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Chemistry Form 4

Manufactured Subtances in Industry


Name: Muhammad ikhlas bin mohd kamal i/c: 970617115041 School: SMIKT

Sulfuric Acid
(H2SO4)
(alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a highly corrosive strong mineral acid with the molecular formula H2SO4. It is a colourless to slightly yellow viscous liquid which is soluble in water at all concentrations. Sometimes, it may be dark brown as dyed during industrial production process in order to alert people to its hazards. The historical name of this acid is oil of vitriol.
-wikipedia

USES OF SULPHURIC ACID


1. Sulphuric acid is used to produce chemical fertilizer such as ammonium sulphate and potassium sulphate, which are highly soluble in water and can be easily obsorbed by plant. 2. Car batteries contain sulphuric acid which is used as the electrolyte. 3. Sulphuric acid also used in the making of artificial silk-like fibres and rayon. 4. Chemical like paints, dyes and drug use sulphuric acid as one of their component materials.

MANUFACTURE OF SULPHURIC ACID


The process can be divided into five stages: 1. combining of sulphur and oxygen; 2. purifying sulphur dioxide in the purification unit; 3. adding excess of oxygen to sulphur dioxide in presence of catalyst vanadium oxide; 4. sulphur trioxide formed is added to sulphuric acid which gives rise to oleum (disulphuric acid); 5. the oleum then is added to water to form sulphuric acid which is very concentrated. Purification of air and SO2 is necessary to avoid catalyst poisoning (i.e. removing catalytic activities). The gas is then washed with water and dried by sulphuric acid. To conserve energy, the mixture is heated by exhaust gases from the catalytic converter by heat exchangers. Sulphur dioxide and oxygen then react as follows: 2 SO2(g) + O2(g) 2 SO3(g) : H = 197 kJ mol1

the contact process

Sulphur dioxide and and its enviromental pollution


Description
Sulfuric acid will exist as particles or droplets in the air if released to the atmosphere. It dissolves when mixed with water. It has moderate acute (short-term) toxicity on aquatic life. Sulfuric acid is very corrosive and would badly burn any plants, birds or land animals exposed to it. It has moderate chronic (long-term) toxicity to aquatic life. Chronic effects on plants, birds or land animals have not been determined. Small quantities of sulfuric acid will be neutralised by the natural alkalinity in aquatic systems. Larger quantities may lower the pH for extended periods of time.

Entering the environment

Industrial emissions of sulfuric acid can produce elevated concentrations in the atmosphere. Sulfuric acid will exist as particles or droplets which may dissolve in clouds, fog, rain, dew, or snow, resulting in very dilute acid solutions. In clouds and moist air it will travel along the air currents until it is deposited as wet acid deposition (acid rain, acid fog, etc). In waterways it readily mixes with the water.

Where it ends up

Sulfuric acid enters the air during production, use and transporting it. In the air it will react with other chemicals present (ammonia, magnesium, calcium) to form salts, which neutralise the acid. The acid particles dissolve in clouds, fog, rain, or snow, resulting in very dilute acid solutions. This may impact the environment as wet acid deposition ('acid rain').

Environmental guidelines

Australian Water Quality Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Waters (ANZECC, 1992): No guideline specifically for sulfuric acid, although the guideline value for pH (a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of water) is in the range 6.5 to 9.0 for fresh water.
-http://www.npi.gov.au/substances/sulfuric-acid/environmental.html

Acid Rain

Ammonia and its Salt


(NH3)
Ammonia or azane is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3. It is a colourless gas with a characteristic pungent smell. Ammonia contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to food andfertilizers. Ammonia, either directly or indirectly, is also a building-block for the synthesis of many pharmaceuticals and is used in many commercial cleaning products. Although in wide use, ammonia is both caustic and hazardous. The global production of ammonia for 2012 is anticipated to be 198 million tonnes, a 35% increase over the estimated 2006 global output of 146.5 million tonnes.

Ammonia Production
Because of its many uses, ammonia is one of the most highly-produced inorganic chemicals. There are numerous large-scale ammonia production plants worldwide, producing a total of 131,000,000 metric tons of ammonia in 2010. China produced 32.1% of the worldwide production, followed by India with 8.9%, Russia with 7.9%, and the United States with 6.3%. 80% or more of the ammonia produced is used for fertilizing agricultural crops. Ammonia is also used for the production of plastics, fibers, explosives, and intermediates for dyes and pharmaceuticals.

Uses of Ammonia

http://www.greener-industry.org.uk/pages/ammonia/2AmmoniaMU.htm

Other uses include:


Textiles fibre processing Explosives Refrigeration Water purification Food production Rubber production Photography Metal plating Other uses to "relax" cotton fibres during manufacture, reducing tendency to shrink in use nitric acid, made from ammonia, is used in explosives manufacture large scale refrigeration for bulk food storage often use ammonia systems used to manufacture chloramine (NH2Cl), an anti-bacterial compound more persistent than chlorine ammonium bicarbonate used as a raising agent for biscuits ammonia and ammonium laurate are used to preserve raw latex ammonium thiosulphate used in fixers for film processing ammonium carbonate used in chrome plating, ammonium formate and acetate used in other plating processes Pulp/ paper manufacture, household cleaners, pharmaceuticals and chemical intermediates

Haber process
The Haber process, also called the HaberBosch process, is the industrial implementation of the reaction of nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas. It is the main industrial route to ammonia: N2 + 3 H2 2 NH3 (H = 92.22 kJmol1) Despite the fact that 78.1% of the air we breathe is nitrogen, the gas is nutritionally unavailable. It was not until the early 20th century that Fritz Haber developed the first practical process to convert atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia, which is nutritionally available. Prior to the discovery of the Haber process, ammonia had been difficult to produce on an industrial scale. Fertilizer generated from ammonia produced by the Haber process is estimated to be responsible for sustaining one-third of the Earth's population. It is estimated that half of the protein within human beings is made of nitrogen that was originally fixed by this process; the remainder was produced by nitrogen fixing bacteria and archaea.

Alloys
An alloy is a mixture or metallic solid solution composed of two or more elements. Complete solid solution alloys give single solid phase microstructure, while partial solutions give two or more phases that may or may not be homogeneous in distribution, depending on thermal (heat treatment) history. Alloys usually have different properties from those of the component elements. Examples include materials such as solder, brass, pewter, phosphor bronze and amalgam. Alloy constituents are usually measured by mass. Alloys are usually classified as substitutional or interstitial alloys, depending on the atomic arrangement that forms the alloy. They can be further classified as homogeneous (consisting of a single phase), or heterogeneous (consisting of two or more phases) or intermetallic (where there is no distinct boundary between phases).

The structure of alloys


If you look at a metal through a powerful electron microscope, you can see the atoms inside arranged in a regular structure called a crystalline lattice. Imagine a small cardboard box full of marbles and that's pretty much what you'd see. In an alloy, apart from the atoms of the main metal, there are also atoms of the alloying agents dotted throughout the structure. (Imagine dropping a few plastic balls into the cardboard box so they arrange themselves randomly among the marbles.)

Substitution alloys If the atoms of the alloying agent replace atoms of the main metal, we get what's called a substitution alloy. An alloy like this will form only if the atoms of the base metal and those of the alloying agent are of roughly similar size. In most substitution alloys, the constituent elements are quite near one another in the periodic table. Brass, for example, is a substitution alloy based on copper in which atoms of zinc replace 1035 percent of the atoms that would normally be in copper. Brass works as an alloy because copper and zinc are close to one another in the periodic table and have atoms of roughly similar size. Interstitial alloys Alloys can also form if the alloying agent or agents have atoms that are very much smaller than those of the main metal. In that case, the agent atoms slip in between the main metal atoms (in the gaps or "interstices"), giving what's called an interstitial alloy. Steel is an example of an interstitial alloy in which a relatively small number of carbon atoms slip in the gaps between the huge atoms in a crystalline lattice of iron.

Type of Alloy

Solder is a fusible metal alloy used to join together metal workpieces and
having a melting point below that of the workpiece(s).

Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc; the proportions of zinc and


copper can be varied to create a range of brasses with varying properties.

Pewter is a malleable metal alloy, traditionally 8599% tin, with the remainder consisting of copper, antimony, bismuth and (sometimes, and less commonly today) lead. Silver is also sometimes used.

Phosphor bronze (sometimes sold with the shorter name Phos Bronze) is an alloy of copper with 3.5 to 10% of tin and a significant phosphorus content of up to 1%. The phosphorus is added as deoxidizing agent during melting.These alloys are notable for their toughness, strength, low coefficient of friction, and finegrain. The phosphorus also improves the fluidity of the molten metal and thereby improves the castability, and improves mechanical properties by cleaning up the grain boundaries.

An amalgam is a substance formed by the reaction of mercury with another metal. Almost all metals can form amalgams with mercury, notable exception

being iron. Silver-mercury amalgams are important in dentistry, and gold-mercury amalgam is used in the extraction of gold from ore.

SYNTHETIC POLYMERS
POLYMERS
Polymers are substances whose molecules have high molar masses and are composed of a large number of repeating units. There are both naturally occurring and synthetic polymers. Among naturally occurring polymers are proteins, starches, cellulose, and latex. Synthetic polymers are produced commercially on a very large scale and have a wide range of properties and uses. The materials commonly called plastics are all synthetic polymers. Polymers are formed by chemical reactions in which a large number of molecules called monomers are joined sequentially, forming a chain. In many polymers, only one monomer is used. In others, two or three different monomers may be combined. Polymers are classified by the characteristics of the reactions by which they are formed. If all atoms in the monomers are incorporated into the polymer, the polymer is called an addition polymer. If some of the atoms of the monomers are released into small molecules, such as water, the polymer is called a condensation polymer. Most addition polymers are made from monomers containing a double bond between carbon atoms. Such monomers are called olefins, and most commercial addition polymers are polyolefins. Condensation polymers are made from monomers that have two different groups of atoms which can join together to form, for example, ester or amide links. Polyesters are an important class of commercial polymers, as are polyamides (nylon).

Natural polymers occur in nature and can be extracted. They are often waterbased. Examples of naturally occurring polymers are silk, wool, DNA, cellulose and proteins.

Synthetic polymers are human-made polymers. From the utility point of view
they can be classified into four main categories: thermoplastics, thermosets, elastomers and synthetic fibres. They are found commonly in a variety of consumer products such as money, super glue, etc. A wide variety of synthetic polymers are available with variations in main chain as well as side chains. The back bones of common synthetic polymers such as polythene and polystyrene, poly acrylates are made up of carbon-carbon bonds, whereas hetero chain polymers such as polyamides, polyesters, polyurethanes polysulfides and polycarbonates have other elements (e.g. oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen) inserted along the backbone. Also silicon form familiar materials such as silicones through siloxane linkages, which does not have any carbon atoms and is said to be an inorganic polymer. Coordination polymers may contain a range of metals in the backbone, with non-covalent bonding present. Some familiar house-hold synthetic polymers include Nylons in textiles and fabrics, Teflon in non-stick pans, Bakelite for electrical switches, polyvinyl chloride in pipes, etc. The common PET bottles are made of a synthetic polymer, polyethylene terephthalate. The plastic kits and covers are mostly made of synthetic polymers like polythene and tires are manufactured from Buna rubbers. However, due to the environmental issues created by these synthetic polymers which are mostly nonbiodegradable and often synthesized from petroleum, alternatives like bioplastics are also being considered. But they are expensive when compared to the synthetic polymers.

Glass and Ceramic


Glass
is an amorphous (non-crystalline) solid material. Glasses are typically brittle and optically transparent. The most familiar type of glass, used for centuries in windows and drinking vessels, is soda-lime glass, composed of about 75% silica (SiO2) plus sodium oxide Na2O from soda ash, lime CaO, and several minor additives. Often, the term glass is used in a restricted sense to refer to this specific use. In science, however, the term glass is usually defined in a much wider sense, including every solid that possesses a non-crystalline (i.e., amorphous) structure and that exhibits a glass transition when heated towards the liquid state. In this wider sense, glasses can be made of quite different classes of materials: metallic alloys, ionic melts, aqueous solutions, molecular liquids, and polymers. For many applications (bottles, eyewear) polymer glasses (acrylic glass, polycarbonate, polyethylene terephthalate) are a lighter alternative to traditional silica glasses.

Float process of manufacturing glass

Main Types of Glass


Today, flat glass comes in many highly specialised forms intended for different products and applications. Flat glass produced by way of the float process is often further processed (see below) to give it certain qualities or specificities. In this way, the industry can meet the various requirements and needs of the construction, automotive and solar-energy industries :

Annealed Glass is the basic flat glass product that is the first result of the float process. It is
the common glass that tends to break into large, jagged shards. It is used in some end products -- often in double-glazed windows, for example. It is also the starting material that is turned into more advanced products through further processing such as laminating, toughening, coating, etc.

Toughened Glass is treated to be far more resistant to breakage than simple annealed
glass, and to break in a more predictable way when it does break, thus providing a major safety advantage in almost all of its applications.

Laminated Glass is made of two or more layers of glass with one or more "interlayers" of
polymeric material bonded between the glass layers.

Coated
Surface coatings can be applied to glass to modify its appearance and give it many of the advanced characteristics and functions available in today's flat glass products, such as low maintenance, special reflection/transmission/absorption properties, scratch resistance, corrosion resistance, etc.

Mirrored Glass
To produce mirrored glass, a metal coating is applied to one side of the glass. The coating is generally made of silver, aluminium, gold or chrome. For simple mirrored glass, a fully reflective metal coating is applied and then sealed with a protective layer. To produce "oneway" mirrors, a much thinner metal coating is used, with no additional sealing or otherwise opaque layer. Mirrored glass is gaining a more prominent place in architecture, for important functional reasons as well as for the aesthetic effect. Patterned Glass is flat glass whose surfaces display a regular pattern. The most common method for producing patterned glass is to pass heated glass (usually just after it exits the furnace where it is made) between rollers whose surfaces contain the negative relief of the desired pattern(s). Extra Clear glass is not the result of processing of annealed glass but instead a specific type of melted glass. Extra-clear glass differs from other types of glass by its basic raw material composition. In particular, this glass is made with a very low iron-content in order to minimize its sun reflection properties. It therefore lets as much light as possible through the glass. It is most particularly of use for solar-energy applications where it is important that the glass cover lets light through to reach the thermal tubes or photovoltaic cells. Anti-reflective properties can be further increased by applying a special coating on the low-iron glass. It can also be used in windows or facades as it offers excellent clarity, which allows occupants to appreciate true colours and to enjoy unimpaired views.

Ceramics encompass such a vast array of materials that a concise


definition is almost impossible. However, one workable definition of ceramics is a refractory, inorganic, and non-metallic material. Ceramics can be divided into two classes: traditional and advanced. Traditional ceramics include clay products, silicate glass and cement; while advanced ceramics consist of carbides (SiC), pure oxides (Al2O3), nitrides (Si3N4), non-silicate glasses and many others. Ceramics offer many advantages compared to other materials. They are harder and stiffer than steel; more heat and corrosion resistant than metals or polymers; less dense than most metals and their alloys; and their raw materials are both plentiful and inexpensive. Ceramic materials display a wide range of properties which facilitate their use in many different product areas. The earliest ceramics were pottery objects or 27,000 year old figurines made from clay, either by itself or mixed with other materials, hardened in fire. Later ceramics were glazed and fired to create a colored, smooth surface. Ceramics now include domestic, industrial and building products and art objects. In the 20th century, new ceramic materials were developed for use in advanced ceramic engineering; for example, in semiconductors. The word "ceramic" comes from the Greek word (keramikos), "of pottery" or "for pottery", from (keramos), "potter's clay, tile, pottery". The earliest mention of the root "ceram-" is the Mycenaean Greek ke-ra-me-we, "workers of ceramics", written inLinear B syllabic script. "Ceramic" may be used as an adjective describing a material, product or process; or as a singular noun, or, more commonly, as a plural noun, "ceramics".

Type of ceramics
ALUMINA Alumina is the most widely used advanced ceramic material. It offers very good performance in terms of wear resistance, corrosion resistance and strength at a reasonable price. Its high dielectric properties are beneficial in electronic products. Applications include armor, semiconductor processing equipment parts, faucet disc valves, seals, electronic substrates and industrial machine components. SILICON NITRIDE Silicon nitride exceeds other ceramic materials in thermal shock resistance. It also offers an excellent combination of low density, high strength, low thermal expansion and good corrosion resistance and fracture toughness. Applications include various aerospace and automotive engine components, papermaking machine wear surfaces, armor, burner nozzles and molten metal processing parts. SILICON CARBIDE Silicon carbide has the highest corrosion resistance of all the advanced ceramic materials. It also retains its strength at temperatures as high as 1400C and offers excellent wear resistance and thermal shock resistance. Applications include armor, mechanical seals, nozzles, silicon wafer polishing plates and pump parts. ZIRCONIA Zirconia has the highest strength and toughness at room temperature of all the advanced ceramic materials. The fine grain size allows for extremely smooth surfaces and sharp edges. Applications include scissors, knifes, slitters, pump shafts, metal-forming tools, fixtures, tweezers, wire drawing rings, bearing sleeves and valves. SAPPHIRE Single crystal sapphire offers superior mechanical properties and chemical stability coupled with light transmission. Applications include GaAs carrier plates, POS scanner window, microwave plasma tubes and windows, fixtures for high temperature equipment and blue LED.

Types of ceramic products


For convenience, ceramic products are usually divided into four sectors; these are shown below with some examples:

Structural, including bricks, pipes, floor and roof tiles Refractories, such as kiln linings, gas fire radiants, steel and glass making crucibles Whitewares, including tableware, cookware, wall tiles, pottery products and sanitary ware Technical, is also known as engineering, advanced, special, and in Japan, fine ceramics. Such items include tiles used in the Space Shuttle program, gas burner nozzles, ballistic protection, nuclear fuel uranium oxide pellets, biomedical implants, coatings of jet engineturbine blades, ceramic disk brake, missile nose cones, bearing (mechanical). Frequently, the raw materials do not include clays.

Composite materials
Composite materials, often shortened to composites or called composition materials, are engineered or naturally occurring materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties which remain separate and distinct within the finished structure. A common example of a composite would be disc brake pads, which consist of hard ceramic particles embedded in soft metal matrix. Another example is found in shower stalls and bathtubs which are made of fibreglass. Imitation granite and cultured marble sinks and countertops are also widely used. The most advanced examples perform routinely on spacecraft in demanding environments. Wattle and daub is one of the oldest man-made composite materials, at over 6000 years old. Concrete is also a composite material, and is used more than any other man-made material in the world. As of 2006, about 7.5 billion cubic metres of concrete are made each yearmore than one cubic metre for every person on Earth.

Examples of Composite Material Mud Bricks


One type of very old composite material invented by early humans was the mud brick. A normal mud brick is sturdy and resistant to compression, but can break if bent. Straw is a material that has excellent tensile strength, meaning that it resists stretching. By combining both, early humans were able to create composite mud bricks that could resist weight and compression as well as stretching.

Fiberglass
Fiberglass is a material made of tiny glass shards held together by resin and other components. In the automotive industry, fiberglass is important for making body kits. The body shell for a car is made up of different layers of fiberglass, such as a gel-coat layer, tissue layer, matting and cloth. The final product is a complete, waterproof, lightweight and strong body kit. Fiberglass can also be a less expensive alternative to other materials.

photochromic lenses
Photochromic lenses are lenses that darken on exposure to specific types of light, most commonly ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Once the light source is removed (for example by walking indoors), the lenses will gradually return to their clear state. Photochromic lenses may be made of glass, polycarbonate, or another plastic.

Reinforced concrete
Reinforced concrete is a composite material in which concrete's relatively low tensile strength and ductility are counteracted by the inclusion of reinforcement having higher tensile strength and/or ductility. The reinforcement is usually, though not necessarily, steel reinforcing bars (rebar) and is usually embedded passively in the concrete before it sets. Reinforcing schemes are generally designed to resist tensile stresses in particular regions of the concrete that might cause unacceptable cracking and/or structural failure. Modern reinforced concrete can contain varied reinforcing materials made of steel, polymers or alternate composite material in conjunction with rebar or not. Reinforced concrete may also be permanently stressed (in compression), so as to improve the behaviour of the final structure under working loads.

Superconductor
The electrical resistivity of a metallic conductor decreases gradually as temperature is lowered. In ordinary conductors, such as copper or silver, this decrease is limited by impurities and other defects. Even near absolute zero, a real sample of a normal conductor shows some resistance. In a superconductor, the resistance drops abruptly to zero when the material is cooled below its critical temperature. An electric current flowing in a loop of superconducting wire can persist indefinitely with no power source.