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PROJECT REPORT
OUTDOOR EDUCATION AND JUVENILE DELINQUENCY
Student Number 1139 8112 PKM302 Assignment 3 October, 2011

Student Number 1139 8112 PKM302

CONTENTS
Research Questions ....................................................................................................... 2 Project Aims ................................................................................................................... 2 Project Significance ........................................................................................................ 2 Method .......................................................................................................................... 2 Results/Findings & Discussion ....................................................................................... 3 Program Case Study 1 Evolve Program at Typo Station (information from Suze and the programs website) ........................................................................................ 3 Who can participate in the Evolve Program? ........................................................ 4 What does the program involve?........................................................................... 4 How do they help disengaged or at risk of disengaging young people to improve? ................................................................................................................ 5 What evidence is there of success? ........................................................................ 7 Program Case Study 2 MAPPS (Information from Phil and the program website). 7 What is involved in MAPPS? .................................................................................. 7 Past research on the success of outdoor education as a form of rehabilitation for juvenile delinquents ................................................................................................... 9 Helps delinquent youth through internal mental development and awareness of mindset................................................................................................................... 9 Cognitive programs are more effective on delinquent youth than non-cognitive programs .............................................................................................................. 10 Conclusion & Recommendations ................................................................................. 10 How can outdoor education or similar styles of education be useful in combating crime and delinquency in Australian Youth? ........................................................... 10 What evidence is there to support this? .................................................................. 11 Recommendations ................................................................................................... 12 References ................................................................................................................... 13

Student Number 1139 8112 PKM302

RESEARCH QUESTIONS
How can outdoor education or similar styles of education be useful in combating crime and delinquency in Australian Youth? What evidence is there to support this?

PROJECT AIMS
The aim of this project is to establish how outdoor education can help to combat crime and delinquency in young Australians, as well as, to bring light to the different ways the various outdoor education organisations or programs do so.

PROJECT SIGNIFICANCE
This project report is significant as juvenile delinquency is a major issue and a cause of high crime rates (Brand, 2001). As outdoor education has the power to effectively reduce the crime rate, bringing light to the ways in which it can achieve such a feat can be of help to a lot of schools and other organisations that are involved in helping delinquent Australian youth.

Often it is the young persons school, a parent/guardian, or a juvenile/family court judge that decides what sort of behavioural therapy would be most appropriate for them (Winterdyk & Griffiths, 1984). This project report will benefit those stakeholders as it will provide information about what therapeutic benefits outdoor education programs can have on the young persons behaviour and life. It therefore can help them to decide whether to enrol them in an outdoor education program instead of some other form of behaviour therapy. On top of that, the report can also provide current outdoor education organisations with different ways of facilitating behavioural therapy programs.

METHOD
A couple of different methods were used to collect information: 1. Past research was read through and other empirical evidence from journal articles, books and the internet. This research was used to note points of significance that help to answer the project questions. 2

Student Number 1139 8112 PKM302 2. Drove to, met with staff from a couple of outdoor education organisations and asked them a few questions with the aim of answering the research questions: Suze from Typo Station in Rose River, Victoria Phil from Rubicon Outdoor Education School in Rubicon, Victoria

RESULTS/FINDINGS & DISCUSSION


In most countries around the world institutionalisation of juvenile delinquents (under the age of 18) is only used when it is an absolute last option. Over the years concern has developed over the negative consequences of confining juvenile offenders in institutional settings as well as the limited ability for positive interaction to take place between juveniles and staff in that environment (Winterdyk & Griffiths, 1984). As a result of these concerns, decisions to place juvenile delinquents in various non-institutional settings became more of a preferred option (Winterdyk & Griffiths, 1984). One of these options is wilderness experience programs such as outdoor education (Winterdyk & Griffiths, 1984). Therefore, if done correctly with the right circumstances outdoor education is far more beneficial to the life of delinquent youth than institutionalisation.

Program Case Study 1 Evolve Program at Typo Station (information from Suze and the programs website)
The programs developed by this outdoor education centre are designed to help young people (usually in the low socio-economic bracket) who are at risk of disengaging or are disengaged from school, their families, and perhaps life in general. Engagement is defined at three interrelated levels (KPMG, 2009): 1. Behavioural engagement, which refers to children and young peoples participation in education, including the academic, social and extracurricular activities 2. Emotional engagement, which reflects children and young peoples sense of belonging or connectedness, affiliation, attachment or bonding to their parents, teachers, etc. 3

Student Number 1139 8112 PKM302 3. Cognitive engagement, which relates to children and young peoples investment in learning and their intrinsic motivation and self-regulation.

Who can participate in the Evolve Program?


Only a specific group are allowed to participate in the Evolve programs, they have to: Have been identified by someone else (teacher, social/youth worker, school, parent, police) and also have identified themselves as disengaged or at risk of disengaging. Have support from home e.g. have a home to go to, with one or both parents or an accountable and responsible guardian. NOT be suicidal NOT be a drug addict

Young people who are unsuited to the program would be ones that are: Clearly unmotivated to attend, Not able to adhere to basic safety guidelines, and Have major behavioural or mental health problems that would make them a significant risk to themselves or others.

What does the program involve?


Showers are piped with one pipe so the showers have to be turned on at the same time to get even flow this is a good team building exercise. Girls = 9 days in the bush (hiking/navigation) + time working at the station Boys = 12 days in the bush (more time to be physical/establish a pecking order/ be competitive) + time working at the station Time working at the station includes the daily tasks like cleaning the toilets, chopping wood, lighting the fires to heat the water for showers, cleaning the bunk rooms. As well as work (without electricity) starting at 7:30am in the joinery making bush stools and gift trays OR the blacksmiths doing metal works making hooks, etc. AND whatever they build they get an opportunity to take to the St Kilda markets to sell it and they get 80% of the profits they can earn up to $80 for a bush stool. 4

Student Number 1139 8112 PKM302 If a person has a question e.g. about how to make a hook, the leaders refer the questions to other students, for example You should ask Jimmy, he made an excellent hook yesterday it gives the young people pride, a positive view of themself, and allows them to relate and trust one another. The main bunk room is built by some of the first disengaged kids at the camp, the leaders explain this and this creates respect and appreciation for the building it is often that building that the students keep the cleanest, especially because they sleep there as well.

How do they help disengaged or at risk of disengaging young people to improve?


Narrative Intervention/Therapy (a theoretical facilitation technique): Disengaged kids constantly hear bad stories about themselves through school (e.g. this work is not good enough), through parents (e.g. you are always getting in trouble, why cant you be more like your brother), so narrative intervention is about providing them with the opportunity to hear positive stories (e.g. you have such a great sense of humour, and such a good listener and that helped the whole group get through such a challenging hike, well done!) about themselves and trying to get them to realise their own potential through positive recognition (Suze, 2011). The leaders and the activities at Typo Station provide the young people with the skills and want to get positive feedback and therefore they try harder to put a smile on the faces of the people in their life that are trying to help them better themselves, like their parents, guardian, or school teachers. A good example of a narrative tool is an interview with the young person, an interviewer and a listener (Suze, 2011). The listener draws and reflects all the positive characteristics about that young person from the interview and explains those positive things about that person to them. As a result, that young person leaves with a positive view of or story about themselves.

Experiential Learning & Natural Consequence (a theoretical facilitation technique): NOTE: There is times where this type of learning is appropriate and inappropriate, as it can cause a participant to have a negative view of him-self/her-self and therefore work against narrative therapy (Suze, 2011). The program helps the young people to 5

Student Number 1139 8112 PKM302 learn and ask themselves questions e.g. By doing that, what effect is that going to have on myself and the group? In the bush it is a lot easier for young people to learn from natural consequence (Suze, 2011) for example, if they break one of the tent poles needed to erect the tent that themself and 2 others have to sleep in, they will suffer the consequences of having to use a faulty or unusable tent as well as have to take responsibility and cop the anger the other two tent users are going to feel toward them. In normal life if they do something bad (e.g. steal) it is not always them that will have to suffer the consequences, but the shop owner, or in other circumstances their parents or their brother, etc. So, copping it for their own mistakes is a huge learning experience but, on the other hand, if a young person is there for narrative therapy and therefore needs to recognise the positive things about him/her-self, it is going to have negative consequences when that person cops the anger from others for their mistake.

Long-term contact Suze (2011) and Typo Station believe that one time of contact is not enough to be effective. Therefore, on top of the hike and the young peoples experience at Typo Station the staff go to their school or go for coffee with them, however the student wants to meet and talk about things. They also have them come back to Typo Station for a 3-4 day follow-up camp to do either kitchen skills (e.g. learning kitchen hygiene, icing, knife skills, conducting a dinner party for all the staff); build something on the property (e.g. the veggie garden); or make things they can sell at the joinery/blacksmith. Finally at the end of the program 2-3 years after their initial camp they graduate and all their families come and they are given a book with all their positive stories and the leaders tell a positive story/view of that student to the audience.

A systems focus Systems theory is central to the Typo approach (Crisp, 2003). Relationship building and connectedness to ones family and community means that an intervention should take a systems focus (Davis-Berman & Berman, 1994). Simply stated, this means that by including key members of a participants social network in the process 6

Student Number 1139 8112 PKM302 of change those with most influence on a young person are mobilised to support and maintain changes made (Crisp, 2003).

What evidence is there of success?


Typo Stations Young Mens program was found to have an 80% success rate in delivering an increased self-esteem, self-worth and improved relationships with family (Evolve at Typo Station, 2011). These changes appeared to be consistent and robust (Crisp, 2003). There is very promising evidence of positive postprogram effects for behaviours and attitudes that are key risk factors for educational and vocational failure and adverse outcomes in adulthood (Crisp, 2003). Overall, Typo Stations program structure can effectively reduce the crime rate but as only a small number of young people get the opportunity to participate in this specialised program their impact on the crime rate will be very small. However, if done on a large scale, programs just like this one have the potential to be very successful.

Program Case Study 2 MAPPS (Information from Phil and the program website)
What is involved in MAPPS?
MAPPS stands for the Male Adolescent Program for Positive Sexuality. This program is developed for young people aged 10-21 years who have been found guilty of a sexual offence (The Royal Children's Hospital, 2010). This program is about using outdoor education in combination with youth worker and police rehabilitation (Phil, 2011). With these young sex offenders change is achieved through assisting young people to increase their understanding of themselves and others and take responsibility for their actions and choices (The Royal Children's Hospital, 2010). They are also supported to develop an understanding of the deliberate pattern of their offending, develop victim awareness and empathy, and create a positive lifestyle that does not incorporate offending or abusive relationships (The Royal Children's Hospital, 2010). Phil (2011) explained that the program puts the young

Student Number 1139 8112 PKM302 people through five phases over a twelve month period (The Royal Children's Hospital, 2010): 1. Assessment 2. Basic group in this phase young people are asked to think about and talk about their offending behaviour, as part of a process of taking responsibility (The Royal Children's Hospital, 2010). 3. 3 Day Intensive Wilderness Program this is the phase where Phil does work with the young sex offenders as part of his job at Rubicon Outdoor Education School. This phase is where they learn to recognise and understand their own feelings and the feelings of others, including the victims of their offending (The Royal Children's Hospital, 2010), in other words, they learn to develop their intrapersonal and interpersonal skills. Phil (2011) explained that this is done through a variety of activities including horse-riding which is used to help young sex offenders to build feelings of empathy which can be applied to the people in their life. 4. Advanced Group This phase is all about the future, developing healthy relationships and preventing further offending, where the young person learns a range of strategies to ensure that they continue to lead a life that does not include offending (The Royal Children's Hospital, 2010). This phase often involves family involvement if possible (The Royal Children's Hospital, 2010). 5. Follow-up this phase is pretty straight forward, without a follow-up the success rate or effectiveness of the program cannot be measured. It is also an opportunity to ensure the program participant will not relapse and reoffend later in their life.

Student Number 1139 8112 PKM302

Past research on the success of outdoor education as a form of rehabilitation for juvenile delinquents
Helps delinquent youth through internal mental development and awareness of mindset
Every person has different minds that contain different mental models of reality of which cause our actions (Bateman, 2007). In simple words, your mindset causes the way you act. Bateman (2007) explains that there are two umbrella mindsets other and self and the only way you can tell you are not in the right mental mode (when in other mode) is by your actions or as Bateman (2007) puts it, by using visible behavioural cues, this is because mindsets are invisible. It is important to a healthy mind that we as people are able to detect our own perceptible cues in order to infer, interpret and attribute mental states to our self (Bateman, 2007). Now, interesting fact, violence is never learned it is naturally occurring for survival in people (Fonagy, 2003) and where mentalisation fails, violence occurs (Fonagy, 2003). To unlearn it, a person must be able to detect their own perceptible cues and control their actions as a result. So, in relation to juvenile delinquents, young people need to learn to recognise their mindsets in order to control their actions so when they are in the other mindset they recognise that it is easier for them to get violent tendencies and do things they would not normally do in their self mindset. This kind of therapy is called mentalization and in the world of outdoor education is known as development of intrapersonal skills. Outdoor education/Adventure Education focuses on intrapersonal skills (development of ones internal self, such as enhanced selfesteem or confidence); with youth at risk, the goal may be the ability to control ones behaviours and attitudes (Jensen & Guthrie, 2006). So, outdoor education and similar styles of education are used as a form of mentalization therapy to help young people to be able to recognise these internal mindsets. The programs also provide an opportunity to practice taming the other mindset with intrapersonal skills.

Student Number 1139 8112 PKM302 Secure individuals, who had an attentive attuned carer, have more robust capacities to symbolically represent emotional states in their own and other peoples minds and this can serve to protect them from future psychosocial adversity (Bateman, 2007). Therefore, when outdoor education provides mentalization therapy to delinquent youth, as long as the young person has a attentive attuned carer (e.g. parent or guardian) they are less like to have criminal or violent tendencies in the future. So, outdoor education ensures a better, less delinquent future for young people through internal mental development and awareness of mindset.

Cognitive programs are more effective on delinquent youth than non-cognitive programs
A meta-analysis of empirical data was completed by Izzo & Ross (1990) on the different rehabilitation programs for juvenile delinquents. The primary conclusion they came to about success rates, was that cognitive programs were more than twice as effective as non-cognitive programs. Cognitive programs are programs that involve stimulation of mental processes, such as paying attention, remembering, solving problems, making decisions, and producing or understanding language. Outdoor education programs are cognitive programs. Solving problems, communication, paying attention, and decision making are very important elements to completing activities or journeys within outdoor education programs, so development of cognitive skills is a major component. With this in mind, according to Izzo & Ross (1990) outdoor education is effective at helping juvenile delinquents improve their lives.

CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS


How can outdoor education or similar styles of education be useful in combating crime and delinquency in Australian Youth?
There were a number of trends in the results and discussion that explain what is necessary in an outdoor education program to effectively help delinquent Australian youth, and therefore reduce the high juvenile crime rate. These trends were: 10

Student Number 1139 8112 PKM302 Long-term contact of therapy staff with participant to follow-up and make sure they do not relapse (Evolve at Typo Station, 2011; Suze, 2011; The Royal Children's Hospital, 2010); Development of Intrapersonal and interpersonal skills (which include cognitive skills, building self-esteem and confidence) because without keeping internal mental health in check, violence or bad behaviour in general can occur towards self and/or other people (The Royal Children's Hospital, 2010; Bateman, 2007; Fonagy, 2003; Izzo & Ross, 1990; Suze, 2011; Phil, 2011); The need of family involvement and/or a supportive family (a systems focus) because if the parents are bad role models, are negative and/or are not supportive of the young person, positive self-improvement once the program is completed will be almost impossible for the young person (Evolve at Typo Station, 2011; The Royal Children's Hospital, 2010; Suze, 2011); and The necessity for therapy staff and outdoor education instructors to use different theoretical facilitation techniques depending on the background of the young persons behavioural issues for example, narrative intervention/therapy, experiential learning and natural consequence (Suze, 2011).

What evidence is there to support this?


There were a few points made to support the ability of outdoor education to be successful at reducing the juvenile crime rate through helping delinquent youth: Outdoor education is more beneficial than institutionalisation (Winterdyk & Griffiths, 1984); Cognitive programs such as outdoor education programs are twice as effective at helping juvenile delinquents improve their lives than noncognitive programs (Izzo & Ross, 1990); Typo Stations Young Mens program was found to have a consistent and robust 80% success rate in delivering increased self-esteem, self-worth and improved relationships with family (Crisp, 2003; Evolve at Typo Station, 2011). 11

Student Number 1139 8112 PKM302 Ensuring secure mental health in young people can serve to protect them from future psychosocial adversity (Bateman, 2007).

Recommendations
From the above conclusion, it is recommended that when choosing between rehabilitation for juvenile delinquents whether institutionalisation or noninstitutionalisation it is preferred not to institutionalise unless absolutely necessary. Wilder programs such as outdoor education and adventure education are by far preferred options for rehabilitation. Although, to ensure successful rehabilitation it is important to go to a program that is involved in the long-term, involves family in the rehabilitation process, and aims to develop intrapersonal and interpersonal skills via various and appropriate facilitation techniques. As long as they have support from family, all juvenile delinquent youth and youth at risk of becoming delinquent or disengaged should participate in wilderness programs. Due to the minimal amount of programs available for the amount of delinquent youth it is very hard to provide a position in a program for everyone. However, if this does happen in the future, evidence of a reduced crime rate will become far more evident.

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Student Number 1139 8112 PKM302

REFERENCES
Bateman, A. W. (2007). What is mentalization based therapy? Retrieved October 7, 2011, from University College London Division of Psychoanalysis: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/psychoanalysis/unit-staff/gothenburg.pdf Brand, D. (2001). A longitudinal study of the effects of a wilderness-enhanced program on behaviour-disordered adolescents. Australian Journal of Outdoor Education. Children's Court of Victoria. (2011, February 11). Criminal Division - General. Retrieved October 7, 2011, from Children's Court of Victoria: http://www.childrenscourt.vic.gov.au/CA256CA800011129/page/Research+ Materials-Criminal+-+General?OpenDocument&1=60Research+Materials~&2=70-Criminal+-+General~&3=~ Crisp, S. (2003, November 25). An Evaluation of the Typo Station Youth Opportunity Program. Retrieved October 5, 2011, from Evolve: http://www.evolve.org.au/pdf/evaluationReport.pdf Davis-Berman, J., & Berman, D. (1994). Wilderness Therapy: Foundations, Theory & Research. Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Publishing. Evolve at Typo Station. (2011). Program-Specific Research. Retrieved October 5, 2011, from Evolve: http://www.evolve.org.au/pages/Program%252dSpecificResearch.html Fonagy, P. (2003). Towards a Developmental Understand of Violence. British Journal of Psychiatry, 190-192. Izzo, R. L., & Ross, R. R. (1990). Meta-analysis of Rehabilitation Programs for Juvenile Delinquents - A brief report. Criminal Justice & Behaviour Vol.17, No.1, 134142.

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Student Number 1139 8112 PKM302 Jensen, C. R., & Guthrie, S. (2006). Outdoor Recreation in America (6th Ed.). Lower Mitcham: Human Kinetics. KPMG. (2009, July). Re-engaging Our Kids: A framework for education provision to children and young people at risk of disengaging or disengaged from school. Retrieved September 13, 2011, from Department of Education and Early Childhood Development [DEECD]: http://www.eduweb.vic.gov.au/edulibrary/public/stuman/wellbeing/Reengaging_Our_Kids_KPMG_Apr2010.pdf Phil. (2011, September 18). Rubicon Outdoor Education School. (K. Aitchison, Interviewer) Suze. (2011, September 18). Evolve at Typo Station. (K. Aitchison, Interviewer) The Royal Children's Hospital. (2010, January 4). Male Adolescent Program for Positive Sexuality. Retrieved October 7, 2011, from Adolescent Forensic Health Service: http://www.rch.org.au/afhs/services.cfm?doc_id=12101 Winterdyk, J., & Griffiths, C. (1984). Wilderness Experience Programs: Reforming delinquents or beating around the bush? Juvenile & Family Court Journal Vol.35 Issue.3, 35-44.

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