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Aim: To Study the rate of fermentation of fruits and vegetables juices. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my chemistry mentor Mr.__________, for his vital support, guidance and encouragement without which this project would not have come forth.

Certified to be the bonafide work done by Master Pushkar Singh Sani of class XII-A in the Chemistry project during the session 2012-2013 Date _____________. Kendriya Vidyalaya, A.G.C.R. Colony, Delhi Submitted for ALL INDIA SENIOR SECONDARY EXAMINATION held in 2013 at Kendriya Vidyalaya, A.G.C.R. Colony, Delhi.

Examiner DATE- ______________.

S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Contents Objective Introductio n Theory Experiment Observatio n Conclusion Bibliograph y 17 17 10 12 15 Page no. 5 7

OBJECTIVE: The Objective of this project is to study the rates of fermentation of the following fruit and vegetable juices: 1) Apple juice 2) Orange juice 3) Carrot juice 4) Pomegranate juice 5) Pineapple juice

INTRODUCTION: Fermentation is the process of slow decomposition of complex organic compound into simpler ones under the influence of enzymes. Enzymes are complex organic compounds, generally proteins. Examples of fermentation are: souring of milk or curd, bread making, wine making and brewing. The word Fermentation has been derived from Latin word ferver which means boiling. As during fermentation there is lot of frothing of the liquid due to the evolution of carbon dioxide, it gives the appearance as if it is boiling. Sugars like glucose and sucrose when fermented in the presence of yeast cells are converted to ethyl alcohol. During fermentation of

starch, starch is first hydrolyzed to maltose by the action of enzyme diastase (the enzyme diastase is obtained from germinated barley seeds.) Fermentation is carried out at a temperature of 35-40 C. This is low for most kinds of fermentation, but is beneficial for cider as it leads to slower fermentation with less loss of delicate aromas. Apple based juices with cranberry also make fine ciders; and many other fruit pures or flavorings can be used, such as grape, cherry, and raspberry. The cider is ready to drink after a three month fermentation period, though more often it is matured in the vats for up to two or three years. THEORY: Fruits and vegetables juice, all contains carbohydrates, i.e. glucose, fructose, sucrose etc. These are fermented by the enzyme Zymase to ethyl alcohol. Carbon dioxide gas is also evolved in the process.

Rate of fermentation of these juices can be compared by estimating the amount of carbon dioxide evolved in a definite time under similar conditions from equal amount of the substances. Another method is to find out the time taken for complete conversion of equal amount of the juices into ethanol by the process of fermentation under similar conditions. Complete conversion can be detected by treating few drops of the solution with Fehlings

solution. Till sugar is present in the solution, it will give positive test, i.e. red ppts., with Fehlings solution. When all the sugar has been converted into ethanol by fermentation, then this will not give red ppts., with Fehlings solution. Figure: EXPERIMENT: Requirements: Apparatus: Test tubes, test-tube stand, test-tube holder, tripod stand, wire gauze, beaker, pipette (2mL), conical flasks (100mL), dropper, Stopwatch. Chemicals: Distilled water, yeast, Pasteurs salt, Fehlings solution A and B, Apple juice, Orange juice, Carrot juice, Pineapple juice, Pomegranate juice. PROCEDURE: Take 5-6 clean test tubes. Pipette out 2mL of Fehlings solution in each. Keep these tubes in boiling water in a beaker or water bath.

Take 5.0 ml of juice in a clean conical flask and dilute it with 50 ml of distilled water.

Add 2.0 gram of Bakers yeast and 5.0 ml of solution of Pasteurs salts to the above conical flask.

Shake well the contents of the flask and maintain the temperature of the reaction mixture between 35-40C.

Take out five drops of the solution with the help of a dropper after five minutes and add to one of the test tube containing Fehlings solution. Note color change, if any.

Continue this testing with 5 drops of the reaction mixture after every 5 minutes until the test shows that no more is sugar is left in the reaction mixture, i.e. fermentation is complete.

Note the time taken for completion of fermentation.

OBSERVATIONS: NOTE: All the volumes of juices taken and volume of chemicals added is equal for all the juices. Volume of fruit juice taken = _______mL

Volume of distilled water added

= _______ mL

Weight of Bakers yeast added

= _______ g

Volume of solution of Pasteurs salts

= _______ mL

Normal color of all the diluted juices mixtures before starting the experimental procedure.

JUICE Apple juice Orange juice Carrot juice Pomegranate juice


Observation Table:
Is any color shown on reacting with Fehlings solution by Time (in minutes) Apple juice Orange juice Pineapple juice Carrot juice Pomegranate juice

Conclusion: ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________

Precautions: Use equal volumes of the juices. Ferment the juices under identical conditions.

Fermentation should be done at 35-40 C temperature only.

Warm the test tube for 2-3 minutes on water bath before inferring with Fehlings solution. Bibliography:

APC Laboratory Manual Chemistry Class XII Googleimages Googlesearch

Subject teacher Classmates ************

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