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A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the

College of Arts and Sciences
Our Lady of Fatima University
Under the class of
Prof. Irene P. Villareal

In Partial Fulfillment of the

Requirements for the Course
Bachelor of Science in Nursing

Mariejo Jornal - leader
James Brian Dimagiba – assistant leader
Viktor Henry Daria
Robert Kenneth Vitug
Rafael Carlo Tuazon
Karen Bayos
Allan Vigilia

March 2009
February 2, 2009

Dr. Nelia Capulong, RN MAN

Dean College of Nursing
Our Lady of Fatima University
#1 Esperanza St. Hilltop Mansion Heights,
Lagro Quezon, City

Dear Madam:

We, the students of 3HI, seek your approval to conduct a research titled “The Common
Perception of Nursing Students to Faculty Members Handling NCM Subjects.”

Objectives of the study are as follows:

1. To determine the most common perceptions of nursing students to faculty members
handling NCM subjects.
2. To determine the least common perceptions of nursing students to faculty members
handling NCM subjects.
3. To come up with compromises that will work both for the students and the faculty.

We hope for your favorable action.

Thank you.

Respectfully yours,

Group Leader


Research Adviser







Dean-College of Nursing



The education process is a cooperative enterprise of the

administrators, the faculty and the students. Their mutual and

coordinated efforts are necessary to achieve the desired educational

goal. The common adherence to the fundamental objectives that

promote academic, moral and personal developments is imperative

for the proper function and service of Fatima Medical Science

Foundation and Our Lady of Fatima University, your Alma Mater.

Many college and university faculty members begin their

teaching careers with the tacit beliefs that all their students have

career goals, enthusiasm for the discipline and study or learning

habits similar to the teacher’s own. Overcoming that predilection has

always been an important step on the path to becoming a food

teacher for undergraduates who are not destined for graduate school

or majoring in the teacher’s field. With the increasing numbers and

variety of backgrounds of undergraduate students, this step becomes

even more important. And so does a faculty member’s acceptance of

responsibility for guiding student’s efforts to learn in a course.

The teaching strategies are most successful when they are

implemented in a system that encourages collaboration among staff

and students, and in which each is a part of a well-planned whole

system. In some of the most successful sites, teachers themselves

have become in-house experts in specific practices that they share

with their colleagues. It is important to recognize that while these

strategies are useful, little will be accomplished in implementing them

unless there is ongoing documentation of their results. There must

also be efficient methods of feeding that information back into the

system so that there will be continuing progress in teaching and

learning. It is also certain that these strategies are most effective

when they are applied in positive, supportive environments where

there is recognition of the emotional, social and physical needs of

students and where individual strengths are recognized, nurtured,

and developed

Providing an opportunity for students to apply what they learn in

the classroom to real-life experiences has proven to be an effective

way of both disseminating and integrating knowledge. The case

method is an instructional strategy that engages students in active

discussion about issues and problems inherent in practical

application. It can highlight fundamental dilemmas or critical issues

and provide a format for role-playing ambiguous or controversial


Course content cases can come from a variety of sources.

Many faculties have transformed current events or problems reported

through print or broadcast media into critical learning experiences

that illuminate the complexity of finding solutions to critical social

problems. The case study approach works well in cooperative

learning or role-playing environments to stimulate critical thinking and

awareness of multiple perspectives.


This study aims to determine the common perceptions of

nursing students to faculty members handling NCM subjects.

It seeks to answer the following questions:

1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of

the following?

1.1 Gender

1.2 Age

1.3 Civil Status

1.4 Educational Attainment

1.5 Religion

1.6 Socio-economic Status

1.7 Occupation

2. What are the most common perceptions of nursing students to

faculty members handling NCM subjects?

3. What are the least common perceptions of nursing students to

faculty members handling NCM subjects?

4. Is there any significance of the common perceptions of nursing

students to faculty members handling NCM subjects?

5. How may the findings of this research be utilized to improve the

teaching strategies of the faculty members handling NCM subjects?


1. To determine the most common perceptions of nursing students to

faculty members handling NCM subjects.
2. To determine the least common perceptions of nursing students
to faculty members handling NCM subjects.
3. To come up with compromises that will work both for the students
and the faculty.


This study will give contribution to nursing education. The

result can be utilized as a basis for further study on the different

perceptions of nursing students regarding on the lecture made by the

faculty members. The following get the benefits of this study:

The Nursing Students

The output of the study may help the nursing students to

understand the different teaching strategies of the faculty members

handling NCM subjects.

The Faculty Members handling NCM subjects

The positive result of the study may help them to understand

the perception of the nursing students to faculty members handling

NCM subjects. On the other hand, they will learn on the responses of

the respondents so that they could teach in a different approach to

further enhance the learning of their students.

The Future Researchers

The result can be utilized as a basis for further study on the

different perceptions of nursing students regarding on the lecture

made by the faculty members.


There is no significance of the common perceptions of

nursing students to faculty members handling NCM subjects.


The scope of the study is all about the common perceptions of

nursing students to faculty members handling NCM subjects. The

researcher chooses Our Lady of Fatima University nursing students

and the faculty members handling NCM subjects as their

representative respondents.

Their primary reason is to learn and identify the common

perceptions of nursing students to faculty members handling NCM

subjects. The researchers will get only 50 respondents so that the

result will be easy to measure. The researchers believed that this

number of respondents is enough to assess the validity and reliability

of the study.



Teaching students how to learn

College students often struggle to find effective learning strategies.

But professors can help.

Monitor staff

It's no secret that students learn best when they self-regulate--set

their own academic goals, develop strategies to meet them and
reflect on their academic performance.

High-achieving students know what needs to be learned and how to

learn it, educational psychology studies increasingly show. But while
making those kinds of self-assessments may sound simple--and
something most college students could do--many psychology
professors find their students aren't self-aware enough to conduct

Some faculties believe they can help students develop these

strategies through their teaching. Others, however, don't think it's
their place to do so, pointing to the load of content they already must
teach in one semester. Besides, some ask, isn't college too late to
teach students how to learn?

Not according to self-regulation researchers Paul Pintrich, PhD, co-

founder of a "learning how to learn" course at the University of
Michigan, and Barry Zimmerman, PhD, an educational psychology
professor at the Graduate School and University Center at the City
University of New York (CUNY).

They, along with University of Texas strategic-learning advocate

Claire Ellen Weinstein, PhD, and others, say it's never too late to
teach students how to learn. Though well aware of the time
constraints on professors, they believe that if faculty weaves self-
regulation strategies into their teaching, students more quickly absorb
course material, ultimately saving faculty time. In fact, Weinstein,
founder of a learning-to-learn course at Texas, finds that the more
students use learning strategies, the higher their grade-point
averages (GPAs) and graduation rates. And Pintrich believes college
students need instruction in using these strategies because university
life lacks the structure high school offers.

"In college, you see problems arise where students don't have as
much day-to-day interaction with instructors as in high school," says
Pintrich. "Schedules are more open and classes much larger."

Among the ways professors can help students structure their time
and learning better is setting clear learning objectives for courses,
making regular assignments and emphasizing outlines, mnemonic
aids and other such learning devices.

Taking charge
At the core of self-regulation are strategies to manage cognition, but
motivation to use those strategies is also a key, says Pintrich.

"You need the 'will' as well as the 'skill,'" he says.

Researchers propose a variety of models for activating skill and will.

Zimmerman has developed one of the best-known models and uses it
to coach remedial students at CUNY. He says it's helpful to think of
self-regulation in three phases:

* Forethought. Students set short-term, challenging but attainable

academic goals. They also estimate their ability--also called self-
efficacy--to reach those goals.

* Performance. Students adopt "powerful" learning strategies, such

as scheduling study time, using mnemonics and outlining course

* Self-reflection. Students evaluate how effectively their strategies

help them meet their academic goals and adjust strategies
Studies show that such monitoring yields considerable payoffs.
Zimmer-man finds, for example, that when students set goals and
monitor their self-efficacy they can boost their achievement potential
by 30 percent, based on predictions from previous grades and scores
on the Scholastic Aptitude Test.

Other research findings suggest that high-achieving students tend to

self-regulate more automatically than low-achieving students. For
example, in a study of 320 college students, psychologist Carol
VanZile-Tamsen, PhD, of the State University of West Georgia, found
that those with the lowest GPAs reported using less self-regulation
than their peers.

But she also found that lower achievers tended to self-regulate more
if they were motivated to learn course material, either out of interest
or for their major. In other research, educational psychologist
Eunsook Hong, PhD, of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, found
that while some students always use self-monitoring strategies,
others use them inconsistently across different subjects and

"Because students exert more self-regulation in certain situations,

you can train for it," she says.

Spurring students along

Faculty can incite students' motivation to self-regulate by organizing

their courses to emphasize reflective learning and goal setting, say
VanZile-Tamsen and Zimmerman.

They suggest that faculty:

* Identify course objectives up front. Spell out what students should

learn across the course and for each test, suggests Zimmerman. Ask
students to monitor their efficacy in meeting test objectives. This
helps them determine what to study.

* Emphasize concept relevance. Build in plenty of examples to

explain each concept and relate new ideas to previously covered
ones. "Students will be more motivated to self-regulate if they see the
relevance," says VanZile-Tamsen.

* Quiz students frequently. Give them regular assignments and tests

so they can tell how well they're learning material. If they realize what
they're missing today, they might not score poorly on the final later.

* Tie feedback to key concepts. Frame comments on tests and

homework assignments in terms of how well students' answers match
course objectives and their self-efficacy judgments. This
"postmortem" analysis helps students see what they should restudy,
says Zimmerman.

Faculty can also encourage students to use specific learning

strategies, research-ers say. Some ways of doing this are to:

* Help students define tasks before them. Delineate what's called for
in homework assignments and the resources, such as time, study
materials and research databases, needed to complete them.

* Impart learning devices. Tell students about mnemonic aids, such

as knowledge trees that categorize information in branches. Also,
encourage students to use outlines and other graphic organizers for
writing, and study logs or diaries to manage their time, says

* Model and encourage self-reflection. "Think out loud" when

analyzing a theory or problem, so students will follow suit, says
Pintrich. "When looking at a study, you might point out that you don't
know much about the statistical technique used, that you need to ask
a colleague," he says.

Pintrich says this helps students see that it's best to identify one's
weaknesses to compensate for them.

"After all," says Pintrich. "One of the hallmarks of an expert is

knowing what you don't know. Students come a long way when they
realize that."


Excerpts from the Chapter 4 of the online

Graduate Handbook at Michigan State University


1. Strengths of the Lecture Approach

2. Weaknesses of the Lecture Approach
3. How to Plan an Effective Lecture
4. Lecture: the Introduction
5. The Body of the Lecture
6. The Conclusion of the Lecture

The survival of the basic lecture-a method of teaching by discourse

rather than conversation or seminar-in this age of technology and
electronic media is, in many ways, remarkable. Lecturing is probably
the oldest teaching method and remains the most common form of
instruction to be found in United States colleges and universities,
despite the fact that some research has shown that lecturing is
ineffective, especially if not combined with some alternative style of
teaching. As well as working to improve skills at lecturing, the
instructor might also determine if the lecture approach is the best
method of teaching for the achievement of the instructional goals of
the class. Lecturing is very appropriate for some goals and very
inappropriate for others.

Strengths and Weaknesses of the Lecture Approach

I. Strengths of the Lecture Approach

1.Lectures can communicate the intrinsic interest of the subject

matter. The speaker can convey personal enthusiasm in a way that
no book or other media can. Enthusiasm stimulates interest, and
interested, stimulated people tend to learn more.
2.Lectures in university settings can provide students with role
models of scholars in action. The professor's way of approaching
knowledge can be demonstrated for students to emulate.
3.Lectures can convey material otherwise unavailable, including
original research or recent developments that have not yet made it to
4.Lectures can organize material in a special way. They may provide
a faster, simpler method of presenting information to an audience with
its own special needs. Lectures are particularly useful for students
who read poorly or who are unable to organize print material.
5.Lectures can convey large amounts of factual material.
6.Lectures can speak to many listeners at the same time.
7.Lectures permit maximum teacher control. The instructor chooses
what material to cover, whether to answer questions, and other
courses of action.
8.Lectures present minimum threat to students. They are not required
to do anything, which they may prefer.
9.Lectures emphasize learning by listening, an advantage for
students who learn well this way.
10.As Eble (1976) noted, lecturing beats textbooks or video in that it
offers, "Face-to face confrontations with other talking, gesturing,
thinking, feeling humans."

II. Weaknesses of the Lecture Approach

1.The lecture puts students in a passive rather than an active role.

Passivity can hinder learning.
2.Lectures lack feedback to both the instructor and the student about
the students' learning. They encourage one-way communication.
3.Lectures require an effective speaker who can vary tone, pitch, and
pace of delivery. Lecturers must be verbally fluent; a skill that is not
stressed nor learned in many PhD programs and is, in general,
distributed unevenly among people.
4.Lectures place the burden of organizing and synthesizing content
solely on the lecturer. They are not well suited to higher levels of
learning such as application, analysis, and synthesis.
5.Lectures are not well suited to complex, detailed, or abstract
6.Lectures assume that all students are learning at the same pace
and at the same level of understanding, which is hardly ever true.
7.Lectures do not sustain student attention, which wanes very quickly
in l to 25 minutes.
8.Lectures tend to be forgotten quickly.

III. How to Plan an Effective Lecture

Instructors might remember that the learners' minds are not blank
slates, and the organization of the lecture must take into account the
students' existing knowledge and expectations as well as the
structure of the subject matter. L. Dee Fink (1989) has pointed out
that the most intellectually alive and exciting lecturers tend to be
those who view knowledge as a dynamic process rather than a static
Phil Martin, coordinator of Ohio State's public speaking team, has
suggested that a good way to approach the preparation of a lecture is
to follow this progression of steps, answering a variety of questions
along the way:

1.Select a topic. The lecturer's first decision should be on the overall

subject matter of the lecture. This will probably be drawn from
whatever is on the syllabus for that day's class.
2.Decide on the purpose. Once the topic is chosen, the next stage is
to decide why it is being taught (this is not as obvious as it may first
appear). Possible questions might be: Is my aim to make students
understand this difficult concept? What are the key facts I want my
students to remember? Do I want to advocate a particular idea or
behavior? Is one of my purposes to entertain? Is preparation for an
examination the main point of the lecture?

3.Analyze the class. Just as performers need to know their audience,

so lecturers need to analyze their class. It is useful to determine:
What is the level of students in this class? How mature are they as
learners? What is their prior relationship (if any) with this subject
matter? By exploring the population of the class, it may also be
possible to predict what learning styles this group of students will

4.Analyze the occasion. In addition to studying the composition of the

class, it is also helpful to analyze the occasion before preparing each
lecture. A class early in the morning, for example, might require the
lecturer to be more extroverted, in order to wake the students up.
Long class periods may be especially suited to an interactive lecture.
Students at the beginning of the semester may be more enthusiastic
than during the last week of classes. These issues can be predicted
in advance, and such awareness will usually improve the
effectiveness of the lecture.

5.Gather materials. After all this analysis, the next step is to gather
the materials to be used in the preparation of the lecture. It is a good
idea to bring everything together before sitting down to write, so that
the instructor has all the necessary sources immediately at hand.

6.Prepare the lecture. After the materials are together, the next step is
to actually write the lecture itself. Some discussion of what form of
lecture notes is most appropriate follows, but it is certainly desirable
for lecturers to have done sufficiently detailed preparation to be
entirely comfortable with the content of the lecture.

7.Practice the lecture. Finally, it is a good idea to practice the lecture,

whether to a living audience or an inanimate object (e.g., cassette
tape, audiotape), especially if the lecturer is inexperienced. This will
help phrasing and delivery and will perhaps provide some advance
feedback. Here are some further suggestions for the contents of an
effective lecture.

IV. Lecture: the Introduction

It is advisable to plan an introduction that might point to a gap in the

students' knowledge or challenge or raise a question about
something in the students' minds in order to arouse curiosity. Good
introductions also may help students to discriminate between more
and less important features of lectures, may help them create realistic
expectations about what they are supposed to learn from the lecture,
and enable them to allocate their information-processing capability
much more effectively. The aim, in short, is to capture the interest of
the listener. As with a good drama, effective lectures "hook" their
listeners' attention from the start.
Suggestion: Raising a question to be answered by the end of the
Example: By the end of the hour you should be able to answer the
question "Are lectures better than discussions"
Suggestion: Explaining the relationship of the lecture content to
professional career interests, the real world, etc.
Example: Today's lecture is about the cost of living indices, a topic in
macroeconomics that should help you understand the recent
discussions in Congress related to inflation.
Suggestion: Relating lecture content to previous class material.
Example: For the past week we've been occupied with the history of
the live theater. Today, we'll be looking at film history, and we'll spend
the rest of the week comparing the two forms.
Suggestion: Telling students how they are expected to use the lecture
Example: Today, I'll offer a specific model of evaluation and illustrate
its application in several different kinds of settings. When you meet in
your discussion groups later this week, you'll be asked to apply the
model as you discuss the Brown vs. the Board of Education decision.
Some other ways to start a lecture include: telling a personal
anecdote or telling a relevant funny story or joke; providing an
overview of the lecture; and giving the lecture an intriguing title.

V. The Body of the Lecture

In the body, instructors can allow for some flexibility in the amount of
content to be presented in order to respond to students' questions
and comments. It is imperative for the lecturer to determine the key
points to be developed during the class session, and not to present
nuances and minute detail to the extent that students lose sight of the
main idea. Instructors should not feel pressed to cover everything, as
an effective lecture uses varied pacing to help students to make
some critical discrimination between important concepts and trivia.
Many researchers suggest that the individual lecture should cover
only four or five main points that are made explicit to the students.
The body of the lecture must, of course, be well organized.
Organizing the lecture can be done in a number of different ways; the
most appropriate will depend on the subject itself as well as the
lecturer's personal approach. Here are some examples:

Cause and effect: Events are cited and explained by reference to

their origins.
Example: One can demonstrate how the continual revolutionary
movements of the late 1700s affected British politics at the turn of the
Time sequential: Lecture ideas are arranged chronologically.
Example: If lecturing about the steps in a clinical suspension model,
talk about the initial step to be taken, the second step, and so forth.
Using an organizational idea to structure the lecture.
Example: Today we'll view all these methods from a perspective of
There are many other organizational possibilities. One can state a
problem and then offer alternative solutions; arrange lecture topics
according to their importance, familiarity, or complexity; or offer a two-
sided "compare and contrast" presentation.
Examples should be included in the lecture. Almost all writers agree
that illustrations help people to understand things.
Lecturers might try to provide a break in the information output every
10 minutes or so to maintain attention. These are good times for
anecdotes, visuals, humor, questions, and the like.
The body of the lecture can help the students understand the way in
which the points are organized. After stating major points verbally, it is
a good idea to put them on a handout or write them on a board or an
overhead projector. Complex points are easier to explain if the
instructor: uses an appropriate vocabulary level; uses a variety of
illustrations; includes essential content before "nice to know" content;
and restates points after illustrations.
Illustrations or examples will work best if they include some of the
following qualities:
precision (fit the idea well); relevance (fit the context well); ingenuity;
interest; novelty; humor; and scholarship.

6. The Conclusion of the Lecture

McKeachie (1986) says that in the conclusion of the lecture one has
the opportunity to make up for any lapses in the body of the lecture.
He also notes that encouraging students to formulate questions by
asking questions one can facilitate memory and understanding. The
prospect of unanswered questions to be treated in future lectures
creates anticipation of the future. Other possibilities include:
Restating the main points by using a new example, asking for the
main points, and showing where the class is now.
Asking a student to summarize the lecture's key ideas.
Restating what students are expected to have gained from the
Instructors can stimulate discussion and increase interaction after
presenting a lecture or large amount of content by pairing up students
and giving them two to three minutes to react, respond and raise
questions or issues about the material just presented. They can ask
for volunteers to report out what were the issues or questions raised
in their dyads.
Another option for broadening the circle of discussions is to call on
pairs that include individual members of social groups (e.g. women
students, students of color, etc.) who may not be getting much "air-
A final point: Lecturers should not let students pressure them (by
packing bags, talking, or moving around) into cutting the lecture short!
Herr (1984) suggests that instructors make "a remark designed to
refocus student attention: (With a smile) "You have four more minutes
for which you have paid, and I shall end promptly, so just wait to grab
your back packs." Another trick for the end of class is the creation of
suspense, which can be accomplished in a variety of ways such as
posing a question. One should make sure that there is no consistent
verbal or nonverbal cue signaling the end of class, which will cause
students to lose attention. Such a cue might be the return to the
podium, the gathering of papers, etc.

Instruction in teacher education programs

Evelina M. Vicencio, Ph.D

Executive Director, G.U.R.O.
Miriam College Teacher Institute

THE new Undergraduate Teacher Education Curriculum, which was

first offered in 2005 to incoming freshmen, will be fully implemented in
school year 20082009, and this means that students enrolled in the
Bachelor of Elementary Education (BEEd) and the Bachelor of
Secondary Education (BSEd) at all year levels will be taking courses
under the new curriculum. There are still some issues in the new
curriculum that CHED is currently addressing. It is a curriculum in
progress, and it poses challenges and possibilities those teachers
and educators can explore, especially in the delivery of instruction.
After all, what curriculum is without imperfection?

What to deliver. There are four basic elements of curriculum design:

Goals and objectives, content or subject matter, learning experiences
or methodology, and evaluation. Whichever element the curriculum
developers consider the most important influences the design of the
curriculum. The competency-based curriculum approach is the
preferred design by curriculum developers who believe that
objectives and evaluation are the most important elements of the
curriculum; those who think content is the most important use the
subject-centered curriculum design; those who believe learning
activities are most important use the experience-centered design,
problem-centered design, project-centered design, or activity
curriculum. There are many other curriculum designs; these are just
some of the most common approaches in designing curriculum. It
should be remembered that different approaches have different

Competency-based curriculum approach (CBCA). The new teacher

education curriculum uses the competency-based approach. It is a
performance-based design anchored on the learner’s ability to
demonstrate attainment or mastery of skills performed under certain
conditions to specific standards (the skills then become
competencies), which is why objectives and evaluation are the foci. It
is characterized by hands on/active learning and since it is outcome
and assessment-oriented, it uses multiple assessment tools

CBCA is advantageous to the learners because they achieve

competencies and develop confidence. Time is devoted to learners
individually and in small groups, and to evaluating the learners’ ability
to perform work-related skills.

The competency-based curriculum approach likewise has limitations.

It is only as effective as the process used to identify the
competencies. Unless CBCA materials and strategies are designed,
the course will not truly be CBCA.

Curriculum development following CBCA follows these steps, herein

simplified by the author: ANALYZE roles of a model or outstanding
teacher, the functions and responsibilities for each role, and the
competencies needed for each responsibility in terms of knowledge,
attitude, and skills (these are stated as objectives). DEVELOP
assessment tools; scope and sequence; learning experiences; and
support materials, for example, books and handouts.

CBCA focuses on the mastery of competencies or skills. CHED CMO

No. 30 on The Revised Policies and Standards for Undergraduate
Teacher Education Curriculum identifies competency standards for
teachers as well as the varied skills that they should master: life skills,
teaching process skills, and research skills.

The Life Skills refer to effective communication skills, critical thinking,

creative thinking, problem solving and decision-making. It should be
remembered that the development of critical and creative thinking is
explicitly stated in the Philippine Constitution. The Teaching Process
Skills are curriculum development, lesson planning, materials
development, educational assessment, and teaching approaches.
Research skills should result in the development of new theories,
models, programs, and practices. All courses in the teacher education
curriculum should have a research requirement, which may take the
form of a term paper, case study, action research, or other forms of
research/scholarship as may be appropriate.
Integrated curriculum. CMO#30 states: "The teacher-education
curriculum is also designed so that the curricular components are
integrated. That is, the curriculum emphasizes the interweaving of
foundational, theoretical, methodological, and experiential knowledge
in the various learning experiences in the curriculum."

Integration is a curricular design that pertains to how curricular

components are organized, whereas competency-based curricular
design pertains to the emphasis given to curricular components.
Through the years, there have been changes in the concept of
integration. The traditional concept looks at integration as a
combination of subjects (like Science and Health and Music, Arts,
Physical Education, and Health or MAPEH. The modern concept
sees integration of skills and learning strategies (like critical thinking
skills in all learning areas) including addition of topics and subjects
not recognized as unique disciplines (e.g. indigenization and
localization, peace education, HIV and AIDS, and environmental
education). The different modes and forms of integration have been
classified by this author as follows: integration of subjects or learning
areas, integration of concepts or content, integration of skills and
processes, integration that happens within the learner, and integration
of strategies (Manila Bulletin, Feb. 11, 2007).

HOW to Deliver. The manner of delivering instruction focuses on the

teaching-learning process. The two types of delivery identify the main
characters in the teaching-learning process: the teacher and the
learner or pedagogy and andragogy.

Literally, pedagogy is the art and science of teaching children,

whereas andragogy is the art and science of teaching adults. The
word andragogy was coined by a German high school teacher who
used different strategies in teaching adults. Andragogy became
popular in Europe and was introduced in the United States by Alfred
Knowles, a famous adult educator.

Through the years, the concepts have evolved and have taken on
new meanings; hence the modern educational meaning of andragogy
as learner-centered strategies and pedagogy as teacher-centered
strategies. Both approaches are used in teaching college students,
but with preference for learner-centered strategies. Learner-centered
approaches include instruction in which learners, with the teacher’s
guidance, are made responsible for constructing their own

Critics of teacher-centered instruction argue that it is based on a

behavioral view of learning, focuses on low-level objectives, and
emphasizes performance instead of understanding. More commonly,
however, teacher-centered instruction isn’t properly implemented.
When conducted by expert teachers, teacher-centered instruction can
be very effective. The effectiveness of any approach depends on the
ability of the teacher to adapt it to the learning needs of students. As
far as strategies are concerned, there is no one best strategy in

It is wise to heed what Leo Tolstoy said, that the best teacher will be
he who has at his tongue’s end the explanation of what it is that is
bothering the student. These explanations give the teacher the
knowledge of the greatest possible number of methods, the ability of
inventing new methods, and, above all, not blind adherence to one
method, but rather, the conviction that all methods are one-sided and
that the best method is the one which would answer best to all the
possible difficulties incurred by a student, that is, not a method, but
an art and talent.

WHERE to Deliver. Our national hero, Jose Rizal, once said that the
person who wishes to teach, teaches everywhere, in the open air.
Socrates taught in the public street, Plato in the gardens of the
Academy, even Christ among the mountains and lakes. In like
manner, the delivery of the teacher-education curriculum does not
confine itself to the classroom but extends the learning environment
off-campus and encourages institutions to explore alternative learning
systems, especially through the use of Information Communication
Technology or ICT. Teacher-training institutions can try the distance
learning mode of delivering instruction.

WHO To Deliver. The teacher is a facilitator of learning. The teacher

is — as someone very memorably put it — a guide at the side, not a
sage on the stage.

In conclusion, curriculum change is both inevitable and desirable. The

revision of policies and standards of the teacher education programs
by CHED was inevitable. It is now everybody’s concern to make it
desirable. It is still an emerging curriculum that can benefit from the
experiences and balanced views of teacher training institution

reference: www.mb.com.ph

Cognitive Theories of Learning

Assumption: you can't force someone to learn

Cognitive theory defines learning as "a semi-permanent change in

mental processes or associations." Cognitivists do not require an
outward exhibition of learning but focus more on the internal
processes and connections that take place during learning.

The main assumption of cognitive psychology is that there are

cognitive processes that take place and influence the way things are
learned. Explanations for how cognitive processes work are known as
information processing theories or models.

Recently, several changes in educational thinking have greatly

affected the manner in which science curriculum is presented in
today's schools. These changes are most appropriately described as
efforts to restructure science teaching with the overall goal of
improving student learning. One underlying theme that often appears
throughout the restructuring effort is the idea of constructivism. This
approach to learning emphasizes the personal construction of human
knowledge as opposed to the transmission of knowledge from one
person to the next. The current view of constructivism has a strong
basis in the cognitive approach to learning and draws heavily upon
the research of learning experts like Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky, and
David Ausubel. The contributions of these three researchers, along
with the ideas of others, have laid the foundation for many of the
recent changes that have occurred in science instruction.

Jean Piaget (9 August 1896 – 16 September 1980) was a Swiss

philosopher and scientist, well known for his work studying children,
his theory of cognitive development and for his epistemological view
called "genetic epistemology."

The very great importance he attached to the education of children

made him declare in 1934 in his role as Director of the International
Bureau of Education that ‘only education is capable of saving our
societies from possible collapse, whether violent, or gradual
Jean Piaget's major contribution to the cognitive learning approach
was his theory of cognitive development. This theory describes four
levels of intellectual growth that humans progress through including
sensory motor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal
operational. The final two stages are of particular importance to
middle and secondary science educators because most middle and
secondary students operate at one of these two stages. Students at
the concrete operational stage have the ability to think logically and
concretely about objects and events. Students at the formal
operational stage have the ability to think more abstractly and
hypothetically about complex concepts and ideas.

There are several implications of Piaget's research that have

helped to bring about change in science instruction. One important
idea is that any given group of students can display a wide variety of
cognitive abilities. Teachers must therefore be aware of the cognitive
abilities of their students and plan instruction accordingly. Another
aspect of Piaget's research that has been especially important to
constructivism is his theory of cognitive structures and logical
mathematical operations. This theory stresses the importance of
students developing their own internal structures as they learn. It
also emphasizes interactions with objects and events as students
attempt to construct their own understandings of scientific concepts.
To accommodate these ideas into science instruction, educators have
promoted more concrete experiences in the classroom and have
encouraged students to search for meaning and relationships when
confronted with apparently contradictory or difficult information.

The stages of cognitive development

Piaget's 'Four levels of development' are (1) infancy, (2) preschool,

(3) childhood, and (4) adolescence. Each stage is characterized by a
general cognitive structure that affects all of the child's thinking (a
structuralist view influenced by philosopher Immanuel Kant) Each
stage represents the child's understanding of reality during that
period, and each but the last is an inadequate approximation of
reality. Development from one stage to the next is thus caused by the
accumulation of errors in the child's understanding of the
environment; this accumulation eventually causes such a degree of
cognitive disequilibrium that thought structures require reorganizing.
The four development stages are described in Piaget's theory as:

1. Sensorimotor stage: from birth to age 2. Children experience

the world through movement and senses (use five senses to
explore the world). During the sensorimotor stage children are
extremely egocentric, meaning they cannot perceive the world
from others viewpoints and explore using senses. The
sensorimotor stage is divided into six substages: "(1) simple
reflexes; (2) first habits and primary circular reactions; (3)
secondary circular reactions; (4) coordination of secondary
circular reactions; (5) tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and
curiosity; and (6) internalization of schemes." [4] Simple reflexes
is from birth to 1 month old. At this time infants use reflexes
such as rooting and sucking. First habits and primary circular
reactions is from 1 month to 4 months old. During this time
infants learn to coordinate sensation and two types of scheme
(habit and circular reactions). A primary circular reaction is
when the infant tries to reproduce an event that happened by
accident (ex: sucking thumb). The third stage, secondary
circular reactions, occurs when the infant is 4 to 8 months old.
At this time they become aware of things beyond their own
body; they are more objects oriented. At this time they might
accidentally shake a rattle and continue to do it for sake of
satisfaction. Coordination of secondary circular reactions is
from 8 months to 12 months old. During this stage they can do
things intentionally. They can now combine and recombine
schemes and try to reach a goal (ex: use a stick to reach
something). They also understand object permanence during
this stage. That is, they understand that objects continue to
exist even when they can't see them. The fifth stage occurs
from 12 months old to 18 months old. During this stage infants
explore new possibilities of objects; they try different things to
get different results. During the last stage they are 18 to 24
months old. During this stage they shift to symbolic thinking.

2. Preoperational stage: from ages 2 to 5 (magical thinking

predominates. Acquisition of motor skills) Egocentricism begins
strongly and then weakens. Children cannot conserve or use
logical thinking.
3. Concrete operational stage: from ages 5 to 11 (children begin to
think logically but are very concrete in their thinking) Children
can now conserve and think logically but only with practical
aids. They are no longer egocentric.

4. Formal operational stage: after age 11 (development of abstract

reasoning). Children develop abstract thought and can easily
conserve and think logically in their mind

Lev Vygotsky's major contribution to the cognitive approach to

learning was his description of the influence of social interaction on
cognitive development. Vygotsky's emphasis was on the learner's
environment and the learner's interactions with other people through
the use of language. According to Vygotsky, in order for cognitive
development to occur, learners must receive information and
guidance from others. Two important features of Vygotsky's research
are private speech and the zone of proximal development. Private
speech involves a learner's internal thought processes used to
regulate problem-solving skills. The zone of proximal development
describes the level between the teacher's knowledge and the
learner's capabilities where instruction is most beneficial. These two
concepts work together when a teacher assists a student to solve a
problem by providing him or her with structure and encouragement
and then gradually backing off to allow the student to rely on his or
her own private speech to complete the task.

Like Piaget's theories, Vygotsky's research also closely relates to

the modern ideas of constructivism. The zone of proximal
development underscores the important roles of peers and adults in
promoting the construction of knowledge in the minds of students.
The idea that learners rely on human interaction to construct their
own knowledge has resulted in greater emphasis on cooperative
learning activities that allow students to benefit from the insight of
others in order to acquire new concepts. Also, the realization that
social interaction is a vital part of learning has put less emphasis on
students' personal discovery of scientific concepts and more
emphasis on collaboration and interaction among learners of science.

David Ausubel's contribution to the cognitive approach to learning

focused on the conceptual rather than the operative forms of
knowledge. Whereas Piaget and Vygotsky placed emphasis on
learners' personal construction of knowledge, Ausubel emphasized
the importance of reception learning that is based on the idea that
most of what is learned is acquired through the transmission of ideas
and not through discovery. Ausubel believed that reception learning
was an important means of acquiring certain discipline-based
concepts as long as that learning made meaningful connections
between the new information and the learner's preexisting cognitive

Ausubel's emphasis on reception learning has affected the way in

which science teachers approach certain scientific concepts. Many
educators recognize the significance of allowing students to learn
from information that has been organized by others as long as it has
meaning to the students' own internal cognitive structures. This
recognition of reception learning as an effective teaching method has
placed less emphasis on rote discovery learning as the only way for
students to construct personal meaning. Since students are not
expected to discover all-important scientific ideas on their own,
Ausubel's idea of reception learning holds a vital part in the learning
of science.

Constructivist theory

Formalization of the theory of constructivism is generally

attributed to Jean Piaget, who articulated mechanisms by which
knowledge is internalized by learners. He suggested that through
processes of accommodation and assimilation, individuals construct
new knowledge from their experiences. When individuals assimilate,
they incorporate the new experience into an already existing
framework without changing that framework. This may occur when
individuals' experiences are aligned with their internal representations
of the world, but may also occur as a failure to change a faulty
understanding; for example, they may not notice events, may
misunderstand input from others, or may decide that an event is a
fluke and is therefore unimportant as information about the world. In
contrast, when individuals' experiences contradict their internal
representations, they may change their perceptions of the
experiences to fit their internal representations. According to the
theory, accommodation is the process of reframing one's mental
representation of the external world to fit new experiences.
Accommodation can be understood as the mechanism by which
failure leads to learning: when we act on the expectation that the
world operates in one way and it violates our expectations, we often
fail, but by accommodating this new experience and reframing our
model of the way the world works, we learn from the experience of
failure, or others' failure.

It is important to note that constructivism is not a particular

pedagogy. In fact, constructivism is a theory describing how learning
happens, regardless of whether learners are using their experiences
to understand a lecture or following the instructions for building a
model airplane. In both cases, the theory of constructivism suggests
that learners construct knowledge out of their experiences. However,
Constructivism is often associated with pedagogic approaches that
promote active learning, or learning by doing.

Though there are several different theoretical bases for educational

reform in today's society, the restructuring of science teaching
appears to be focused on the idea of constructivism. The current
view of the importance of constructivism in teaching science is based
on the research of cognitive psychologists and learning theorists such
as Piaget, Vygotsky, and Ausubel. Their contributions have helped to
define the roles of cognitive learning theory and constructivist thought
in science education. The constructivism idea has provided
educators with particularly interesting insights on the effective
teaching and learning of science.



1. Knowledge on the subject Faculty members teach the

matter assigned subject and not irrelevant

2. Delivery Faculty members are effective in

their way of delivering their

3. Interactive skill Faculty members interact efficiently

with their students

4. Strategy Faculty members use teaching

strategies effectively

5. Time allotment Faculty members start and end the

class in a punctual way.

Figure 1. The Research paradigm showing the variables under


This chapter presents the type of method used in the research,

the respondents and sampling method and the research instruments

that have been used. It also show the type of statistical treatment that

applied in order to analyze and interpret the data gathered


Research Design

The descriptive method was used in this study. This is the most

appropriate method on inquiry about the present status and condition

of a particular phenomenon. Concepts and procedures of general

description, analysis, and classifications are discussed and illustrated

in considerable detail. This method tends to both the qualitative and

quantitative analysis of inquiry such as the present investigation.

Manuel and Medel, (1:46) elaborated that the profile of the

descriptive technique is to tell “what exist” or “what is” about a certain

educational phenomenon. It may likewise include a study on factors

or current conditions about the nature of a group of individuals or a

class of events which may involve induction, classification, analysis,

enumeration, or measurement.

Hillway, (4:187) pointed out that the descriptive method is

effective in obtaining accurate facts and figures about prevailing

conditions. It tries to describe the situations from which the status of

any kind of phenomena being studied may be learned and whenever

possible to formulate valid conclusions from the data gathered.

Sevilla et al. (2:150) described the method as a powerful

technique when one aims to describe the current or prevailing status

of events, things or phenomena, they said:

…the descriptive method or research is a useful tool

for scientific investigation which aims to describe

the existing status of events or phenomena. The

results of studies employing the descriptive method

of research can be used to advantage of the

researchers in all areas of human endeavor.

Further, the researcher’s interpretations and description on

prevailing comments that is to show that there is significance in the

common perceptions of common perceptions of nursing students to

faculty members handling NCM subjects.


In order for the researcher’s to gather important data needed

for the completion of the research, the researchers used instruments

like survey forms, letters to the respondents noted by the adviser and

the dean. The researchers read articles, previous study, thesis, and

books in the library related to the study.


The locale of the study is in Our Lady of Fatima University,

Quezon City which is suited for our respondents.


The representative respondents come from the 3rd year nursing

students of Our Lady of Fatima University who are currently taking up

NCM 101 and 102 as of school year 2008-2009 2nd semesters.

Sampling Technique
The researchers employed purposive sampling. They had

specifically chosen the respondents who are using memory

enhancers. The researchers are confident that these respondents

could honestly and categorically assess the common perceptions of

the students on the faculty members handling NCM subjects.

Instrumentation and Try-out Phase

To gather the data needed for the research, researchers used

the following


1. Questionnaire

For data gathering, researchers distribute carefully designed

questionnaires to the respondents, ensuring that this information is in

a form that can be objectively analyzed in order to elicit the needed

data that pertained to the topic under study. This consisted on

different parts and specific purposes. Part I Collecting data on the

respondents profile, Part II deals with the common perceptions of the

3rd year nursing students on faculty members handling NCM subjects.

2. Interviews

Interview was used by the researchers to the respondents to

supplement primary source of data, it also gave opportunity for the

respondents to clarify questions concerning the survey. Further, it

gave flexibility to give follow up questions or discuss issues

concerning the topic of study that was not clearly expounded by the


3. Observations

The observation was also been an excellent source of data.

Observational findings are considered strong in validity because the

researcher is able to collect a depth of information about a particular


Construction of the Instrument

After some readings of related studies and literature, the

researchers planned and framed the topic problems for this research

together with the conceptual framework and the statement of the

problem. Based on these ideas, the researchers started to formulate

their draft questionnaire to be used for their study. They continuously

reviewed their draft making reference to their statement of the

problem and conceptual framework. After some revisions, they were

able to present to their adviser a copy of the questionnaire.

The questionnaire was finally revised after some corrections

and suggestions by their adviser.


To establish solutions to the problem, numerical presentation

and analysis of the data gathered for this study.

For in depth analysis and interpretation of data, the following

techniques were used.

1. Frequency and Percentage Distribution

Percentage was used to find the ratio of frequency of response

to the total number of respondents by applying this formula:

P = _______ x 100


P = percentage

f = frequency
N = no. of respondents


Likert scale is used to indicate the extent to which the

respondents agree or disagree with each statement by checking
members from 1 to 5 where 5 is the highest corresponds to strongly
agree and 1 is the lowest corresponds to strongly disagree. A person
being tested would be asked to respond to each statement in the list
by checking on of the following categories.

5 (strongly agree)
4 (agree)
3 (neutral)
2 (disagree)
1 (strongly disagree)

Institutions of higher learning across the nation are responding to

political, economic, social and technological pressures to be more

responsive to students' needs and more concerned about how well

students are prepared to assume future societal roles. Faculty are

already feeling the pressure to lecture less, to make learning

environments more interactive, to integrate technology into the

learning experience, and to use collaborative learning strategies

when appropriate.

Some of the more prominent strategies are outlined below. For more

information about the use of these and other pedagogical

approaches, contact the Program in Support of Teaching and


For many years, the lecture method was the most widely used

instructional strategy in college classrooms. Nearly 80% of all college

classrooms in the late 1970s reported using some form of the lecture

method to teach students (Cashin, 1990). Although the usefulness of

other teaching strategies is being widely examined today, the lecture

still remains an important way to communicate information.

Used in conjunction with active learning teaching strategies, the

traditional lecture can be an effective way to achieve instructional

goals. The advantages of the lecture approach are that it provides a

way to communicate a large amount of information to many listeners

maximizes instructor control and is non-threatening to students. The

disadvantages are that lecturing minimizes feedback from students,

assumes an unrealistic level of student understanding and

comprehension, and often disengages students from the learning

process causing information to be quickly forgotten.

Even though students may have no experience in class or field, they

enter the classroom with a long history of academic training and life

experience. For this reason, presenting new information is not

enough to guarantee optimal learning. Students must recognize the

limitations of their current knowledge and perspectives. This means

that instructor cannot simply unload your knowledge on students.

What is required is a true transformation of students' existing


Instructors from all fields face this challenge. In the sciences and

mathematics, it is common for students to have learned an

oversimplified definition or approach in high school. Students making

the shift from classical to modern physics, for example, cannot simply
layer new information onto old understanding. In the humanities,

students may, for the first time, be asked to develop original

interpretations of texts or to consider conflicting interpretations of

texts instead of seeking the one, instructor-approved, "correct"

interpretation. This new approach must replace the approach that

students have learned, practiced, and been rewarded for. In the

social sciences, instructors often have the difficult job of helping

students unlearn common sense beliefs that may be common but

unjustified. In all these cases, students' previous knowledge must be

completely revised, not merely augmented.