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ANALYSIS OF WATER POLLUTION IN FRESHWATER INLE LAKE BASED ON EUTROPHICATION

PhD DISSERTATION

MAR LAR HTWE

DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF YANGON MYANMAR

NOVEMBER, 2008

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to express my profound gratitude to Professor Dr. Maung Maung Gyi, Head of Zoology Department, University of Yangon for his kind permission to conduct this research. Grateful thanks to Professor Dr. Khin Maung Swe, Department of Zoology, Dagon University, for his continuous encourage, constructive advice, valuable suggestions, and scholastic supervision and guidance of this research work. I extend my thanks to Integrated Community Development Project office of UNDP in Nyaung Shwe Township, Southern Shan State and Freshwater Aquaculture Research Chemical Laboratory, Department of Fisheries, Tharkayta Township, Yangon for their technical help in analyzing water parameters. I would like to express my sincere thanks to Nagao Natural Environment Foundation (NEF), Japan and Forest Resource Environment Development and Conservation Association (FREDA), Myanmar for partially support of financial. I also wish to express my thanks to Dr. Moe Kyi Han, Dr. Tint Moe Thu Zar, Dr. Khin Lay Yee and Dr. Nway Nwe Aye who have kindly assisted me in graphic presentation. My heartfelt gratitude goes to all my sisters and brothers, for their consistent encourage, understanding and financial support. Last but not the least, I am especially grateful to my husband, U Kyaw Thant, for his moral encouragement and financial support rendered throughout the study period.

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ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted in the Inle Lake, Nyaung Shwe Township, Southern Shan State. Inle lake is the third largest lake in Myanmar in which several tens of thousands of people live in the lake. The lake has several risk factors that could pollute its water as the chemical fertilizers and pesticides are being continually used in the agricultural farms in the area. Six study sites were selected to collect the water samples. Water samples were collected monthly from the year 2006 to 2007 to determine the pollution level and eutrophication. Increased nutrient loading can stimulate algal growth found abundantly in the lake. Six physical parameters consisting water depth, turbidity, water temperature, electrical conductivity, hardness, and total dissolved solids (TDS), and six chemical parameters consisting pH, arsenic, chlorides, fluoride concentrations and dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and two nutrient parameters of nitrates and phosphates levels were investigated to determine the pollution level. All parameters were analysed by using comparative and correlation statistical methods. Monthly means and the range of each parameter were calculated. The data were presented by graphic presentations. Two water parameters, nitrates and phosphates, were observed to be higher than WHO standard level, while four parameters, DO, BOD, chlorides and fluoride, were found to lower than the WHO standards. Hence the use of chemical fertilizer in this lake is assumed to start water pollution contributing to eutrophication. Lowering of DO could also affect aquatic fauna in the lake. Suggestions for future work are outlined based on the recorded data.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Content ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF PLATES LIST OF TABLES CHAPTER CHAPTER 1 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 CHAPTER 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.4.1 3.5 3.5.1 3.5.2 INTRODUCTION REVIEW OF LITERATURE Water Eutrophication Previous Inle Condition Recent Inle Condition MATERIALS AND METHODS Study area Study site Study period Materials Study period Equipment, apparatus and testkits Methods Collection of water samples .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ...... .. .. ... ... ..

Page ii iii iv vii ix x 1 5 5 8 12 13 14 14 14 14 17 13 17 17 17 18

Physicochemical analysis of water samples ..


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3.6 CHAPTER 4 4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.4 4.1.5 4.1.6 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.4

Data analysis RESULTS Physical parameters Water depth Electrical conductivity Total dissolved solid Turbidity Hardness Water temperature Chemical parameters Arsenic Chloride Fluoride Water pH Dissolved oxygen Biochemical oxygen demand Nutrient pollutants Nitrate nitrogen, NO3-N Phosphate Correlation among water parameters in Inle Lake

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18 21 21 21 24 24 27 27 30 33 33 36 36 39 42 47 50 50 53

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58 58 58 62

4.4.1 4.4.2 4.4.3

Physical parameters and water pH Physical parameters and DO Physical parameters and BOD

4.4.4

Physical parameters and fluoride ion concentration .. .. 62 65

4.4.5 4.4.6

Physical parameters and chlorides Chemical parameters and electrical conductivity

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65 69 69 72 83 84 85

4.4.7 4.4.8 CHAPTER 5

Water temperature and nitrates Total dissolved solids and nitrates DISCUSSION SUMMARY SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE WORK REFERENCES

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 3.1 3.2 Map of study area Six study sites of Inle Lake (A) Kyezagone (B) Lethit (C) Mwepwe (D) Kela (E) Centre of the Lake and (F) Namlit chaug 4.1 Monthly variation of water depth (cm) in six study sites (March 2006 to February 2007) 4.2 Monthly variation of electric conductivity ((s cm-1) in six study sites (March 2006 to February 2007) 4.3 Monthly variation of total dissolved solid (mg L-1) in six study sites (March 2006 to February 2007) 4.4 Monthly variation of hardness (mg L-1) in six study sites (March 2006 to February 2007) 4.5 Monthly variation of temperature (C) in six study sites (March 2006 to February 2007) 4.6 Monthly variation of chloride (mg L-1) in six study sites (March 2006 to February 2007) 4.7 Monthly variation of fluoride (mg L-1) in six study sites (March 2006 to February 2007) 4.8 Monthly variation of pH in six study sites (March 2006 to February 2007) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

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4.9

Monthly variation of dissolved oxygen (mg L-1)


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in six study sites (March 2006 to February 2007) 4.10 Monthly variation of biochemical oxygen demand (mg L-1) in six study sites (March 2006 to February 2007) 4.11 Monthly variation of nitrate (mg L-1) in six study sites (March 2006 to February 2007) 4.12 Monthly variation of phosphate (mg L-1) in six study sites (March 2006 to February 2007) 4.13 Correlation between physical parameters and water pH in Inle Lake 4.14 Correlation between physical parameters and dissolved oxygen (DO) 4.15 Correlation between physical parameters and biochemical oxygen demand in Inle Lake 4.16 Correlation between physical parameters and fluoride ion concentration in Inle Lake 4.17 Correlation between physical parameters and chloride ion concentration in Inle Lake 4.18 Correlation between chemical parameters and electrical conductivity in Inle Lake 4.18 Correlation between chemical parameters and electrical conductivity in Inle Lake 4.19 Correlation between nitrate compounds and physical parameters in Inle Lake

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LIST OF PLATES
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Plate 3.1 Collection sites of water samples showing different conditions 3.2 4.1 4.2 Collection water samples and Meters and Test-kits Sources of nutrients and pollutants Different types of bloom of floating and submerged plants that affect on the water quality of Inle Lake .. .. .. ..

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19 20 56

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LIST OF TABLES
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Table 4.1 Monthly water depths (cm) at different water sampling sites during study period 4.2 Monthly electric conductivity (s cm-1) at different water sampling sites during study period 4.3 Monthly total dissolved solids (mg L-1) at different water sampling sites during study period 4.4 Monthly hardness (mg L-1) at different water sampling sites during study period 4.5 Monthly water temperature (C) at different water sampling sites during study period 4.6 Monthly chloride ion concentration (mg L-1) at different water sampling sites during study period 4.7 .. .. .. .. .. ..

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Monthly fluoride ion concentration (mg L-1) at different water sampling sites during study period .. 40

4.8

Monthly water pH values at different water sampling sites during study period .. 43

4.9

Monthly dissolved oxygen (mg L-1) at different water sampling sites during study period .. 45

4.10

Monthly biochemical oxygen demand (mg L-1) at different water sampling sites during study period .. 48

4.11

Monthly nitrate ion concentration (mg L-1) at different water sampling sites during study period .. 51

4.12

Monthly phosphate ion concentration (mg L-1) at different


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water sampling sites during study period 4.13

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54 59

Values of coefficient of correlation and regression equation ..

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

Inle lake is a very popular resort as traditional Inle festival, nice scene with leg rowing, very beautiful big horn-shaped fishing trap, seasonal festival one of the ecotourism sites in Myanmar. Inle Lake is located on the Shan plateau of East Myanmar, in Thanlwin river basin and is the third largest natural lake in Myanmar. The basin is in a broad North-South valley between two limestone ridges, rising to 1200 meters above sea level, 19.8 meters long and 11.6 meter wide, elongated and fairly shallow, an area of 5.618 sqkm, with a maximum measured depth of 4 meter (Davies, 2004). Water pollution is defined as any contamination of water that lessens its value to humans and nature. Pollution represents imbalance of one or more elemental cycles. Water pollutants for the lakes are sediments, nutrients, oxygen demanding organic wastes, thermal pollution, disease organism, and toxic organic wastes by United Nation Environmental ProgrammeInternational Environmental Technology Centre/International Lake

Environment Committee Foundation (UNEP-IETC/ILEC, 2001). Eutrophication is defined by two water parameters, over enrichment of micronutrients of phosphate PO4-P and nitrates NO3-N. Eutrophication leads to the reduction of oxygen and the release and accumulation of toxic substances in the water that creates the sediments-polluting aquatic environment, which can then lead to the death of aquatic organisms, and the destruction of ecosystems and also threat to human health (Eastin, 1977). Annadale reported in 1918 that the fertility of Inle Lake was very less and eutrophication started by gradual proceeding of the occurrence of algae, weed, and some aquatic plants. Several tribes live in the floating islands of the lake for many years. Currently, the population living in the 360 villages on the floating islands and around the lake is approximately 110,000 people and
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2 produce domestic wastes, human sewages, debris, the wastes of chemical compounds of inorganic fertilizers, pesticides utilized in the agriculture farms on the floating island. Much area of the lake is covered with a luxuriant growth of submerged and floating-leaved macrophytes. In addition, there are floating mats composed mainly of grasses. These are the distinct appearance in some degree of pollution and eutrophication in the lake water. There are extensive areas of anchored mats and herbaceous marsh, especially around the northern end of the Lake. Much of the lake-associated herbaceous marsh has been converted to rice fields and to water gardens. Direct uses of the Inle Lake are for fishing, water gardening, transportation, and tourism. Recently, human population becomes high around the lake, particularly immediately to the north and around the southern and western margins. Thus, inflow of domestic effluent into the lake may be a problem; together with general disturbance. Tourism results in some disturbance through boat trips on the lake and through the development of resorts on the shores of the lake which may cause an increase in the flow of domestic effluent into the lake. Oil spill from the high number of motorized boats in the lake cover the film on the water surface may make disturbance the aquatic plants for photosynthesis. A large amount of heat produced by the motor engines of the boats is one the thermal pollution of the lake water temperature. The development of water gardens is a form of reclamation and extends to the areas of open water being lost around the margins. Siltation is considered to be a major threat during the wet season, when rain causes erosion of soil which has been exposed by fires in the dry season. This seems to be especially true for the western inflows, where a delta has been created which extends into the lake. The major threat is soil erosion, caused by run off from slopes which have been subject to fire. The area of Inle has reduced 15% since the British colonial time. Further development of water

3 gardens will decrease the area of open water and increase the threat from fertilizers and pesticide. Continued stocking of exotic fish species will pose a great threat to the unique fish fauna (Aung, Nyo, Htut, Thein, Maung, Thu, Than, Maung, Thant and Htay 2001). In Inle Lake, there are a lot of floating farms in floating islands and are made from masses of floating vegetation and are used to grow vegetables in a form of hydrophonic culture. Flatter areas round the lake and in the basins are used for rice, vegetables and flowers cultivation. Floating farms are found around the lake margins, tomatoes being a major crop. The tomato plantation is the major food from the Inle floating island agriculture and produces about three tonnes per year and distribute throughout the country. The chemical pollutants from the farms, human wastes and domestic wastes produced from the peoples in everyday finally accumulated in the lake and become contaminated ( Htay, 2001). Nowadays, farmers who live in this lake use of many kinds of agricultural chemicals such as pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, fungicides and fertilizers. These agricultural chemicals affect aquatic species of this lake in various ways. The natural beauty of the lake attracts many tourists. Many hotels and resorts have also been developed on the shore of the lake, which may cause an increase in the flow of the domestic effluent into the lake, because of urbanization and floating islands. The aquatic ecosystem in the lake is therefore being more and more polluted. And it becomes imported to prevent the biodiversity of Inle Lake. For this reasons there is a need to do a research of how this pollution effect on the lake and the aquatic mentioned above ecosystem. TDS are formed from dissolved minerals which determine the hardness, acidity, conductivity inturn affecting water colour, taste and odor (Gray, 1999). Conductivity indicates water's ability to conduct electric current linked to level of mineral salts in solution in water. Hence conductivity is controlled

4 by the degree to which these salts dissociate into ions. It is measured as microsemiemens per centimetre (s cm-1). Natural rivers and lakes have electrical conductivity (EC) of 10 to 1,000 s cm-1. Alkalinity reduces acidity by neutralizing hydrogen (H) ions. Hence have buffering activity. Carbonates and bicarbonates determine alkalinity. pH reflects intensity of acidity/alkalinity of water. Nitrates originate from organic compounds and ammonia through aerobic oxidation and decomposition of organisms. Nitrates indicate recent pollution. Phosphates indicate lake eutrophication. Sources of phosphorous are human waste and synthetic detergents and fertilizers. Arsenic (As) is highly toxic. Sources are industry, insecticides, natural minerals. Dissolved oxygen (DO) indicates water quality. Dissolved oxygen is inversely proportional to temperature. Maximum value is about 9 mg L-1. The present investigation is carried out with the following objectivesto detect the water parameters of pH, water temperature (TC), Turbidity, Hardness, Electric conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Chlorides, Fluoride, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), water level to determine the levels of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds that cause eutrophication to correlate the different water parameters to analyze the content of nitrates and phosphates influence eutrophication process base upon data from surveyed sites to evaluate the pollution and eutrophic level of the Inle Lake

CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE


2.1 Water Simmonds (1962) also stated that pollution is 'the presence in a water of any substance, physical, chemical or biological, which renders that water unsuitable or unfit for some domestic purpose. Beeton (1965) presented as evidence for the eutrophication of the St. Lawrence Great Lakes an increase in the dissolved salt content of these waters. Chemical species that make up the bulk of the total salts in most lakes are calcium (Ca++), magnesium (Mg++), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), sulfate (SO4-), bicarbonate (HCO3-) and chloride ( CL-). Sometimes nitrate (NO3-) concentrations are encountered in ground waters in amounts that contribute to the dissolved salts or specific conductance of the water. With the exception of nitrate, all of these species play minor roles in aquatic plant production of a lake, i.e. their concentrations are in sufficient excess so that they do not limit the plant production. Therefore, high total salts in a lake usually mean that the lake also has a high content of aquatic plant nutrients. Beeton (1965) was the result of a greater degree of cultural activity in the lake's drainage basins and thus an increased flux of many of the common cations and anions normally found in lakes. As will be show later, associated with the increase in cultural activity, a higher nitrogen and phosphorus flux will also occur. Although the total amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus and other aquatic plant nutrients are insufficient to be determined as a part of the dissolved salts or specific conductivity, they are sufficient to cause excessive growths of algae and other aquatic plants in lake Erie and parts of the Great Lakes. Even though these salts probably do not significantly contribute to the nutrient for aquatic plants, their build up in Great Lakes is of major concern and will require their removal from some waste waters in the foreseeable future.
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6 Tarzwell (1965) ties the definition to usage: water pollution is the addition of any material or any change in character or quality of a water that interferes with, lessens, or destroys a desired use. Lee (1972) reported that oligotrophic lakes contain small amounts of organisms but many different species of aquatic plants and animals. Eutrophic lakes are generally though to contain large numbers of aquatic plants and animals of a few species. Normally, lakes that are sufficiently deep to develop a thermo cline ( two-layer system due to density differences as a result of the thermal structure) and show a particle or complete depletion of dissolved oxygen in the hypolimnion (bottom layer) are classified as eutuophic, while those that maintain the oxygen in the hypolinmion throughout the period of thermal stratification are oligotrophic. This oxygen depends on amounts of aquatic plants that develop in the surface water and the morphology of the lake. For lakes with a given amount of aquatic plant production in the eplimnion (surface layers), those with a large hypolimnetic volume tend to have the oxygen concentration depleted to a lesser degree than those with a small hypolemnetic volume. With few exceptions, the amount of aquatic plants produced in a lake is restricted to the surface waters since light penetration is usually restricted to eplimnetic waters. EPA (1990) reported that rapid changes in lake nutrient status and productivity are often a result of human included disturbances to the watershed rather than gradual enrichment and filling of the lake basin through natural means. Human-induced cultural eutrophication occurs when nutrient, soil, or organic matter loads to the lake are dramatically increased. A lake's lifespan can be shortened drastically increased by activities such as forest clearing, road building, cultivation, residential development, and wastewater treatment discharges because these activities increase soil and nutrient loads that eventually move into the lake. Natural and man-made lakes undergo eutrophicaton by the same processes-nutrient enrichment and basin filling-but at very different rates.

7 Michaud (1994) described that a larger fraction of the water in a shallow lake is influenced by sunlight, and that photosynthesis and growth are proportionately higher than in a deep lake. Michaud (1994) also described unlike deep lakes, shallow lakes tend not to stratify and are more likely to be mixed the same from top to bottom. Anson (1997) stated water pollution is commonly defined as any physical, chemical of biological change in water quality which adversely impacts on living organisms in the environment or which makes a water resource unsuitable for one or more of its beneficial uses. Some of the major categories of beneficial uses of water resources include: public water supply, irrigation, recreation, industrial production and nature conservation. Moss (1998) reported the water is well mixed by wind, and physical characteristics such as temperature and oxygen vary little with depth. Because sunlight reaches all the way to the lake bottom, photosynthesis and growth occur throughout the water column. Simba (2001) described there are many dissolved substances in water such as mineral salts, organic compounds (products of aquatic animals and plants) etc. Some of these dissolved particles are electrically changed (ions). These dissolved ions can provide the trace elements needed by aquatic plants. Moss (2004) reported that the demand for surface water for many purposes is increasing globally, mainly due to population growth and irrigation, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. Eutrophication often becomes apparent to the public as populations increase in density. The total impact of humans on nature is probably about high times higher today than 40-50 years ago, given the growth in population, in industrial and agricultural production, and in technological development (we use more chemicals, traffic density has increased, etc.).

8 2.2 Eutrophication Cable (1966) made a survey especially dense concentration of a single species of zooplankton or phytoplankton are population explosions knows as swarms, and flower or blooms. They occur seasonally or at irregular intervals when environmental conditions are exceptionally favorable for the growth and reproduction of a particular species. Swarming or flowering communities occur most often when the water is enriched by runoff from agricultural land, by upwelling from the bottom, by overturn of a body of water due to wind and thermal changes, or by the addition of small quantities of organic wastes from urban communities. Extensive investigations have shown that a great preponderance of the basic or primary nutriment in the aquatic environment is manufactured by the unicellular microscopic algae in the phytoplankton. These tiny plants contain chloroplasts that can produce carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of light (a process called photosynthesis).The plant cells then synthesize complex organic compounds from suitable salts of essential ignoring substances - - chiefly carbon, phosphorus, and nitrogen. Waters that receive domestic and industrial wastes containing large amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds often nourish heavy growths of algae Cairns, Albaugh, Bursey and Chaney (1968) were carried out overloading with nitrogen and phosphorus can result in a series of undesirable effects. Excessive growth of plankton algae increases the amount of organic matter settling to the bottom. This may be enhanced by changes in the species composition and functioning of the pelagic food web by stimulating the growth of small flagellates rather than larger diatoms, which leads to lower grazing by copepods in increased sedimentation. Diatoms can be used as an indicator for water pollution. Because diatoms (single-celled algae) have frequently been used to evaluate the impact of domestic sewage or industrial waste on the aquatic environment. Use of these organisms in pollution impact evaluation is justified by reason of their sensitive to pollutions. In a non-polluted environment then will usually be a very high diversity of kinds of different

9 diatoms, while a polluted environment will show a very low diversity with only a few different kinds of diatoms. Vollenweider (1968) stated that especially implicated as specific nutrients are nitrates and phosphates, anions which in nature are frequently present in limiting amounts. Others which also probably play apart include potassium, magnesium, sulphate, trace elements (cobolt, molybdenum, copper, zinc, boron, iron, manganese, etc.), and organic growth factors. National Academy of Sciences (1969) published remedial measures for eutuophication centre upon the principal of limiting nutrient inflow (particularly of nitrates and phosphates), removing nutrients already present in the lake, and mechanically or chemically ridding the lake of nuisance plants by cutting or poisoning. These practices are now widely used in the United States and elsewhere; removal procedures usually involve chemical coagulation of one sort or another. Phosphates can now be fairly easily removed, but nitrates prove more difficult or complete distillation is resorted to in order to remove nutrients. Lee (1972) made a surveyed the eutrophication-exesssive fertilization of natural waters is becoming one of the most important causes of water quality deterioration. The cultural activities of man greatly accelerate the transport of phosphorus, nitrogen and other elements which may limit aquatic plant growth in natural waters. These nutrients stimulate the growth of floating or suspended algae, attached algae and macrophytes. Excessive growths of these aquatic plants result in a significant deterioration in water quality for the use of the water for domestic and industrial water supplies, irrigation and recreation. Bayly and Willians (1973) published there are several human activities that may have considerable impact upon the inland aquatic environment but which do not involve direct physical alteration to inland waters. The principal effect of land-clearing (deforestation), over-grazing by stock, certain sorts of agricultural malpractices, burning-off, and uncontrolled fires is to change the pattern of run-off on drainage basin and hence alter the nature of fluctuation in

10 lake levels and rivers and stream flows. Invariably the trend is for such fluctuations to become more extreme. The transference by man, accidental or otherwise, of many species of aquatic biota from one water body to another is also a human activity that has affected the nature of inland waters and their biota. Such transference had occurred on a global scale. On the other hand, much transference has had deleterious results for mankind. Irrespective of the advantages or disadvantages to man their total impact upon inland waters and biota ranges from an apparently insignificant one to one that is highly significant. Anonymous, 1976; Foge, 1965; Goldman, 1966; Manchenthum, 1965; Manchenthum and Ingram, 1966; MIddlebrooks, Maloney, Powers and Kaack (1969); and Vollenweider, 1969 was carried out of factors thus for considered, if light, temperature, basin morphology and residence time of water are "normal", a sufficiently high flux of aquatic plant nutrients can create eutrophication problems. Even if these other factors are not "normal", i.e., they are operating to increase aquatic plant production. This production is still most frequently controlled by the flux of chemical compounds that influence algal growth. Although the nutritional requirements of algae and higher aquatic plants are poorly understood, it is generally agreed that they all have large requirements for carbon (C), nitrogen (N), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), and phosphorus (P) and need lesser amounts of many different trace elements. The nutrient requirements of aquatic plants except for the need for potassium by terrestrial plants. The fixation of potassium by clay minerals causes a deficiency in soils, while in water there is generally sufficient potassium to meet the needs of the aquatic plants. Aquatic plants are different in one important respect from some terrestrial plants in that they can use either NO3or NH4+ in preference to NO3-. Some algae will take up NH4+ in preference to NO3-. Some of the blue green algae also have the ability to grow at a very low NO3- and NH4+ concentration. Orthophosphate (PO4) is the form of phosphorus

11 that is readily available for algal growth although it is possible that other forms such as P-O-P and organic phosphorus may also be available to algae. Nixon (1995) stated that eutrophication refers to an increase in the rate of supply of organic matter to an ecosystem, which most commonly is related to nutrient enrichment enhancing the primary production in the system In 2001 the UNEP-IETC/ILEC published eutrophication is one of the most widespread environmental problems of inland waters, and is their unnatural environment with two plant nutrients, phosphorus and nitrogen. In many lakes and reservoirs in the world plants growing in the surface during spring and summer will die during autumn and sink to the bottom where they decompose. Eutrophication is a process by which a water body progresses from its origin to its extinction. During this period, there is a gradual accumulation of nutrients and organic biomass, accompanied by a decrease in average depth of the water due to the sediment accumulation, and an increase in primary productivity, usually in the form of dense algal blooms. Cultural eutrophication occurs when humans, through there various activities, greatly accelerate this process. Eutrophication can cause loss in species diversity, fish kills, and decrease the aesthetic value of a water body (Das, 2003). Moss (2004) made a survey that eutrophication poses a great threat to the recreational potential of lakes due to the health effects associated with toxic algal blooms. Increased nutrient loading can stimulate algal growth. TDS (350 mg L-1 to 180 mg L-1) levels were found in Inle Lake. EC ranged between 20 s cm-1 to 50 s cm-1. Alkality was between 100 ppm > 200 ppm. pH was 758 to 8.88. Nitreates ranged from mostly not detected to 2.52 ppm at Myaynigone village. Phosphates ranged 0.03 to 1.34 ppm. Arsenic found in Tale-U stream in rainy season. Dissolved oxygen was from 4.2 to 8.2 mg L-1 depending on sampling water layer. COD ranged from 4 mg L-1 to 54 mg L-1 depending on sampling layer and site. Total coliform count ranged

12 from 918 MPN/100 mL to > 2400 MPN/100 mL and was much higher than WHO standard (200 MPN/100 mL) for drinking water. Turbidity, COD and total coliform count changed with reason. DO slightly varied and low where dense algae growth occurred in some parts of the lake. In addition, electrical conductivity, COD and total coliform count were above the WHO standards for drinking water. Inle Lake is in the initial phase of eutrophication. TDS and COD and alkalinity; and temperature and coliform, turbidity and conductivity have correlationships. Sedimentation was found to be the greatest thread to Inle Lake (May, 2007).

2.3 Previous Inle Condition The lake is in the great Limeston Zone of the Shan Plateau. An enormous amount of peaty matter is always formed around the Inle Lake in condition with silt deposition from the inflowing steams and chaungs. Inle is a solution lake type with its basin hollowed out of limestone by the dissolving action of water. No 'sink' exists in the lake. It might have been over hundred mites long and several hundred feet deep. The decay of vegetation rendered the waters acid which ate through limestone rocks leading to drainage of the Inle Lake. Fauna of the Inle is a very highly specialized one, isolated for a considerable time and evolution has taken place rapidly. Inle fauna is remarkably rich in fish and molluscs, abundant in species and individuals including endemic forms. Most fish have large eyes but lack barbels. Lower vertebrates are poorly represented. Crustaceans are scarce. Among insects, Odenata, Diptera and Rhynchota occurred but beetles are scarce. The aquatic and quasi-aquatic fauna of the Inle district as a whole was separated from the common fauna of the Oriented Region at not an extremely remote period (Annandale, 1918).

13 2.4 Recent Inle condition Flora and fauna species are diverse and enriched. It is a nesting place of globally endangered Sarus Crane (Grus antigone). It has nine endemic fish species with Inle Carp (Cyprinus carpio Intha) is locally well know food resource. Inle is not only designated as 190th World's Eco-region but also as the freshwater biodiversity hotspot by the World Conservatoin Monitoring Center (WCMC, 1998). Hydrophonic agriculture, using floating islands of peat formed by decayed grasses, reeds, marsh plants entangled with bog mosses and algae, is practiced by local ethnic Intha people in Inle Lake which is now a major tomato production area supplying the whole country. Combining with domestic effluent and increased use of fertilizer in floating gardens, sedimentation results in the increases of nutrient uploading in the lake leading to eutrophication process in Inle Lake. The Inle was 23 kilometers (km) long and 11 meters (m) wide in 1967 is now shrunk 11 km long and 5 km wide in 1996 (Myanmar EPA, 2001). Chan, Davies, Sebastian, Htay, Aye, Aung, Thwin and Shwe (2001) assessed the Inle Lake condition and reported 18 endemic fish species in the lake. Ten species were non-endemics but 8 species were introduced or of uncertain status. Conductivity was 260 410 s cm-1, DO 1.7 - 10.3 mg L-1, pH 7.6 - 8.3. Natural nitrates, phosphates were rich in floating gardens where super phosphate fertilizer as well as insecticides and fungicides were also applied for tomato production in Inle (Elliott and Win 1993).

CHAPTER 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS


3.1 Study area Inle Lake, located on the Shan plateau in the Southern Shan State of east Myanmar and in Thanlwin river basin, was the study area. The geopositional coordinates are N 2039.573'; E9655.136' (Fig. 3.1).

3.2 Study sites Study sites were chosen based on human settlement, agricultural activity, entry of major inflow (sedimentation), nearess to motorboat pathway (oil spill), and approximity to center of lake (stagnant water). Six study sites at different locations, Kyezagone village (only human settlement), Lethit village (only cultivated agricultural gardens or floating farms or floating islands), Mwepwe village (on the motorboat pathway to Phaungdaw Oo Pagoda), Kela village (mixed human settlement and floating islands), Innle (center of lake), Namlit- chaung* (entry of major inflow) were designated to collect the water samples (Fig. 3.2). *Chaung = stream

3.3 Study period This study was conducted from March 2006 to January 2007.

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Fig. 3.1. Map of study area (Source: Geography Department, University of Yangon)

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Fig.3.2. Six study sites of Inle Lake, (A) Kyezogone, (B) Lethit, (C) Mwepwe, (D) Kela, (E) Centre of lake and (F) Namlit-chaung

17 3.4 Materials 3.4.1 Equipment, apparatus and test kits Most water quality parameters were measured by water quality test kits, water quality test meters, strips and test tubes. Water temperature (TC), electrical conductivity(EC), total dissolved solid (TDS) and pH were measured by MODEL 370 pH/m V meter made in The EU. Hardness, chloride (Cl), fluoride (F) and Nitrate (NO3-N) were measured by WATSAN WAGTECH Photometer 5000 Sr. No 5 to 8 potable test kit made in The EU, with hardicol reagent tablets No. 1 and 2; acidifying CD chloridol reagent tablets; fluoride reagent tablets No. 1 and 2; nitratest tablets/ nitratest powder and nitricol tablets respectively. Turbidity analysis was used to turbidity test tube. Arsenic analysis was done by Arsenic analytical test strips with reagent 1 and 2 made by Merck KGaA, 64271 Darmstadt, Germany. Phosphate analysis was done by Spectrophotometer at Tharkayta freshwater Aquaculture Research Chemical Laboratory. Dissolved oxygen (DO) was measured in the field by DO test kit with reagents 1, 2, 3, 4 of Annawamon Co. Ltd., Tharkayta. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) analysis was done by Winkler titration method at the Tharkayta Chemical Lab. Water depths were measured by marked poles in each study site.

3.5 Methods Sampling frequency for eutrophication: 12 per year, including twice monthly during the summer for lakes or reservoirs (Bartran and Ballance 1996).

3.5.1 Collection of water samples Water samples were collected from selected study sites to one liter plastic bottles with caps. The samples were taken monthly in wet and cool seasons and twice a month in the hot season. Collected water samples were

18 sent immediately to the laboratories of UNDP, Integrated Community Development Project (ICDP), Nyaung Shwe Township, Southern Shan State for most of physicochemical analysis.

3.5.2 Physicochemical analysis of water samples Most water parameters consisting pH, water temperature (TC), turbidity, Hardness, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solid (TDS), arsenic (As), chloride (Cl), fluoride (F) and nitrate (NO3-N) were analyzed of the laboratory of UNDP, ICDP, Nyaung Shwe Township (Plate 3.1 and 3.2). Detection of phosphate (PO4-P) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in the water samples was carried out in the laboratory of Freshwater Aquaculture Research Department, Tharkayta Township, Yangon. Water depth and dissolved oxygen (DO) were tested immediately in the field.

3.6 Data analysis Statistical analyses were made by coefficient of correlation (R2) and regression equation (Y = a X + b), where a is the slopping degree and b is the intersection point. All data were conducted using graphic presentation was by Excel programme.

19

(A) Kyezaygone village

(B) Lethit village

(C) Mwepwe village

(D) Kela village

(E) Centre of the lake

(F) Namlit chaung

Plate 3.1. Collection sites of water samples showing different conditions

20

(A) Collecting water sample

(B) MODEL 270 Ph/m V meter

(C) WATSAN WAGTECH Photometer

(D)Arsenic test kit

(E) Phosphate test kit

(F) Dissolved oxygen test kit

Plate 3.2. Collection of water samples and meters and test-kits

CHAPTER 4 RESULTS
4.1. Physical Parameters 4.1.1 Water depth Water depths of Inle Lake were found to be changing with seasons in six study sites. The deepest area 480 cm is the centre of lake at October measuring, and the shallowest area is found to be 150 cm at Mwepwe village in June. Based on the study sites, the highest water depth of 420 cm was recorded in Kyezagone village in October while the minimum water depth of 157.5 cm was detected in June. Similarly, the maximum water depths 447.5 cm in Lethit village was observed in October and minimum water depth was at 157.5 cm in June. The maximum water depth 337.5 cm was found in October at Mwepwe village and minimum water depth 150 cm in June. In Kela village, the maximum water depth 360 cm was found in September and October while the minimum water depth was 230 cm in June. In the centre of the lake the maximum water depth 480 cm was observed in October and the minimum water depth 210 cm was found in June. The maximum depth 470 cm in October was observed at Namlit-chaung and the minimum 140 cm in June. According to season, in Inle Lake the shallowest levels of water depth were found in April, May, June, July while the moderate levels of water depth were found in January, February, March and the deepest levels of water depth were found in August, September, October, November and December. In all study sites, maximum water depths were recorded in wet season while the minimum water depths were found at the end of hot season and beginning of wet season (Table 4.1 and Fig. 4.1).

21

Table 4.1. Monthly water depth (cm) at different water sampling sites during study period

2006 Study site Mar Kyezagone Lethit Mwepwe Kela Centre of lake Namlit 187.50 172.50 180.00 275.00 302.50 185.00 Apr I 182.50 170.00 170.00 270.00 297.50 172.50 Apr II 165.00 177.50 160.00 205.00 257.50 225.00 May I 162.50 212.50 167.50 257.50 255.00 207.50 May II 162.50 165.00 155.00 235.00 222.50 145.00 Jun 157.50 157.50 150.00 230.00 210.00 140.00 Jul 187.50 170.00 162.50 242.50 227.50 150.00 Aug 227.50 210.00 202.50 282.50 267.50 190.00 Sep 297.50 300.00 217.50 360.00 420.00 342.50 Oct 420.00 447.50 337.50 360.00 480.00 470.00 Nov 285.00 290.00 222.50 355.00 432.50 402.50 Dec 262.50 257.50 215.00 295.00 362.50 335.00 Jan

2007 Feb 230.00 230.00 200.00 290.00 365.00 320.00

240.00 240.00 210.00 300.00 375.00 340.00

22

Kyezagone

Lethit

Mwepwe

Kela

Centre of lake

Namlit

600

500

400

Water depth (cm)

300

200

100

Aug-06

Nov-06

Mar-06

Dec-06

Jun-06

Jul-06

May II06

May I06

Sep-06

Jan-07

Apr I-06

Year

Fig. 4.1. Monthly variation of water depth (cm) in six study sites (March 2006 to February 2007)

Feb-07

Apr II06

Oct-06

23

24

4.1.2 Electrical conductivity The ability of water to conduct an electric current is known as conductivity or specific conductance and depends on the concentration of ions in solution (Bartram and Ballance, 1996). The WHO standard guideline value of electrical conductivity is 1500 s cm-1. Electrical conductivity (EC) level of the water of Inle Lake was observed to be in random fluctuation. Maximum level of 481 s cm-1 in March and the minimum level of 42 s cm-1 in October were recorded in Inle lake throughout the year. In Kyezagone, the highest level of EC was 411 s cm-1 in first half of April and lowest level of EC was 70.2 s cm-1 in November. In Lethit village, the highest level of EC was 348 us cm-1 in March and lowest level of EC was 42 s cm-1 in October. In Mwepwe village, the highest level of EC was 382 s cm-1 in first half of April and lowest level of EC was 44 s cm-1 in October. In Kela village, the highest level of EC was 400 s cm-1 in March and lowest level of EC was 76.4 s cm-1 in November. In the center of the lake, the highest level of EC was 280 s cm-1 in December and lowest level of EC was 60 s cm-1 in first half of May and October. In Namlit-chaung, the highest level of EC was 481 s cm-1 in March and lowest level of EC was 67.9 s cm-1in November (Table 4.2 and Fig. 4.2).

4.1.3 Total Dissolved Solids Total dissolved solids (TDS) can be determined simply by filtering a water sample and evaporating a known volume of filtrate to dryness at 103C (Bayly and Williams, 1973). The concentration of total dissolved solid (TDS) in Kyezagone village was observed to be high in first half of April in 247 mg L-1 and low in

Table 4.2. Monthly electrical conductivity values (s cm-1) at different water sampling sites during study period

2006 Study site Mar Kyezagone Lethit Mwepwe Kela Centre of lake Namlit 389.00 348.00 381.00 400.00 234.00 481.00 Apr I 411.00 328.00 382.00 390.00 231.00 286.00 Apr II 400.00 331.00 363.00 372.00 223.00 311.00 May I 99.60 84.80 223.00 95.50 60.00 82.60 May II 96.00 89.70 95.40 100.80 61.80 75.30 Jun 113.20 109.40 100.90 105.70 64.80 71.20 Jul 110.20 90.50 100.80 100.70 69.60 76.20 Aug 115.20 100.40 98.40 100.70 68.80 90.50 Sep 96.00 89.70 95.20 105.20 61.80 75.30 Oct 99.60 42.00 44.00 95.50 60.00 314.00 Nov 70.20 66.30 84.40 76.40 81.50 67.90 Dec 250.00 320.00 360.00 100.80 280.00 320.00 Jan

2007 Feb 110.20 90.50 100.80 100.70 69.60 76.20

115.20 100.40 100.80 105.20 69.60 95.50

WHO standard guide line value of EC = 1500 s cm-1

25

Kyezagone

Lethit

Mwepwe

Kela

Centre of lake

Namlit

600

400

EC (s cm-1)
200 0

Aug-06

May II-06

Apr II-06

Apr I-06

Nov-06

Mar-06

Oct-06

Jun-06

Jul-06

Dec-06

Sep-06

May I-06

Year

Fig. 4.2. Monthly variation of electrical conductivity (mg L -1) in six study sites (March 2006 to February 2007)

Feb-07

Jan-07

26

27

42.2 mg L-1 in November. In Lethit village the highest level of TDS was 209 mg L-1 in March and the lowest level of TDS was 25 mg L-1 in October. In Mwepwe village the highest level of TDS was 229 mg L-1 in first half of April and the lowest level of TDS was 27 mg L-1 in October. In Kela village the highest level of TDS was 240 mg L-1 in March and the lowest level of TDS was 49.5 mg L-1 in November. In the center of lake the highest level of TDS was 140.9 mg L-1 in March and the lowest level of TDS was 36 mg L-1 in first half of May and October. In Namlit-chaung the highest level of TDS was 289 mg L-1 in March and the lowest level of TDS was 40.7 mg L-1 in November. The highest levels of TDS in all study sites were found in hot season and the lowest levels of TDS in all study sites were found in cool season. In all study sites the highest level was 289 mg L-1 in March at Namlit-chaung and the lowest level was 25 mg L-1 in Lethit village in October (Table 4.3 and Fig. 4.3).

4.1.4 Turbidity Turbidity is an expression of light penetration through water. The most reliable method of determination uses nephelometry (light scattering by suspended particles) by means of a turbidity meter which gives values in Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU) (Chapman, 1992). In Inle Lake turbidity level was no more than 5 NTU in all six study sites. The WHO standard was 5 NTU.

4.1.5 Hardness The hardness of natural water depends mainly on the presence of dissolved calcium and magnesium salts. The total content of these salts is known as general hardness, which can be further divided into carbonate hardness (determined by concentration of calcium and magnesium hydrocarbonates), and non-carbonate hardness (determined by calcium and magnesium salts of strong acids). Hydrocarbonates are transformed during the

Table 4.3. Monthly Total Dissolved Solids (mg L-1) at different water sampling sites during study period

2006 Study site Mar 234.00 209.00 228.00 240.00 140.90 289.00 Apr I 247.00 196.80 229.00 234.00 138.70 171.60 Apr II 240.00 198.70 218.00 223.00 133.90 186.10 May I 59.70 50.90 59.00 57.30 36.00 49.60
-1

2007 Jul 67.50 66.50 60.20 61.50 40.10 48.60 Aug 60.50 53.90 59.50 65.10 39.80 50.50 Sep 57.60 53.90 60.60 63.50 38.80 42.70 Oct 59.70 25.00 27.00 57.30 36.00 188.00 Nov 42.20 39.70 50.60 45.90 49.40 40.70 Dec 67.50 200.00 60.20 60.50 40.10 48.60 Jan 67.50 66.50 59.50 61.50 39.80 50.50 Feb 67.60 66.50 60.00 61.50 40.00 48.80

May II 57.60 53.90 57.20 60.50 37.10 45.20

Jun 67.90 65.60 60.60 63.50 38.80 42.70

Kyezagone Lethit Mwepwe Kela Centre of lake Namlit

WHO standard guide line value of TDS = 1000 mg L

28

Kyezagone

Lethit

Mwepwe

Kela

Centre of lake

Namlit

400

300

TDS (mg L-1)

200

100

Sep-06

Oct-06

Jul-06

May I-06

Mar-06

Nov-06

Dec-06

Apr I-06

Apr II-06

May II-06

Year

Fig. 4.3. Monthly variation of total dissolved solid (mg L -1) in six study sites (March 2006 to February 2007)

Aug-06

Feb-07

Jun-06

Jan-07

29

30

boiling of water into carbonates, which usually precipitate. Therefore, carbonate hardness is also known as temporary or removed, whereas the hardness remaining in the water after boiling is called constant (Chapman, 1992). The hardness of the water of Inle Lake was observed to be in random fluctuation. The highest level of hardness 210 mg L-1 were found in the second half of April and December in Kyezagone village and first half of April in Kela village. The lowest level 44 mg L-1 was found at Lethit village in October. Based on the study sites, the highest level 210 mg L-1 was recorded in the second half of April and December while the lowest level 130 mg L-1 in November at Kyezagone village. At Lethit village the highest level 195 mg L-1 was found in June and February and the lowest level 44 mg L-1 in October. In Mwepwe village the highest level 185 mg L-1 was found in first half of May and the lowest level 48 mg L-1 in October. At Kela village the highest level 210 mg L-1 was found in first half of April and the lowest level 115 mg L-1 in November. In the centre of the lake, the highest level 155 mg L-1 was found in July, January and February and the lowest level 90 mg L-1 in second half of April and December. In Namlit-chaung the highest level 195 mg L-1 was found in October and the lowest level 90 mg L-1 in July (Table 4.4 and Fig. 4.4).

4.1.6 Water temperature Water is a very poor conductor of heat. Heat circulation of water is usually done by convection: warmer water moves upwards and cooler water moves downwards. Temperature plays an important role in the aquatic environment in that certain organisms, including fish, are sensitive to water temperatures (Chan, 1999). In Inle Lake, the lowest temperature 17.9C was found at Lethit village in November, and the highest temperature 28.6C at Mwepwe village and centre of lake in February and August, and second half of May respectively.

Table 4.4. Monthly hardness (mg L-1) at different water sampling sites during study period

2006 Study site Mar Kyezagone Lethit Mwepwe Kela Centre of lake Namlit 175.00 165.00 137.00 145.00 95.00 155.00 Apr I 155.00 130.00 185.00 210.00 108.00 137.00 Apr II 210.00 155.00 155.00 165.00 90.00 122.00 May I 165.00 137.00 155.00 165.00 108.00 137.00 May II 195.00 155.00 155.00 165.00 95.00 130.00
-1

2007 Jul 155.00 185.00 102.00 165.00 155.00 90.00 Aug 175.00 155.00 165.00 165.00 102.00 95.00 Sep 145.00 195.00 102.00 155.00 95.00 95.00 Oct 165.00 44.00 48.00 165.00 108.00 195.00 Nov 130.00 95.00 155.00 115.00 145.00 115.00 Dec 210.00 165.00 108.00 155.00 90.00 140.00 Jan 145.00 185.00 102.00 165.00 155.00 95.00 Feb 175.00 195.00 102.00 165.00 155.00 95.00

Jun 145.00 195.00 155.00 155.00 95.00 95.00

WHO standard guide line value of hardness = 500 mg L

31

Kyezagone

Lethit

Mwepwe

Kela

Centre of lake

Namlit

250

200

Hardness (mg L-1)

150

100

50

May I-06

Oct-06

Mar-06

Aug-06

Nov-06

Dec-06

Jun-06

Jan-07

Jul-06

Apr I-06

May II-06

Apr II-06

Year

Fig. 4.4. Monthly variation of hardness (mg L-1) in six study sites (March 2006 to February 2007)

Sep-06

Feb-07

32

33

According to study sites, the highest water temperature 28C at Kyezagone village was found in second half of May, August, December and February while the lowest water temperature 19.9C was found in November. The highest water temperature 28C at Lethit village was found in March while the lowest water temperature 17.9C was found in November. The highest water temperature 28.6C at Mwepwe village was found in February while the lowest water temperature 19.3C was found in November. The highest water temperature 28.1C at Kela village was found in August, September and February while the lowest water temperature 18.1C was found in November. The highest water temperature 28.6C in the centre of lake was found in second half of May while the lowest water temperature 18.3C was found in November. The highest water temperature 28C in Namlit-chaung was found in March and October while the lowest water temperature 18.2C was found in November. In Inle Lake the annual water temperature ranged from 15C to 29C. Overall results showed that the lowest water temperature among the six study sites was found in November. The highest water temperatures were randomly fluctuating in the lake throughout the year (Table 4.5 and Fig. 4.5).

4.2 Chemical Parameters The chemical parameters include levels of arsenic (As), chloride (-Cl), fluoride (-F), pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD).

4.2.1 Arsenic Arsenic is able to accumulate in large quantities in the sediments on the bed of water courses and reservoirs, and in aquatic organisms (Svobodovaet al., 1993). Arsenic was not detected in all study sites throughout the study period.

Table 4.5. Monthly water temperature (C) at different water sampling sites during study period

2006 Study site Mar Kyezagone Lethit Mwepwe Kela Centre of lake Namlit 27.80 28.00 27.80 27.70 27.50 28.00 Apr I 27.30 26.80 26.50 25.70 25.20 24.70 Apr II 23.70 23.90 23.50 23.70 23.50 23.30 May I 24.80 24.60 24.20 24.70 24.70 24.70 May II 28.00 27.30 28.40 28.00 28.60 20.50 Jun 27.20 27.20 27.60 27.10 27.40 27.40 Jul 27.20 27.30 27.30 28.00 27.40 27.60 Aug 28.00 26.10 28.60 28.10 28.40 27.40 Sep 27.20 27.30 27.60 28.10 28.40 27.60 Oct 24.80 21.40 22.50 24.70 28.00 28.00 Nov 19.90 17.90 19.30 18.10 18.30 18.20 Dec 28.00 23.30 24.20 26.00 24.80 23.30

2007 Jan 27.20 27.30 27.60 28.10 28.40 27.60 Feb 28.00 26.10 28.60 28.10 28.40 27.60

WHO standard guide line value of water temperature = 0C - 30C

34

Kyezagone

Lethit

Mwepwe

Kela

Centre of lake

Namlit

35 30 25

Temperature (C)

20 15 10 5 0

Jun-06

Jul-06

Mar-06

Aug-06

Oct-06

Nov-06

Dec-06

Sep-06

Jan-07

May II-06

Apr II-06

May I-06

Apr I-06

Year

Fig. 4.5. Monthly variation of temperature ( C) in six study sites (March 2006 to February 2007)

Feb-07

35

36

4.2.2 Chloride Chlorine is an interesting atmospheric pollutant. Active chlorine is very toxic to fish. Active chlorine may affect the specific parts of the fish (eg. the skin and gills) of the whole body (i.e. when chlorine is absorbed into the blood) (Svobodova et al., 1993). Most chlorines occur as chloride (Cl-) in solution. Chlorides occur in all natural water in widely varying concentration. Human excreta, particularly in the urine, contain chlorides consumed with food and water. This amount averages about 6 g of chloride per person per day increases the amount of Cl- in sewage about 15 mg L-1 above that of the carriage water. Thus sewage effluents and considerable chlorides to receiving streams. Many industrial waters contained appreciable amounts of chlorides (Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, Yangon Institute of Technology). Chloride level of the water of Inle Lake was observed to be randomly fluctuated. In Kyezagone village, the highest level of chloride was 260 mg L-1 in first half of May and October. The lowest level was 16 mg L-1 in June and September. At Lethit, the highest level of chloride was 205 mg L-1 in June and lowest level 10 mg L-1 in November. At Mwepwe village, the highest level was 82 mg L-1 in October and lowest level was 0 mg L-1 in first half of April. At Kela village the highest level was 106 mg L-1 in November and lowest level was 0 mg L-1 in first half of May and October. In the center of lake the highest level was 80 mg L-1 in October and lowest level was 25 mg L-1 December. In Namlit-chaung the highest level was 36 mg L-1 November and the lowest level was 7 mg L-1 in the second half of May. In all six study sites the highest level of chlorides was 260 mg L-1 and lowest level was 0 mg L-1 (Table 4.6 and Fig. 4.6).

4.2.3 Fluoride Fluoride is used in certain industrial process and consequently occurs in the resulting waste waters. Significant industrial sources of fluoride are the

Table 4.6. Monthly chlorides (mg L-1) at different water sampling sites during study period

2006 Study site Mar Kyezagone Lethit Mwepwe Kela Centre of lake Namlit 26.00 26.00 32.00 28.00 44.00 30.00 Apr I 60.00 32.00 0.00 35.50 27.00 16.00 Apr II 28.00 22.00 7.00 58.00 41.00 27.00 May I 260.00 36.00 45.00 0.00 30.00 23.00 May II 30.00 115.00 23.00 25.00 76.00 7.00 Jun 16.00 205.00 28.00 16.00 44.00 25.00
-1

2007 Jul 22.00 118.00 27.00 27.00 70.00 25.00 Aug 25.00 115.00 27.00 22.00 76.00 25.00 Sep 16.00 115.00 23.00 16.00 76.00 27.00 Oct 260.00 95.00 82.00 0.00 80.00 72.00 Nov 85.00 10.00 7.00 106.00 36.00 36.00 Dec 27.00 200.00 70.00 20.00 25.00 22.00 Jan 25.00 118.00 27.00 27.00 76.00 25.00 Feb 25.00 118.00 27.00 27.00 76.00 27.00

WHO standard guide line value of chlorides = 200 - 600 mg L

37

Kyezagone

Lethit

Mwepwe

Kela

Centre of lake

Namlit

300

250

Chlorides (mg L-1)

200

150

100

50

May I-06

Jun-06

Jul-06

Mar-06

Aug-06

Oct-06

Nov-06

Dec-06

Sep-06

Jan-07

Apr I-06

Apr II-06

May II-06

Year

Fig. 4.6. Monthly variation of chloride (mg L-1) in six study sites (March 2006 to February 2007)

Feb-07

38

39

production of coke, glass and ceramics, electronics, steel and aluminium processing, pesticides and fertilizers, and electroplating operations. Waste levels may range from several hundred to several thousand milligrams per litre in untreated waste water. It is worthy of note that conventional treatment (lime) seldom reduces fluoride concentration below 8 to 15 mg L-1 without dilution (Bartram and Ballance 1996). The content of fluoride in Inle Lake was different from place to place. The maximum content of fluoride at Kyezagone village was 1.15 mg L-1 in February and minimum was 0.25 mg L-1 in December. The maximum value at Lethit village was 0.85 mg L-1 in February and minimum value was 0.25 mg L-1 in October. The maximum value at Mwepwe village was 1.15 mg L-1 in March and minimum value of fluoride was 0 mg L-1 in first half of April. The maximum value at Kela village was 0.95 mg L-1 in February and minimum value was 0.2 mg L-1 in March. The maximum value in the centre of lake was 0.95 mg L-1 in November and minimum value was 0.2 mg L-1 in February. The maximum value in Namlit-chaung was 0.85 mg L-1 in March and minimum value was 0.1 mg L-1 in October (Table 4.7 and Fig. 4.7).

4.2.4 Water pH The pH is a measure of the acid balance of a solution and is defined as the negative of the logarithm to the base 10 of the hydrogen ion concentration. The pH scale runs from 0 - 14 (i.e. very acidic to very alkaline), with pH 7 representing a neutral condition (Chapman, 1992). At Kyezagone village the maximum value of pH 8 was observed in September and December while the minimum value of pH 7.14 was detected in March and first half of April. Similarly, the maximum value of pH 7.88 at Lethit village was found in July and minimum value of pH was 6.64 in October. The maximum value of pH 7.91 at Mwepwe village was observed in second half of May and December and minimum value of pH was 6.8 in October. The maximum value of pH 8 at Kela village was examined in January

Table 4.7. Monthly fluoride (mg L-1) at different water sampling sites during study period

2006 Study site Mar Kyezagone Lethit Mwepwe Kela Centre of lake Namlit 0.95 0.60 1.15 0.20 0.55 0.85 Apr I 0.70 0.65 0.00 0.55 0.35 0.55 Apr II 0.70 0.75 0.40 0.35 0.40 0.80 May I 0.60 0.40 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.35 May II 0.30 0.40 0.20 0.35 0.30 0.35
-1

2007 Jul 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.25 0.65 0.35 Aug 0.40 0.75 0.50 0.60 0.75 0.60 Sep 0.30 0.40 0.20 0.50 0.75 0.17 Oct 0.60 0.25 0.22 0.55 0.60 0.10 Nov 0.50 0.60 0.55 0.70 0.95 0.60 Dec 0.25 0.30 0.50 0.50 0.65 0.65 Jan 0.30 0.75 0.50 0.25 0.75 0.80 Feb 1.15 0.85 0.55 0.95 0.20 0.80

Jun 0.40 0.75 0.50 0.50 0.75 0.80

WHO standard guide line value of fluoride = 1.5 mg L

40

Kyezagone

Lethit

Mwepwe

Kela

Centre of lake

Namlit

1.4

1.2

Fluoride (mg L-1)

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

Jun-06

Jul-06

Mar-06

May I-06

Nov-06

Dec-06

Oct-06

Jan-07

Aug-06

Apr I-06

May II-06

Apr II-06

Year

Fig. 4.7. Monthly variation of fluoride (mg L-1) in six study sites (March 2006 to February 2007)
41

Sep-06

Feb-07

42

and minimum value of pH was 7 in October. The maximum value of pH 8.92 in the centre of lake occurred in June and minimum value of pH was 7 in October. The maximum value of pH 8.13 in Namlit-chaung was noted in August and minimum value of pH was 6.54 in March. In all six study sites the minimum value of pH was found in October (Table 4.8 and Fig. 4.8).

4.2.5

Dissolved Oxygen Dissolved oxygen (DO) is necessary for the life of fish and other aquatic

organisms. The DO concentration may also be associated with corrosivity of water, photosynthetic activity and septicity. The oxygen content of surface water is usually high because of the solution of gas from the atmosphere (Chapman, 1992). The maximum concentration level of dissolved oxygen (DO) was 19.5 mg L-1 and minimum concentration level was 2 mg L-1 among six study sites. At Kyezagone village, the maximum level of DO was 7.75 mg L-1in second half of May and minimum level of DO was 2 mg L-1 in October. At Lethit village the maximum level of DO was 12.75 mg L-1 in second half of May and minimum concentration of DO was 2.25 mg L-1 in December. At Mwepwe village the maximum level of DO was 12 mg L-1 in second half of May and minimum level of DO was 2.5 mg L-1 in November. At Kela village the maximum level of DO was 5.57 mg L-1 in second half of May and minimum level of DO was 2.75 mg L-1 in August and December. In the center of the lake the maximum level of DO was 19.5 mg L-1 in September and minimum level of DO was 3 mg L-1 in second half of April. In all study sites, maximum levels were recorded in the dry season especially in May while the minimum levels were found random fluctuation during the rest of the year (Table 4.9 and Fig. 4.9).

Table 4.8. Monthly pH values at different water sampling sites during study period

2006 Study site Mar Kyezagone Lethit Mwepwe Kela Centre of lake Namlit 7.14 7.70 7.52 7.23 8.16 6.54 Apr I 7.14 7.71 7.10 7.13 7.80 7.85 Apr II 7.37 7.66 7.68 7.38 8.00 7.10 May I 7.31 7.33 7.63 7.35 8.38 7.60 May II 7.35 7.70 7.91 7.54 8.62 8.00 Jun 7.49 7.86 7.81 7.53 8.92 8.00 Jul 7.50 7.88 7.71 7.50 8.62 8.00 Aug 7.50 7.80 7.80 7.60 8.40 8.13 Sep 8.00 7.00 7.50 7.40 8.00 8.00 Oct 7.31 6.64 6.80 7.00 7.00 7.04 Nov 7.54 6.72 7.00 7.16 7.62 7.86 Dec 8.00 7.00 7.91 7.50 8.52 8.00

2007 Jan 7.31 7.50 7.66 8.00 8.38 7.37 Feb 7.63 7.38 7.63 7.70 8.55 8.00

WHO standard guide line value of pH value = 6.5 - 9.5

43

10 9 8 7 6

Kyezagone

Lethit

Mwepwe

Kela

Centre of lake

Namlit

pH value

5 4 3 2 1 0

May I-06

Oct-06

Aug-06

Nov-06

Mar-06

Dec-06

Jun-06

Jan-07

May II-06

Apr II-06

Apr I-06

Year

Fig. 4.8. Monthly variation of water pH values in six study sites (March 2006 to February 2007)

Sep-06

Feb-07

Jul-06

44

Table 4.9. Monthly dissolved oxygen (DO) (mg L-1) at different water sampling sites during study period

2006 Study site Mar Kyezagone Lethit Mwepwe Kela Centre of lake Namlit 3.50 3.50 3.20 3.00 3.50 3.20 Apr I 3.50 3.50 3.50 3.20 3.00 3.50 Apr II 2.50 3.50 3.00 3.50 3.00 3.00 May I 4.00 4.00 4.50 3.50 3.50 4.00 May II 7.75 12.75 12.00 5.57 14.55 15.25 Jun 4.00 11.25 7.00 4.25 11.25 10.25 Jul 3.00 6.00 8.00 4.00 7.00 9.50 Aug 4.00 5.25 3.50 2.75 10.00 16.75 Sep 2.75 7.50 4.25 3.00 11.50 19.50 Oct 2.00 5.50 3.50 3.50 10.50 7.00 Nov 4.25 2.50 2.50 3.00 6.75 11.75 Dec 3.25 2.25 3.00 2.75 6.75 10.25

2007 Jan 2.50 5.25 7.00 3.00 7.00 11.00 Feb 3.75 3.50 3.00 4.00 8.00 8.50

WHO standard guide line value of DO = 4.0 mg L-1

45

Kyezagone

Lethit

Mwepwe

Kela

Centre of lake

Namlit

25

20

DO (mg L-1)

15

10

Jun-06

Jul-06

Sep-06

Oct-06

Jan-07

Mar-06

Aug-06

Apr I-06

Nov-06

May II-06

Apr II-06

May I-06

Year

Fig. 4.9. Monthly variation of dissolved oxygen (mg L-1) in six study sites (March 2006 to February 2007)

Dec-06

Feb-07

46

47

4.2.6

Biochemical Oxygen Demand Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) can be defined as the quantity of

oxygen utilised by a mixed population of micro-organisms in the aerobic oxidation at temperature of 20C and incubation period of 5 days (Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, Yangon Institute of Technology). The maximum level 3 mg L-1 of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in February at Namlit-chaung and minimum level 0.25 mg L-1 in December at Lethit village were observed in Inle Lake. At Kyezagone village, maximum level was 2.5 mg L-1 in December and minimum level was 0.5 mg L-1 in June and July. At Lethit village, maximum level was 2.5 mg L-1 in second half of April and minimum level was 0.25 mg L-1 in December. At Mwepwe village, maximum level was 2.5 mg L-1 in March and minimum level was 0.95 mg L-1 in November. At Kela village maximum level was 2 mg L-1 in March and December while the minimum level was observed at 0.5 mg L-1 in June and July. In the center of the lake maximum level was found to be 2.5 mg L-1 in December and minimum level was 1 mg L-1 in April, May, August, October and November respectively. In Namlit-chaung maximum level was 3 mg L-1 in February and minimum level was 0.5 mg L-1 in November (Table 4.10 and Fig. 4.10)

Table 4.10. Monthly biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (mg L-1) at different water sampling sites during study period

2006 Study site Mar Kyezagone Lethit Mwepwe Kela Centre of lake Namlit 2.00 2.20 2.50 2.00 2.00 2.20 Apr I 1.20 1.80 1.80 1.50 1.20 1.50 Apr II 1.20 2.50 1.50 1.20 1.00 2.00 May I 1.50 1.50 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.20 May II 1.20 1.50 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.50 Jun 0.50 2.00 1.50 0.50 1.50 1.00 Jul 0.50 1.00 1.50 0.50 1.50 1.00 Aug 1.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 1.00 0.80 Sep 1.00 1.50 1.00 1.50 1.20 1.00 Oct 1.20 1.50 1.30 1.20 1.00 1.00 Nov 2.00 1.05 0.95 1.00 1.00 0.50 Dec 2.50 0.25 1.50 2.00 2.50 1.50

2007 Jan 1.50 1.00 1.50 1.00 2.00 2.00 Feb 1.50 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.40 3.00

WHO standard guide line value of BOD = 3.0 mg L-1

48

Kyezagone

Lethit

Mwepwe

Kela

Centre of lake

Namlit

3.5

2.5

BOD (mg L-1)

1.5

0.5

Jun-06

Jul-06

Mar-06

Oct-06

Aug-06

Nov-06

Dec-06

Jan-07

May II-06

Apr II-06

May I-06

Apr I-06

Year

Fig. 4.10. Monthly variation of biochemical oxygen demand (mg L-1) in six study sites (March 2006 to February 2007)

Sep-06

Feb-07

49

50

4.3 Nutrient pollutants The two nutrient pollutants of nitrates and phosphates were detected in Inle lake water samples.

4.3.1 Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) Nitrates, the most highly oxidised form of nitrogen compounds, are commonly present in surface and ground waters, because it is the end product of the aerobic decomposition of organic nitrogenous matter. Significant sources of nitrate are chemical fertilizers from cultivated land drainage from livestock feedlots, as well as domestic and some industrial waters. The concentration of nitrate nitrogen was in random fluctuation in all six study sites. The maximum level 0.85 mg L-1 was found at Lethit village in December and in the centre of the lake in August, January and February. The minimum level was 0.01 mg L-1 at Kyezagone village in first half of April. At Kyezagone village the maximum level was 0.55 mg L-1 in first half of May and the minimum level was 0.01 mg L-1 in first half of April. At Lethit village the maximum level was 0.85 mg L-1 in December and the minimum level was 0.23 mg L-1 in first half of April. At Mwepwe village, the maximum level was 0.60 mg L-1 in August and the minimum level was 0.03 mg L-1 in first half of April. At Kela village the maximum level was 0.80 mg L-1 in August and the minimum level was recorded 0.03 mg L-1 at March. In centre of lake the maximum levels were 0.85 mg L-1 in August, January and February, and in minimum levels were recorded 0.12 mg L-1 at first half of May and October. In Namlit-chaung the maximum level was 0.50 mg L-1 in March and August, and the minimum level was 0.03 mg L-1 in the second half of May (Table 4.11 and Fig. 4.11).

Table 4.11. Monthly nitrates (mg L-1) at different water sampling sites during study period

2006 Study site Mar Kyezagone Lethit Mwepwe Kela Centre of lake Namlit 0.35 0.26 0.08 0.03 0.32 0.50 Apr I 0.01 0.23 0.03 0.03 0.28 0.38 Apr II 0.20 0.27 0.22 0.21 0.31 0.28 May I 0.55 0.28 0.32 0.07 0.12 0.09 May II 0.08 0.47 0.05 0.11 0.17 0.03
-1

2007 Jul 0.20 0.47 0.20 0.12 0.20 0.37 Aug 0.60 0.75 0.60 0.80 0.85 0.50 Sep 0.15 0.31 0.51 0.35 0.17 0.17 Oct 0.06 0.27 0.24 0.07 0.12 0.13 Nov 0.08 0.38 0.04 0.18 0.43 0.04 Dec 0.12 0.85 0.47 0.11 0.37 0.2 Jan 0.12 0.75 0.05 0.47 0.85 0.39 Feb 0.08 0.38 0.04 0.18 0.85 0.39

Jun 0.15 0.31 0.06 0.35 0.17 0.17

WHO standard guide line value of nitrates = 0.2 mg L

51

Kyezagone

Lethit

Mwepwe

Kela

Centre of lake

Namlit

0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6

Nitrates (mg L-1)

0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

Jun-06

Aug-06

Nov-06

Dec-06

Sep-06

Jan-07

Jul-06

Apr II-06

Mar-06

May I-06

Apr I-06

May II-06

Year

Fig. 4.11. Monthly variation of nitrate (mg L-1) in sample water of six study sites (March 2006 to February 2007)

Feb-07

Oct-06

52

53

4.3.2 Phosphate In natural waters and waste waters, phosphorous occurs mostly as dissolved orthophosphates and polyphosphates, and organically bound phosphates (Chapman, 1992). Phosphorous is a constituent of a number of classes of biologically important organic compounds including phospholipids, nucleoproteins, sugar phosphates, DNA, ATP and ADP. In addition, inorganic phosphate appears to act as an activator of some enzyme systems (Bayly and Williams 1973). Among the six study sites, the highest level of phosphate was 1 mg L-1 at Kela village in the second half of April and September and in the centre of the lake in October. The lowest level in all six study sites was 0 mg L-1. At Kyezagone village the highest level was 0.5 mg L-1 in the second half of April, August, September and November while the lowest level of 0 mg L-1 was observed in first half of May, July, December, January and February. At Lethit village, the highest level of 0.5 mg L-1 was observed in the second half of April, September and October while the lowest level of 0 mg L-1 was observed in May, July, August, December, January and February. At Mwepwe village the highest level was 0.5 mg L-1 in the second half of April, August and September while the lowest level was 0 mg L-1 in May, June, July, December, January and February. At Kela village, the highest level was 1 mg L-1 in the second half of April and September while the lowest level was 0 mg L-1 in June, December, January and February. In the centre of the lake the highest level was 1 mg L-1 in October while the lowest level was 0 mg L-1 in May, June, July, August, December, January and February respectively. In Namlitchaung the highest level was 0.5 mg L-1 in the second half of April, September and November while the lowest level was 0 mg L-1 in May, June, July, August, October, December, January and February respectively (Table 4.12, Fig. 4.12, Plate 4.1 and 4.2).

Table 4.12. Monthly phosphates (mg L-1) at different water sampling sites during study period

2006 Study site Mar Kyezagone Lethit Mwepwe Kela Centre of lake Namlit 0.10 0.15 o.15 0.12 0.12 0.12 Apr I 0.15 0.12 0.11 0.10 0.12 0.15 Apr II 0.50 0.50 0.50 1.00 0.50 0.50 May I 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 May II 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.00 Jun 0.10 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
-1

2007 Jul 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.00 0.00 Aug 0.50 0.00 0.50 0.50 0.00 0.00 Sep 0.50 0.50 0.50 1.00 0.50 0.50 Oct 0.10 0.50 0.10 0.10 1.00 0.00 Nov 0.50 0.40 0.40 0.80 0.50 0.50 Dec 0 0 0 0 0 0 Jan 0 0 0 0 0 0 Feb 0 0 0 0 0 0

WHO standard guide line value of phosphates = 0.005 - 0.020 mg L

54

Kyezagone

Lethit

Mwepwe

Kela

Centre of lake

Namlit

1.5

Phosphates (mg L-1)

0.5

Aug-06

Nov-06

Dec-06

Sep-06

Mar-06

May I-06

May II-06

Apr II-06

Apr I-06

Year

Fig. 4.12. Monthly variation of phosphate compound (mg L-1) in six study sites (March 2006 to February 2007)
55

Feb-07

Jun-06

Oct-06

Jan-07

Jul-06

56

(A) Fertilizer bags in tomato farm

(B) Pesticides

(C) Spray fertilizer (folia) selling shop (D) Application of pesticides

(E) Domestic waste at Kela village(F) Human sewage disposed into the lake

Plate 4.1. Sources of nutrients and pollutants

57

(A) Algal bloom

(B)

Floating aquatic plant

(C) Mat of floating plants

(D) Submerged algae

(E) Submerged aquatic plant

(F) Decay of aquatic plant

Plate 4.2. Different types of bloom of floating and submerged plants that affect on the water quality of Inle lake

58

4.4

Correlation among water parameters in Inle lake

4.4.1 Physical parameters and water pH Physical parameters of water temperature, hardness, total dissolved solid and water pH were correlated with each others (Fig. 4.13 A, B, and C). Water temperature and pH value were positively correlated with the correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.0683 and least squares regression of Y = 1.5872 X + 13.727 that indicates the two parameters were slightly correlated (Table 4.13 and Fig. 4.13 A ). Hardness and pH value were negatively correlated with the correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.0407 and least squares regression of Y = -15.628 X + 260.6 that indicates the two parameters were highly correlated (Table 4.13 and Fig. 4.13 B). Total dissolved solids and pH values were negatively correlated with the correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.1043 and least squares regression of Y = 48.411 X + 459.56 that indicates the TDS and pH were significantly correlated (Table 4.13 and Fig. 4.13 C).

4.4.2 Physical parameters and DO Physical parameters of water temperature, hardness, total dissolved solid and DO were correlated with each other (Table 4.13 and Fig. 4.14 A, B and C). Water temperature and DO were positively correlated with the correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.0295 and least squares regression of Y = 0.1308 X + 25.085 that indicates the two parameters were slightly correlated (Table 4.13 and Fig. 4.14 A). Hardness and DO were negatively correlated with the correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.1529 and least squares regression of Y = -3.1058 X + 159.24 that indicates high correlation (Table 4.13 and Fig. 4.14 B).

59

Table 4.13. Values of Coefficient of correlation and regression equation

Correlation between two 2 R parameters TC and pH Hardness and pH TDS and pH TC and DO Hardness and DO TDS and DO TC and BOD Hardness and BOD TDS and BOD TC and F Hardness and F TDS and F TC and Cl Hardness and Cl TDS and Cl pH and EC DO and EC BOD and EC Cl and EC NO3 and EC F and EC TC and NO3 TDS and NO3 0.0683 0.0407 0.1043 0.0295 0.1022 0.1529 0.003 0.001 0.08 0.0001 0.1981 0.3541 0.0019 0.0202 0.012 0.0488 0.138 0.1986 0.0193 0.007 0.0065 0.0249 0.0108

Y = ax + b 1.5872 x + 13.727 -15.628 x + 260.6 -48.411 x + 459.56 0.1308 x + 25.083 -3.1058 x + 159.24 -7.3437 x + 132.48 0.2596 x + 25.468 1.8797 x + 138.69 33.158 x + 43.056 0.0013 x + 25.782 -0.6647 x + 169.61 -0.5844 x + 115.03 0.0225 x + 25.96 0.1009 x + 136.28 -0.1503 x + 97.752 -0.0009 x + 7.7696 0.0117 x + 7.6331 0.002 x + 1.0593 -0.0596 x + 59.899 -0.0002 x + 0.3043 0.0002 x + 0.4998 2.0294 x + 25.27 -32.961 x + 99.369

60

30 y = 1.5872x + 13.727 R2 = 0.0683 25

Temperature (C)

20

15 5 6 7 pH value 8 9 10

(A) Water temperature and pH


25 0 20 0 15 0 10 0 5 0 0 5 6 7 8 pH value 9 y = -15.628x + 260.6 R2= 0.0407

Hardness (mg L )

-1

1 0

(B) Hardness and pH


350 300 TDS (mg L-1) 250 200 150 100 50 0 5 6 7 8 pH value 9 10 y = -48.411x + 459.56 R 2 = 0.1043

(C) Total dissolved solid and pH Fig. 4.13. Correlation between physical parameters and water pH in Inle lake

61
50 y = 0.1308x + 25.083 R2 = 0.0295 40 Temperature (C)

30

20

10 0 5 10 DO (mg L-1) 15 20 25

(A) Water temperature and DO


250 200 150 100 50 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 y = -3.1058x + 159.24 R2 = 0.1022

Hardness (mg L-1)

DO (mg L-1)

(B) Hardness and DO

350 300 250 TDS (mg L-1) 200 150


1

y = -7.3437x + 132.48 R2= 0.1529

100 50 0 0 5 10 15
-1

20

25

DO (mg L )

(C) Total dissolved solid and DO Fig. 4.14. Correlation between physical parameters and dissolved oxygen (DO) in Inle lake

62

Total dissolved solids and DO were negatively correlated with the correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.1529 and least squares regression of Y = 7.3437 X + 132.48 that indicates the two parameters were significantly correlated in each parameter (Table 4.13 and Fig. 4.14 C).

4.4.3 Physical parameters and BOD Physical parameters of water temperature, hardness, total dissolved solid and BOD were correlated with each other (Table 4.13 and Fig. 4.15 A, B, C). Water temperature and BOD were positively correlated with the correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.003 and least squares regression of Y = 0.2596 X + 25.468 that indicates slight correlation (Table 4.13 and Fig. 4.15 A). Hardness and BOD were positively correlated with the correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.001 and least squares regression of Y = 1.8797 X + 138.69 that indicates they were slightly correlated (Table 4.13 and Fig. 4.15 B). Total dissolved solids and BOD were negatively correlated with the correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.08 and least squares regression of Y = 33.158 X + 43.056 that indicates the two parameters were significantly correlated (Table 4.13 and Fig. 4.15 C).

4.4.4 Physical parameters and fluoride ion concentration Physical parameters of water temperature, hardness, total dissolved solid and BOD were correlated with each other (Fig. 4.16 A, B and C). Water temperature and fluoride were positively correlated with the correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.0001 and least squares regression of Y = 0.0013 X + 25.782 that indicates slight correlation (Table 4.13 and Fig. 4.16 A). Hardness and fluoride were negatively correlated with the correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.1981 and least squares regression of Y = -0.6647 X + 169.61 that indicates the two parameters were slightly correlated in each parameter (Table 4.13 and Fig. 4.16 B).

63

35 30 Temperature (C) 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 BOD (mg L-1)

y = 0.2596x + 25.468 R2 = 0.003

(A) Water temperature and BOD

250 y = 1.8797x + 138.69 R2 = 0.001 200 Hardness (mg L-1) 150 100 50 0 0 1 2 3 4 5

BOD (mg L-1)

(B) Hardness and BOD


350 300 TDS (mg L )
-1

y = 33.158x + 43.056 2 R = 0.08

250 200 150 100 50 0 0 1 2 3


-1

BOD (mg L )

(C) Total dissolved solid and BOD Fig. 4.15. Correlation between physical parameters and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in Inle lake

64

31 29 Temperature (C) 27 25 23 21 19 17 15 0 20 40 60 80 100 y = 0.0013x + 25.782 R2 = 0.0001

F (mg L-1)

(A) Water temperature and fluoride ion concentration

250 200 Hardness (mg L-1 ) 150 100 50 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 y = -0.6647x + 169.61 R2 = 0.1981

Fluoride (mg L-1)

(B) Hardness and fluoride ion concentration

350 300 TDS (mg L-1) 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 20 40 60 Fluoride (mg L-1) 80 100 y = -0.5844x + 115.03 R2 = 0.041

(C) Total dissolved solid and fluoride ion concentration Fig. 4.16. Correlation between physical parameters and fluoride ion concentration in Inle lake

65

Total dissolved solids and fluoride were negatively correlated with the correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.041 and least squares regression of Y = 0.5844 X + 115.03 that indicates significant correlation between the two parameters (Table 4.13 and Fig. 4.16 C).

4.4.5 Physical parameters and chlorides Physical parameters of water temperature, hardness, total dissolved solids and chlorides were correlated with each other (Fig. 4.17 A, B and C). Water temperature and chloride were positively correlated with the correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.0019 and least squares regression of Y = -0.0025 X + 25.96 that indicates slight correlation (Table 4.13 and Fig. 4.17 A). Hardness and chlorides were negatively correlated with the correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.0202 and least squares regression of Y = 0.1009 X + 136.28 that indicates the two parameters were slightly correlated (Table 4.13 and Fig. 4.17 B). Total dissolved solid and chlorides were negatively correlated with the correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.012 and least squares regression of Y = 0.1503 X + 97.752 that indicates the two parameters were significantly correlated (Table 4.13 and Fig. 4.17 C).

4.4.6 Chemical parameters and electrical conductivity Chemical parameters of pH, DO, BOD, chlorides, nitrates, fluoride were correlated with EC (Fig. 4.18 A, B, C, D, E and F). Water pH and EC were positively correlated with the correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.0488 and least squares regression of Y = -0.0009 X + 7.7696 that indicates they were slightly correlated (Table 4.13 and Fig. 4.18 A).

66

35 30 Temperature (C) 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 50 100 150 200 250

y = -0.0025x + 25.96 R2 = 0.0019

300

Chlorides (mg L-1)

(A) Water temperature and chloride ion concentration

250 y = 0.1009x + 136.28 R2 = 0.0202 Hardness (mg L-1) 200 150 100 50 0 0 50 100 150 200
-1

250

300

Chlorides (mg L )

(B) Hardness and chloride ion concentration


350 300 TDS (mg L ) 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 100 200 Chlorides (mg L )
-1 -1

y = -0.1503x + 97.752 2 R = 0.012

300

(C) Total dissolved solid and chloride ion concentration Fig. 4.17. Correlation between physical parameters and chloride ion concentration in Inle lake

67
10 9 8 7 6 5 0 100 200 300 EC (s cm )
-1

y = -0.0009x + 7.7696 2 R = 0.0488

pH value

400

500

600

(A) pH and EC

25 y = -0.0117x + 7.6331 R2 = 0.138

20 DO (mg L-1)

15

10

0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600

EC (s cm-1)

(B) DO and EC
3.5 3 BOD (mg L-1) 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 200 EC (s cm-1) 400 600 y = 0.002x + 1.0593 R2 = 0.1986

(C) BOD and EC Fig. 4.18. Correlation between chemical parameters and electrical conductivity in Inle lake

68

300 250 Chlorides (mg L-1) 200 150 100 50 0 0 100 200 300 EC (s cm-1) 400 500 600 y = -0.0596x + 59.899 R2 = 0.0193

(D) Chloride ion concentration and EC


0.9 0.8 Nitrates (mg L )
-1

y = -0.0002x + 0.3043 R2 = 0.007

0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 100 200 300 400
-1

500

600

EC (s cm )

(E) Nitrate compound and EC

1.5

y = 0.0002x + 0.4998 R2 = 0.0065 R2

Fluorides (mg L )

-1

0.5

0 0 100 200 300 EC (s cm )


-1

400

500

600

(F) Fluoride ion concentration and EC Fig. 4.18. Correlation between chemical parameters and electrical conductivity (Contd.) in Inle lake

69

DO and EC were negatively correlated with the correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.138 and least squares regression of Y = -0.0117 X + 7.6331 that indicates they were highly correlated (Table 4.13 and Fig. 4.18 B). BOD and EC were negatively correlated with the correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.1986 and least squares regression of Y = 0.002 X + 1.0593 that indicates the two parameters were significantly correlated (Table 4.13 and Fig. 4.18 C). Chlorides and EC were positively correlated with the correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.0193 and least squares regression of Y = -0.0595 X + 59.899 that indicates they were slightly correlated (Table 4.13 and Fig. 4.18 D). Nitrates and EC were negatively correlated with the correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.007 and least squares regression of Y = -0.0002 X + 0.3043 that indicates they were highly correlated (Table 4.13 and Fig. 4.18 E). Fluoride and EC were negatively correlated with the correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.0065 and least squares regression of Y = 0.0002 X + 0.4998 that indicates they were significantly correlated (Table 4.13 and Fig. 4.18 F).

4.4.7 Water temperature and nitrates Water temperature and nitrates were positively correlated with the correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.0249 and least squares regression of Y = 2.0294 X + 25.27 that indicates they were slightly correlated (Table 4.13 and Fig. 4.19 A).

4.4.8 Total dissolved solids and nitrates Total dissolved solids and nitrates were positively correlated with the correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.0108 and least squares regression of Y = -

70

32.961 X + 99.396 that indicates slightly correlated (Table 4.13 and Fig. 4.19 B).

71

35 30 Temperature (C) 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6


-1

y = 2.0294x + 25.27 R2 = 0.0249

0.8

Nitrates (mg L )

(A) Nitrate compound and water temperature

350 300 TDS (mg L )


-1

y = -32.961x + 99.396 R2 = 0.0108

250 200 150 100 50 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6


-1

0.8

Nitrates (mg L )

(B) Nitrate compound and total dissolved solid Fig. 4.19. Correlation between nitrate compound and physical parameters in Inle lake

CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION

The water depth of Inle Lake had seasonal fluctuation. In my study the water level was deepest in October, November, December, and January. February, March, April, May, June, July, August and September had normal range. Fluctuation of water depth was found more in the centre of the lake than at the lake margin. It may be due to deposition of sediments in the centre of the lake. According to Chapman (1992), conductivity or specific conductance is a measure of the ability of water to conduct an electric current. It is sensitive to variations in dissolved solids, mostly mineral salts. Conductivity is expressed as microsiemens per centimeter (s cm-1) and, for a given water body, is related to the concentrations of total dissolved solids and major ions. The conductivity of most freshwater ranges from 10 to 1000 s cm-1 but may exceed 1000 s cm-1, especially in polluted waters, or those receiving large quantities of land run-off (WHO). The electrical conductivity of Inle lake ranged from 42 s cm-1 to 483 s cm-1 which did not exceed WHO standard of 1000 s cm-1. The substances remaining after evaporation and drying of a water sample are termed the "residues" (Bartram and Ballance, 1996). The residue is approximately equivalent to the total content of the dissolved and suspended matter in the water sample. Non-filterable residue corresponds to the total suspended solids and the filterable residue is the total dissolved solids or waste water. In Inle Lake the total dissolved solids (TDS) ranged from 25 mg L-1 to 289 mg L-1. The WHO standard guideline value is 1,000 mg L-1. On the basis of EC and TDS values still under WHO standards, Inle Lake water is good with solids, minerals and ions at acceptable levels. Chapman (1992) is of the opinion that the type and concentration of suspended matter control the turbidity and transparency of the water.
72

73

Suspended matter consists of silt, clay, fine particles of organic matter, soluble organic compounds, plankton and other microscopic organisms. Turbidity results from the scattering and absorption of incident light by the particles and the transparency is the limit of visibility in the water. Both can vary seasonally according to biological activity in the water column and surface run-off carrying soil particles. Heavy rainfall can also result in hourly variations in turbidity (Chapman, 1992). Rain falling upon the land runs off into water courses, it mechanically transports soil with it in the form of silt and clay particles. This form of turbidity reduces light penetration and photosynthetic activity, smothers bottom-dwelling animals and plants, reduces waste-assimilation capacities, and may impair or curtail fish spawning. Although high turbidities from soil particles may not be lethal to fishes, turbid waters may affect the productivity of an aquatic environment and the growth of fishes (Barnnett, 1970). In the present study the turbidity from six study sites did not exceed 5 NTU. The WHO standard guideline value is 5 NTU in fresh water lakes. Hence, Inle Lake had normal turbidity of less than 5 NTU. Insoluble particles of solids, organic substances, microorganisms and other minerals impact the passage of the light through water. Turbidity in excess of 5 units is noticeable to the average water consumer and accordingly represents an unsatisfactory condition for drinking water when exceeding 100 units NTU (Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, Yangon Institute of Technology). The hardness of water varies considerably from place to place. In general, surface waters are softer than ground waters and hard waters originate in areas where the tropical is thick and limestone formations are present. Soft waters originate in areas where limestone formations are sparse or absent. Water is commonly classified into three categories in terms of the degree of hardness as soft (0 - 75 mg L-1), moderately hard (75 - 150 mg L-1) hard (150 - 300 mg L-1), and very hard (above 300 mg L-1) according to

74

Yangon

Institute

of

Technology

Department

of

Civil

Engineering,

Environmental Engineering Laboratory. The WHO standard guideline value of hardness is 500 mg L-1. In my analysis the hardness value ranged from 44 mg L-1 to 210 mg L-1. hence, Inle Lake is found to be a moderately hard water lake. Water bodies undergo temperature variations along with normal climatic fluctuations. These variations occur seasonally and, in some water bodies, over periods of 24 hours. Lakes and reservoirs may also exhibit vertical stratification of temperature within the water column. The temperature of surface waters is influenced by latitude, altitude, season, time of day, air circulation, cloud cover and the flow and depth of the water body. In turn, temperature affects physical, chemical and biological processes in water bodies and, therefore, the concentration of many variables. As water temperature increases, the rate of chemical reactions generally increases together with the evaporation and volatilization of substances from the water. Increased temperature also decreases the solubility of gases in water, such as O2, CO2, N2, CH4 and others. Surface waters are usually within the temperature range of 0C to 30C although "hot spring" may reach 40C or more (Chapman, 1992). Svobodova et al. (1993) reported that water temperature influenced the rate of metabolism and therefore the growth rate; it was often critical to spawning and to the development of normal embryos. In present work the water temperature ranged from 18.1C to 28.6C in the Inle Lake. Senapti and Alam (2003) reported that arsenic was a naturally occurring element in rocks, soils and the waters that contact them. Other major sources of arsenic include agricultural run-off and industrial effluents from metallurgy, glassware ceramics, dyes, herbicides, pesticides, petroleum refining, wood hide preservatives, fertilizers and phosphate detergents. Recognized as a toxic element for centuries, arsenic today is a recognized major human health concern because it can contribute to long term morbidity and mortality.

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The WHO standard guideline value of arsenic is 0.05 mg L-1. Arsenic was not detected in all study sites in the Inle Lake. Bartram and Ballance (1996) reported that chloride anions were usually present in natural waters. A high concentration occurs in waters that have been in contact with chloride containing geological formations. Otherwise, a high chloride content may indicate pollution by sewage or industrial waste or by the intrusion of seawater or saline water into a freshwater body or aquifer. Chapman (1992) also reported that high concentration of chlorides can make waters unpalatable and, therefore, unfit for drinking or livestock watering. In pristine freshwaters, chloride concentrations are usually lower than 10 mg L-1 and sometimes less than 2 mg L-1. Higher concentration can occur near sewage and other waste outlets, irrigation drains, salt water intrusions, in arid areas and in wet coastal areas. As chloride is frequently associated with sewage, it is often incorporated into assessments as an indication of possible faecal contamination or as a measure of the extent of the dispersion of sewage discharges in water bodies (Chapman, 1992). Eastin (1977) reported that the use of chlorine in destroying diseasecausing bacteria in drinking water had probably saved the lives of millions of people. But in recent years there has been considerable concern that it might actually be the cause of serious human illness and even death. In 1972 the EPA published its findings the chlorine was combining with organic compounds in the water to form chlororganic compounds. Among those identified were chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. In laboratory tests both of these chemicals have caused cancer in rats and mice. In my research work the chloride values ranged from 0 mg L-1 to 260 mg L-1 in the Inle Lake. The WHO standard for chlorides is 200 mg L-1 to 600 mg L-1. For this reason the content of chlorides in Inle Lake did not exceed 600 mg L-1 but in some places was more than 200 mg L-1. This could be due to disposal of domestic sewage including feces into the lake by inhabitants.

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Chapman (1992) reported that fluoride originates from the weathering of fluoride-containing minerals and enters surface waters through run-off and ground waters through direct contact. Liquid and gas emissions from certain industrial processes (e.g. metal and chemical based manufacturing) can also contribute fluoride ions (F-1) to water bodies. Measurement of fluoride content is especially important when a water body is used for drinking water supply. At high concentrations, fluoride is toxic to humans and animals and cause bone disease. However, a slight increase in natural levels can help prevent dental caries although, at higher concentrations (above 1.5 to 2.0 mg L-1), mottling of teeth can occur (WHO, 1984). Bartram and Ballance (1996) published dental require close control of fluoride concentrations to roughly 1.0 mg L-1. The guideline value of 1.50 mg L-1 in drinking water has been proposed by WHO. In my analysis the level of fluoride ranged from 0 mg L-1 to 1.15 mg L-1. It is noted that Inle Lake fluoride concentration moderately fluctuated but was under or equal to WHO standard value. Chan, Benstead, Davies and Grubh (1999) defined that pH is a measurement of hydrogen ions in water. It tells us whether the water is acidic, neutral or alkaline. Usually aquatic organisms thrive in neutral pH (7) to slightly alkaline pH (8) waters. Wetlands with shallow water and high vegetation coverage tend to be slightly acidic because of the humus produced. Svobodova et al. (1993) reported that the optimal pH range for fish is from 6.5 to 8.5. Alkaline pH value above 9.2 and acidity below 4.8 can damage and kill salmonids (e. g. brown and rainbow trout); and pH values above 10.8 and below 5.0 may be rapidly fatal to the cyprinids (especially carp and tench). In my research the pH values ranged from 6.54 to 8.92. The WHO standard guideline value is 6.5 to 8.5. So, among the six study sites most had pH values slightly above 7 but the centre of lake had pH value similar to upper limit of the standard of slightly over the standard. Therefore water of this lake although alkaline, is still potable.

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Svobodova et al. (1993) described that oxygen diffused into the water from the air especially where the surface was turbulent and from the photosynthesis of aquatic plants. On the other hand, oxygen is removed by the aerobic degradation of organic substances by bacteria and by the respiration of all the organisms present in the water. The concentration of oxygen dissolved in water can be expressed as mg per litre (mg L-1) or as percentage of air saturation value. Even in ponds where the oxygen levels have been satisfactory during the summer, when plant growth was vigorous, severe oxygen deficiencies can occur in the autumn when the plants begin to die and decompose. This deficiency can be more pronounced if the sky is heavily overcast during the day, so that the limited oxygen production by photosynthesis is further reduced. In theses cases, the maximum oxygen deficiency occurs just before daybreak. Ballance (1996) reported that the dissolved oxygen concentration depended on the physical, chemical and biochemical activities in the water body, and its measurement provided a good indication of water quality. Changes in dissolved oxygen concentrations can be an early indication of changing conditions in the water body. Chapman (1992) stated that in freshwaters dissolved oxygen (DO) at sea level ranged from 15 mg L-1 at 0C to 8 mg L-1 at 25C. Concentrations in unpolluted waters are usually close to, but less than, 10 mg L-1. Concentration below 5 mg L-1 may adversely affect the functioning and survival of biological communities and below 2 mg L-1 may lead to the death of most fish. In Inle lake water, the concentration of DO levels ranged mostly from 2 mg L-1 to 19.5 mg L-1. According to the above interpretation, the DO levels of Inle Lake are not very good for aquatic ecosystem. The WHO standard for DO in fisheries and aquatic life is 5.0 to 9.0 and for drinking water is 4.0. Chapman (1992) described that the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is an approximate measure of the amount of biochemically degradable organic matter present in a water sample. It is defined by the amount of oxygen

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required for the aerobic micro-organisms present in the sample to oxidize the organic matter to a stable inorganic form. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is the most commonly used parameter to define the strength of a municipal wastewater or organic industrial waste. It indicates the amount of decomposable organic matter in wastewater, the larger the concentration, the greater the BOD and consequently more of the nuisance potential. BOD therefore gives the amount of organic load. The WHO standard guideline value of BOD in drinking water is 3 mg L-1 and for fisheries and aquatic life is 3.0 to 6.0 mg L-1. In my analysis data the BOD value range from 0.25 mg L-1 to 3.00 mg L-1. Hence, in Inle Lake organic pollution is still at the permissible low BOD level for aquatic life. The main sources of nitrate pollution of surface water is the use of nitrogenous fertilizers and manure on arable land leading to diffuse inputs, and the discharge of sewage effluents from human settlement in lake. Bayly and Williams (1973) stated that nitrates nitrogen may be present in small amounts in fresh water. Nitrates represent the final product of the biochemical oxidation of ammonia. Nitrate is the most oxidized form of nitrogen and is an important plant nutrient. High levels of nitrates or nitrites in plants and plant products may be harmful to humans and to livestock. A major problem relates to the formation of nitrosamines. High rates of N fertilization of crops may lead to pollution of surface and ground waters. Nitrate pollution of these surface and ground waters leads to problems of eutrophication in lake. Bartram and Ballance (1996) stated that in surface water, nitrate is a nutrient taken up by plants and assimilated into cell proteins. Stimulation of plant growth, especially of algae, may cause water quality problems associated with eutrophication. The subsequent death and decay of algae produces secondary effects on water quality, which may also be undesirable. High

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concentrations of nitrates in drinking water may present a risk to bottle-fed babies under three months of age because the low activity of their stomachs favours the reduction of nitrates to nitrites by microbial action. Nitrite is readily absorbed into the blood where it combines irreversibly with haemoglobin to form methaemoglobin, which is ineffective as an oxygen carrier in the blood. In sever cases a condition known as infantile methaemoglobinaemia may occur which can be fatal for young babies. Chapman (1992) stated that as the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended maximum limit for drinking water is 10 mg L-1 NO3-N, waters with higher concentrations represent a significant health risk. In lakes, levels of nitrates in excess of 0.2 mg L-1 NO3-N tend to stimulate algal and microbial growth and indicate possible eutrophic conditions. In my study the concentrations of nitrate in Inle Lake ranged 0.01 mg L-1. Hence, the nitrates exceeded the standard level of 0.2 mg L-1 in many places in Inle Lake. For this reason, the Inle Lake was found to be abundant in aquatic plants, floating plants, water hyacinths, water lilies, submerged plants and algal blooms in and around the lake. This condition in the Inle Lake leads to eutrophic conditions. The nitrate levels at the six sampling sites were all above 0.20 mg L-1 which was conductive to algal growth. Those high nitrate levels could be due to disposal of human and domestic sewage and wastes especially in Kyezagone village. Also samples collected in Lethit village were from floating plantations using fertilizers and pesticides leading to high nitrate pollution in that site. The water samples collected at the entrance to Mwepwe village were also high in nitrates which could be due to churning of water by motor boat traffic leading to upwelling of sediments. Water samples from Kela village, surrounded by floating plantation, was similarly also high in nitrates. Interestingly, central Inle site was highest in nitrates as pollutants from all other areas came to accumulate in the central part. Another fact noted is that the Namlit chaung,

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flowing into the Inle Lake, carried much sediments, had also nitrates above 0.20 mg L-1 level enhancing algal growth. Based on Moss et al. (1993) who reported trophic level categories according to nitrate levels (0.3 mg L-1 to > 1.5 mg L-1) in lakes, all the six sampling sites, of the Inle Lake in my study were found to be undergoing eutrophication (0.5 to > 1.5 mg L-1). However, more comprehensive sampling is necessary to be conclusive regarding the exact eutrophic condition of the Inle Lake. Ballance (1996) described that phosphorous compounds are present in fertilizers and in many detergents. Consequently, they are carried into both ground and surface waters with sewage,industrial wastes and storm run-off. High concentrations of phosphorus compounds may produce a secondary problem in water bodies where algal growth is normally limited by phosphorous. In such situations the presence of additional phosphorous compounds can stimulate algal productivity and enhance eutrophication processes. Chapman (1992) reported that phosphorous is an essential nutrient for living organisms and exists in water bodies as both dissolved and particulate species. It is generally the limiting nutrient for algal growth and, therefore, controls the primary productivity of a water body. Artificial increases in concentrations due to man's activities are the principal cause of eutrophication. It is recommended that phosphate concentrations are expressed as phosphorous, i.e., mg L-1 PO4-P. In most natural surface waters, phosphorous ranges from 0.005 to 0.020 mg L-1 PO4-P. High concentrations of phosphates can indicate the presence of pollution and are largely responsible for eutrophication conditions. In Inle lake the concentration of PO4-P was 0 mg L-1 to 1 mg L-1. The WHO standard guideline value is 0.005 mg L-1 to 0.020 mg L-1. Hence, the present study sites were found to have more than 0.020 mg L-1 PO4-P in many

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samples. Therefore, these concentrations of PO4-P could stimulate the algal growth and algal blooming observed in and around the Inle Lake. Regarding phosphates, the PO4-P levels at all my six sampling sites were above the WHO standard of 0.005 mg L-1 to 0.020 mg L-1. PO4-P was especially high in the months of March, April, May and also in August, September, October and November. The reason for this could be reduction of water level in the dry hot and dry cold periods leading to more concentration of phosphates enhancing algal growth in Inle Lake. This is in agreement with Correll (1998) who stated phosphorous entering lakes could stimulate algal growth. One obvious input of phosphates in Inle Lake occurred through application of phosphate fertilizers to the plantations over long periods, and another pathway could be through excessive use of detergents by humans residing in and around the lake. The highest level (1.0 mg L-1) of PO4-P found in Inle Lake indicated that the lake was undergoing eutrophication. Chapman and Kimstach (1992) also reported that high phosphate concentrations were responsible for eutrophic conditions. The low levels of phosphates in Inle Lake in some months could be due to lack of fertilizer application when farmers ceased agricultural activities and were doing other pursuits such as fishing. Another reason could be uptake of the residuals phosphates by plants and algae during these months. This is also in agreement with the statement that in freshwaters high phosphate concentrations are rare as they are actively taken up by plants (Chapman, 1992). Correll (1998) reported that in lakes, if primary production was low, DO was still sufficient at the bottom where P was stored in sediments, and when primary production was high, DO was low and P was released from sediment into water leading to eutrophication.

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SUMMARY

1.

Fourteen water parameters were monthly detected in six study site in Inle Lake from March 2006 to February 2007.

2.

The highest water depth was recorded in the centre of the lake in October. The water level was higher in wet season than in dry season in all study sites. Water depth was more fluctuated in the margin of the lake than in the centre.

3.

Electrical conductivity and total dissolved solid were highest in human sediment area (Namlit-chaung) than other study sites. The parameter was higher in dry season than the raining season. The pH level was found to vary in different study sites. The water temperature was relatively constant with seasons compared with air temperature.

4.

Observed some native water gardens, whose used in agricultural fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, fungicides that are influence in lake water.

5.

Correlation between water quality of physical, chemical and nutrients were recorded.

6.

The nitrate and phosphate indicated that Inle lake water quality is in the condition of initial state of eutrophication.

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SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE WORK

1.

The sedimentation rate of Inle lake should be investigated to establish the potential internal nutrient loading.

2.

A full ecological survey should be carried out to establish the richness of flora and fauna in the lake.

3.

The detail analysis of the causes of eutrophication in Inle lake should be sought and assessment of the eutrophication status should be done.

4.

Monitoring of water quality should be done after management programme has been implemented.

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abstract\NAWQA%20ReVI...3/7/2008. Das, A., 2003. Regional water quality models for the prediction of eutrophication endpoints. MSc Thesis, University of Calcutta. Davies, J., Chan, S., Sevastian, A.C., Htay, T., Aye, S.N., Aung, T., Thwin, K.M.N., Shwe, N.M., 2004. A Wetland Inventory for Myanmar. Ministry of Environment, Japan. pp. 494 - 525. Eastin, H., 1977. Understanding political rodblocks to water quality improvements. A Journal of Water pollution. Elliott, G.L., Win, T., 2004. A reconnaissance of sedimentation and sediment sources in Lake Inle, Union of Myanmar. pp. 5 - 8. EPA., 1990. The lake and reservoir restoration guidance manual. US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water Assessment and Watershed Protection Division Nonpoint Sources Branch, Washington, D.C. pp. 9 Foge, G.E., 1965. Algal Cultures and Phytoplankton Ecology. Univ. Wisconsin. Press., California. Gray, N.F., 1999. Water technology: An Introduction for Environmental Scientists and Engineers. Arnold, London. pp 92 - 103. Goldman, C.R., 1966. Primary Production in Aquatic Environments. Uni. California Press., California.

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