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Edge Settlement of Storage Tank Bottoms

API Standard 653 Appendix B

Presented by: Steven L. Braune, PE Tank Industry Consultants

API-653, First Edition

The allowable edge settlement limit

B = 0.37R
Very conservative Based on several published articles A recommendation only


B = 0.37R

Early Experience
Observed edge settlement typically exceeded API recommendations API-653 permitted a more detailed evaluation Many oil companies developed methods

Early In-House Practice (Experience-Based)

B = 2.0(R) B = 1.6(R)

B = 0.37(R)

Another Approach (Elastic-Plastic Beam Model)

B = 0.45(R2)

B = 0.37(R)

Tank Settlement Revision Task Group mid-1990s

Initial recommendations revised Several API-member companies shared in-house practices Current recommendations are about 2 to 4 times greater than original limit

Finite Element Models

Two oil companies had extensive experience using FEA for edge settlement evaluations Analysis procedures and evaluation criteria differed similar in principle Formed basis for API Task Group work

Appendix B Revisions Settlement Curves

Settlement curves varied by diameter Accepts two inches of settlement Additional NDE required for edge settlements > 75% of allowable Limits based on fillet weld strength

Figure B-10 for Bew

Bew Maximum Allowable Settlement (inches) R Radius of Settled Area (feet) Figure B-10 Lap Welds Approximately Parallel to Shell

Figure B-11 for Be

Be Maximum Allowable Settlement (inches) R Radius of Settled Area (feet) Figure B-11 Lap Welds Approx. Perpendicular to Shell

Figure B-10 for Bew

Bew=3.8 in.

120 ft Diameter Tank

R = 3 feet

Figure B-11 for Be

120 ft Diameter Tank

Be=4.7 in.

R = 3 feet

Bottom Weld Orientation

Edge settlement, B limited to

B = Be (Be Bew)sin
Bew= Allowable for weld parallel to shell Be= Allowable for weld perpendicular to shell Weld angle relative to radial line

A Rigorous Stress Analysis

If actual settlements exceed recommended limits Repair the tank Perform a rigorous stress analysis

A Recent Result
A rigorous stress analysis was performed on a tank with edge settlements of near 90% of limit Client wanted to know if tank should be repaired now or could they monitor settlement for a few more years

Finite Element Analysis Results

Current Settlement Profile Tank Shell

90% of API limit Projected Settlement Profiles 150% of API limit

Steven L. Braune, PE Tank Industry Consultants www.TankIndustry.com 804.897-7176