education and training since independence. This was caused by: Increased demand for educational opportunities for a fast growing population. Government commitment to making education accessible to all Kenyans and training adequate manpower to meet the needs of a growing economy. Commitment by parents, religious and private organizations to provision of education. Education should also develop skills and attitudes that lead to self-reliance, selfemployment and management of time work or leisure. It is embraced 8-4-4 systems especially on its vocationalised curriculum which aimed at providing quality education and training. Therefore because of its vocational orientation, its implementation required;

The provision of additional and appropriate physical facilities, equipment, teaching and learning materials and qualified teachers. A harmonized and coordinated curriculum, examinations and certification on order to sustain quality and relevance. There was need for cost sharing provision of education and training to beep up government budget on education in order to provide facilities, materials required in education. This was to accelerate the expansion of education and training opportunities and increase access to education and training. That the national goals of education should be; Education to foster national unity. Education to prepare and equip the youth with knowledge, skills and expertise to enable them play an effective role in the life of the nation. Education must serve the needs of the nation. Education to provide for full development of talents and personality. Education to provide social justice and morality, social obligations and responsibilities. Foster positive attitudes and consciousness towards other nations.

1. To encourage parents, local authorities, communities and private organizations to establish more schools, colleges and universities (to cater for the increased education demand). 2. CURRICULUM Harmonize the curriculum of pre-primary with that of primary school. Review the primary and secondary curriculum to allow for option in vocational subjects (to show for more time to cover the content effectively). Kenya Institute of Education be utilized to develop all curriculums for national education and training programs. Kenya National Examination Council be responsible for all national examinations and certification except for universities (universities operate as semi-autonomous organizations).

3. INSPECTION All inspectors be given in service course (to enable them to provide effective guidance and supervision to schools and colleges). Inspectors training to aim at upgrading their academic and professional qualifications. 4. FINANCING OF EDUCATION Students in public schools and training institutes including universities to pay full cost of boarding and feeding, however, needy students be assisted through bursaries. Personal allowances that are given by government to students in training institutes including universities be discontinued (end of boom). Government to continue to meet cost of education of ASAL arrears. Future secondary schools be established as day schools as a more cost effective way of expanding accessibility. Meanwhile, the already established single and double stream be expanded to three streams as a more cost effective way of increasing enrollment. 5. PRE-PRIMARY EDUCATION Managers of pre-schools be encouraged to recruit qualified personnel. Research on early child education and child psychology be encouraged. 6. PRIMARY EDUCATION All parents with school going children be required to take them to school and retain them there for the whole primary education period (in line with the current FPE Programme by NARC Government). Teachers in upper primary be assigned to teach subjects studied and passed in K.C.S.E or equivalent (for efficient material delivery and offering of quality education). 7. SECONDARY EDUCATION Categorization of schools as high and low cost be abolished (since the gap between the two hardly existed in terms of facilities and parental financial support). Secondary schools that were developed and equipped by government and provided with teaching personnel from public funds be designated to public

schools (to do away with the harambee and government stream students in the same schools). The government stream also used to get grants. Training education be expanded to produce more professionally qualified university graduates for secondary school. (Then the number was 6426 out of the 22,296 secondary school teachers then). Guidance and counseling be made practical in secondary schools and senior teachers be responsible (to train them to appreciate their role to work, develop right attitude towards discipline, to be able to manage time).

8. VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION Youth polytechnics, national polytechnics and institutes of technology be used to provide artisan training for primary school leavers and the training to include teaching of entrepreneurship (labeled as college of failures, its no wonder the expected growth did not occur). They catered for dropout thus cutting down on waste. 9. SPECIAL EDUCATION Special secondary schools be established for totally deaf who cannot fit in regular schools. Special schools be utilized to cater for only the severe and profound mentally impaired (the visually impaired be integrated in regular schools together with the physically handicapped). However, there are a number of challenged they face in schools. No facilities for them. Attitude of the able people (which could make them develop reactions like Withdrawal. Rudeness 10. TEACHER EDUCATION Untrained primary teachers be trained through in-service training programmes. Postgraduate diploma be expanded to train more graduate teachers. This can be diversified to include technical and special education (to cater for the shortage).

Bachelor of Education programme in universities to take 5 years in the new 8-4-4 system of education. 11. UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION Growth in university standard enrolment be matched with the educational resources, facilities and materials required (Kenyatta University in perspective is billing more than it can chew). Some of the existing training & research institutes be developed as universities courses (Maseno, Laikipia). The development of public universities be coordinated and harmonized. Kenyatta University was offering Arts and Education. Egerton University was offering agriculture. Moi University was offering Technology and Ethical Science. Only Nairobi had expanded faculties. circumstances (because the existing faculties could not accommodate the high enrollment of students). 12. MANAGEMENT OF EDUCATION Directorate of education be structured to provide separate but coordinated services (separate for each education levels). KESI be established as a body corporate with its own staff managers and be a center of excellence in education, management, training and research.

Students to be admitted as day university students under very special

The recommendations were acted upon immediately and with a sense of urgency. This was due to the recommendations being very close to the heart of the government then. It altered the financing of education, relieving the government part of the burden of financing education. The working party legitimized what was close to the souls of the World Bank and the INF. This was highly appreciated by the World Bank which chose the chairman to head the country education desk as the chief consultant of education.

A move aimed at fully implementing the working party recommendations (the agenda was to implement the clause for cost sharing in education). This document remains the only credible document guiding education sector since the master plan on education and training was shelved by the government. The cost of education was increased and this made the parents to shoulder the whole burden, As a result of the above (increased costs) there was decline in education as shown by the following indicators. Low enrollment. High drop out. Repeating of classes. High wastage at each level transition from one level to another was unmatched. for both instructors and learners. It was a commission working party that had external force using local expertise (element of neo-colonialism).

Even if the curriculum was reviewed, the workload still remained overwhelming