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TRANSMISSION MEDIA

MAXWELLS EQUATIONS AND


TRANSMISSION MEDIA
CHARACTERISTICS
ENEE 482 Spring 2002
DR. KAWTHAR ZAKI
ENEE482 2
MICROWAVE CIRCUIT ELEMENTS AND
ANALYSIS
Two conductor
wire
Coaxial line
Shielded
Strip line
Dielectric
ENEE482 3
Rectangular
guide
Circular
guide
Ridge guide
Common Hollow-pipe waveguides
ENEE482 4
STRIP LINE CONFIGURATIONS
W
SINGLE STRIP LINE COUPLED LINES
COUPLED STRIPS
TOP & BOTTOM
COUPLED ROUND BARS
ENEE482 5
MICROSTRIP LINE CONFIGURATIONS
TWO COUPLED MICROSTRIPS
SINGLE MICROSTRIP
TWO SUSPENDED
SUBSTRATE LINES
SUSPENDED SUBSTRATE
LINE
ENEE482 6
TRANSMISSION MEDIA
TRANSVERSE ELECTROMAGNETIC (TEM):
COAXIAL LINES
MICROSTRIP LINES (Quasi TEM)
STRIP LINES AND SUSPENDED SUBSTRATE
METALLIC WAVEGUIDES:
RECTANGULAR WAVEGUIDES
CIRCULAR WAVEGUIDES
DIELECTRIC LOADED WAVEGUIDES

ANALYSIS OF WAVE PROPAGATION ON THESE
TRANSMISSION MEDIA THROUGH MAXWELLS
EQUATIONS
ENEE482 7
Electromagnetic Theory Maxwells Equations
2
2
2
2
V/m density current s) (fictitiou Magnetic
A/m density current Electric J
A/m Intensity Field Magnetic
) Sec./m - V or (Telsa T Density Flux Magnetic
C/m Density Flux Electric
V/m Intensity Filed Electric
: Equation Continuity
0 ;
; M -
=
=
=
=
=
=
c
c
= - V
= - V = - V
+
c
c
= V
c
c
= V
M
H
B
D
E
t
J
B D
J
t
D
H
t
B
E

ENEE482 8
Auxiliary Relations:
| |
ty Permeabili Relative
H/m 10 4 ; 5.
Constant Dielectric Relative
F/m 10 854 . 8 ; 4.
Current Convection ; 3.
Current Conduction ; ty Conductivi
Law) s (Ohm' 2.
Velocity ; Charge
Newton . 1
r
12
o
12

= = =

= = =
= =
=
=

+ =

t
c
c c c c
o
o
o
H H B
E E D
J v J
J
E J
v q
B v E q F
o r
r
o o r
ENEE482 9
Maxwells Equations in Large Scale Form
S d D
t
S d J l d H
S d M S d B
t
l d E
S d B
dv S d D
S S l
S
S l
S
S
V
-
c
c
+ - = -
- -
c
c
= -
= -
= -
} } }
} } }
}
} }
0

ENEE482 10
Maxwells Equations for the Time - Harmonic Case
D j J H M B j E
B D
E E t E E
e E E e jE E E
jE E a
jE E a jE E a z y x E
e z y x E t z y x E
xr xi
xi xr
j t j
xi xr
t j
xi xr x
zi zr z
yi yr y xi xr x
t j
t j
e e

| | e
| e e
e
e
+ = V = V
= - V = - V
= + + =
+ = + =
+ +
+ + + =
=

+
,
0 ,
) / ( tan , ) cos(
] Re[ ] ) Re[(
) (
) ( ) ( ) , , (
] ) , , ( Re[ ) , , , (
: then , variations e Assume
1 2 2
2 2

ENEE482 11
Boundary Conditions at a General Material Interface
s
s
s
s t t n n
s
s n n
s t t
J H H n
M E E n
B B n
D D n
J H H B B
D D
M E E
=
=
= -
= -
= =

=
=
) (
) (
0 ) (
) (
;
Density Charge Surface
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1 2 1
2 1
2 1


D
1n

D
2n

h
As
h
E
1t

E
2t

1
,c
1

2
,c
2
ENEE482 12
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
0 ;
0
0
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1 2 1
2 1
2 1
H n H n
E n E n
B n B n
D n D n
H H B B
D D
E E
t t n n
n n
t t
=
=
- = -
- = -
= =
=
=
Fields at a Dielectric Interface
ENEE482 13
H n H J
B
D n
t s
n
= =
= - =
- = =
= =

0 B n

D
0 E n

o E
: Conductor Perfect a at Conditions Boundary
s n
t
+ + +
n

s

J
s

H
t

ENEE482 14
The magnetic wall boundary
condition
0 ) (
) (
0 ) (
0 ) (
=
=
= -
= -
H n
M E n
B n
D n
s
ENEE482 15

t
e
c e
ec e
e
2
/ ; 0
; 0
: medium free Source a For
) (
) (
2 2
2 2 2 2
2
= = = + V
= = + V
+
= V = - V V + V = V V
v k H k H
k E k E
E j J j
H j E E E
Wave Equation
ENEE482 16
Plane Waves
z a y a x a r
k a k a k a k Ae E
k k k
z y x E
z y x i E k
z
E
y
E
x
E
E k
z
E
y
E
x
E
E k E
z y x
z z y y x x
z jk y jk x jk
x
z y
x
i
i i i
z y s

+ + =
+ + = =
= + +

= = +
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= = + V

Let ,
k
variables of separation Using ), , , ( for Solve
, , , 0
0
2
0
2 2 2
x
2
0
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
0
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
0
2
ENEE482 17
space. free of admittance intrinsic the is
377 space free of impedance interensic the is
1
1 1

1
wave plane called is solution The
. k n propagatio of direction the lar to perpendicu is vector The
0 0 Since
, Similarly ,
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0
Y
E n E n Y E n E n
k
e E k e E
j
e E
j
H
H j E
E
E k E e E E
Ce E Be E Ae E
r k j r k j r k j
r k j
r k j
z
r k j
y
r k j
x
O =
= =
/
= =
= V = V =
= V
= - = - V =
= = =
- - -
-
- - -
q
q
c
e
e e e
e
ENEE482 18
x
n
z
y
E
H is perpendicular to E and to n. (TEM waves)
U
2
1
U ,
2
1
U
: are TEM wave a of fields magnetic
and electric the in densities energy average time The
2
1
) ( Re
2
1
Re
2
1
, 2
real is if ), cos( ) Re(
e
*
0 0 0 m
*
0 0 0 e
*
0 0 0
*
0
*
0 0
0 0 0
= - = - =
- = - = - =
=
- = =
+ -
H H E E
E E Y n E n E Y n H E P
k
E t r k E e E E
t j r k j
c
t
e
e
H
ENEE482 19
Plane Wave in a Good Conductor
s
j
oo o
e

e
q
eo o
o
eo
ec
o
c e | o
ec o
1
) 1 (
2
j) (1
j

2

1

2
j) (1
j
j j
s
+ = + ~ =
= =
+ = ~ + =
>>
ENEE482 20
Boundary Conditions at the Surface
of a Good Conductor
The field amplitude decays exponentially from its surface
According to e
-u/o
s
where u is the normal distance into the
Conductor, o
s
is the skin depth
H n

,
1
: Impedance surface The
E J ,
2
= =
+
=
= =
m s m t
s
m
s
Z J Z E
j
Z
oo
o
eo
o
ENEE482 21
Reflection From A Dielectric Interface
Parallel Polarization
z
x
E
i

E
t

E
r

u
3

u
1

u
2

n
1

n
3

n
2

c
0

c
0
0
0 0 0
2 0 2
1 0 1
Y ,
,
,
1 2 0
1 1 0

c
c e = =
= =
= =
-
-
k
E n Y H e E E
E n Y H e E E
r r
r n jk
r
i i
r n jk
i
ENEE482 22
sin , cos
sin , cos
sin , cos
sin sin
cos sin
cos sin
cos sin
, ,
,
3 3 1 3 3 3
2 2 1 2 2 2
1 1 1 1 1 1
3 1 2 1
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
3 0 3 2 0 1 0
0 0
3 3
1 3
u u
u u
u u
u u u u
u u
u u
u u
c q
E E E E
E E E E
E E E E
n
a a n
a a n
a a n
n nk kn n k n k
n k k nY Y
E n Y H e E E
z x
z x
z x
z x
z x
z x
x x x x
t t
r n jk
t
= =
= =
= =
= =
+ =
+ =
+ =
= = =
= = =
= =
-



ENEE482 23
Energy and Power
Under steady-state sinusoidal time-varying
Conditions, the time-average energy stored in the
Electric field is
}
} }
- =
-
'
= - =
V
e
V V
e
dV E E W
dV E E dV D E W
*
* *
4
then real, and constant is If
4
1
4
1
Re
c
c
c
ENEE482 24
}
}
}
- =
- =
- =
S
V
V
m
dS H E P
dV H H
dV B H W
*
*
*
Re
2
1
: by given is S surface
closed a across smitted power tran average time The
constant and real is if
4


4
1
Re
: is field magnetic the in stored energy average Time

ENEE482 25
Poynting Theorem
dV M H J E dV
D E H B
j
dV M H J E dV D E H B j
dS H E V d H E
E J J
J E E D j H M B j
E H H E H E
V
s
V
s
V V
S V
s
} }
} }
} }
- + - +
|
|
.
|

\
|
-

-
=
- + - + - - =
- = - V
+ =
- - + - =
- V - V = - V
) (
2
1
4 4
2
) (
2
1
) (
2

2
1
2
1
) (
) ( ) (
* *
* *
* * * *
* *
* * *
* * *
e
e
o
e e

ENEE482 26
dS H E P
dV E E H H j
dV E E H H dV E E
dS H E dV M H J E
j
S
V
V V
S
S
V
Ss
- =
-
'
-
'
+ -
' '
+ -
' '
+ -
+ - = - + -
' ' '
=
' '

'
=
}
}
} }
} }
*
0
* *
* * *
* *
2
1
) (
2
) (
2 2
1
2
1
) (
2
1
-
ty conductivi and j - ,
: by zed characteri is medium the If
c
e
c
e
o
o c c c
ENEE482 27
volume.
in the stored energy reactive the times 2 and ) ( volume in the
heat lost to power the , P surface he through t smitted power tran the
of sum the to equal is ) (P sources by the delivered power The
) ( 2
) ( 2
4 4
2
2
1
Im
) (
2
1
P
0
s
0
* *
*
*
s
e
e
e
c e

P
W W j P P P
W W
dV
E E H H
dS H E
dV M H J E
e m s
e m
V S
s s
V
s
+ + =
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
-
'

-
'
= -
- + - =
} }
}
loss power average Time
2
1
) (
2
* * *
=
- + -
' '
+ -
' '
=
} }
dV E E dV E E H H P
V V
o c
e

ENEE482 28
Circuit Analogy
C
L
R
I
V
network a of impedance the of n Definitio General

2
1
) ( 2 P
) ( 2 P
)
4
1
4
1
( 2
2
1

) (
2
1
2
1
2
1
*
2
*
* *
* * *
II
W W j
Z
W W j
C
II
LII j RII
C
j
L j R II ZII VI
e m
e m
+
=
+ =
+ =
+ = =
e
e
e
e
e
e

ENEE482 29
Potential Theory
( )
c

ec
ec c e
ec
ec c e ec

e
e e
e e
= u + u V = - V
= + V
u = - V
u V = - VV =
+ u V = V - VV = V V
+ u V = + = V V = V
u V =
u V = + = + V
V = = V V =
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2
0 D
equation. Helmholtz ous Inhomogene
condition) (Lorentz or
Let ,
,
1

, 0
, Let
k
J A k A
j A
j A k
J j A k A A A
J j A J E j A H
A j E
A j E A j E
A j B j E A B

ENEE482 30
Solution For Vector Potential
(x,y,z) (x

,y

, z
)
R
r
r


J
V d
R
e
r J r A
r r z z y y x x R
V d
R
e
r J r A z y x A
jkR
V
jkR
' '
=
' = ' + ' + ' =
' '
= =

}
) (
4
) (
) ( ) ( ) (
current al infinitism an for ) (
4
) ( ) , , (
2 2 2
t

ENEE482 31
Waves on An Ideal Transmission Line
R
g

z
Ldz
Cdz
I(z,t)
V(z,t)
V(z,t)+ov/oz dz
I(z,t)+oI/oz dz
Lumped element circuit model for a transmission line
ENEE482 32
Impedance stic Characteri :
C
L
, ,
) ( ) ( ) , (
) ( ) ( ) , (
1
0
) , ( ) , (
0
) , ( ) , (
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
c
c
c c
Z
Z
Z
V
I
Z
V
I
v
z
t f I
v
z
t f I t z I
v
z
t f V
v
z
t f V t z V
LC
v
t
t z I
LC
z
t z I
t
t z V
LC
z
t z V
= = =
+ =
+ + =
=
=
c
c

c
c
=
c
c

c
c

+
+
+ +
+ +
ENEE482 33
Steady State Sinusoidal Waves
LC
C
L
Y
Z
V Y I V Y I e I e I z I
e V e V z V
v
z V
v dz
z V d
z CV j
z
z I
z LI j
z
z V
t V t V
c
c
c c
z j z j
z j z j
g g
e |
e
|
e
e
e
e
| |
| |
= = =
= = =
+ =
= = = +
=
c
c
=
c
c
=
+ + +
+
,
1
, , ) (
) (
, 0 ) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
cos ) (
2
2
2
2
ENEE482 34
Transmission Line Parameters
C
2

C
1

S
2 2
P , 2 /
2
P
is conductor the
of ty conductivi finite to due length unit per loss Power
4 4
W
4 4
W
: line of section m 1 for energy magnetic stored
average - time The . I be current the and V
: be conductors e between th voltage Let the
2
0
*
d
2
0
*
c
2
0
*
e
2
0
*
m
0 0
2 1
V
G dS E E I R d H H
R
V
C
dS E E
I
L
dS H H
e e
S
C C
s
S
S
z j z j
= -
' '
= = =
= - =
= - =
} }
}
}
+

c e
c

| |

ENEE482 35
Terminated Transmission Line
Z
L

Z
c

Z
To generator
1 /
1 /
,
1
1
t coefficien on Reflecti
) (
1
L
+

= I =
I
I +
= I
= = = =
= + =
+

+ +
+
c L
c L
c
L
L
L
L
c L
L
L
L
Z Z
Z Z
Z
Z
V
V
V V
Z Z
V
I I I I
V V V V
ENEE482 36
( )

|
|

u
|

u | u |
| |
tan
tan
1
1
)
2
( sin 4 1
,
) 1 (
2
1
) 1 )( 1 ( Re
2
1
) Re(
2
1
2 / 1
2
2
2
2
*
2
*
L c
c L
c
in
in
j
L
z j j z j
z j
L
z j
L c
L L c L L
jZ Z
jZ Z
Z
Z
Z
S
l V V
e e V e e V
e V e V V
V Y
V Y I V P
+
+
= =

+
=
(

+ =
= I + =
I + =
I =
(

I I + = =
+
+ +
+ +
+
+
ENEE482 37
Transmission Lines & Waveguides

Wave Propagation in the Positive z-Direction is Represented By:e
-j|z


( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
,
,
) (
) ( ) ( ) (
, ,
, , , , , ,
, ,
, , , , , ,
z t t z t t
z t t z t t
z j
z t z z z t z t
z j
z t
z j
z t z t
z j
z
z j
t
z t
z j
z
z j
t
z t
e j e h j h
e j h h j e
e h h j e a j e e a j e
e h h j e e e a j E
e y x h e y x h
z y x H z y x H z y x H
e y x e e y x e
z y x E z y x E z y x E
| |
ec e
e | |
e |
|
| |
| |
| |
= - V = - V
= V = V
+ = V + V
+ = + V = V
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ =




ENEE482 38
Modes Classification:

1. Transverse Electromagnetic (TEM) Waves
0 = =
z z
H E
2. Transverse Electric (TE), or H Modes
0 but , 0 = =
z z
H E
3. Transverse Magnetic (TM), or E Modes
0 But , 0 = =
z z
E H
4. Hybrid Modes
0 , 0 = =
z z
E H
ENEE482 39
TEM WAVES
( ) ( )
( )
z j
z
z j
t t
z j
t
z j
t t
t
t
t
t t
t t t
e e a Y e h H
e y x e e E
y x
y x y x e
h
e
e h
| |
| |
ec |
e |


= =
u V = =
= u V
u = u V =
= = V
= = V
= - V = - V

) , (
0 ,
ential Scalar Pot 0 , ,
e h a , 0
h e a

, 0
0 , 0
0
2
t 0 t z t
t 0 t z
t
ENEE482 40
waves TEM for
0 ] ) ( [ , 0 ) (
, but , 0
: equation Helmholtz satisfy must field The
direction z - or in the n propagatio for wave
H
E
Impedance Wave ,
1
0
2
0
2
t
2
0
2
2 2 2
t
2
0
2
0
y
x
0
0
0
k
k E k E
a j E k E
H
E
Z
Y
t t t t
t z t t
x
y
=
= + V V = + V
V = V V = V = + V
+
= =
= = =
|
| | | |
| |
q
q

c
ENEE482 41
TE WAVES
0
, 0
,
0
let , 0 ) (
0 ) , ( ) (
0
,
2
2
2 2 2 2 2
2
2 2
2
2 2
= - V = - V
= + V = V
= = V
= + V
= = + V
= + V
= + V
t t z t t
t z z t z t t
t t z z t t
z c z t
c z t
z z t
e h j h
e j h a j h a h
h e a h j e
h k h
k k h k
h k y x h
H k H
|
ec |
e | e
| |
|
ENEE482 42
h
x
y
h
t z t z t
z t
c
t
Z
h
e
k
Z
h a Z
k
h a e
h
k
j
h
= =
=
= = =
V =
y
x
0
0 0
0
2
h
e
Impedance Wave
;
q
|
c

q
| |
e
|
ENEE482 43
Admittance Wave

0
let , 0 ) (
0 ) , ( ) (
0
0
2
2
2
2 2 2 2 2
2
2 2
2
2 2
=
=
V =
= + V
= = + V
= + V
= + V
Y
k
Y
e a Y h
e
k
j
e
e k e
k k e k e
e k y x e
E k E
e
z e t
z t
c
t
z c z t
c z z t
z z t
|
|
| |
|
TM WAVES
ENEE482 44
TEM TRANSMISSION LINES
Parallel -plate
Two-wire
Coaxial
ENEE482 45
COAXIAL LINES
a b
c

c
|
=
= =
= u
= = u = = u + = u
=
u c
c
=
u c
u c
+
c
u c
c
c
0
j kz -
0
0
j kz -
r
0
0
0 2 1
2
2
2
e a
) / ln(
and e a
) / ln(
) / ln(
) / ln(
0 at 0 , at ln
0 for 0
1
) (
1
Y
a b r
V
Y H
a b r
V
E
b a
b r
V
r a r V C r C
r r
r
r r
ENEE482 46
) / ln(
Re
2
1
e
) / ln(
2
e
) / ln(
I
e
) / ln(

2
0 0
2
0
*
j kz -
2
0
0
0
j kz -
0
0
j kz -
0
0
a b
V Y
rdrd a H E P
a b
V
Y ad
a b a
V
Y
a
a b a
V
Y H a H n J
z
b
a
z r s
t
|
t
|
t
t
= - =
= =
= = =
} }
}
THE CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE OF A COAXIAL IS Z
0
Ohms ln
2
1
0 0
0
|
.
|

\
|
= =
a
b
Y I
V
Z
c
t
ENEE482 47
Z
c
OF COAXIAL LINE AS A FUNCTION OF b/a
c
r
Z
o
=
X
b
/
a

1
10
100
0

2
0

4
0

6
0

8
0

1
0
0

1
2
0

1
4
0

1
6
0

1
8
0

2
0
0

2
2
0

2
4
0

2
6
0

ENEE482 48
Transmission line with small losses
E J
Y Y
k k E a Y H e E
k
k
k
k j j k j j jk
j
j Y Y j k k
r r
r z
jkz
t
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r r r
r r r r
o
o c c
c
c |
c
c
o
c
c
c
c
c
c | o
c c c c
c
c
c
c c c c
=
' ' '
=
' = = u V =
'
=
'
' '
=
'
' '
+ ' ~
'
' '
' = + =
' << ' ' ' ' ' = =
' ' ' = ' ' ' =

ty conductivi the to equivalent is


, ,
,
2
2
) 1 (
losses small For ) (
) ( and ) (
0
0
0
0
0
0
2 / 1
0

0
2 / 1
0
2 / 1
0
ENEE482 49
0
0 c
*
* *
0
0
*
0
*
*
,
) / ln( 2
Re
2
1
2
Re
2
1
,
1
: loss conductor the to due loss power The
2 2
2
,
2
2 - ,
2 2
1
: is length unit per loss power The
2 1 2 1
c
c
o
oo
c
c
c
c e o
o
o
c e
o
o
'
=
+
=
- =
- = - =
+
=
'
' '
=
'
' '
= = - =
= =
c
c
=
-
' '
= - =
}
} }
}
} }
+ +

Y Y
ab
a b
a b
Y R
S d H E P
d H H
R
d J J Z P
j
Z
k
Y
Y
dS E E
Y
P
P P
z
P
e P P
dS E E dS J J P
m
s
S S
s
m
s
S S
s m
s
m
r
r
r
d
S
z
S S

ENEE482 50
Q
c
OF COAXIAL LINE AS A FUNCTION OF Z
o

Q
-
C
o
p
p
e
r

o
f

C
o
a
x
i
a
l

L
i
n
e
2000
2200
2400
2600
2800
3000
3200
3400
0
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
5
0
6
0
7
0
8
0
9
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
2
0
1
3
0
1
4
0
1
5
0
1
6
0
1
7
0
1
8
0
c
r Z
c
GHz
c
f b
Q
ENEE482 51
Parallel Plate Waveguide
w
y
x
d
jkz
w w
s
jkz
d
y
jkz
jkz jkz
t
t
e
d
wV
dx z H y dx z J I
e dy E V e
d
V
x E z y x H
e
d
V
y e y x e y x E
d
V
y y x e
d
y V
y x
y x



= - = - =
= = = =
= =
= u V = = u
= u
= u + = u
s s
s s = u V
} }
}
q
q
0
0 0
0
0
0
0
0 0
0
2
) (
V , ) , (
) , ( ) , (
) , ( , ) , (
V d) (x,
0, (x,0) By A y) (x,
d y 0
w, x 0 0 ) , (
TEM Modes
ENEE482 52
TM modes
z j -
z j -
2 2
2
2
2
e cos ) , , (
e sin ) , , (
sin ) , (
) (
,.... 3 , 2 , 1 , 0 , , 0 B
d 0, y at 0 ) , (
cos sin ) , (
0 ) , (
|
|
t ec
t
t
t
|
t
y
d
n
A
k
j
z y x H
y
d
n
A z y x E
y
d
n
A y x e
d
n
K
n n d k
y x e
y k B y k A y x e
y x e k
y
n
c
x
n z
n z
c
z
c c z
z c
=
=
=
=
= = =
= =
+ =
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
c
c
ENEE482 53

>
>
=
= - =
= =
= = =
= =
= =

=
} } } }
= = = =
0 n for
2
) Re(
0 n for
4
) Re(
2
1

2
1
2
,
Z
: is modes TM the of impedance wave The
2 2
0 E , e cos ) , , (
2
2
2
2
*
0 0 0 0
*
0
g
TM
x
z j -
n
c
n
c
x
w
x
d
y
y
w
x
d
y
p
x
y
c
c
y n
c
y
A
k
d
A
k
d
dydx H E dydx z H E P
v
k H
E
d
k
f
H y
d
n
A
k
j
z y x E
ec | e
ec | e
|
t

|
e
|q
ec
|
c
q
c t
t |
|
ENEE482 54
0 n for Np/m
2 2
2
2
2
loss conductor to due n Attenuatio
2
2
2 2
2
0
0
c
> = =
= |
.
|

\
|
=
=
}
=
d
kR
d
R
A
k
w R
dx J
R
P
P
P
s s
c
n
c
s
w
x
s
s
|q |
e
o
c e
o

ENEE482 55
TE Modes
z j -
z j -
2 2
2
2
2
e sin ) , , (
e cos ) , , (
cos ) , (
) (
,.... 3 , 2 , 1 , , 0 A
d 0, y at 0 ) , (
cos sin ) , (
0 ) , (
|
|
t e
t
t
t
|
t
y
d
n
B
k
j
z y x E
y
d
n
B z y x H
y
d
n
B y x h
d
n
k
n n d k
y x e
y k B y k A y x h
y x h k
y
n
c
x
n z
n z
c
x
c c z
z c
=
=
=
=
= = =
= =
+ =
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
c
c
ENEE482 56 Np/m
2
0 n For ) Re(
4
2
1

2
1
2
,
Z
: is modes TM the of impedance wave The
2 2
0 E , e sin ) , , (
2
c
2
2
*
0 0 0 0
*
0
g
TE
y
z j -
d k
R k
B
k
dw
dydx H E dydx z H E P
v
k
H
E
d
k
f
H y
d
n
B
k
j
z y x H
s c
n
c
y
w
x
d
y
x
w
x
d
y
p
y
x
c
c
x n
c
y
|q
o
|
e
|
t

|
e
|
q
|
e
c
q
c t
t |
|
=
> =
= - =
= =
= = =
= =
= = =
} } } }
= = = =
ENEE482 57
COUPLED LINES EVEN & ODD
MODES OF EXCITATIONS
AXIS OF EVEN SYMMETRY AXIS OF ODD SYMMETRY
P.M.C. P.E.C.
EVEN MODE ELECTRIC
FIELD DISTRUBUTION
ODD MODE ELECTRIC
FIELD DISTRIBUTION
e
Z
0
o
Z
0 =EVEN MODE CHAR.
IMPEDANCE
=ODD MODE CHAR.
IMPEDANCE
Equal currents are flowing
in the two lines
Equal &opposite currents are
flowing in the two lines
ENEE482 58
WAVEGUIDES
HOLLOW CONDUCTORS RECTANGULAR OR
CIRCULAR.
PROPAGATE ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY ABOVE
A CERTAIN FREQUENCY (CUT OFF)

INFINITE NUMBER OF MODES CAN PROPAGATE,
EITHER TE OR TM MODES

WHEN OPERATING IN A SINGLE MODE, WAVEGUIDE
CAN BE DESCRIBED AS A TRANSMISSION LINE WITH
C/C IMPEDANCE Z
c
& PROPAGATION CONSTANT

ENEE482 59
WAVEGUIDE PROPERTIES
FOR A W/G FILLED WITH DIELECTRIC c
r
:

( ) MODES TM FOR
377

MODES TE FOR
377

: IS Z IMPEDANCE WAVE
H WAVELENGT OFF CUT IS
TH WAVELENG GUIDE IS
SPACE FREE IN H WAVELENGT IS
DIELECTRIC IN TH WAVELENG IS
E WHER
1 1 1
1
1
w
1
2 2 2 2
1
g
r
g
r
W
C
g
c g
r
Z

c

=
|
.
|

\
|
=
+ = =
ENEE482 60
PROPAGATION PHASE CONSTANT:
LENGTH IT RADIANS/UN
2
g

t
| =
FOR RECTANGULAR GUIDE a X b, CUTOFF
WAVELENGTH OF TE
10
MODES ARE:
r
c
c C
f a c

8 . 11
, 2 = =
c
f : CUT OFF FREQUENCY IN GHz (
c
INCHES):
FOR CIRCULAR WAVEGUIDE OF DIAMETER D
CUTOFF WAVE LENGTH OF TE
11
MODE IS:

c
= 1.706 D
DOMINANT MODES ARE TE
10
AND TE
11
MODE
FOR RECTANGULAR & CIRCULAR WAVEGUIDES

ENEE482 61
RECTANGULAR WAVEGUIDE
MODE FIELDS
y
x
z
a
b
CONFIGURATION
ENEE482 62
TE modes
z j
mn z
y y x x z
c y x
y x
c
z
c
z c
e
b
y n
a
x m
A z y x H
y k D y k C x k B x k A y x h
k k k
k
dy
Y d
Y
k
dx
X d
X
k
dy
Y d
Y dx
X d
X
y Y x X y x h
k k
y x h k
y x
|
t t
|

=
+ + =
= +
= =
= + +
=
=
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
c
c
+
c
c
cos cos ) , , (
) sin cos )( sin cos ( ) , (
1
,
1
0
1 1
) ( ) ( ) , (
0 ) , (
2 2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2 2
2
2
2
2
2
ENEE482 63
TE
mn
MODES
2 2
2 / 1 2 2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
0
2
2
) ( ) (
2
1
2
) (
2
;
) ( ) ( k ;
e ) sin( ) cos(
e ) cos( ) sin(
,
0 , e ) cos( ) cos(
b
n
a
m k
f
a n b m
ab
k k
b
n
a
m
Z k
Z
b
y n
a
m
bk
n
j H
b
y n
a
x m
ak
m
j H
H Z E H Z E
E
b
y n
a
x m
H
c
cmn
c c
c h
z j
c
y
z j
c
x
x h y y h x
z
z j
z
t t
c t c t
|
t t
|
t t t |
t t t |
t t
|
|
|
+ = =
+
= =
+ = =
=
=
= =
= =

ENEE482 64
The dominant mode is TE
10

10
10
10
2 2
2
3
10 *
10
2
0 0
2 3
2
2
10
2
2 3 2
3
cos
sin
sin
0
/ , k ( / )
1
Re Re( )
2 4
( )
2 2 2
(2 )
j z
z
j z
y
j z
x
x z y
c
a b
x y
s
s s
C
s
c
x
H A e
a
j a x
E A e
a
j a x
H A e
a
E E H
k a a
a A b
P E H zdydx
R a a
P J d R A b
R
b a k
a b k
|
|
|
t
e t
t
| t
t
t | t
e
|
t
|
t
o t
| q

= =
=

=
=
= = =
= =
= - =
= = + +
= +
} }
}
Np/m
ENEE482 65
2 / 1 2 2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
0
2
2
e e
) (
2
;
) ( ) ( k ;
e ) cos( ) sin(
e ) sin( ) cos(
Z / , /Z
0
e ) sin( ) sin(
a n b m
ab
k k
b
n
a
m
k
Z
Z
b
y n
a
m
bk
n
j E
b
y n
a
x m
ak
m
j E
E H E H
H
b
y n
a
x m
E
c c
c e
z j
c
y
z j
c
x
x y y x
z
z j
z
+
= =
+ = =
=
=
= =
=
=

|
t t |
t t t |
t t t |
t t
|
|
|
TM
mn
MODES
ENEE482 66
TE Modes of a Partially Loaded
Waveguide
x
y
m0
2
2
2
2
2
2
TE have no y - variation and the structure is uniform in the y-direction
0 for 0 x t
x
0 for t x a
x
, are the cutoff wavenumbers for dielectric and air regions
d z
a z
d a
k h
k h
k k
| | c
+ = s s
|
c
\ .
| | c
+ = s s
|
c
\ .
2 2 2 2
r 0 0
cos sin for 0 x t
cos ( ) sin ( ) for t x a
d a
d d
z
a a
k k k k
A k x B k x
h
C k a x D k a x
| c = =
+ s s

=

+ s s

ENEE482 67
|
e
e
to yields can hat equation t stic characteri the is This
0 ) ( tan tan
) ( cos cos
) ( sin sin
k
A
-
t at x continuous are ) , (E , 0 D B
a x and 0 at x 0 E that conditions Boundary e satisfy th To
a x for t ) ( cos ) ( sin [
t x 0 for ] cos sin [
d
y
y
0
0
= +
=
=
= = =
= = =

s s
s s +
=
t a k k t k k
t a k C t k A
t a k
k
C
t k
H
x a k D x a k C
k
j
x k B x k A
k
j
e
a d d a
a d
a
a
d
x
a a
a
d d
d
y
ENEE482 68
CIRCULAR WAVEGUIDE MODES
x
y
r
a |
z
ENEE482 69
TE Modes
0 ) (
0 ,
1
0
1 1 1
) ( ) ( ) , (
0 ) , (
1 1
) , ( ) , , (
0
2 2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2 2
= + +
= u +
u
=
u
u

= +
u
u
+ +
u =
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
= + V

R k k
d
dR
d
R d
k
d
d
k
d
d
k
d
d
d
dR
R d
R d
R
R h
h k
e h z H
H k H
c
c
z
z c
z j
z z
z z
|
| |
|

| |
|
| |
|
|
| |
ENEE482 70
z j
c n
c
c n
c n
c n c n
c n c n
c
e k J n B n A
k
j
z
E
k J n B n A
k Y
k Y k J
k DY k J
R n k
d
dR
d
R d
n k n B n A
|
|
|
|
| |
e
|
|
| | |


| | |

'
+ =
= =
+ =
= =
+ =
= + +
= + = u
) ( ) cos sin ( ) , , ( E
a at 0 ) , ( condition boundary The
) ( ) cos sin ( ) , ( h
0 D 0 at infinite is ) (
kinds. second and first of function Bessel the are ) ( ), (
) ( ) ( C ) R(
: is solution The equation. ial Different s Bessel'
0 ) (
, cos sin ) (
z
2 2 2
2
2
2
2 2
ENEE482 71
z j
c n
c
z j
c n
c
z j
c n
c
z j
c n
c
nm c
cnm
nm
c
nm
cnm
n nm nm n c n
e k J n B n A
k
n j
H
e k J n B n A
k
j
H
e k J n B n A
k
j
E
e k J n B n A
k
n j
E
a
p k
f
a
p
k k k
a
p
k
J p p J a k J
|
|
|

|
|
|

| |

|
| |
|
| |
e
| |

e
c t c t
|

=
' +

=
' + =

=
'
= =
'
= =
'
=
' = ' = ' ' = '
) ( ) sin cos (
) ( ) cos sin (
) ( ) cos sin (
) ( ) sin cos (
2 2
) ( ,
of root mth 0 ) ( , 0 ) (
2
2
2 2 2 2
nm
ENEE482 72
0
) ( cos
) ( sin
) ( sin
) ( cos
) ( sin
TE is Mode Dominant
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
11
=

=
'

=
'
=

=
=
=

= =

z
z j
c
c
z j
c
c
z j
c
c
z j
c
c
z j
c z
TE
E
e k J A
k
j
H
e k J A
k
j
H
e k J A
k
j
E
e k J A
k
j
E
e k J A H
k
H
E
H
E
Z
|
|
|

|
|
|

|
|

|
|

|
|
e
|

e
|
|
q
ENEE482 73
TE
nm
MODES
nm c c
nm h
n nm
h h
z j
c
nm n
z j
c
nm n nm
z
z j
nm
n z
p a k k
a p kZ Z
x p
H Z H Z E
n
n
e
rk
a p J jn
H
n
n
e
ak
a p J p j
H
E
n
n
e
a
p
J H
'
= =
'
= =
' '
= =
)
`

'

=
)
`

' ' '

=
=
)
`

|
.
|

\
|
'
=

/ 2 ;
/ k ; /
) ( J of zeros th m' the is
E ;
) cos(
) sin(

) / (

) sin(
) cos(

) / (
0

) sin(
) cos(

2 2 2
c 0
2
2
t |
|

|
|

|
ENEE482 74
nm c c
nm e
n nm
e e
z j
c
nm n
z j
c
nm n nm
z
z j
nm
n z
p a k k
a p k Z Z
x p
Z E Z E H
n
n
e
rk
a p J jn
E
n
n
e
ak
a p J p j
E
H
n
n
e
a
p
J E
/ 2 ;
/ k ; /
) ( J of zeros th m' the is
/ H ; /

) cos(
) sin(

) / (

) sin(
) cos(

) / (
0

) sin(
) cos(

2 2 2
c 0
2
2
t |
|

|
|

|
= =
= =
= =
)
`

=
)
`

' '

=
=
)
`

|
.
|

\
|
=

TM
nm
MODES
ENEE482 75
TM
01

TE
11

TM
11

TE
01
TE
21
TE
31

TM
21

0
1
f
c
/f
cTE11

Cutoff frequencies of the first few TE
And TM modes in circular waveguide
ENEE482 76
ATTENUATION IN WAVEGUIDES
ATTENUATION OF THE DOMINANT MODES (TE
m0
) IN
A COPPER RECTANGULAR WAVEGUIDE DIM. a X b, AND
(TE
11
) CIRCULAR WAVEGUIDE, DIA. D ARE:
length dB/unit
1
42 . 0
10 8 . 3
length dB/unit
1
2
1
10 9 . 1
2
2
4
) ( c
2
2
4
(
11
) 0
|
|
.
|

\
|

(
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=

f
f
f
f
D
f x
f
f
f
f
a
b
b
f x
c
c
r
TE
c
c
r
TE c
m
c
o
c
o
WHERE f IS THE FREQUENCY IN GHz
ENEE482 77
ATTENUATION IN COPPER WAVEGUIDES
DUE TO CONDUCTOR LOSS
0.0000
0.0002
0.0004
0.0006
0.0008
0.0010
0.0012
0.0014
0.0016
0.0018
0.0020
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2
(f/fc)
A
l
f
a
*
a
/
S
q
r
t
(
e
p
s
r
*
f
(
G
H
z
)
)

d
B

(
G
H
z
)
^
(
-
1
/
2
)
Alfa TE0m;b/a=.45
Alfa TEm0;b/a=.5
Alfa Circ. TE11
E
a
b
Rectangular
Guide
E
a
Circular Guide
ENEE482 78
Higher Order Modes in Coaxial Line
TE Modes:
c
c n c n c n c n
c n c n
c n c n
c
c n c n z
k
a k Y b k J b k Y a k J
b k Y D b k J C
a k Y D a k J C
k
k DY k CJ n B n A h
for solve to equation stic characteri the is This
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
0 ) ( ) (
0 ) ( ) (
b a, at 0 ) ( E conditions Boundary
)) ( ) ( )( cos sin ( ) , (
' ' = ' '
= ' + '
= ' + '
= =
+ + + =

| | |
|
ENEE482 79
Grounded Dielectric Slab
d
x
z Dielectric
Ground plane
TM Modes
2
0
2 2 2 2
0
2
z j -
z
2 2
0
2
2
2 2
0
2
2
z -j
, Let
e ) , ( ) , , ( E
x d for 0 ) , (
x
d x 0 for 0 ) , (
x
variation e Assume
k h k k
y x e z y x
y x e k
y x e k
r c
z
z
z r
= =
=
s s =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
c
c
s s =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
c
c
| | c
|
| c
|
|
ENEE482 80
. , equations two the Solving
) 1 ( tan
cos , sin
0 , 0
0
d at x continuous
d at x continuous
at
0 at 0
: are conditions Boundary
x d for ) , (
d x 0 for cos sin ) , (
2
0
2 2
r
h k
k h k h d k k
e
h
D
d k
k
A
De d k A
C B
H E H
(x,y,z) H
(x,y,z) E
x (x,y,z) E
x (x,y,z) E
De Ce y x e
x k B x k A y x e
c
r c r c c
hd
c
c
hd
c
z y x
y
z
z
z
hx hx
z
c c z

= + =
= =
= =
= = =
=
=
<
= =
s s + =
s s + =

c c
c
ENEE482 81
Stripline
w
x
y
b
z
Approximate Electrostatic Solution:
0
-a/2
a/2
y
b 0, y &
2 / at 0 ) , (
0 ) , (
2
=
= = u
= u V
a x y x
y x
t
b/2
ENEE482 82

s s

|
.
|

\
|
s s
|
.
|

\
|
=
c
u c
=
= =

s s

s s
= u

=
1
1
1
1
b y b/2 for
) (
cosh cos
b/2 y 0 for cosh cos
b/2 y at continuous be must Potential
b y b/2 for
) (
sinh cos
b/2 y 0 for sinh cos
) , (
n
n
n
n
y
y
n n
n
n
n
n
a
y b n
a
x n
a
n
A
a
y n
a
x n
a
n
A
E
y
E
B A
a
y b n
a
x n
B
a
y n
a
x n
A
y x
t t t
t t t
t t
t t
ENEE482 83
w dx Q
a
b n
A dy y x E V
a b n n
a w n a
A
a
b n
a
n
a
n
A
b y x D b y x D x
w
w
x
w
w
s
odd
n
n
b
y
r
n
odd
n
n r
y y
= =
= = =
=
=
= = =

>
<
=
}

=
+
2 /
2 /
1
2 /
0
0
2
1
0
s
s
2
sinh ) , 0 (
) 2 / cosh( ) (
) 2 / sin( 2
2
cosh cos ) ( 2
) 2 / , ( ) 2 / , ( ) (
2 / x for 0
2 / x for 1
) ( Let

t
t c c t
t
t t t
c c

ENEE482 84
impedance stic characteri the is
1
) 2 / cosh( ) (
2
sinh ) 2 / sin( 2
0
0
1
0
2
Z
cC C v C
L
Z
a b n n
a
b n
a w n a
w
V
Q
C
r
p
odd
n
r
c
t c c t
t
t
= = =
= =

=
ENEE482 85
Microstrip
d
w
x
y

solution tic Electrosta e Approximat An
1
constant. dielectric effective the is
,
0
r e
e
e
e
p
k
c
v
c c
c
c |
c
< <
= =

0, y at 0 ) , (
, 2 / at 0 ) , (
0 ) , (
2
= = u
= = u
= u V
y x
a x y x
y x
t
-a/2
a/2
ENEE482 86

s s
|
.
|

\
|
s s
|
.
|

\
|

=
c
u c
=
= =

s s
s s
= u

=
1
d)/a - (y n -
1
1
1
y d for e
(
sinh cos
d y 0 for cosh cos
sin d y at continuous be must Potential
y d for cos
d y 0 for sinh cos
) , (
n
n
n
n
y
y
a
d n
n n
n
a
y n
n
n
n
a
d n
a
x n
a
n
A
a
y n
a
x n
a
n
A
E
y
E
e B
a
x n
A
e
a
x n
B
a
y n
a
x n
A
y x
t
t
t
t t t
t t t
t
t
t t
ENEE482 87
w dx Q
a
d n
A dy y x E V
a d n a d n n
a w n a
A
a
d n
a
d n
a
n
a
n
A
d y x D d y x D x
w
w
x
w
w
s
odd
n
n
d
y
r
n
r
odd
n
n
y y
= =
= = =
+
=
(

+ =
= = =

>
<
=
}

=
+
2 /
2 /
1
0
0
2
1
0
s
s
sinh ) , 0 (
) / cosh( ) / [sinh( ) (
) 2 / sin( 4
cosh sinh cos ) ( 2
) , ( ) , ( ) (
2 / x for 0
2 / x for 1
) ( Let

t
t c t c t
t
t
c
t t t
c

ENEE482 88
impedance stic characteri the is
1
1) ( dielectric air an
with line microstrip the of length unit per e Capacitanc
constant dielectric a
with line microstrip the of length unit per e Capacitanc
) / cosh( ) / [sinh( ) (
sinh ) 2 / sin( 2
1
0
0
0
r
0
r
1
0
2
Z
cC C v
Z
C
C
C
C
a d n a d n w n
a
d n
a w n a
V
Q
C
e
p
e
odd
n
r
r
c
c
c
c
t c t c t
t
t
= =
=
=
=
=
+
= =

=
ENEE482 89
The Transverse Resonance Technique
y y y all for 0 ) ( Z ) ( Z
zero be must side either to looking seen impedances
input The line, on the anypoint at line, resonant a For
in
r
in
= +

TM Modes for the parallel plate waveguide
w
d
x
y
0
d
y
) ( Z
r
in
y
) ( Z
in
y

ENEE482 90
0,1,2,.. n for
0
cos ) ( cos
sin
0 ] tan ) ( [tan
resonance erse for transv Condition
tan ) (
) ( tan ) (

/ Z
0
= = =
=

= +

=
=
= =
= =
d
n
k k
y k y d k
y k
jZ
y k y d k jZ
y k jZ y Z
y d k jZ y Z
k
k k Z
y c
y y
y
TM
y y TM
y TM in
y TM
r
in
y TM
t
c e
c

q
q

ENEE482 91
b
a
e
r1

MODES IN DIELTECTRIC LOADED WAVEGUIDE
e
r
2

CATEGORIES OF FIELD SOLUTIONS:
TE
0m
MODES
TM
0m
MODES
HYBRID HE
nm
MODES

ENEE482 92
BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
FIELDS SATISFY THE WAVE EQUATION,
SUBJECT TO THE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
E
z
, E
|
, H
z
, H
|
ARE CONTINUOUS AT r=b
E
z
, E
|
VANISH AT r=a
(

'
(

=
(
(

'
(

=
(
(

=
= s s
) (
/ ) (
/
sin
) (
/ ) (
/
1
cos
sin ) (
j

cos ) ( a r 0 for
1
1 1
2 2
1
1
1 1
2 2
1
1
1
1
1
r J
r r J
nk
n
n A
H j
E
r J
r r J
k n
n
n A
H j
E
n r AJ H
n r AJ E
n
n
r
n
n
r
n z
n z


o
o


o
o

e
o

ENEE482 93
(

'
(

=
(
(

'
(

=
(
(

=
= s s
) (
/ ) (
/
sin
) (
/ ) (
/
1
cos
sin ) (
j

cos ) ( b r a for
2
1 2
2 2
2 2
2
1 2
2 2
2 2
2
2
r P
r r R
nk
n
n A
H j
E
r R
r r P
k n
n
n A
H j
E
n r P A H
n r R A E
n
n
r
n
n
r
n z
n n z
,
,
o
o
,

e
,
,
o
o
,

e
, o

e
,

WHERE A IS AN ARBITRARY CONSTANT


ENEE482 94
Characteristic equation
0
2 2
0
2
= + =
n n n n
W V a k U G
Where z=
1
a is the radial wave number in c


(
(

'
+
'
=
(

+ =
= = =
+ = + =
) (
) (
) (
) (
1 1
) (
k ; k ;
) ( ;
2
2
1
1
2 2
2
2 2
1
1
0 0
2
0
2
0 2
2
2
2
0 1
2
1
2 2
2
2
2
2 2
1
2
1
a
a P
a
a J
V
a a
a nJ U
k k k
k k
n n
n
n n
r r
,
,

c e c c
,
ENEE482 95
(
(

'

'
'

'
=
'
(
(

'

'
' '

' '
=
'
(

'
+ =
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
1 2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
1 2
2
2
2
1
1
1
b K a I b I a K
b K r I b I r K
a J r R
b K a I b I a K
b K r I b I r K
a J r P
a
a R
a
a J
W
n n n n
n n n n
n n
n n n n
n n n n
n n
n
r
n
r n
, , , ,
, , , ,
,
, , , ,
, , , ,
,
,
,
c

c
ENEE482 96
For n = 0, the Characteristic Equation Degenerates in two
Separate Independent Equations for TE and TM Modes:
0
) (
) (
) (
) (
2
2
1
1
=
(
(

'
+
'
=
a
a P
a
a J
V
n n
n
,
,

For TE Modes
And:
0
) ( ) (
2
2
2
1
1
1
=
(

'
+ =
a
a R
a
a J
W
n
r
n
r n
,
,
c

c
For TM Modes
ENEE482 97
COMPLEX MODES
COMPLEX PROPAGATION CONSTANT :
= o +j|
ONLY HE MODE CAN SUPPORT COMPLEX WAVES
PROPAGATION CONSTANT OF COMPLEX MODES
ARE CONJUGATE :

| o j =
COMPLEX MODES DONT CARRY REAL POWER
COMPLEX MODES CONSTITUTE PART OF THE
COMPLETE SET OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD
SPACE
COMPLEX MODES HAVE TO BE INCLUDED IN THE
FIELD EXPANSIONS FOR CONVERGENCE TO
CORRECT SOLUTIONS IN MODE MATCHING
TECHNIQUES.
ENEE482 98
OPTICAL FIBER
c
1

2a
Step-index fiber
IN CIRCULAR CYLINDRICAL COORDINATES:

) ( ; ) (
cos
sin
) ( H ;
cos
sin
) ( H
sin
cos
) ( E ;
sin
cos
) ( E
a r a r
a r for 0 i
a, r for 1 i ; 0 ) (
1 1
2 / 1 2 2
0 2
2 / 1 2 2
1
2 z2 1 z1
2 z2 1 z1
2 2
2
2
2 2
2
1
| |
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
+ = =
)
`

=
)
`

=
)
`

=
)
`

=
> <
> =
< = = +
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
k k k k
n
n
r k BK
n
n
r k BJ
n
n
r k AK
n
n
r k AJ
E k
E
r r
E
r r
E
c c
c n c n
c n c n
z i
z z z
ENEE482 99
For the symmetric case n=0, the solution break into Separate
TE and TM sets. The continuity condition for E
z1
= E
z2
and H
|1
= H
|2
at r=a gives for the TM set:

( ) a k K
a k K
a k
a k
a k J
a k J
c
c
c
c
c
c
2 0
2 1
2 1
1 0
1 0
1 1
) (
) (
) (
c
c
=
The continuity condition for H
z1
= H
z2
and E
|1
= E
|2
at r=a gives for the TE set:
( ) a k K
a k K
k
k
a k J
a k J
c
c
c
c
c
c
2 0
2 1
2
1
1 0
1 1
) (
) (
) (
=
If n is different from 0, the fields do not separate into TM
and TE types, but all the fields become coupled through
continuity conditions.
ENEE482 100
Parallel Plate Transmission Line
a
b
c
c


Partially loaded parallel
Plate waveguide
y
x
2
0
2 2
2 2
2 2
0
2 2 2
k ) 1 (
region dielectric for the
region air for
Let
region dielectric the in - k
region air the in - k
, 0 : modes TM
with variation no , variation Assume
=

= = + V

r
c
c z c z t
z j
p
p
k
k e k e
x e
c
|
|
|

ENEE482 101

c
c

c
c

=
c
c
=
c
c
=
= = =
s s = +
s s = +
= =
region air for
region dielectric For
) (
1
at continuous is
at continuous is ) ( , , 0 at 0 ) (
for 0
0 for 0
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
y
e
p
j
y
e j
y e
y
e
p y
e
a y H
a y y e b y y e
b y a e p
dy
e d
a y e
dy
e d
z
z
y
a y
z
a y
z r
x
z z
z
z
z
z
|
|
c

ENEE482 102
p p
pc p a
pc C
p
a C
pc C a C
b y a y b p C y e
a y y C y e
y
e
p
Y jk
y
e Y k j
y h
r
r
r
z
z
z
z r
x
, k ) 1 ( usly with simultaneo
solved be must equation tal Transceden tan tan
cos
1
cos
sin sin
) ( sin ) (
0 sin ) (
region air for
region dielectric For
) (
2
0
2 2
2 1
2 1
2
1
2
0
2
0 0

=
=
=
=
s s =
s s =

c
c
c
c
=
c
c
c
c
ENEE482 103
2
0
2
0
2
0
0 0 0 0
0
0 0
) 1 (
tan tan
: then of value ing correspond the be to Let
if occur can and between of value The
k p
c p p a
jp p k k
r
r
= +
=
=
c
c
|



lly. exponentia decays field the and is variation The
imaginary is if ting nonpropaga be will modes the of Most
k
2 2 2 2
0
z
e
l k p
|
|
|

= =
ENEE482 104
Low Frequency Solution
When the frequency is low,
constant dielectric effective the is
k
is for solution The
k ) 1 (
or
k ) 1 (
small very are and , number small very is k
0 0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
0 0
2
0
e
e
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
k k
c a
b
p
c a
a
p
a
c p
p
c p a
p
c
c
c
c
|
|
c
c
c
c
c
=
+
= + =
+

=
=
=

ENEE482 105
W
b
L WJ I
LI WbJ dxdy H W
W
C L C
z z
z z
b w
w
x m
m
e
2
2
4
1
2 4
is energy magnetic stored average time The
meter. per
e capacitanc and inductance static the are , L
0
2 2
0
0
2
0


e c
= =
= = =
=
} }

a
b
c
c


y
x
-W W
ENEE482 106
c
a c
C jY C
Y k j
h
c
b
jC C
j
e
y C e
a y
c p a jC c p j a C C
r
r r r
x
r
y
z
) 1 (
) (
) 1 (
0
/ sinh / sin
1 0 1
0
0 0
1 1
0
0 1
0 0 1 0 0 1 2

+
= =

= =
=
s s
~ =
c
c c c
c
|
|


LC
a c
b
LC
a c
W
C
a
W
C
c
W
C
C C
C C
C
r
r
r
r
r
d a
d a
d a
e |
c
c c
c
c c
c c c
=
+
=
+
=
= =
+
=

2
2
,
2
, e capacitanc The
0 0
0
0 0
ENEE482 107
LC
a c
b
LC
a c
W
C
a
W
C
c
W
C
C C
C C
C
r
r
r
r
r
d a
d a
d a
e |
c
c c
c
c c
c c c
=
+
=
+
=
= =
+
=

2
2
,
2
, e capacitanc The
0 0
0
0 0
c
b
jC C
j
e
y C e
a y
c p a jC c p j a C C
r
y
z
) 1 (
0
/ sinh / sin
: s expression Field
1 1
0
0 1
0 0 1 0 0 1 2

= =
=
s s
~ =
c
|
|


ENEE482 108
x z z
r
r
b
y
r
r r
x
r
r y
z
r
r r r
x
WH WJ I
c a
c
b
jC dy e V
c
a c
C jY C
Y k j
h
c
b
jC C
c p
a j
e
c
y b
a C e
c
a c
C jY C
Y k j
h
2 2
) (
) 1 (
) 1 (
) (
) 1 (
) (
: region air the In
) 1 (
) (
1
0
1 0 1
0
0 0
1 1
2
0
0
0 1
1 0 1
0
0 0
= =
+

= =

+
= =

= =

+
= =
}
c
c
c
c c
c
c
|
c
c c c

ENEE482 109
mod E an is n propagatio of mode the frequency hight At
mode) TEM - (quasi mode TEM a becomed n propagatio
of mode dominant the limit, frequency low the In
) (
2
0
C
L b c a
W
Z
I
V
Z
r
r
c
=
+
= =
c
c
: is impedance stic characteri The
ENEE482 110
High Frequency Solution:
mode. wave
surface called is mode of type This sheet. dielectric by the guided is
field The large. is ) ( as long as b on depend not does and
surface dielectric - air the from away lly exponentia decays field The
a for sin sin

) ( sinh
) ( sinh
sin ) ( sinh ) (
0 for sin ) (
of t independen is solution The ) 1 (
) 1 ( tanh
1 tanh
large. are , and frequency high At
0 0
) (
0 1
) (
) (
0 1
0
0
0 1 0 2
0 1
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0 0 0 0
0
0 0 0
0
0
0
a b p c p
b y ae C
e
e
a C
a b p
y b p
a C y b p j C y e
a y y C y e
b k p
k p a
c p
p k
a y p
a b p
y b p
z
z
r
r r r
=
s s = =

= =
s s =
= +
= =
~

c
c c c
ENEE482 111
Microstrip Transmission Line
H
w
y y y z z x x r
s
s
a E a E a E D
J D j H
A j E
A j B j E A B
H y z x J z y x J
H y z x z y x
) (
: dielectric c anisotropi For
,
) ( ) , ( ) , , (
) ( ) , ( ) , , (
0 0
c c c c
e
e
e e
o
o
+ + =
+ = V
u V =
V = = V V =
=
=

x
y
ENEE482 112
z z r z
x x r x
y y y r y
r r
r
y y y y
z x z z x x r
J A k y A
J A k y A
J
J
y
a A a j
A j j A
j A
y
a a A j
z
a
x
a a A a A j D
J D j A A A
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0 0
0 0 0
2
0 0
0
0
0 0
2
) (
) (
component a y have not does
] ) (
[ -
condition) (Lorentz let
) (
] ) ( [
c
c
e c c c
c c c ec e
c ec
e c c
e c c
e
= + V
= + V

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
u c
+
V u + = V
u = - V
c
u c
+
c
u c
+
c
u c
+ + =
+ = V - VV = V V
ENEE482 113
( )
y
A
j H y H A j
k
y y y x
D
H y H
y
j
y r
j A k y A
y
r y y y
r y
r r y
r y
r
y y y
c
c
+ =
u +
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
u c
c
c
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
u c
+
c
u c
= - V
(

u +
c
u c
=
(

c
u c

c
c
u = + V
) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 (

) ( ) 1 ) ( ) (
) ( ) (
0
2
0
2
2
2
2
2
r
0 0
0 0
2
0
2
c c e o c e
c

c c c

o c c c c e
c c
c
c e c
ENEE482 114
) ( ) 1 (
) ( ) 1 (
,
,

) ( ) , ( lim lim
0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0
0 0
2
2
0
H A j
y y
H j
y
A
H
y
A
H
y
A
J
y
A
J
y
A
J
dy H y z x J
y
A
dy
y
A
y y
s
H
y
H
r
H
H
y
x
z
z
x
sz
H
H
z
sx
H
H
x
sx
sx
H
H
H
H
x
H
H
x
+ =
c
u c

c
u c
u =
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c
=
=
c
c
=
c
c
+
+

} }
+

c e
c

c
c c e

o
t
t
t
t
t
t
Boundary conditions:
ENEE482 115
y r
y r
y
r y r
r
y
r y y y
z r
x r
y
A
j k
y z x
y
j A k
A k
A k
c c
c c
c c e c
c
c
c c c e c
c
c
=
= =
c
c
= u +
c
u c
+
c
u c
+
c
u c
c
u c
= + V
= + V
= + V
substrate isotropic an For
1 region air the In
) (
) ( ) (
0 ) (
0 ) (
: have we interface the from away region substrate the In
2
0
2
2
2
2
2
2
0 0
2
0
2
2
0
2
2
0
2