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Chapter 8

Interconnecting
Networks with
TCP/IP
2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

8-1

Objectives
Upon completion of this chapter you will
be able to perform the following tasks:
Identify the IP protocol stack, its protocol layer
functions, and commonly used IP protocols
Identify IP address classes, IP addresses, IP subnet
masks, IP network numbers, subnet numbers, and
possible host numbers.
Configure IP addresses and subnet masks on a
router interface and optionally configure a host table.
Interconnect the VLANs with a layer three device
such as a router on a stick.
2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-3

Introduction to TCP/IP
Host

Host

Internet
TCP/IP

Early protocol suite


Universal
2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-4

TCP/IP Protocol Stack

Application

Presentation

Session

Transport

Transport

Network

Internet

Data Link

Data Link

Application
4
3
2
1

Physical

2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Physical

www.cisco.com

ICND v1.0a8-5

Application Layer Overview

Application

Transport
Internet
Data Link

File Transfer
- TFTP *
- FTP *
- NFS
E-Mail
- SMTP
Remote Login
- Telnet *
- rlogin *
Network Management
- SNMP *
Name Management
- DNS*
*Used by the router

Physical

2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-6

Transport Layer Overview

Application
Transport

Transmission Control
Protocol (TCP)

ConnectionOriented

User Datagram
Protocol (UDP)

Connectionless

Internet
Data Link
Physical

2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-7

TCP Segment Format


Bit 0

Bit 15 Bit 16

Bit 31
Destination port (16)

Source port (16)

Sequence number (32)


Acknowledgement number (32)
Header
length (4)

Reserved (6) Code bits (6)


Checksum (16)

20
Bytes

Window (16)
Urgent (16)

Options (0 or 32 if any)
Data (varies)
2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-8

Port Numbers

Application
Layer

Transport
Layer
2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

F
T
P

T
E
L
N
E
T

S
M
T
P

D
N
S

T
F
T
P

S
N
M
P

R
I
P

21

23

25

53

69

161

520

Port
Numbers

UDP

TCP
www.cisco.com

ICND v1.0a8-9

TCP Port Numbers


Source
Port

Dest.
Port

Telnet Z
Host Z

Host A

2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

SP

DP

1028

23

www.cisco.com

Dest. port = 23.


Send packet to my
Telnet
application.

ICND v1.0a8-10

TCP Three Way


Handshake/Open Connection
Host A

Host B

Send SYN
(seq=100 ctl=SYN)
SYN received

2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-11

TCP Three Way


Handshake/Open Connection
Host A

Host B

Send SYN
(seq=100 ctl=SYN)
SYN received
Send SYN, ACK 2
(seq=300 ack=101 ctl=syn,ack)

SYN received

2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-12

TCP Three Way


Handshake/Open Connection
Host A

Host B

Send SYN
(seq=100 ctl=SYN)
SYN received
Send SYN, ACK 2
(seq=300 ack=101 ctl=syn,ack)

SYN received

Established
(seq=101 ack=301 ctl=ack)

2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-13

TCP Simple Acknowledgment


Sender

Receiver

Window size = 1
2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-14

TCP Simple Acknowledgment


Sender

Receiver

Send 1

Receive 1

Window size = 1
2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-15

TCP Simple Acknowledgment


Sender

Receiver

Send 1

Receive 1
Send ACK 2

Receive ACK 2

Window size = 1
2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-16

TCP Simple Acknowledgment


Sender

Receiver

Send 1

Receive 1
Send ACK 2

Receive ACK 2

Send 2

Receive 2

Window size = 1
2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-17

TCP Simple Acknowledgment


Sender

Receiver

Send 1

Receive 1
Send ACK 2

Receive ACK 2

Send 2

Receive 2
Send ACK 3

Receive ACK 3

Window size = 1
2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-18

TCP Simple Acknowledgment


Sender

Receiver

Send 1

Receive 1
Send ACK 2

Receive ACK 2

Send 2

Receive 2
Send ACK 3

Receive ACK 3
Send 3

Receive 3

Window size = 1
2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-19

TCP Simple Acknowledgment


Sender

Receiver

Send 1

Receive 1
Send ACK 2

Receive ACK 2

Send 2

Receive 2
Send ACK 3

Receive ACK 3
Send 3

Receive 3
Send ACK 4

Receive ACK 4

Window size = 1
2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-20

TCP Sequence and


Acknowledgment Numbers
Source
Port

Dest.
Port

Sequence
#

Acknowledgement
#

I just
sent #10.

Source Dest. Seq. Ack.


1028

23

2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

10

www.cisco.com

ICND v1.0a8-21

TCP Sequence and


Acknowledgment Numbers
Source
Port

Dest.
Port

Sequence
#

Acknowledgement
#

I just
sent #10.

I just got #10,


now I need #11.

Source Dest. Seq. Ack.


1028 23
10
1
Source Dest. Seq. Ack.
23
1028
1
11

2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-22

TCP Sequence and


Acknowledgment Numbers
Source
Port

Dest.
Port

Sequence
#

Acknowledgement
#

I just
sent #11.

I just got #10,


now I need #11.

Source Dest. Seq. Ack.


1028 23
10
1
Source Dest. Seq. Ack.
23
1028
1
11
Source Dest. Seq. Ack.
1028

23

2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

11

www.cisco.com

ICND v1.0a8-23

TCP Sequence and


Acknowledgment Numbers
Source
Port

Dest.
Port

Sequence
#

Acknowledgement
#

I just
sent #11.

I just got #11,


now I need #12.

Source Dest. Seq. Ack.


1028 23
10
100
Source Dest. Seq. Ack.
23
1028 100
11
Source Dest. Seq. Ack.
1028

23

11

101
Source Dest. Seq. Ack.
23
1028 101
12

2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-24

TCP Windowing

Sender

2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Receiver

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ICND v1.0a8-25

TCP Windowing

Sender

Window size = 3
Send 1

Receiver

Window size = 3
Send 2
Window size = 3
Send 3

2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-26

TCP Windowing

Sender

Window size = 3
Send 1

Receiver

Window size = 3
Send 2
Window size = 3
Send 3

2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

ACK 3
Window size = 2

www.cisco.com

Packet 3 is
Dropped

ICND v1.0a8-27

TCP Windowing

Sender

Window size = 3
Send 1

Receiver

Window size = 3
Send 2
Window size = 3
Send 3

ACK 3
Window size = 2

Packet 3 is
Dropped

Window size = 3
Send 3
Window size = 3
Send 4

2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-28

TCP Windowing

Sender

Window size = 3
Send 1

Window size = 3

Receiver

Window size = 3
Send 2
Window size = 3
Send 3

Packet 3 is
ACK 3
Window size = 2 Dropped

Window size = 3
Send 3
Window size = 3
Send 4
ACK 5
Window size = 2

2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-29

UDP Segment Format


Bit
1 0

Bit 15 Bit 16

Bit 31
Destination port (16)

Source port (16)


Length (16)

8
Bytes

Checksum (16)
Data (if any)

No sequence or acknowledgment fields

2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-30

Internet Layer Overview

Internet Protocol (IP)


Application

Transport
Internet

Internet Control Message


Protocol (ICMP)
Address Resolution
Protocol (ARP)

Data Link
Physical

Reverse Address
Resolution Protocol (RARP)

OSI network layer corresponds to the


TCP/IP internet layer
2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-31

IP Datagram
Bit
1 0
Version
(4)

Bit 15 Bit 16
Header
Length (4)

Priority & Type


of Service (8)

Total Length (16)


Flags
(3)

Identification (16)
Time to live (8)

Bit 31

Protocol (8)

Fragment offset (13)


Header checksum (16)

20
Bytes

Source IP Address (32)


Destination IP Address (32)
Options (0 or 32 if any)
Data (varies if any)
2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-32

Protocol Field

Transport
Layer

UDP

TCP
6

Internet
Layer

17

Protocol
Numbers

IP

Determines destination upper-layer protocol


2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-33

Internet Control Message


Protocol
Application

Destination
Unreachable

Transport

1
ICMP

Echo (Ping)
Internet

Other
Data Link
Physical

2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-34

Address Resolution Protocol


I need the
Ethernet
address of
176.16.3.2.
172.16.3.1

172.16.3.2

IP: 172.16.3.2 = ???

2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-35

Address Resolution Protocol


I need the
Ethernet
address of
176.16.3.2.

I heard that broadcast.


The message is for me.
Here is my Ethernet
address.
172.16.3.1

172.16.3.2

IP: 172.16.3.2 = ???

2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

www.cisco.com

ICND v1.0a8-36

Address Resolution Protocol


I need the
Ethernet
address of
176.16.3.2.

I heard that broadcast.


The message is for me.
Here is my Ethernet
address.
172.16.3.1

172.16.3.2

IP: 172.16.3.2 = ???


IP: 172.16.3.2
Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111

2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-37

Address Resolution Protocol


I need the
Ethernet
address of
176.16.3.2.

I heard that broadcast.


The message is for me.
Here is my Ethernet
address.
172.16.3.1

172.16.3.2

IP: 172.16.3.2 = ???


IP: 172.16.3.2
Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111

Map IP

MAC
Local ARP

2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-38

Reverse ARP

What is
my IP
address?

Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111 IP = ???

2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-39

Reverse ARP
I heard that
broadcast.
Your IP
address is
172.16.3.25.

What is
my IP
address?

Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111 IP = ???

2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-40

Reverse ARP
I heard that
broadcast.
Your IP
address is
172.16.3.25.

What is
my IP
address?

Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111 IP = ???


Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111
IP: 172.16.3.25

2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-41

Reverse ARP
I heard that
broadcast.
Your IP
address is
172.16.3.25.

What is
my IP
address?

Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111 IP = ???


Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111
IP: 172.16.3.25

Map MAC
2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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IP
ICND v1.0a8-42

Introduction to TCP/IP
Addresses
172.18.0.1

172.18.0.2
10.13.0.0
10.13.0.1

172.16.0.1

HDR SADA DATA

172.17.0.1

172.16.0.2

172.17.0.2

192.168.1.0
192.168.1.1

Unique addressing allows communication


between end stations
Path choice is based on destination address
Location is represented by an address
2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-43

IP Addressing
32 bits
Dotted
Decimal
Maximum

2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Network

255

255

www.cisco.com

Host

255

255

ICND v1.0a8-44

IP Addressing
32 bits
Dotted
Decimal

Network

2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

16 17

255
24 25

32

11111111 11111111

11111111 11111111
128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1
128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1

8 9

255

128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1
128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1

Binary

255

255

Maximum

Host

www.cisco.com

ICND v1.0a8-45

IP Addressing
32 bits
Dotted
Decimal

Network

16 17

255
24 25

32

11111111 11111111

11111111 11111111
128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1
128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1

8 9

255

128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1
128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1

Binary

255

255

Maximum

Host

Example
172
16
122
204
Decimal
Example 10101100 00010000 01111010 11001100
Binary
2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-46

IP Address Classes
8 bits

8 bits

8 bits

8 bits

Host

Host

Host

Host

Host

Class A:

Network

Class B:

Network Network

Class C:

Network Network Network

Class D:

Multicast

Class E:

Research

2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Host

ICND v1.0a8-47

IP Address Classes
Bits:

Class A:
Bits:

Class B:
Bits:

Class C:
Bits:

Class D:
2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

8 9

0NNNNNNN

16 17

24 25

Host

Host

32

Host

Range (1-126)
1

8 9

10NNNNNN

16 17
Network

Range (128-191)
1
8 9
110NNNNN

Host

16 17
Network

Range (192-223)
1
8 9
1110MMMM

24 25
Host

24 25

Network
16 17

32

32
Host

24 25

32

Multicast Group Multicast Group Multicast Group

Range (224-239)
www.cisco.com

ICND v1.0a8-48

Host Addresses
172.16.2.2

10.1.1.1
10.6.24.2
E1

172.16.3.10

E0
172.16.2.1

10.250.8.11

172.16.12.12

172.16
Network
2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

12 . 12
Host

10.180.30.118

Routing Table
Network
Interface
172.16.0.0

E0

10.0.0.0

E1

www.cisco.com

ICND v1.0a8-49

Determining Available Host


Addresses
Network

2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

...

...

10101100 00010000 00000000 00000000


00000000 00000001
00000000 00000011

N
1
2
3
...

16

16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

172

Host

11111111 11111101
11111111 11111110
11111111 11111111

65534
65535
65536
2

2N-2 = 216-2 = 65534

65534

www.cisco.com

ICND v1.0a8-50

IP Address Classes Exercise


Address

Class

Network

Host

10.2.1.1
128.63.2.100
201.222.5.64

192.6.141.2
130.113.64.16
256.241.201.10

2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-51

IP Address Classes Exercise


Answers
Address

Class

10.2.1.1

10.0.0.0

0.2.1.1

128.63.2.100

128.63.0.0

0.0.2.100

201.222.5.64

201.222.5.0

0.0.0.64

192.6.141.2

192.6.141.0

0.0.0.2

130.113.64.16

130.113.0.0

0.0.64.16

256.241.201.10

2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Network

Host

Nonexistent

www.cisco.com

ICND v1.0a8-52

Addressing without Subnets

172.16.0.1 172.16.0.2 172.16.0.3

172.16.255.253 172.16.255.254
...

172.16.0.0

Network 172.16.0.0
2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-53

Addressing with Subnets

172.16.3.0

172.16.4.0

172.16.1.0

172.16.2.0

Network 172.16.0.0
2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-54

Subnet Addressing
172.16.2.200

172.16.3.5
172.16.3.1
E1

172.16.2.2

E0
172.16.2.1

172.16.3.100

172.16.2.160

172.16
Network
2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

172.16.3.150

2 . 160

New Routing Table


Network
Interface

Host

172.16.0.0

E0

172.16.0.0

E1

www.cisco.com

ICND v1.0a8-55

Subnet Addressing
172.16.2.200

172.16.3.5
172.16.3.1
E1
E0
172.16.2.1

172.16.2.2

172.16.3.100

172.16.2.160

172.16
Network
2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

172.16.3.150

160

Subnet Host

New Routing Table


Network
Interface
172.16.2.0

E0

172.16.3.0

E1

www.cisco.com

ICND v1.0a8-56

Subnet Mask
Network
IP
Address

172

Host

16

Network

Default
Subnet
Mask

8-bit
Subnet
Mask

2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

255

0
Host

255

11111111
11111111
00000000
00000000
Also written as /16 where 16 represents the number of 1s
in the mask.
Network
Subnet
Host

255

255

255

Also written as /24 where 24 represents the number of 1s


in the mask.
www.cisco.com

ICND v1.0a8-57

Decimal Equivalents of Bit


Patterns
128 64

32

16

128

192

224

240

248

252

254

255

2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-58

Subnet Mask without Subnets


Network

Host

172.16.2.160

10101100

00010000

00000010

10100000

255.255.0.0

11111111

11111111

00000000

00000000

10101100

00010000

00000000

00000000

172

16

Network
Number

Subnets not in usethe default


2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-59

Subnet Mask with Subnets


Network
172.16.2.160

Host

10101100

00010000

00000010

10100000

11111111

11111111

11111111

00000000

10101100

00010000

00000010

00000000

172

16

128
192
224
240
248
252
254
255

255.255.255.0

Subnet

Network
Number

Network number extended by eight bits


2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-60

Subnet Mask with Subnets


(cont.)

255.255.255.192

Network
Number

Host

10101100

00010000

00000010

10100000

11111111

11111111

11111111

11000000

10101100

00010000

00000010

10000000
128
192
224
240
248
252
254
255

172.16.2.160

Subnet

128
192
224
240
248
252
254
255

Network

172

16

128

Network number extended by ten bits


2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-61

Subnet Mask Exercise

Address

Subnet Mask

172.16.2.10

255.255.255.0

10.6.24.20

255.255.240.0

10.30.36.12

255.255.255.0

2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

www.cisco.com

Class

Subnet

ICND v1.0a8-62

Subnet Mask Exercise


Answers

Address

Subnet Mask

Class

Subnet

172.16.2.10

255.255.255.0

172.16.2.0

10.6.24.20

255.255.240.0

10.6.16.0

10.30.36.12

255.255.255.0

10.30.36.0

2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-63

Broadcast Addresses

172.16.3.0

172.16.4.0

172.16.1.0
172.16.2.0

172.16.3.255
(Directed broadcast)

255.255.255.255
(Local network broadcast)

172.16.255.255
(All subnets broadcast)
2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-64

Addressing Summary
Example

172.16.2.160

172

16

10101100

00010000

160

00000010 10100000 Host

Mask

255.255.255.192

Subnet 4
Broadcast
First
Last
2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-65

Addressing Summary
Example

172.16.2.160
255.255.255.192

172

16

10101100

00010000

11111111

11111111

160

00000010 10100000 Host

11111111 11000000 Mask 2


Subnet
Broadcast
First
Last

2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-66

Addressing Summary
Example
172

16

160
3

172.16.2.160
255.255.255.192

10101100

00010000

11111111

11111111

00000010 10100000 Host

11111111 11000000 Mask 2


Subnet
Broadcast
First
Last

2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-67

Addressing Summary
Example
172

16

160
3

172.16.2.160
255.255.255.192

10101100

00010000

11111111

11111111

00000010 10100000 Host

11111111 11000000 Mask 2


10000000 Subnet 4
Broadcast
First
Last

2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-68

Addressing Summary
Example
172

16

160
3

172.16.2.160
255.255.255.192

10101100

00010000

11111111

11111111

00000010 10100000 Host

11111111 11000000 Mask 2


10000000 Subnet 4

10111111 Broadcast
5
First

Last
2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

www.cisco.com

ICND v1.0a8-69

Addressing Summary
Example
172

16

160
3

172.16.2.160
255.255.255.192

10101100

00010000

11111111

11111111

00000010 10100000 Host

11111111 11000000 Mask 2


10000000 Subnet 4

10111111 Broadcast
5
10000001 First

Last
2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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ICND v1.0a8-70

Addressing Summary
Example
172

16

160
3

172.16.2.160
255.255.255.192

10101100

00010000

11111111

11111111

00000010 10100000 Host

11111111 11000000 Mask 2


10000000 Subnet 4

10111111 Broadcast

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5
10000001 First

10111110 Last

ICND v1.0a8-71

Addressing Summary
Example
172

16

160
3

172.16.2.160
255.255.255.192

10101100

00010000

00000010 10100000 Host

11111111

11111111

11111111 11000000 Mask 2

10101100

00010000

00000010 10000000 Subnet 4

10101100

00010000

00000010 10111111 Broadcast

10101100

00010000

5
00000010 10000001 First

10101100

00010000

00000010 10111110 Last

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ICND v1.0a8-72

Addressing Summary
Example
172

16

160
3

10101100

00010000

255.255.255.192 11111111
8
9
172.16.2.128
10101100

11111111

11111111 11000000 Mask 2

00010000

00000010 10000000 Subnet 4

10101100

00010000

00000010 10111111 Broadcast


6
7

172.16.2.160

172.16.2.191

00000010 10100000 Host

172.16.2.129

10101100

00010000

5
00000010 10000001 First

172.16.2.190

10101100

00010000

00000010 10111110 Last

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ICND v1.0a8-73

Class B Subnet Example


IP Host Address: 172.16.2.121
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
Network

Network

Subnet

Host

172.16.2.121: 10101100

00010000

00000010

01111001

255.255.255.0: 11111111

11111111

11111111

00000000

Subnet: 10101100

00010000

00000010

00000000

Broadcast: 10101100

00010000

00000010

11111111

Subnet Address = 172.16.2.0


Host Addresses = 172.16.2.1172.16.2.254
Broadcast Address = 172.16.2.255
Eight bits of subnetting
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ICND v1.0a8-74

Subnet Planning
20 subnets
5 hosts per subnet
Class C address:
192.168.5.0
192.168.5.16
Other
subnets

192.168.5.32

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192.168.5.48

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ICND v1.0a8-75

Class C Subnet Planning


Example
IP Host Address: 192.168.5.121
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.248
Network

Network

Network Subnet Host

192.168.5.121: 11000000

10101000

00000101

01111001

255.255.255.248: 11111111

11111111

11111111

11111000

Subnet: 11000000
Broadcast: 11000000

10101000

00000101

01111000

10101000

00000101

01111111

Subnet Address = 192.168.5.120


Host Addresses = 192.168.5.121192.168.5.126
Broadcast Address = 192.168.5.127
Five Bits of Subnetting
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ICND v1.0a8-76

Broadcast Addresses Exercise

Address

Subnet Mask

201.222.10.60

255.255.255.248

15.16.193.6

255.255.248.0

128.16.32.13

255.255.255.252

153.50.6.27

255.255.255.128

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Class

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Subnet

Broadcast

ICND v1.0a8-77

Broadcast Addresses Exercise


Answers
Address

Subnet Mask

Class

Subnet

Broadcast

201.222.10.60 255.255.255.248

201.222.10.56

201.222.10.63

15.16.193.6

255.255.248.0

15.16.192.0

15.16.199.255

128.16.32.13

255.255.255.252

128.16.32.12

128.16.32.15

153.50.6.27

255.255.255.128

153.50.6.0

153.50.6.127

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ICND v1.0a8-78

Switch IP Address
Configuration
Switch(config)#ip address ip-address subnet-mask

Assigns an address and subnet mask


Starts IP processing on a switch
Switch(config)#ip default-gateway ip-address

Specifies a default gateway

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ICND v1.0a8-79

Router IP Address
Configuration

Router(config-if)#ip address ip-address subnet-mask

Assigns an address and subnet mask


Starts IP processing on a router interface

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ICND v1.0a8-80

Router IP Address
Configuration
Router#term ip netmask-format {bitcount|
decimal | hexadecimal}

Sets display format of network mask for


current session
Router(config-line)#ip netmask-format
{bitcount | decimal | hexadecimal}

Sets format of network mask for a


specific line
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ICND v1.0a8-81

Router IP Host Names


Router(config)#ip host name [tcp-port-number]
address [address]

Defines static host name to IP address


mapping
ip host Norine 172.16.3.1 192.168.3.1
ip host Roger 172.16.4.3

Hosts/interfaces selectable by name or IP


address
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ICND v1.0a8-82

Router Name Server


Configuration
DNS Server

Router(config)#ip name-server server-address1


[[server-address2]...[server-address6]]

Specifies one or more hosts that supply


host name to logical address resolution

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ICND v1.0a8-83

Router Name System

Router(config)#ip domain-lookup
Router(config)#end
Router#pat
Translating pat"...domain server (255.255.255.255)
% Unknown command or computer name, or unable to find computer address
Router#config t
Router(config)#no ip domain-lookup
Router(config)#end
Router#pat
Translating pat"
% Unknown command or computer name, or unable to find computer address
Router#

DNS enabled by default


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ICND v1.0a8-84

Router Display Host Names


Router#show hosts
Default domain is not set
Name/address lookup uses domain service
Name servers are 255.255.255.255
Host
Norine
Roger
Frank

Flags Age Type Address(es)


(perm, OK) 0 IP 172.16.100.100
(perm, OK) 0 IP 172.16.100.101
(perm, OK) 0 IP 172.16.200.200

Bob

(perm, OK) 0 IP 172.16.200.201

Shows the host table


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ICND v1.0a8-85

VLAN to VLAN Overview


Fa0/0
ISL
VLAN 1

Router on
a stick

VLAN 2
Application

10.1.1.2

10.2.2.2

TCP
IP
ISL
Ethernet

Network layer devices combine multiple broadcast domains

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ICND v1.0a8-86

Dividing a Physical Interface


into Subinterfaces
FastEthernet 0/0
FastEthernet 0/0.1
FastEthernet 0/0.2
FastEthernet 0/0.3

Physical interfaces can be divided into


multiple subinterfaces

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ICND v1.0a8-87

ISL Encapsulation

Router(config-subif)#encapsulation isl vlan identifier

Enables ISL on a subinterface

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ICND v1.0a8-88

Routing Between VLANs


Fast
E0/0
ISL
VLAN 1

10.1.1.2

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VLAN 2

10.2.2.2

interface fastethernet 0/0


no ip address
!
interface fastethernet 0/0.1
ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
encapsulation isl 1
interface fastethernet 0/0.2
ip address 10.2.2.1 255.255.255.0
encapsulation isl 2

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ICND v1.0a8-89

Routing Between WANs


ISL

S0
172.16.1.1

VLAN 1

VLAN 2

172.16.1.2

10.2.2.2

Application

interface Serial0
ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0

TCP
IP
HDLC
Serial

10.1.1.2

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ICND v1.0a8-90

Visual Objective
SUBNET
10.1.1.0
10.2.2.0
10.3.3.0
10.4.4.0
10.5.5.0
10.6.6.0
10.7.7.0
10.8.8.0
10.9.9.0
10.10.10.0
10.11.11.0
10.12.12.0
10.13.13.0

VLAN
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

POD
wg_ro_x, wg_sw_x, core_sw_a, core_sw_b
wg_pc_a, core_server, core_ro
wg_pc_b, core_server, core_ro
wg_pc_c, core_server, core_ro
wg_pc_d, core_server, core_ro
wg_pc_e, core_server, core_ro
wg_pc_f, core_server, core_ro
wg_pc_g, core_server, core_ro
wg_pc_h, core_server, core_ro
wg_pc_i, core_server, core_ro
wg_pc_j, core_server, core_ro
wg_pc_k, core_server, core_ro
wg_pc_l, core_server, core_ro

VLAN2

fa0/26
e0/1
(port A)

VLAN13

fa0/23

fa0/27
(port B)

...
fa0/1

fa0/24

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wg_pc_l
10.13.13.12

wg_sw_l
10.1.1.120

fa0/0

core_ server

fa0/27
(port B)

wg_sw_a
10.1.1.10

fa0/26 e0/1
(port A)
Core_ro

wg_pc_a
10.2.2.12

fa0/12
fa0/13

core_sw_a fa0/14
10.1.1.2

www.cisco.com

fa0/12
fa0/13

fa0/1

fa0/14 core_sw_b
10.1.1.4
ICND v1.0a8-91

Summary
After completing this chapter, you should be
able to perform the following tasks:
Identify the TCP/IP protocol stack and the
functions of each layer
Separate an IP address into its subcomponents:
the network, subnet, and host portions

Configure IP addresses on Cisco router and


switch interfaces
Interconnect VLANs using a layer three device
such as a router on a stick
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ICND v1.0a8-92

Review Questions
1. What is the difference between the TCP and
UDP transport layer protocols?

2. Given a host with IP address, 192.168.20.1


255.255.255.240, how many other hosts can
you have in that network?
3. What is required to interconnect separate
VLANs?

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ICND v1.0a8-93