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ADL 05
ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR ADL 05 ASSIGNMENT : A Q.1. What is your understanding of Johari Window? What is the major difference between blind and hidden area, how does it facilitates a manager in his/her organizational life? Ans.1. The Johari Window names after the first names if its inventors, Joseph .Luft and Harry Ingham, (formed by taking 'Jo', 'Har' and 'I' from authors names) .is one of the most useful models describing the process of human interaction. Through this window we can get a view of ourselves as it appears to us and as it appears to others. It increases our effectiveness and growth and makes us aware of our strengths and weakness. It presents a visual model of awareness. and has four paned "window" as illustrated below, divides personnel awareness. into four different types as represented by its four quadrants. The two column represent aspects of self awareness and two rows represent awareness of the other people, superior, colleague, friends, and group members. Open, Hidden, Blind and Unknown. Known to others Not known to others Known to self 1 Open (Arena) Hidden 3 Not known to self 2. Blind Unknown 4

# Quadrant 1 is openness, honesty and frankness, knowledge, behavior feeling & motivation. Since, it is information available to both self and others it can only be possible where there is a fairly good degree of sharing and interaction. The larger this quadrant, the greater is the persons contact with reality and the more .available are his abilities and needs. # Quadrant 2 is blind area, behavior not known to self, but readily apparent to others. We may have gestures, mannerism in behavior and speech of which we .may not be aware unless someone tell us. The individual irritates the others unintentionally although latter could tell the former about this aspect, but one may be afraid of hurting his or her feelings. # Quadrant 3 is behavior, feelings, motivation known to self, but hidden from others. It is sometimes called hidden agenda. The individual understands himself or herself but does not know about other persons. Consequently, he tends to .hide from others for fear of their reactions. The true feelings or attitudes of the individual may remain secret from others. # Quadrant 4 (Undiscovered self) is behaviour , feelings and motivation not known to self or others. Here the individual does not know about himself or herself and also does not abut others parties. We know this gradient exist because both the person and others sometimes discover new behaviour or motives. This form of interaction is highly explosive. Difference between Blind and hidden Area: The Blind Quadrant represents things that you know about me, but that I am not aware of, for example in an on going conversation you may notice that eye contact may be lacking. You may not say anything,

since you may not want to embarrass him or you may draw your own inferences that perhaps he is being insincere. The Hidden Quadrant represents things that I know bout myself, that you do not know. For example a person, who resents a remark by another, but keeps the resentments inside. Or in a meeting a member may focus attention on a particular project, which embraces others. Johari Window helps manager to accomplish corporate health and excellence by overcoming barriers in communication land also feeling of impotence, distrust, resentment, insecurity, and social inconsequence, which people have at their work. Managers with the help of Johari Window can develop better communication which inturn gives clarity of purpose and shared activity for working towards a common goal.

02. How well you use the concept of Transactional Analysis for removing dysfunctional behaviour in your organization? Substantiate your answer with suitable illustration. Ans.2. Dysfunctional Behaviour: Organizational conflicts that hinder organizations growth and prevent it to achieve its goals can be termed as dysfunctional behaviour. Since a group exist to achieve certain pre-determined goals, the functionality of conflicts can be measured by the impact it has to group or unit performance, rather than on a single individual. The figure below shoes the relationship between organization conflicts and group or unit performance. Organizational Conflict & Unit Performance The figure above shows that there is an optional, highly functional level of conflict at which the unit's performance is at the maximum. This can happen because at that level of conflict the group or the unit's internal environment is characterized by self-criticism and innovativeness. When the conflict level is to low, it is dysfunctional as the unit performance is low due to epathy, stagnation, lack of new idea and non-responsiveness of the unit's members to the demand of change. In such a situation, a manger may have resolve to stimulating conflicts to make the unit more viable. On the other hand, .when the conflict level is to high, it is again dysfunctional as the survival of the group or the unit is threatened owing to diversion of energies away from performance and goal attainment activities of the members. Chaos and disruption prevails. Transaction analysis (TA):- Refers to study of transaction that take place between two individuals. TA was originally developed by Dr. Eric Berne. TA is based on hypothesis that a person has a multiple nature. Life positions: Life for psychological positions refers to the dominant philosophy of an individual.

(i) l am ok. You are ok : This positions refers to an adult ego state, where managers delegate authority and tend to be effective. They are concerned with both people and for the task. (ii) l am not ok, you are not ok: Managers operating with this life positions are too much fast-oriented. They don't delegate authority and feel decentralization is a threat. (iii) l am not ok you are ok : Manager this position tend to be too much relations-oriented. They tend to be erratic and unpredictable. (iv) l am not ok you are not ok : Managers in this life position tend to be indecisive and provocative. They are neither relations-oriented nor fast oriented. Q3. What is stress? Is it always bad for the individual? Explain the nature mechanism and classification of stress. Ans.3. Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraint or demand related to he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important. Stress is not necessarily bad in and of itself. While stress is typically discussed in a negative context, It also has a positive value. It is an opportunity when it offers potential gain. For example, a sports man often use stress positively to rise to the occasion and perform at or near their maximum. If we want to appraise the total amount of stress and individual is under, we have to sum up his or her opportunity stresses, constraint stresses and demand stresses. Some people thrive on stressful situations, while others are overwhelmed by them. Nature, Mechanism and Classification of Stress:.There are three sets of factors; namely environmental, organizational and individual -that acts as potential sources of stress. Environmental Factors :Changes in the business cycle create economic uncertainties. Political uncertainties also could have an impact. Technological uncertainly, caused by now innovations are a threat to many people and causes stress. Organizational Factors: .Pressures to avoid errors or complete tasks in a limited time period, work overload, a demanding and insensitive boss, unpleasant workforce are few examples of organizational factors. Individual Factors: Individual factors like family issue's, personal economic problems, relationship issues etc., all influence stress. That is stress symptoms expressed on the job may actually originate in the person's personality. .At least five variable have been found to be relevant moderate. (i) Perception-: Perception will moderate the relationship between a potential stress conditions and an employee's reaction to it. Job Experience: The evidence indicates that experience on the job tends


to be negatively related to work stress. (iii) Social Support: Social support is collegial relationships with co-workers or superiors -can buffer the impact of tress. Social support act as a palliative, mitigate the negative effects of even high strain jobs. Locus of Control: Internal and External locus of control confront a Stressful situation, the internals believe they control their destiny and vice versa by the Externals. Hostility : Some peoples personality includes a high degree of hostility and anger. These people are ironically suspicious and mistransful of others. Evidence indicates that hostility increases a persons stress and risk for health.

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Q.4. In our culture, do you thin the traditional or the behaviour approach to conflict management is most frequently taken by the managers? Give plausible reasons for your projected answer? . .Ans. 4. Management today is faced with the awesome responsibility of ensuring optimum levels of growth and productivity in an environment that is full of conflict .situations. Conflicts could be within an Individual between individuals between Individuals .and a group, between groups within an organizations or conflict between organizations. .Traditional View: .According to them, conflict was . viewed negatively. It was believed that conflict Indicated a malfunctioning within the organisation and that the appearance of .conflict was the consequence of management's failure to communicate to them the commonality between the individual and organisation interests. . Behavioral View: This school of thought argues that conflict is logical and inevitable outcome of any organisation and as such should be accepted. .In our culture, marked with huge changes in the functioning styles, specially after inflow of various foreign companies, joint venture with MNCs, the approach take .n in the conflict management is mostly of behavioral view. Following are the key reasons .. The behaviouralists maintained that since an organaisation was composed of individuals and they had different perception of goals and differing values, conflict was bound to arise in the organisations. Conflict was an unavoidable outcome but at the same time, they believed that conflict need not always be detrimental, but could focus on problem and .instigate a search for better and more innovative solutions to problem. Though the behaviouralists conceded that conflict could lead to more creativity to problem solving and could be beneficial to organisation under certain conditions, yet they perceived conflict as harmful something to be resolved once it arose. Their views about human nature were that people are essentially good; trust, co-operation and goodness are given in human nature. According to them the major antecedent conditions

which include aggressiveness and conflict in people are the faulty policies and structure resulting in distortion and breakdown in communication. Hence the managers role in resolving conflict is to restore understanding trust and openness between parties.

Q5. Apply the concepts of activities, interactions and sentiments to a group in which you have been member either in academic setting or in a work setting and describe the events. Describe for each concept the required and emergent behaviour in that situation. Ans.5. Activities, Interaction. and Sentiment's: A Group is any number of people who: Have a common purpose or objective Interact with each other to accomplish their objective Are aware of one another Perceive themselves to be part of the group What is more important in the content of the definition of the group is to be aware of each other in a group. This awareness is seldom there, when we look at an aggregation of people. They are mere collection, different from what we call a group, were members are themselves as belonging to a group in order to interact and achieve the common objective of the group. Moreover, such kind of interaction may be over a long or short period of time. This was during my final year in the School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi, where there was a live concert of famous rock band the Deep Purple. People and students queued up in thousands outside the J.N. Stadium to get their tickets. Here all of them had a common purpose, to buy the ticket and be inside the stadium for the live con s. Suddenly a person from second year batch, breaks the queue to go ahead in buying tickets. All other students including me got together to prevent him from gate crashing and getting his tickets ahead of hose in the queue before him. At that moment a group was formed. Perhaps, after controlling that person from getting a ticket out of turn the others kept continuing to talk to each other, but the common purpose of keeping the queue breaker out vanishes. From the above it is imperative of the three elements that are directly related to each other. Here in controlling a queue breaker in the line they required activities are assigned task at which people work. All others knew their turn and how to exercise it specially with the sudden change created by the queue breaker. The required interactions take place when any one persons activity follows or in influenced by the activities of another. Here the person whose turn was dislocated by the queue breaker influences all other activities. As soon as he pushes out the person (queue breaker) or tell him not to do it, all others follow him. Hence required interaction may be verbal or non verbal. One can see the activities and the interaction. But as sentiments are the feeling or attitudes of a person towards others, his likes or dislikes, approval or disapproval, can only be inferred from the behaviour.

Assignment B
Q.1 Describe your own pattern of needs and discuss the kind of work environment that will be most satisfying to you in terms of fulfilled your needs from the any theory of work motivation.

Ans.1 Motivation: There is no single magic word to motivate employees as their needs and priorities of satisfaction differ. As rightly pointed out by many school of thoughts, motivaton has something to do with our way of life and thinking My own pattern of needs that would satisfy an employee, to tap the best out of him would be: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) A well defined humanistic personnel policy where in the workforce is regarded as the valuable asset of an organisation. A long term. employment policy projecting image of fairness in recruitment and selection , placement of the right personnel at the right job, sound and fair romotion, transfer policies, planned need based training programme for grooming employees. Fair wages and salary administration ensuring equitable wage structure, free From internal and external inequalities. Good performance should be rewarded adequately at the earliest and also given deserving publicity. A constructive and objective system of performance appraisal and merit rating of employees aiming at servicing and improving them. Prompt handling of workers grievances by having short time bound procedure well known to employees. In handling grievances the attitudes of persons managing grievances should be cooperative and positive and the workers should have the feeling that he will be properly heard and justice will be done. In handling disciplinary cases the management should not only be fair but also seem to be fair. Disciplinary procedure should confirm to principle of natural justice. A corrective and positive approach in this respect may be more motivating. Participative and consultative style of management and supervision and increasing autonomy in work may create necessary conditions for motivating the workers to give there best. Job enrichment and enlargement, on making the job more challenging are also essential for making this staff give there best, as these were not only reduced job boredom and frustration, but also increase job satisfaction and satisfy the esteem or ego and self actualisation needs of employees which are perpetual motivators. Self motivation by top management, seniors and middle managers and supervisors is essential if the persons working under them are to be motivated. The dictum before you motivate others, you must first motivate yourself should not be lost site of. Seniors are expected to provide there juniors effective leadership and set an example of dedication and superior skills.


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Q2. Explain the concept of perceptual defence. What are most common perceptual errors you make? How does it operate? How can we reduce it? Ans.2.

Perception is the process through which people select, receive, organise and interpret information from their environment. Attribution theory has been proposed to develop explanations of the ways in which we judge differently depending on what meaning we attribute to a given behaviour. One of the more interesting findings from attribution theory is that there are errors or biases that distort attributions. For instance" there is substantial evidence that we make judgments about the behaviour of other people, we have a tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors. Perceptual Error: (i) Stereotypes: Cognitive limitations prevent us form attending to more than a small portion of the infinite stimuli made to us by the environment. A stereotype occurs when an individual is assigned to a group or category and thus the attributes commonly associated with the group or category are assigned to the person in question. Stereotype obscure individual differences. When this happens in managers perception of a subordinate, for example, erroneous decisions can result. Two common stereotypes to which the manager may fall prey are those of age and sex. They need our special attention. Halo Effects: A halo effects occurs when one attribute of a person or a situation is used to develop an overall impressions of the individual or situation. This is a process of generalisation from one person from one attribute to the total person or event. Halo effects are very significant in the performance appraisal process since they can influence a managers evaluation of subordinate work performance. A subordinate reaction to one unique trait may effect his or her overall perspective of the manager. By the name taken, Halo effects can affect an employees view of the organisation as a workplace. He fact that sales are deeluring or resources are shrinking may create a tendency to picture all aspects of the work environment as equally grim. The astute manager will be alert to such tendencies and will take action to reduce their negative impact on the situation. Selective Perception: Selective perception is the tendency to single out for attention those aspects of a situation or person which reinforce, or emerge consistent with existing beliefs, values and needs. This perceptual distortion is identified in dassis research study involving executives in a manufacturing Company. Managers can encounter problem by either being in appropriately locked into a selective perception or by being unable to handle the clash between alternative selective perceptions in situations such as the research case just described. This tendency towards selecting is one that a manager must be able to control in terms of his or her own behaviour as well as recognizes in the behaviour of others. Projection: Projection is the assignment of personnel attributes to other Individuals. "Do onto others as you would have them to onto you". In all due respect to its enduring wisdom, managers should be cautions in applying this maxim in the work setting. The reason is fallacy of projection. A dassis projection error is the manager who assumes that the needs of subordinates are the same as his or her own. By projecting your needs on subordinates, individual differences are lost. Rather that designing the subordinate jobs to fit their needs best, you have designed their jobs to fit yours. The problem is that, they may be quite satisfied and productive doing jobs that to you seem dull and routine Projection is a perceptual distortion that comprises a managers ability to respond to individual differences in the work setting. It can be controlled through a high degree of self awareness and by a willingness to enter the frame of reference of the other person and come to see the situations through their eyes, this is called empathy. Expectancy: Another perceptual distortion is expectancy. This is the tendency to create or find is another situations or individual that which expected to find in the first place. Expectancy is sometimes referred to as the "Pygmalion Effect"





Pygmalion was a mythical Greek sculptor who created a statue of his ideal make and then made her come to life. Expectancy can have both positive and negative results for the manager. Some additional research on the positive side of expectancy may further stimulate yours thinking. The expectancy effect in these cases argue strongly for managers to adopt positive and optimistic as opposed at work. It also appears that certain conditions may facilitate conforming positive expectations.

Q3. Risky shifts: Risky shifts describes a phenomenon of risk taking by Groups. There is a tendency for groups to gamble with decisions more than they would as individuals making decisions on their own. Although this may not necessarily be an hindrance to good decision making, it does put decision at risk. There are four aspects of gr9UP-processes that are important -group norms and cohesion, interaction patterns, decision making methods and task & maintenance activities and it views groups as an open system perspective. The factors that influence the work group effectiveness are norms, cohesion and leadership. (i) Norms: When the group functions for a period of time, to attain certain objectives, it develops norms or standards of behaviour. A norm is a rule. This tells the individual how to behav~in-aparticular group. It is important to know what behaviour is signifrcantfor the group which help to develop a norm. A relevant group norm is one which is neither central nor absolutely essential to follow but is worth while and desirable. So any norm may be pivotal in a group, but may be irrelevant to another. With an increase in size of the group, norms are less likely to be accepted. Norms allow possible deviations for the manager. ",""-7 (ii) Group Cohesiveness: This means the degree to which group members are motivated to remain within the group and consequently behave in similar ways. A cohesive group also helps the members in their satisfaction of needs and attainment of goals. Cohesiveness develops out of the activities, interactions and sentiments of the people. The cohesive group acts as one man to attain its goa~ ;...~, 7 Factors influencina Cohesiveness: (i) Size of the Group -Small or big group have their own constraints. There could also be the formation of many sub-groups in a large group. (ii) Proximity of the Group -Nearness or working closely together helps in group cohesiveness. It helps face to face contact. (iii) Outside Pressure -This binds together all the members against a common enemy and thus makes its members forget-tAeir differences. I 1'.11 .(3 . .~ . . . . . . . . . . t

. t ~ ~ t t t t t t . ~ . t .IVI \JU~vl VQlIUII;:' VI lilt:;' vd~t:;' ~lUU : .Formal hierarch v of the Nurses: .Supervisor (Registered Nurses) .~ .Registered Nurses t~ Licensed Practical Nurses .~ .Students t~ t Nurses Aides t Key Issues: t (a) The registered Nurses (RN) get two weeks of vacations after after 9 months o~ job, wherea.s ~ ~ (b) Licensed practical Nurses (LPN) must work for 10 years after which they are eligible for two weeks. /" .(c) Vacations privilegeS'-6f manual are very old (1980). They were never revised after. They are outdated, hence nurses decide to take matters into their own .hands. It is here were the problem starts. LPN's decide to work only t according to the manual and thus RN's are faced with pressure on work. .Vacations Privileoe Conflict: Feelings of LPN's are hurt as they were placed in the 'Others Category'. They feel hurt as they have also undergone the same ~ professional training's. " Another problem to add 'Nas that, LPN's were closely monitored and any lack of .time was taking effect on th~~ary dock. ~ LPN's also feel they were overworking themselves on RN' s had more to do at the desk work. LPN's felt that they were more familiar with treatments as they .accompanied the Doctors during rounds. On the other hand, RN' s argued that they were superior because they had long and extensive formal training. ~ I Consequences: (i) Drop in employee morale ~ I I I . ~~"'.. .(a) The Hospitals administrations over the vacations clause is that the RN' s (Registered Nurses) receive two weeks vacation after nine months of their .job, while the LPN's (Licensed Practical Nurses) must work at hospital for

.ten years before being eligible for the second week vacations. (b) The hospitals procedure manuals was designed in the 1980 at the .establishing the hospital. There administrative recorc;js were outdated and most of the matters were different and al) ~taJJmew that. .(c) Sin~e this was an is~ue over 'I!:,acatio~..Pfi~~es, t~e forth floor nurses decided to show their anger by'foHoWlng the hospital manual over their roles t and responsibilities. This added pressure on the RN' s as the LPN's did only (JJ.the 'prescribed' work as per manual. (d) Planning the LPN's in the other's category though LPN's also were on par) t with RN' s undergone the same extensive training like the RN' s. (e) The LPN's were very closely monitored in job and this formalitieS'were high .when compared to RN' s over their job reporting. .2. Consequences of this Conflict: t The negative consequences from this conflict now over the nurses is quite devastating. Here are few key consequences that were being detrimental to t the hospital functioning. t (a) Drop in Emplovee's Morale :-Since there is a gap in the vacations privileges between the RN' s and LPN's, the LPN's feel that this t concerns are unheard. This has an verY negative implication over the LPN's and they adopt to mea~ures1Rat is affecting the efficiency of .nurses functioning as a~sur( the LPN's morale is very low. (b) Decrease in Efficiencv : As the LPN's resort to expenses their anger, t there is an huge increase in the work pressure of the RN' s. LPN's to .retaliate, start following the manual procedures and works only prescribed. Hence going by the book raised hostile feeling among group .of nurses and doctors. This led to the reduction of quality in patient care. ( c) Fear of s~ending : Currently .this conflict was visible in the. fou~h. floor only, CD.and with Increase of frustration ;9rrIong LPN's, decrease In efficiency and morale, it was a major thre9i1f1is conflict row could spread over to other t floors, thus hamperingjM/hospital functioning as a whole. . 3. My role as a consultant: .As a consultant, my primary action to resolve the given conflict situation could be : t ~ ~ , . ~ , '" ,~ V, , ...""VII"'vll~U~ VVvl lliv Vdl..,dllUl1 ~IIYJUllllY lur Lt"'I~ S, Ine .manual register needs to be accordingly revised and revalidated. (c) Alterinq human and structural variables: Using behavioural changes .techniques such as human relationship to alter attitudes and behaviour .of nurses. Chang~Dg the formal structure of organisation and the interaction patterns of conflicting parties (nurses) through job rotations .& timely promotions. . . . . . t t

t . t . . . . . . . . . . . I I . : ~: ;:;;':'~::;:r~ (,:.4-) .3. (C) Henri Fayol v/ .4. (A) Theory X ~ .5. (8) Herzbery y;.-.6. (C) Relatively permanent '/~ . 7. (C) 8andura "\/--" . I 8. (C) Skinner ~ ~ 9. (A) kelly """~ ~ 10. (C) Alderfer y t 11. (8) Secondary Motives ~ .12. (8) Adams \"-/""-~ 13. (C) Situational test ~ ~ .14. (8) TAT \,../~ ~ 15. (8) Learning Theorist X ~ 16. (A) Rogers ~ .17. (A) Kohler X .18. (A) Functional factors ~ . 19. (C) Indiscipline ~ . 20. (A) Halo effect X . . . ~ I ~ -"",~,,-- " -.."'/ . 25. (0) Five ~ '"' . .26. (8) Group pressure ~ .27. (8) A power elite X

t 28. (C) Referent power ~ t 29. (A) rational, traditional + characteristic ~ .30. (8) Mereil ~ . 31. (8) Feedback X I .32. (8) Johari Window ~ t 33. (8) Wheel ~ t 34. (C) Free form ~ .~ V ~ ~ t 35. (A) Job Enlargement X ~ ?J> 6 "\ t 36. (0) None ~ q . 37. (0) Job Enlargement ~ ~ t 38. (C) Changes in our Organisation level of adaptation --/ ~ 39. (0) 8eckhard ~ .40. (C) Focus on significant interpersonal inter group problem. V ~ ~ t . ~ ~ . ~ ~