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Passage I Gaga for Gaga Whether dressed in bubbles, Beanie Babies, or raw beef, Lady Gaga never fails

to make an impression. Lady Gaga (1)was not bornshe was made, an example of the power of individuality and reinvention. The iconic pop star had humble beginnings. Stefani Germonatta was born in New York City in 1986. Her fans may be surprised to learn that the attentiongrabbing singer attended a strict Catholic school. After graduation, she enrolled in the prestigious Tisch School for the Performing Arts at New York University. Her music career, however, started much earlier: (2)Germonatta began playing the piano at age four, and wrote her first song at age thirteen. Germonatta performed (3)solo and on her own at open-mikes around New York City, but her first official career in the music industry was as a songwriter (4) she wrote for acts like the Pussycat Dolls, New Kids on the Block, Fergie, and Britney Spears. Singer Akon recognized her vocal talents when she sang a song she wrote for him; he (5)became instrumental in helping her land her own recording deal. By 2007, Germanotta had
5. Which of the following options would NOT be acceptable? A. B. C. D. NO CHANGE would become becoming later became 4. F. NO CHANGE G. and she wrote for acts H. ,where she was a songwriter for acts J. ,writing for acts 3. A. B. C. D. NO CHANGE unaccompanied, by herself, independently autonomously and alone 2. If the underlined statement were omitted, the passage would primarily lose: F. a detail that informs readers of the length of the singers career. G. an indication of Lady Gagas age. H. an irrelevant detail that distracts from the focus of the paragraph. J. information about Lady Gagas education. 1. Which of the following expressions would NOT reflect a contrast in ideas? A. B. C. D. NO CHANGE was not only born, but also was made was not born; instead, she became was not born, but rather was made

2011 Mary Kate Durkin & Christopher J. Mikulskis

PASSAGE IIIHUMANITIES MTV


Since its inception in 1981, MTV has long been dedicated to playing music videos, but over the last decade, the cable channels focus has been retooled. Reality shows have become more and more prevalent on the sta5 tion and actual music television has practically ceased to exist. Clearly MTV has lost touch with being a music television stationno longer should one expect music to be a major portion (or any part, for that matter) of its programming. 21. According to the author, the most significant difference between The Real World and Road Rules is: F. G. H. J. the challenges to accomplish. the year each was launched. the cast. the setting.

22. The words infiltrate (line 16) and permeate (line 17) suggest the author feels reality shows have: A. B. C. D. infested a station in which they do not belong. hostilely taken over programming with little acceptance by the public. infected the minds of the viewers. allowed viewers to experience things they normally would not.

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During the 1990s, MTV began rolling out programming that did not relate to its music television roots. The Real World (a reality show based on the interactions of strangers in a house) and Road Rules (a reality show based on the interaction of strangers in an RV) met with 15 such great success that soon after, shows like Singled Out and Loveline infiltrated the home of music television. During the 2000s, reality shows truly began to permeate the fabric of MTV. By the time Jackass, The Osbournes, and Laguna Beach found large audiences, MTV had little 20 choice but to make room for the reality juggernauts by removing more and more programs related to music. Initially a response to the influx of non-music television, 1998s Total Request Live (TRL), which aired weekdays and featured top videos, was pulled from the network in 25 2008 to accommodate more reality programming. This reduction in music television has hit its climax in that there are few music videos ever seen on MTV anymore. MTVs continuing focus is on the reality genre. Titans such as Jersey Shore, Teen Mom, and True Life 30 dominate the current lineup and are well-known for their controversial topics or situations. Perhaps in efforts to appease those looking for the long lost music television, (more likely to give credit to the artists), MTV has recently begun citing the artists and song names of the music 35 being played on its reality shows. Whether through a small display on the bottom of the screen during the background songs duration or on its website, MTV has started offering viewers a chance to obtain the music heard on its station, just like in the early days when one 40 would hear a song and purchase a record or cassette tape. Is this enough to satisfy viewers cravings? This technique of disguising the actual music seems to resemble, at least in part, MTVs controversial roots of devaluing the music played in favor of focusing 45 on visual appeal. Critics of the early MTV stated that quality music was replaced with more visually pleasing actsthe focus from audio to visual was clear. Artists through the years have criticized MTV for this and insisted that the network uphold greater standards for their

23. One of the main points the author seeks to make in the passage is that: F. G. H. J. MTVs first audience is unsatisfied with its programming. MTV should rethink its programming to match its acronym. teens should be aware of MTVs roots. MTV is careless with its programming.

24. In the context of the passage, what does the author mean when he states, This technique of disguising the actual music (line 42)? A. Contrasting music played in the past, todays songs shown on reality shows are readily available on the internet. Compared to the early videos of MTV in which the music was secondary to the visual appeal, reality shows only use music as an accompaniment. Contrasting modern music, songs written in previous decades are musically superior. Compared to the music videos created in the 80s and 90s, modern videos pale in comparison visually.

B.

C. D.

25. The author of the article would likely agree with which of the following statements? F. G. H. J. MTV should be off the air. MTV values style over substance. Audiences today only care about reality shows and not music. Shows like Jersey Shore and Teen Mom promote unknown and indie artists.

2011 Chris Mikulskis & Mary Kate Durkin